You are on page 1of 54

Key Drivers of Marketing

Strategies

“The purpose of
business is to
create and keep a
customer.”
-Peter Drucker
Marketing and Customer value

 Marketing involves satisfying customer’s needs and


wants. The task of any business is to deliver
customer value at a profit while being socially
responsible. In a hypercompetitive (too competitive)
economy with increasingly rational (sensible) buyers
faced with abundant choices, a company can win
only by fine-tuning the value delivery process and
choosing, providing, and communicating superior
value.
MARKETING AND CUSTOMER VALUE

HYPERCOMPETITION

ABUNDANT CHOICES RATIONAL BUYER

VALUE DELIVERY PROCESS

DELIVERING
CHOOSING
COMMUNICATING
The value delivery
process

 The traditional view of marketing is that the


firm makes something and then sells it. In
this view, marketing takes place in the
second half of the process. Companies that
subscribe to this view have the best chance
of succeeding in economies marked by
goods shortages where consumers are not
fussy about quality, features or style.
VALUE DELIVERY PROCESS

MAKE PRODUCT SELL PRODUCT

DISTRIBUTE
PRODUCT

PROMOTE
PROCUR
DESIGN

SERVICE
PRICE

SELL
MAK
E

TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL PROCESS SEQUENCE


 This traditional view of the business process,
however, will not work in economies where people face
abundant choices. There, the “mass market” is actually
splintering (breaking) into numerous micro markets,
each with its own wants, perceptions, preferences, and
buying criteria. The smart competitor must design and
deliver offerings for well-defined target markets. This
realization inspired a new view of business processes
that places marketing at the beginning of planning.
CUSTOMER
SEGMENTATION

MARKET FOCUS

VALUE
POSITIONIN

CHOOSE THE VALUE


G
PRODUCT
DEVELOPMEN

STRATEGIC MARKETING
T

SERVICE
DEVELOPMENT

PRICING

SOURCING
MAKING
PROVIDE THE VALUE

DISTRIBUTING
SERVICING

SALES FORCE
TACTICAL MARKETING

SALES
VALUE CREATION & DELIVERY SEQUENCE
VALUE

PROMOTION
VALUE DELIVERY PROCESS (Cont.)

ADVERTISIN
COMMUNICATE THE

G
 Instead of emphasizing making and selling, companies now
see themselves as part of a value delivery process.
 The value creation and delivery sequence can be divided into
three phases. The first phase, choosing the value, represents
the “homework” marketing must do before any product
exists. The marketing staff must segment the market, select
the appropriate market target, and develop the offering’s
value positioning. The formula “segmentation, targeting,
positioning (STP)” is the essence of strategic marketing.
 Once the business unit has chosen
the value, the second phase is
providing the value. Marketing
must determine specific product
features, prices, and distribution.
 The task in the third phase is communicating the
value by utilizing the sales force, sales promotion,
advertising, and other communication tools to
announce and promote the product. Each of these
value phases has cost implications (significance). It
is also the case that the value delivery process
begins before there is a product and continues while
it is being developed and after it becomes available.
 London Business school’s Nirmalya
Kumar has put forth a “ 3Vs” approach
to marketing: (1) define the value
segment or customers (and their
needs); (2) define the Value
proposition; and (3) define the value
network that will deliver the promised
service.
 Dartmouth’s Frederick Webster views marketing in
terms of (1) value-defining processes such as market
research and company self-analysis; (2) value-
developing processes including new-product
development, sourcing strategy, and vendor
selection; and (3) value-delivering processes such as
advertising and managing distribution.
THE VALUE CHAIN

 Michael porter of Harvard has proposed the Value


chain as a tool for identifying ways to create more
customer value.
 Tool for identifying ways to create more customer
value
 Firm - Synthesis of activities performed to design,
produce, market, deliver and support its products
 Identifies 9 strategically relevant activities that
create value and cost
5 Primary Activities
4 Secondary Activities
THE VALUE CHAIN
SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

M
A
R
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

G
IN
PROCUREMENT

MARKETING
OPERATIONS

IN
LOGISTICS

SERVICE
INBOUND

OUTBOUND
LOGISTICS

RG
& SALES

MA
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES
 The primary activities
 are inbound logistics or bringing materials
into the business;
 operations or converting them into final
products;
 outbound logistics or shipping out final
products;
 marketing them, which includes sales; and
servicing them.
 The support activities- procurement,
technology development, human resource
management, and firm infrastructure- are
handled in specialized departments. The
firm’s infrastructure covers the costs of
general management, planning, finance,
accounting, legal, and government affairs.
 The firm’s task is to examine its costs and
performance in each value-creating activity and
to look for ways to improve it. Managers should
estimate their competitors costs and
performances as benchmarks against which to
compare their own costs and performance. And
they should go further and study the “best of
class” practices of the world’s best companies.
 For example, Wal-Mart has superior strength in its stock
replenishment(fill up) process. As Wal-Mart stores sell their
goods, sales information flows via computer not only to Wal-
Mart’s headquarters, but also to Wal-Mart’s suppliers, who
ship replacement merchandise to the stores almost at the
rate it moves off the shelf. The idea is not to manage stocks
of goods, but flows of goods, and Wal-Mart has turned over
this responsibility to its leading vendors in a system known
as vendor-managed inventories (VMI).
CORE BUSINESS PROCESSES
 MARKETING SENSING PROCESS
Gathering, Disseminating & Acting On Market
Intelligence Information.

 NEW OFFERING REALIZATION PROCESS


Researching, Developing & Launching new offerings

 CUSTOMER ACQUISITION PROCESS


Defining target market & Prospecting new customers

 FULFFILLMENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS


Receiving orders, Shipping & Collecting payments
CORE COMPETENCIES

THREE DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS:

 SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE


 WIDE APPLICATION
 DIFFICULT TO IMITATE
 Traditionally, companies’ owned and controlled most of
the resources that entered their businesses – labour
power, materials, machines, information and energy – but
this situation is changing.
 Many companies today outsource less-critical resources if
they can obtain better quality or lower cost. India has
developed a reputation as a country that can provide
ample outsourcing support.
 The key, then, is to own and nurture the
resources and competencies that make up
the essence of the business.
 Nike, for example. Does not manufacture
its shoes, because certain Asian
manufacturers are more competent in this
task; instead Nike nurtures its superiority in
shoe design and merchandising, its two
core competencies.
 A core competency has three characteristics:
(1) it is source of competitive advantage in
that it makes a significant contribution to
perceived customer benefits.
 (2) It has applications in a wide variety of
markets.
 (3) it is difficult for competitors to imitate.
HOLISTIC MARKETING ORIENTATION

Addresses 3 Management questions


 How can a company identifies new market
opportunities?

 How can a company efficiently create more


promising new value offering?

 How can a company use its capabilities and


infrastructure to deliver the new value?
HOLISTIC MARKETING (cont.)

Integration of Value Exploration, Value


Creation and Value Delivery for long tern
mutually satisfying relationships & co-
prosperity with key stake- holders.
Key Activities:
 Value Exploration
 Value Creation
 Value Delivery
 VALUE EXPLORATION: Finding new value
opportunities is a matter of understanding
the relationships among three spaces: (1)
the customer’s cognitive (knowing)space;
 The customer’s cognitive space reflects
existing and latent(clear or obvious) needs
and includes dimensions such as the need
for participation, stability, freedom, and
change.
 2) the company’s competence
space;
 We can describe the company’s
competency space in terms of
breadth-broad versus focused
scope of business; and depth-
physical versus knowledge- based
capabilities.
 3) the collaborator’s resource space.
 The collaborators’ resource space
includes horizontal partnerships, with
partners chosen for their ability to
exploit related market opportunities,
and vertical partnerships, with partners
who can serve the firm’s value creation
 VALUE CREATION: Value-creation skills for marketers include
identifying new customer benefits from the customer’s view;
utilizing core competencies from its business domain; and
selecting and managing business partners from its
collaborative networks. To create new customer benefits,
marketers must understand what the customer thinks about,
wants, does, and worries about and observe whom customers
admire and interact with, and who influences them.
 VALUE DELVERY: Delivering value often
means making substantial(large in
amount) investments in infrastructure and
capabilities. The company must become
proficient(expert) at customer relationship
management, internal resource
management, and business partnerships
management.
 Customer relationship management
allows the company to discover who
its customers are, how they behave,
and what they need or want. It also
enables the company to respond
appropriately,
coherently(consistently), and quickly
to different customer opportunities.
 "…. dissatisfied customers would tell between 7-
10 people while a satisfied customer would
recommend a company to 3-4 of their friends".
– PIMS

 If you make customers unhappy in the physical


world, they might each tell 6 friends.
If you make customers unhappy on the Internet,
they can each tell 6,000 friends.
JEFF BEZOS
Importance of customer
loyalty (CRM)
 To the company
 Loyal consumers provide the basis for a stable sale
 Loyal consumers provide word-of-mouth
 Loyal consumers can be rich source of referrals
 Loyal consumers are likely to accept brand extensions
 Loyal consumers are likely to resist counter-persuasion
measures
 Loyal consumers enable the company earn better margins
 Loyal consumers provide “life time value” to the company

 To consumers
 Risk reducing measure
 Reduces decision making tasks prior to purchase
 the company requires internal
resource management to integrate
major business processes, such as
order processing, general ledger,
payroll. And production, within a
single family of software modules.
 Finally, business partnership
management allows the company
to handle complex relationships
with its trading partners to source,
process and deliver products
STRATEGY FORMULATION
Porter’s Generic Strategies
STRATEGIC PLANNING

PLANNING IMPLEMENTING CONTROLLING

Corporate Organizing Measuring


Planning Results

Division
Planning Implementin Diagnosing
g Results
Business
Planning Taking
Corrective
Product Actions
Planning
CORPORATE & DIVISION STRATEGIC
PLANNING
 Defining the Corporate Mission
 Establishing Strategic Business Unit
 Assigning resources to each SBU
 Assessing growth opportunities

Corporate Mission
Mission statement is a brief description of a
company’s fundamental purpose or focus. A mission
statement answers the question, “Why do we exist?”
HUL

Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet


everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care
with brands that help people feel good, look good and get
more out of life.
CORPORATE & DIVISION STRATEGIC
PLANNING (cont)

Characteristics of SBU
 Single/collection of related Businesses that can be
planned separately
 Its own set of competitors
 Has a separate manager responsible for strategic
planning
Assessing Growth Opportunities
 Planning New Businesses
 Terminating old Businesses
Assessing Growth Opportunities
(cont)
 Intensive Growth- Opportunities to improve the
current business. Ansoff Matrix (detail later)
 Integrative Growth- Backward, Forward or
Horizontal Integration
 Diversification- Add attractive businesses that are
unrelated to current business where company can
leverage its strength
 Concentric
 Horizontal
 Conglomerate
 Downsizing – Divesting the tired old business
ANSOFF MATRIX

  Existing Products New Products


Existing
Markets
Market Penetration     Product
Development    

New
Markets
    Market Diversification
Development    
BUSINESS UNIT STRATEGIC
PLANNING

 Business Mission
 SWOT Analysis
Involves monitoring the External and Internal
marketing environment…for overall evaluation
of Company’s Strength, Weakness,
Opportunities and Threat
 Goal Formulation
 Strategy Formulation and Implementation
 Feedback & Control
SWOT ANALYSIS
GOAL FORMULATION

After SWOT analysis Company proceeds to


develop specific goals for the planning period
Goal – Objectives that are specific with respect
to magnitude and time
 Arranged in Hierarchy (most to least important)
 Should be stated Quantitatively
 Should be realistic
STRATEGY FORMULATION
Porter’s Generic Strategies
STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

MARKETING ALLIANCES
 Product & Service Alliances

 Promotional Alliances

 Pricing Collaborations
STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

Once detailed strategies are developed,


detailed support programs are worked out

FEEDBACK & CONTROL


 Track the results
 Monitor new Developments
PRODUCT PLANNING- MARKETING PLAN

Written document that summarizes


 What the marketer has learned about the

marketplace
 Indicates how the firm plans to reach the

marketing objectives
 Provides Tactical guidelines