This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction Milk is a complete diet as it contains in its Minerals, Vitamins Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats And Water. Average composition of milk from different sources is given below: Source of milk Cow Human Goat Sheep Water (%) 87.1 87.4 87.0 82.6 Mineral s (%) 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.9 Protei ns(%) 3.4 1.4 3.3 5.5 Fats (%) 3.9 4.0 4.2 6.5 Carbohydra tes (%) 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.5
Caesin is a major protein constituent in milk & is a mixed phosphor-protein. Casein has isoelectric pH of about 4.7 and can be easily separated around this isoelectric pH. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and alkalies. Casein is present in milk as calcium caseinate in the form of micelles. These micelles have negative charge and on adding acid to milk the negative charges are neutralized. Ca2+-Caesinate + 2CH3COOH(aq)^Caesin+(CH3COO)2Ca
AIM To study the quantity of Casein in different samples of milk.
REQUIREMENTS > > > Glass rod Beakers (250 ml) Filter-paper
> > > > > > >
Weight box Filtration flask Test tubes Porcelain dish Different samples of milk 1 % acetic acid solution Ammonium sulphate solution
Theory Natural milk is an opaque white fluid Secreted by the mammary glands of Female mammal . The main constituents of natural milk are Protein, Carbohydrate, Mineral Vitamins,Fats and Water and is a complete balanced diet . Fresh milk is sweetish in taste. However , when it is kept for long time at a temperature of 5 degree it become sour because of bacteria present in air . These bacteria convert lactose of milk into lactic acid which is sour in taste. In acidic
condition casein of milk starts separating out as a precipitate. When the acidity in milk is sufficient and temperature is around 36 degree, it forms semi-solid mass, called curd. PROCEDURE 1. A clean dry beaker has been taken, followed by putting 20 ml of cow¶s milk into it and adding 20 ml of saturated ammonium sulphate solution slowly and with stirring. Fat along with Caesin was precipitate out. 2. The solution was filtered and transferred the precipitates in another beaker. Added about 30 ml of water to the precipitate. Only Caesin dissolves in water forming milky solution leaving fat undissolved.
while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain. 3. Fanta and Limca to give feeling of lightness. it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite. 2. Since. 4. Now days. Weighed the dry solid mass in a previously weighed watch glass. 1. when casein got precipitated. Filtered the precipitate. 6. washed with water and the precipitate was allowed to dry. The milky solution was heated to about 40oC and add 1% acetic acid solution drop-wise. the beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable and luring. many multinational companies launched their brands in India like Pepsi and Coke.3. The experiment was repeated with other samples of milk. 5. . Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks *Introduction* The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in India marked its beginning with launching of Limca and Goldspot by parley group of companies.
These soft drinks give feeling of warmth. It is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by everyone. On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:Monosaccharide. carbohydrates. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. The pH values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric acid. The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste.It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits. seeds and also in flowers of many plants. It is non-reducing in nature whereas glucose is reducing. *Apparatus* y y y Test Tubes Test Tube Holder Test Tube Stand . Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value. It is also present in human blood to the extent of about 0. It is widely distributed in nature in juices. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 . phosphate ions etc.*Theory* Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol. carbon dioxide. *Aim* Comparitive Study and Qualitative Analysis of different brands of Cold Drinks available in market. The main source of sucrose is sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 % sucrose. General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y.1%. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the formation of froth on shaking the bottle.
No. The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale.y y y y y y y y Stop Watch Beaker Bunsen Burner pH Paper Tripod Stand China Dish Wire Gauge Water Bath *Chemicals Required* y y y y y y y y Iodine Solution Potassium Iodide Sodium Hydroxide Lime Water Fehling s A & B Solution Concentrated Nitric Acid Benedict Solution Ammonium Molybdate *Detection Of pH* Experiment Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. 1 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Colour Change Pinkish pH Value 2 3 . Observation Sr.
pH values of cold drinks of different brand are different due to the variation in amount of acidic content. which is responsible for its tangy taste. Observation Sr. *Test For Carbon Dioxide* Experiment As soon as the bottles were opened.2 3 5 Sprite Limca Fanta Dark Orange Light Orange Orange 3 4 3 4 Inference Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric acid and phosphoric acid. No. The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. one by one the samples were passed through lime water. Chemical Reaction Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g) *Test For Glucose* CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l) . The lime water turned milky. Name Of The Drink Time Taken Conclusion (sec) 1 2 3 4 Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta 28 20 38 36 CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT Inference All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water.
The test tube was heated for few seconds. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Conclusion Glucose is Present Glucose is Present Glucose is Present Glucose is Present Inference All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict¶s reagent. Observation Sr. Fehling¶s Solution Test Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Fehling¶s A solution and Fehling¶s B solution was added in equal amount. Formation of reddish color confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks. No. The test tube was heated in water bath for 10 minutes. No. Hence all the drinks contain glucose. Observation Sr. 1 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Observation Reddish Brown Precipitate Reddish Brown Precipitate Reddish Brown Conclusion Glucose is Present 2 Sprite Glucose is Present 3 Limca Glucose is Present . Appearance of brown precipitate confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks. Its presence is detected by the following test:1.Benedict¶s Reagent Test Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Benedict¶s reagent were added. 2.Experiment Glucose is a reducing sugar acid.
*Test For Phosphate* Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate followed by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to it. Appearance of canary-yellow precipitate confirmed the presence of phosphate ions in cold drinks. Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes. Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose.Precipitate 4 Fanta Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present Inference All samples gave positive test for glucose with Fehling¶s (A & B) solutions. Appearance of yellow coloured precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks. . Observation Sr. *Test For Alcohol* Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Iodine followed by Potassium Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was added to each test tube. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Conclusion Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Inference All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions. The solution was heated. No. Hence all the cold drinks contain phosphate.
Chemical Reaction CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH *Test for Sucrose* Experiment 5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur. Black coloured residue left confirmed the presence of sucrose in cold drinks. But amount of sucrose varies in each brand of drink. No. Observation Sr. Hence all the cold drinks contain alcohol. . Fanta contains highest amount of sucrose. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Conclusion Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O Inference All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose.Observation Sr. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Conclusion Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present Inference All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. No.
All cold drinks are acidic in nature. 4. . Coca Cola 2. 6. phosphate and carbon dioxide. Turn them off whenever you leave your workstation. Hands should be washed thoroughly after performing each experiment. If possible. Fanta All contains glucose. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. *Conclusion* DIS-ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS 1. 2. Among the four samples of cold drinks taken. alcohol. *Precautions* Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are ± 1. 5. As they contain sugar in large amount which cause problems in diabetes patients. Sprite has the maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide. If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes. one should wear hand gloves to prevent from any possible damage.*Result* After conducting several tests. Limca 4. Never leave burners unattended. flush immediately with copious amounts of water. sucrose. 3. it was concluded that the different brands of cold drinks namely: 1. Sprite 3. On comparing the pH value of different brands Coca Cola is the most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the four brands taken. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your neighbour. Concentrated solutions should be handled with immense care.
2. . For transportation of soft drinks syrup the commercial truck must use the hazardous matter place cards reserved for highly consive material.8. They can loose a rusted bolt. Soft drinks contain ³phosphoric acid´ which has a pH of 2. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals. 3. 4. 6. Soft drinks are used as an excellent µdetergent¶ to remove grease from clothes.2. USES OF COLD DRINKS 1. 4. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve the calcium so they are also harmful for our bones. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners. 5. 3. 5. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very harmful to our body. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the body¶s natural ability to suppress hunger feeling. So they can dissolve a nail in about 4 days.
. conc. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. . oil and butter.diarrhoea. acetic acid.asthma. So we need simple screening.. . These are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. hydrocarbons. REQUIREMENTS Test-tube. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. Consumption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer. Its objective is to promote the Grading and Standardization of agricultural and allied commodities. castor oil and hydrocarbons. conc. PROCEDURE Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax. dyes and argemone oil. Majority of fats. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the presence of wax or hydrocarbons. To detect the presence of adulterants in fat. tests for their detection. . oils and butter are paraffin wax. Several agencies .Adulterants in Food TfflDRy The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foodstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. AGMARK ± acronym for agricultural marketing«. In the past few decades.. H2SO4. (ii) Adulteration of dyes in fat .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs. To differentiate those who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is very difficult..ulcers. acetic anhydride. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests.this organization certifies food products for their quality. etc. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. HNO3. adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems.
dil. HCl. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar. (ii) Adulteration of chalk powder. HNO3 and shake. HNO3. turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead salts. Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder. HCl. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. (iii) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils To small amount of oil in a test-tube. (ii) Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. dil. To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder. (iii) Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder . yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat. Yellow ppt. PROCEDURE Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. washing soda in sugar To small amount of sugar in a test-tube. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil. KI solution PROCEDURE Common adulterants present in chilli powder. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli powder. They are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder To a sample of chilli powder. To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes. HCl.Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. add few drops of dil. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. add dil. HCl. HNO3. add few drops of conc. turmeric powder and pepper REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes. conc.
washing soda in sugar Adeulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder Adulteration of brick powder in chilli powder Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper To small amount of sugar in a test tube. (iv) Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. OBSERVATION Appearance of oil floating on the surface. add conc. add a few drops of dil. . Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom. To a sample of chilli powder. HCl.Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid. add dil. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom. Adulteration of chalk powder. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon. Appearance of magenta colour No yellow ppt. Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water. No red colour observed Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. HNO3 & shake. Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. To sample of turmeric powder. No brisk effervescence observed. Add small amount of given red chilli powder in a beaker containing water. HCl. Add small amount of sample of pepper to beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. HNO3. Adulteration of dyes in fat Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Appearance of pink colour. add few drops of conc. To small amount of oil in a test tube. EXPERIMENT Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee II PROCEDURE Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride.
Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. visual fungus. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shop. It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level. foreign matters. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases.Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help. Secondly. Mangalore Investigatory Project On Foaming Capacity Of Soaps Kenneth Lobo Class XII Contents Acknowledgements 3 Preface 4 . label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. Therefore. visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects. However. Foaming Capacity Of Soaps Lourdes Central School. etc. Bejai.
. I thank Mr. In this manner. the non polar alkyl group dissolves in grease while the polar -COONa part dissolves in water. But all soaps are not equally effective in their cleaning action. Anita Thomas. The washing ability of soap depends on foaming capacity. my grateful thanks to her for the able teaching and guidance. The presence of such salts makes the water hard and the water is called hard water. Soaps are the Na and K salts of higher fatty acids such as Palmitic acid. Stearic acid and Oleic acid. The cleansing action of soaps depends on the solubility of the long alkyl chain in grease and that of the -COONa or the -COOK part in water. I also thank my parents and my friends for their constant support and cooperation.Introduction 5 Commercial preparation 6 Introduction to experiment 9 Objective and theory 10 Procedure 11 Observation table 12 Result 13 Test for hardness 14 Bibliography 15 Acknowledgement I will treasure the knowledge imparted to me by Mrs. as well as the water used in cleaning. The salts of Ca and Mg disrupt the formation of micelle formation. an emulsion is formed between grease and water which appears as foam. Whenever soap is applied on a dirty wet cloth. These salts thus make the soap inefficient in its cleaning action. Preface Soaps and detergents remove dirt and grease from skin and clothes. Harsha Kumar. the Lab assistant for his cooperation.
a common ingredient in much soap. emollients such as jojoba oil or Shea butter are added µat trace¶ (the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken). yielding alkali salts of fatty acids (crude soap) and glycerol. while the ionic end dissolves in water. and the product is typically softer.Sodium Carbonate when added to hard water reacts with Ca and Mg and precipitates them out. usually. Introduction Soap is an anionic surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. leaving a naturally moisturizing soap and not pure detergent. it allows water to remove normallyinsoluble matter by emulsification. The fats are hydrolyzed by the base. . Applied to a soiled surface. after most of the oils have saponified. This project aims at finding the foaming capacity of various soaps and the action of Ca and Mg salts on their foaming capacity. which is able to dissolve non polar grease molecules. such as palm oil. Commercial production of soap The most popular soap making process today is the cold process method. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils. soapy water effectively holds particles in colloidal suspension so it can be rinsed off with clean water. Often. as well as a hydrophobic end. Soap consists of sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids and is obtained by reacting common oils or fats with a strong alkaline in a process known as saponification. Fat in soap Soap is derived from either vegetable or animal fats. Therefore. which historically comes either in solid bars or in the form of a viscous liquid. which dissolves in water. is derived from rendered beef fat. The hydrophobic portion (made up of a long hydrocarbon chain) dissolves dirt and oils. and in that the glycerin is not removed. where fats such as olive oil react with strong alkaline solution. Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that. The resultant forms a round structure called micelle. The general formula of soap is Fatty end water soluble end CH3-(CH2) n COONa Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules have both a hydrophilic end. so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap. an excess of fat is sometimes used to consume the alkali (super fatting). Therefore sodium carbonate is used in the treatment of hard water. while some soapers use the historical hot process. Sodium Tallowate.
There are varying levels of trace. olive oil provides mildness in soap. Cold process A cold-process soap maker first looks up the saponification value of the fats being used on a saponification chart. or melted if they are solid at room temperature. The hot. hot-processed soap can be used right away because the alkali and fat saponify more quickly at the higher temperatures used in hot-process soap making. Hot-process soap making was used when the purity of alkali was unreliable. the soap is sometimes precipitated from the solution by adding salt. The alkali is dissolved in water.5°C) apart. soft soap is then spooned into a mold. Once both substances have cooled to approximately 100-110°F (37-43°C). ³Trace´ corresponds roughly to viscosity. This alkali-fat mixture is stirred until ³trace´. they may be combined. cocoa butter to provide different qualities. Smaller amounts of unsaponifable oils and fats that do not yield soap are sometimes added for further benefits. while coconut and palm oils provide hardness. and the excess liquid drained off. which is then used to calculate the appropriate amount of alkali. Essential and fragrance oils are added at light trace. Preparation of soap In cold-process and hot-process soap making. which the soap maker can determine by taste or by eye. Excess unreacted alkali in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin.An array of saponifiable oils and fats are used in the process such as olive. and are no more than 10°F (~5. Cold-process soap making requires exact measurements of alkali and fat amounts and computing their ratio. coconut. the mixture turns to the consistency of a thin pudding. alkali and fat are boiled together at 80±100 °C until saponification occurs. Not enough alkali and the soap are greasy. Cold-process soap making takes place at a sufficient temperature to ensure the liquification of the fat being used. coconut oil provides lots of lather. After saponification has occurred. Unlike cold-processed soap. Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an ebullient. palm. Then oils are heated. For example. heat may be required for saponification. After much stirring. using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product is mild and skinfriendly. Introduction to the experiment . Hot process In the hot-process method.
Procedure: 1. of water added Time taken for disappearance of 2mm 2. The time taken for the foam to disappear in each sample is determined. Various soap samples are taken separately and their foaming capacity is observed. Chemical Requirements: Five different soap samples. The solutions are then allowed to stand when the foam produced during shaking disappears gradually. weighing machine. add 1ml of soap solution to 3ml of water. test tube stand. said to be having the best cleaning capacity. Warm the contents to get a solution. tap water. Take five test tubes.5.4. Take five 100ml conical flasks and number them 1. 2. The test of soap on distilled water gives the actual strength of the soaps cleaning capacity. Close the mouth of the test tube and shake vigorously for a minute.Soap samples of various brands are taken and their foaming capacity is noticed. stop watch. The soap with the maximum foaming capacity is thus. Theory: The foaming capacity of soap depends upon the nature of the soap and its concentration. 3. The second test with tap water tests the effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts on their foaming capacities. of soap solution Vol. and add 8 Gms of soap. Do the same for all test tubes and with equal force. The longer the time taken for the disappearance of the foam for the given sample of soap. 100ml measuring cylinder. greater is its foaming capacity or cleansing action. Objective: To compare the foaming capacity of various soaps. The test requires to be done with distilled water as well as with tap water. five test tubes. Observations: The following outcomes were noticed at the end of the experiment Test Tube no Vol.3. Put 16ml of water in each flask . This may be compared by shaking equal volumes of solutions of different samples having the same concentration with same force for the same amount of time. Start the timer immediately and notice the rate of disappearance of 2mm of froth. 5. 4. Requirements: Five 100ml conical flasks. Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test tubes. distilled water.
on the other hand is found to have taken the least amount of time for the disappearance of foam produced and thus is said to be having the least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity. the experimental results and values hold good for distilled water and tap water. Santoor 5. Cinthol 8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml 16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml 11 42 3 28 5 10 15 32 9 40 Result The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is in the order: Santoor > Dove > Cinthol > Tetmosol > Lux From this experiment. The water used does not contain salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Lux 3. we can infer that Santoor has the highest foaming capacity. Lux. Test for hardness in water Test for Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts in the water supplied Test for Ca2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)2CO3 No precipitate Test for Mg2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)3PO4 No precipitate The tests show negative results for the presence of the salts causing hardness in water. highest cleaning capacity. . The tap water provided is soft and thus. Tetmosol 4.1. Dove 2. in other words.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.