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**Chapter No:06, Crank Shaft
**

Objective: The student will learn that crankshaft design is the estimation of the shaft diameter, crankpin dimensions to ensure satisfactory strength and rigidity when the crankshaft is transmitting power under various operating conditions. Outcomes: The student should be able to design crankshafts for various operating and loading conditions. Prerequisites: This topic requires the student to know about, the fundamentals of Engineering Mathematics, Engg physics, Strength of Materials, Engineering Drawing, Workshop Processes, Theory of Machines, Material Science and fundamentals of Machine Design. Number of Question/s expected in examination: 01 [20Marks] INTRODUCTION: Before studying the actual crankshaft and design details, we shall study briefly the basics of Power Transmission of shafts. 6.1 Power Transmitting Shaft: Shaft Design consists primarily of the determination of the correct shaft diameter to ensure satisfactory strength and rigidity when the shaft is transmitting power under various operating and loading conditions. Shafts are usually circular in cross section, and may be either hollow or solid. Design of shafts of ductile materials, based on strength, is controlled by the maximum shear theory. And the shafts of brittle material would be designed on the basis of the maximum normal stress theory. Various loads subjected on Shafting are torsion, bending and axial loads. 6.1.1 Basics of Design for solving Shaft problems: 6.1.1a. Maximum Principal Stress:(σ1)

σ1 =

σ x +σ y

2

**⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………..(1.11a/2) ⎣ 2 ⎦
**

2

Here 1.11a and 2 refers to the formula number and page number from Design data handbook by K Mahadevan and K Balaveera Reddy, CBS Publications, INDIA, 1989. Same Data handbook and similar procedure is adopted in further discussion.

**Where, σx --- Stress in x direction, in MPa or N/mm2 σy --- Stress in y direction, in MPa
**

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

1

Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] τxy ---Shear stress, in MPa. 6.1.1b.Minimum Principal Stress: (σ2)

σ2 =

σ x +σ y

2

**⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 − ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………..(1.11b/2) 2 ⎦ ⎣
**

2

6.1.1c. Maximum Shearing Stress:(τmax)

τ max

⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 =± ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………………...(1.12/2) ⎣ 2 ⎦

2

6.1.1d.Torsional stresses: (τ) The Torsional formula is given by,

T Gθ τ = = ………………………………………………………..(1.15/3) J l r

Here T=torque or Torsional moment, N-mm J=polar moment of inertia, mm4 =

π

32

d 4 , Where d is the solid shaft diameter.

=

(d 32

π

4 o

**− d i , Where do and di are outer and inner diameter of the hollow shaft
**

4

)

respectively. G=Modulus of elasticity in shear or modulus of rigidity, MPa θ=Angle of twist, radians l= Length of shaft , mm r= Distance from the Neutral axis to the top most fibre, mm d (For solid shaft) = 2 d = o (For hollow shaft) 2 6.1.1d.Bending Stresses:(σb) The bending equation is given by

M E σb = = ………………………………………………………..(1.16/3) I R c

**Here M=bending moment, N-mm
**

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

2

Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] I= Second moment of area, mm4 =

π

64

d 4 (For solid shaft)

=

(d 64

π

4

o

− di ,

4

)

(For hollow shaft)

E=modulus of elasticity or Young’ modulus for the material, MPa θ=Angle of twist, radians R= radius of curvature, mm c= Distance from the Neutral axis to the extreme fibre, mm d (For solid shaft) = 2 d = o (For hollow shaft) 2 6.1.2 Methods of obtaining the Twisting moment and Bending Moment.

6.1.2a Twisting Moment: i) Power transmitted : 2πnT P= kW 60000 Where T - twisting moment in N-m= (103) N-mm n – speed of the shaft, rpm 3 60000( P)(10 ) 9.55(10 6 )( P) = ……………………………..(3.3a/42) Hence T = n 2πn

ii)

In case of belt drives Power transmitted (T − T2 )v P= 1 kW …………………………………………….(14.9a/239) 1000 Where T 1- tension of belt on tight side, N T 2- tension of belt on slack side, N v- velocity of belt, m/s [Student should take care of units here, it is in m/sec not in mm/sec] T1 = e µθ …………………………………………………………(14.6a/238) T2 θ ---arc of contact, rad µ---coefficient of friction between belt and pulley. From equation (14.9a/239) and (14.6a/238) get T 1 and T 2. R Pulley T1 Figure 1 T2 3

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

N l is the length of the beam. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. Kodancha.College of Engineering and technology. B. center load] [Figure 3] W l/2 A B l Figure 3 RB RA To find the reactions RA and RB ∑M A = 0.V. N d The torque is given by.22/165) 2 Where d is the pitch circle diameter of Gear.. N-mm. mm ii) Simply supported beam [End support.. Power transmitting capacity of gears is given by Fv P = t kW……………………………. Assistant Professor.T 2) R. N-mm …………………………. For the convenient of calculations. iii) In case of Gear drives. HUBLI-31. end load [Figure 2] W Figure 2 Maximum Bending Moment.B. T = Ft ( ) .2b Bending Moment.14a/163) 1000 Ft = driving force or tangential load at pitch line.4/1/10] Where W is the concentrated load. i) Cantilever. l W ( ) − RB (l ) = 0 2 Krishnaraja G.…………… …. M=W(l).(12.. Automobile Engineering Department. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 4 . N-mm……………………….[Table 1. 6.1.…(12. Session 24 to 28.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Knowing the value of radius of the pulley (R) twisting moment can be found by using the following equation:[Refer Figure 1] T= (T 1 .

B. RA+RB – W=0 Hence R A = W − RB . l For different kinds of loading and support students are advised to refer Table 1.[Table 1. taken as negative. RA+RB – W=0 Hence RA = W – RB .V.N l ∑F = 0.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Hence R B = W .4 from page no 10-12 of the Design Data Book. Kodancha. M = R A ( ) = ………………………. N W (a) a l−a W (b) RA = W − = W (1 − ) = W ( )= . W (a ) − RB (l ) = 0 W (a) Hence R B = .N l l l l Maximum bending Moment. Krishnaraja G. Session 24 to 28. B. Assistant Professor. 2 4 iii) Simply supported beam [End support. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is l Wl Maximum bending Moment.N 2 ∑F = 0.College of Engineering and technology. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 5 . M = R A (a ) = W (a )(b) …………………[Table 1. Intermediate][Figure 4] W b a A B l RA RB Figure 4 To find the reactions RA and RB ∑M A = 0. Automobile Engineering Department.4/4/10].4/5/10]. HUBLI-31.

2. A crankpin together with the two crank arms on opposite sides of it is frequently referred to as a "throw. All dynamic forces increase as the square of the speed of rotation. the crankpin and crank journals being bolted to the flywheels. Automobile Engineering Department. which not only renders the engine noisy. the crank arms or webs. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 6 . and all of its bearing surfaces must be sufficiently large so that the unit bearing load cannot become excessive even under the most unfavorable conditions. crankshafts are forged in a single piece. and in modern high-speed. B. the crank pins to which the big ends of the connecting rod are connected.B.College of Engineering and technology. 6.and double-cylinder motorcycle engines.e. but occasionally they are built up. HUBLI-31. crank journals. Kodancha. The enclosed flywheels of these engines take the place of the crank arms. At high speeds the bearing loads are due in large part to dynamic forces-inertia and centrifugal. which connect the crankpins. The crankshaft.5 Side Crank Krishnaraja G. Fortunately. by the provision of suitable counterweights. 6) Crank Crank Shaft Main Bearing Figure. while in others there are two and even three or four throws between main bearings.2. Built-up crankshafts are used in small single. Crank Shaft: A crankshaft is used to convert reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion or vice versa. which latter converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotary motion. loads on main bearings due to centrifugal force can be reduced. which revolve in the main bearings. The crankshaft consists of the shaft parts.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6. and the shaft parts. depending upon the position of crank. but also may fracture the shaft. The built-up construction also has advantages when it is desired to support the crankshaft in three or more ball bearings." In some crankshafts there is only a single throw between a pair of main journals or supporting bearings. and even completely eliminated. Assistant Professor. 5) ii) Centre crankshaft (Figure. may be divided into the following two types. the crankshaft has both supporting bearings (or main bearings) and crankpin bearings. Session 24 to 28.2.1a Based on the position of the crank pin i) Side crankshaft or overhung crankshaft. As a rule. and driving ends. which latter are cast with solid webs. crank arms. In addition. The crankshaft is the principal member of the crank train or crank assembly. multi-cylinder engines these stresses may be greatly increased by resonance. as with a one-piece shaft all intermediate bearings would have to be stripped over the crank arms.V. It is subjected to both torsional and bending stresses. and therefore would have to be made extraordinarily large. (i. (Figure. FDynamic↑⇒Speed2↑) 6.1 TYPES OF CRANKSHAFT A crankshaft is composed of the crankpins.

Single throw crankshafts II.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Crank Pin Main Bearing Crank arm Figure. HUBLI-31. Proportions of four cylinder Crank Shaft in 1911 Figure 8. Kodancha.B. FEW TYPICAL CRANKSHAFTS Figure 7.2. Session 24 to 28.2. Proportions of four cylinder Crank Shaft in 1948 Krishnaraja G. one on each end or more centre cranks is called as multi throw crankshaft.V. A crankshaft with two-side cranks. B.1b Based on the number of throw The other classification is based on the number of cranks in the shaft are: I. Assistant Professor.6 Centre Crank Shaft 6.2. Automobile Engineering Department. 6. Multi throw crankshafts A crankshaft with only one side crank or centre crank is called a single throw crankshaft.College of Engineering and technology. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 7 .

6. 5. three bearing Crank Shaft Figure 10.3 Materials For the proper functioning. HUBLI-31. Kodancha.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Figure 9. the crankshaft should full fill the following conditions: 1. and strength to resist. Enough strength to withstand the forces to which it is subjected i.e. Assistant Professor. Enough rigidity to keep the distortion a minimum. Automobile Engineering Department.V.Four cylinder.2. 3.B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 8 . Sufficient mass properly distributed to see that it does not vibrate critically at the speeds at which it is operated. 4. the stresses due to torsional vibrations of the shaft.College of Engineering and technology. Session 24 to 28.Crank shaft for Four cylinder opposed engine Figure 11. 2. B. Minimum weight. Krishnaraja G. especially in aero engines. the bending and twisting moments. Sufficient projected areas of crankpins and journals to keep down the bearing pressure to a value dependent on the lubrication available. Stiffness to minimize.Crank shaft of Volkswagan Four cylinder-opposed engine 6.

040 A suitable heat treatment for drop forgings of this grade of steel is as follows: Normalize at 5710C to 9270C. which impairs the physical qualities of the steel.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] The crankshafts are made much heavier and stronger than necessary from the strength point of view so as to meet the requirements of rigidity and vibrations.90 Sulphur Not over 0.e.45 Carbon steel of ultimate tensile strength of about 627 to 780 MPa are commonly used. 1045 [Refer T 1. Cast steel is also used as material for crankshafts. forged. The material to be selected will also depend upon the method of manufacture i.18/428] which has the following composition and physical properties: Chemical Composition PerCent Carbon 0. In industrial engines. its ultimate tensile strength ranging from 560 to 600 MPa. Session 24 to 28. Medium-carbon steel is the material most extensively used.2/47.A. and page no 412 to 430 of the data handbook for different material properties. Students are requested to go through the Table3. Therefore the weight cannot be reduced appreciably by using a material with a very high strength. This process requires several heatings to a good red heat. steel No. In aero engines. Heavy duty Cast iron is being successfully used for crankshafts. Table 3.V. Assistant Professor.5b/48. and the latter have to be restored and the latter have to be restored by suitable heat treatment.E. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 9 . HUBLI-31.3/48. nickel chromium steel having ultimate tensile of about 940 to 1100 MPa is generally used.g. 0. In transport engines. The blanks from which the crankshafts are machined are produced by the drop forging process.College of Engineering and technology. Built up crank shafts are sometimes used in aero engines where light weight is very important. reheat to 7890C to 8430C. alloy steel e. or built up. cast. Automobile Engineering Department.050 Phosphorus Not over 0. quench in oil and draw at 8420C. consisting of normalizing. The carbon steel generally used for crankshafts is S.43-0. reheating and quenching.60-0. Table3. Cast iron usually used for crankshafts is nickel cast iron with ultimate tensile strength ranging from 350 to 525 MPa.35 Carbon steel of ultimate tensile strength 500MPa to 525 MPa and 0. B. When thus heat-treated the steel has approximately the following physical properties: Tensile strength Elastic limit Elongation in 50mm Reduction of area Brinell hardness 759MPa 517MPa 18 per cent 45 per cent 225-235 Krishnaraja G. Kodancha. especially for industrial engines of comparatively low speed and it can replace easily the plain carbon steels. manganese steel having ultimate tensile strength of about 784 to 940 MPa is generally used.50 Manganese 0.B.

4 Manufacturing: Great care must be observed in the manufacture of crankshafts since it is the most important part of the engine. HUBLI-31.B. After this. B. Small crankshafts are drop forged. All of these binary alloy steels have excellent mechanical properties.8160C. the tensile strength in the heat-treated condition usually running above 1034MPa 6. In some cases grounding is followed by hand lapping with emery cloth. Most crankshafts are ground at the journals and crankpins.E. the crankshaft is balanced. change of direction of bearing Krishnaraja G. Automobile Engineering Department.38-0. The journals and crankpins are ground to exact size after turning.6.40 0. While machining. 3140) is used for the crankshaft.1 0-1. The composition and the approximate mechanical properties of this steel (after heat treatment) are as follows: Chemical Composition Percent Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur Nickel Chromium 0. annealing to the desired structure or machinability.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] In some of the higher-grade automotive engines.75 Mechanical Properties (After Heat Treatment) Tensile strength Elastic limit Elongation in 50mm Reduction of area Brinell hardness 1069MPa 910MPa 16 per cent 50 per cent 295-305 The heat treatment for this steel consists in normalizing at 8710C -9270C. Large shafts of low speed engines are balanced statically. Session 24 to 28.V.A. and tempering at 4830C Other materials used for crankshafts include chrome-vanadium and chrome-molybdenum steels. Larger shafts are forged and machined to shape. the shaft must be properly supported between centers and special precautions should be taken to avoid springing. heating to 7880C .2.2. quenching in oil. Bearing pressures: The bearing pressures are very important in the design of crankshafts. chrome-nickel steel (S.040 1.College of 10 Engineering and technology. 6.70-0. Crankshafts of high-speed engines are balanced dynamically on special balancing machines. The allowable bearing pressure depends upon the journal velocity. Casting of the crankshafts allows a theoretically desirable but complicated shape with a minimum amount of machining and at the smallest cost.43 0. Kodancha. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .90 Not over 0.040 Not over 0. These are cast in permanent moulds for maximum accuracy and a minimum of machining.55-0. Assistant Professor.

Two different cross sections must be blended with a large fillet ‘r’. Assistant Professor. CBS Publications. a high factor of safety based on endurance limit from 3 to 4 should be used.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] pressures. Kodancha.11. INDIA. For chrome nickel and other alloy steels. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . If there is no space for fillet. HUBLI-31.College of 11 Engineering and technology. B. Page No 314 * Refer Table 3. (Figure12) Since the failure of the crankshaft is serious for the engine. the endurance limits for complete reversal of bending and torsional stresses are taken. TABLE 15. r should not be less than 0.B.6. To avoid stress concentration and fatigue failure. To be on the safe side.Stresses: The stresses induced in the crankshafts are bending and also shear stresses due to torsional moment of the shaft.V. Automobile Engineering Department. Most crankshafts fail due to progressive fracture due to repeated bending or reversed torsional stresses.2d. [d is the diameter of the shaft]. the endurance limit is about 525 N/mm2 in bending and about 290 N/mm2 in shear.6/49 for Allowable Bearing pressures Krishnaraja G. 1989. the width is increased. Table 1. and also because of the inaccuracy in determining all the forces and stresses. Thus the type of loading on the crankshafts is fatigue loading therefore. if possible.2. Session 24 to 28. abrupt changes in the section of shaft connection should be avoided. K Mahadevan and K Balaveera Reddy. the crank web should be under cut to obtain the fillet. amount and method of lubrication and the maximum gas pressures and space limitations. the design should be based on endurance limit. DESIGN DATA FOR BEARING * * The above table is extracted from “Design Data Book “. Maximum allowable bearing pressures are given below Table 1. 6. This will make the web weak and to compensate for it.

For alloy cast iron. HUBLI-31. Therefore. Alloy steel bolts or studs should be used.V. the endurance limit is about 220 N/mm2 in bending and about 120 N/mm2 in shear. Thus the allowable stress is: For Carbon steel: bending = 55 to 75 N/mm2 Shear = 30 to 40 N/mm2 1 Combined stress = (elastic limit in tension) 2 For alloy Cast Iron: Bending= shear = 34 to 45 N/mm2 Combined stress = elastic limit in pure tension.7 Balance Weights: In a single-cylinder crankshaft the centrifugal force on the crank arms. Assistant Professor. Automobile Engineering Department. which would cause the engine to vibrate if no means were provided to balance it. Use of Fillets (c) For carbon steel and cast steel. they must be very securely applied.2. For Chrome nickel and other alloy steel: Bending = 130 to 175 N/mm2 Shear = 70 to 97 N/mm2 1 Combined stress = (elastic limit in pure tension) 2 6. and if one of the weights should come loose. Kodancha. or the counterweights should be fitted to the crank arms in Krishnaraja G.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] r r d W r r d (a) (b) Figure 12. B.College of 12 Engineering and technology. the endurance limit is about 140 N/mm2 in bending and in shear. it would be sure to do serious damage.B. balance weights are applied to the crank arms. In a high-speed engine the balance weights are preferably forged integral with the crank arms. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . since the stresses on the fastenings due to the centrifugal force at "racing" speeds are very considerable. Session 24 to 28. crankpin. and part of the connecting rod forms an unbalanced rotating force. If made separate.

as they are equal. because in the conventional design there is nothing to balance the two inner crank pins and the intervening portion of the crankshaft. and there is only a small rotating couple due to the centrifugal forces acting at the ends of an arm equal in length to the distance between the centers of the two. B. One set of reciprocating parts then always moves in opposition to the other set. The centrifugal forces F on the two outer throws (Figure 13) naturally are always in the same plane. adding to the loads on these bearings. In a double-cylinder opposed engine the crankshaft is always made with two throws set at 1800 relative to each other. the two outer throws being on the same side of the crankshaft axis.College of 13 Engineering and technology. and acts at the same point but in the opposite direction to the latter. The centrifugal force acting on each throw is a radial rotating force. Kodancha. Assistant Professor. and the two inner throws on the opposite side. The rotating parts also are very nearly balanced. Figure 13 Centrifugal forces on four throw crankshaft 6. This rotating couple can be balanced by applying balance weights to the two short crank arms.V. A rather serious degree of local unbalance occurs in a fourcylinder. Session 24 to 28. the centrifugal force acting on the individual throw presses the crank journals adjacent to it against their bearings.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] such a way that the centrifugal force produces shearing stresses in the parts. In a four-cylinder vertical engine the four throws are always in the same plane. and at exactly the same speed. To reduce this bearing load it is now customary to provide crank arms of high-speed engines with balance weights. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .2. their resultant R is a force equal to twice that acting on the individual throw. Sometimes Krishnaraja G.B. two-bearing crankshaft. since the centrifugal force acting on one throw is equal and opposite in direction to the centrifugal force acting on the other throw. and. The resultant Rl of the centrifugal forces F1 acting on the two inner throws is exactly equal to the resultant of the centrifugal forces acting on the two outer throws. its individual throws are unbalanced. except for the fact that the two sets are not quite in line with each other. HUBLI-31.8 Local Balance: But while a crankshaft of this type is perfectly balanced as a whole. instead of tensile stresses in the bolts. and since the crankshaft is more or less flexible. consequently it neutralizes or balances it. which may be considered to act at the center of that throw. Automobile Engineering Department. acting at a point midway between the two throws. so that the reciprocating parts are perfectly balanced.

Automobile Engineering Department. the two inner ones being in line with each other. By reference to Figure 14. it can be seen that if all of the throws are identical. Kodancha. they are not even in static balance. A crankshaft of such design that the centrifugal forces acting on it would vanish if all acted in the same plane perpendicular to the crankshaft axis is said to be in static balance. at angles of 1200. and they exactly balance each other. The magnitude of this unbalanced force is proportional to the distance of the center of gravity of the crank arm from the axis of rotation. seven-bearing crankshaft. This crank arm then lies wholly to one side of the axis of rotation. respectively. The three resultants therefore all act in the same plane radially outward from the center of the crankshaft. such a crankshaft is in static balance. can be entirely eliminated by bolting a balance weight against the side of the long crank arm. and therefore can be reduced by reducing this distance. which balance weights either completely or partly balance the rotating parts of the crank throw. Assistant Professor.College of 14 Engineering and technology. which is an end view of a six throw. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Session 24 to 28. of course. In the most primitive form. The resultant F of the centrifugal forces on the two throws of each pair acts at the middle of the length of the crankshaft. as are also the two outer ones and the two intermediate ones. and in operation produces an unbalanced rotating force whose direction is at all times along a line through the axis of rotation and the center of gravity of the crank arm.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] balance weights are welded to crankshafts of this type. Krishnaraja G. In fact. but the majority of all crankshafts for high-speed engines have balance weights forged on all crank arms that are not symmetrical with relation to the crankshaft axis. seven-bearing crankshaft. Figure 14. as shown in Figure 15. as well as to others. Each pair of throws is located at an angular distance of 1200 from the other two pairs.V. of course. Six-cylinder crankshafts with either three or four main bearings are not inherently balanced. In a six-throw crankshaft the throws are arranged in pairs. by curving the crank arm inward. which involves the use of a balance weight on each arm. as sometimes made.B. is obtained if each throw is balanced separately. B. the long crank arms extend straight across from one crankpin to another at angular distance of 1200 therefrom. HUBLI-31. The highest degree of balance. The rotating force. End view of Six-throw.

Of course.2.College of 15 Engineering and technology. Back of the junction with the crankpins the disc is rounded off so as to eliminate unnecessary weight. while the long crank arm is in the form of a disc. 6. or seven main journals. of course. Session 24 to 28. which latter Krishnaraja G. On the other hand. Automobile Engineering Department. throws Nos. all dimensions of the crankshaft can be made proportional to the cylinder bore. the proportion between any given dimension of the crankshaft and the cylinder bore varies with the number and arrangement of cylinders and with the type of crankshaft as defined by the number of its main bearings. four. Whatever the number of main journals. the angular spacing of the throws is the same. HUBLI-31.2. Curved long arm of six-throw. In applying the rules for arm thickness the calculated thickness can be taken as the mean between the minimum and maximum actual thicknesses. usually about 70. six-cylinder crankshaft (the front half being omitted because it is an inverse duplicate of the rear). The greater the number of main journals the better the support for the crankshaft and the smoother the operation of the engine at high speeds. At the center between crankpins Nos. is not a rectangle. 1 and 6 are in line. In all drop forged crankshafts in which the arms are left unfinished. and long arms connecting two crankpins spaced 120° apart. 3 and 4 there is a balance weight. Long crank arms of the same general form are used in three-bearing crankshafts for six-cylinder engines. B. that is. 3 and 4. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Kodancha. and throws Nos.10 Six Cylinder Crankshafts Crankshafts for six-cylinder in line engines are made with three. Assistant Professor.V. In Figure 16 is shown sides view of the rear half of a fourbearing. 2 and 5. as are throws Nos. [Firing order 1-6-2-5-3-4] Both the three-bearing and the four-bearing crankshafts have short arms connecting a crankpin with the adjacent main journal. The short crank arms have the usual integral counterweights. of which a side view is shown at the right in the illustration. the arm section. three or four-bearing crankshaft. of which a transverse section is shown.B.9 Empirical Rules for Crankshaft Dimensions In making a preliminary lay-out.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Figure 15. 6. as draft has to be allowed on the two long sides. manufacturing costs increase somewhat with the number of main bearings.

be cause it carries the inertia loads from two sets of reciprocating parts that are in phase. Seven bearing. Rear half of four bearing. and the angular spacing between one pair of cranks and the next is always 90°. 1 and 8 being in line.11 Eight Cylinder Crankshafts Crankshafts for eight-cylinder in line engines are designed with either five or nine main journals. In the first case there are two crank throws between supports. Session 24 to 28. and 4 and 5.College of 16 Engineering and technology.2. Kodancha. are finished on both sides. Figure 17 Five bearing crankshaft for eight cylinder crankshaft in line engine 6. in a plane at right angles to it. so as to make the engine as compact as possible length wise. as Krishnaraja G. crank arms and crankpins.12 Oil Holes Drilled in Crankshafts In engines provided with pressure lubrication. and communicating axial and radial holes through the journals. Figure 16. also Nos. Here. oil holes are drilled through the crankshaft journals and arms to permit oil to flow from the main to the crankpin bearings. the holes through the crank arms and the axial holes through the journals later having their ends plugged. six-cylinder crankshaft 6. The center bearing is made considerably longer than the two intermediate bearings. while in the last there is only one.V. B. the angular spacing of the various throws is the same. Figure is a side view of such a crankshaft. and each half joined to one end of the other crankshaft. However. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . HUBLI-31.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] have four of them. regardless of the number of main journals.2. 2 and 7. Assistant Professor. while in the case of the intermediate bearings the two sets of reciprocating parts on opposite sides of them are 90° out of phase. which are all similar in shape. the preferred practice is to drill single inclined holes through the main journals. Sometimes radial holes are drilled through the crank arms. Automobile Engineering Department. too. six-cylinder crankshafts usually are finished all over. at least the crank arms. cranks Nos. The crankshaft of an eight-cylinder in-line engine consists essentially of two conventional four-cylinder crank shafts. 3 and 6. one of these being cut in halves.B.

If the center of gravity of the crankshaft does not lie in the mechanical axis. then the crankshaft will turn until the center of gravity is directly underneath the mechanical axis.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] illustrated in Figure 18. after they are completely machined. By removing material from the heavy side.College of 17 Engineering and technology. Figure 18 Inclined Oil holes in crankshaft 6. it will remain in any position to which it is turned.2. static balance may be attained. HUBLI-31. there may be excess weight on one side of the shaft at one end. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . until the crankshaft will remain in any angular position in which it is placed on the discs. when placed on horizontal steel balance ways or their equivalent. there is what is known as a centrifugal couple. so that there are two oilcrankshaft inlets. when the engine is running. the two pairs being sufficiently far apart so the crankshaft can be placed upon them with its end main bearings. a second hole is shown drilled halfway through main journal. In that case. Figure 19 One end of static balancing machine Krishnaraja G. Session 24 to 28. which is balanced statically by an equivalent weight on the other side at the opposite end. Dynamically the shaft may still be unbalanced. and this must be eliminated before the crank can be expected to run without vibration at high speeds. Assistant Professor. Automobile Engineering Department. must be balanced both statically and dynamically.V. A crankshaft is in static balance if. For instance. Unbalance of this kind can be determined only in a dynamic balancing machine. B. but this practice is not common. In the illustration. A simple static balancing machine consists of two pairs of discs freely supported either on hardened centers or on ball bearings (Figure 19).13 Balancing Crankshaft Crankshafts. Kodancha.B. with a drill or emery wheel.

the additional moments due to the flywheel weight. Now calculate the distance between supports. Kodancha. Every crankshaft must be designed or checked at least for two crank positions.5d to 0. One is that its projected bearing area (diameter times length) must be large enough so it will safely sustain the bearing loads imposed upon it by gas pressure.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6. (TABLE 1 and Table 3. It may change as per the requirements and definition of the given problem. and the other when the twisting moment is a maximum. speeds at which there is synchronous vibration-are raised. Note: All the forces and reactions are assumed to be acting at the centers of the bearings. inertia and centrifugal force. the second.22D to 0. Determine the distance between supports.3. The lengths & diameters of the bearings are determined on the basis of maximum permissible bearing pressures. 2. or from 0. about 0. where d is the shaft diameter. 6. The distances will depend upon the lengths of the bearing. and in this way at least the most important critical speeds can be moved outside the normal operating range. In addition.B. where D is the cylinder bore.V. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . the shaft is considered to be supported at the centers of the bearings. Automobile Engineering Department. There are two considerations.1 DESIGN CALCULATIONS: In the design of the crankshafts.College of 18 Engineering and technology. The thickness of the crank webs is assumed. l/d ratios and the acting loads.6d. the so-called critical speeds-that is.6/49) 3.3 Design Procedure: 1. 5. without loosing accuracy.32D. To make the calculations simpler. B. Krishnaraja G. Determine the magnitudes of the various loads acting on the crankshaft. Session 24 to 28. that the crankshaft as a whole must be sufficiently rigid so that it will not vibrate perceptibly under the periodic forces to which it is subjected in service. 7. Assume allowable bending and shearing stresses. The above procedure is general design procedure. belt tension and other forces must be considered. it is assumed that the effect of the bending forces does not extend two bearings between which a force is applied. Assistant Professor. When the crankshaft of a given engine is made more rigid. HUBLI-31. which determine the necessary dimensions of the crankpin. one when the bending moment is maximum. Compute the necessary dimensions of the crankshaft. For the sake of simplicity and safety. 6. it is assumed that the crankshaft is a beam with two or more supports. 4.

acts as shown in Figure 7 Now Gas Load.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6. maximum bending moment will act in the crankshaft. Kodancha.V. Session 24 to 28.College of 19 Engineering and technology. The thrust in the connecting rod will be equal to the piston gas load (F). Automobile Engineering Department. Force Analysis of Crank at Dead Center In between bearings 1 and 2. R3 RV3(W) RH3(BELT) 3 y T1+T2 R2 RV2(W) x W RH2(BELT) RH2(F) 2 b F a RH1(F) 1 Figure 20.B.4a Crank at Dead Center When the crank is on dead center. W is the weight of the flywheel acting downward and T1 and T2 is the belt pull acting horizontally. Where D is the diameter of the piston in mm and 4 pmax is the maximum gas pressure F= π D 2 * p max Krishnaraja G. Assistant Professor. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Gas Load F.4 Analysis of Center Crank Shaft: The crank shaft is to analysed for two positions: i) Crank on Dead Center: and ii) Crank at angle of maximum Twisting Moment 6. . B. HUBLI-31.

then. acting horizontally as shown in Figure 8 ii) Weight of the Flywheel (W). RH2(belt) at bearing 2.(4) ( x + y) Krishnaraja G. at bearing 2. Session 24 to 28.(3) By substituting equation 2 in equation 3 we get.B. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. RH1(F) + RH2(F) -F =0……………………………………………………. N ………. acting vertically as shown in Figure 8 R H 1( F ) = F − Reactions at bearing 2 and 3 due to Belt Pull.N If a=b. and RH2(F) . Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment.College of 20 Engineering and technology.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Due to this there will be two horizontal reactions. Kodancha. taken as negative. To find the reactions RH1(F) and RH2(F) ∑M 1 = 0. F (a) F (b) = . F (a) − RH 2( F ) (a + b) = 0 ………………………………………………. so that.. and RH3(belt) at bearing 3. R H 1( F ) = RH 2( F ) = (2) In between bearings 2 and 3. To find the reactions RH2(belt) and RH3(belt) ∑M 2 = 0. Due to this there will be two horizontal reactions. B.(2) ( a + b) . (T1 + T2 )( x) − RH 3(belt ) ( x + y ) = 0 Hence R H 3(belt ) = (T1 + T2 )( x) . Assistant Professor.. RH1(F) at bearing 1. Automobile Engineering Department. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑F y = 0.N ( a + b) ( a + b) F . so that .……………………………………………….….V. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N ……………………………………………. HUBLI-31. we have two loads i) Belt pull (T1 + T2 ).(1) Hence R H 2 ( F ) = F (a) .

Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative.B. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. and the various parts will be designed for bending only. (T + T2 )( x) (T1 + T2 )( y ) R H 2b (elt ) = (T1 + T2 ) − 1 = ( x + y) ( x + y) If x=y.College of 21 Engineering and technology. then RV 2(W ) = RV 3(W ) = (2) In this position of the crank. so that. N ……………………………………………………. Krishnaraja G. . HUBLI-31. . Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . (W )( x) (W )( y ) Rv 2 (W ) = (W2 ) − = ( x + y) ( x + y) (W ) If x=y. Rv2(W) at bearing 2. R H 2 (belt ) = R H 3(bel )t = (T1 + T2 ) (2) Reactions at bearing 2 and 3 due to Weight of the Flywheel. Rv3(W) + RV2(W) – (W) =0…………………………………………. Assistant Professor.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] ∑F y = 0. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative.(7) By substituting equation (6) in equation (7) we get. and Rv3(W). (W )( x) − Rv 3(W ) ( x + y ) = 0 Hence Rv 3(W ) = (W )( x) ( x + y) . To find the reactions Rv2(W0 and Rv3(W) ∑M 2 = 0.V.(6) ∑F y = 0.(5) By substituting equation (4) in equation(5) we get. Due to this there will be two Vertical reactions. Automobile Engineering Department. B. at bearing 3. Kodancha. Session 24 to 28. there will be no twisting moment. RH2(belt) + RH3(belt) – (T1+T2) =0…………………………………………. then.

MPa Bearing pressure. Kodancha. diameter of the Crankpin dp can be obtained. σb.3) dp ………………………(Page No 50) M = π ⎞ 64 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( π )(d p ) 4 d p (σ b ) .65 dp + 6. one direct compressive stress and the other bending stress due to the gas load F. l p = 6. Assistant Professor.8 to 1.2 Left Hand Crank Web: The crank web is designed for eccentric loading.16 and solving for M we σb c (I ) = σb ⎛dp ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 32 Knowing the value of Bending moment M and allowable stress in bending.16/3) I c Substituting the values of C = get.4a. M σ = ………………………………………………………. pb = (l p )(d p ) F . HUBLI-31.College of 22 Engineering and technology.9 dp ………………………………. Automobile Engineering Department. mm (d p )( pb ) Or we can use empirical relation as lp=(0. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . The thickness h=0.. N-mm We know that. mm……………………………………………………(Page No 50) Since the empirical relations are used it is advised to check the developed stresses against the given values. There will be two stresses on it.7.22D to 0.4a.1 CRANKPIN: The bending moment at the centre of the crankpin is.(1. Session 24 to 28. F .5 dp to 0.2) dp. Length of the crankpin (lp) can be obtained by suitably choosing/assuming the value of allowable bearing pressure and using the following formula. M = RH 1( F ) (a ) .32 D or =0. M = dp 2 and I = πd p 4 64 in Equation 1. N-mm 3 Length of the crankpin.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6.…………(Page No 50) =0. Krishnaraja G.V. B.B.1 to 1. mm 8 = (1.35mm………………………………………(Page No 50) The width ‘w’may be assumed to be as follows: 9 w = d p + 12.

MPa 2 2 wh Superimposing the direct and bending stresses we get total stress on the web. I= 6. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Hence normally same dimensions are adopted for both crank webs.. B. HUBLI-31.V. Kodancha.4 Shaft Under the Flywheel: [Diameter of the shaft between bearing 2 and 3] Bending moment due to flywheel weight is M FLY = ( RV 3(W ) )( y ) Bending moment due to the belt pull is M belt = ( RH 3( BELT ) )( y ) Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other. MPa 2 2 wh Superimposing the direct and bending stresses we get total stress on the web. Assistant Professor. Automobile Engineering Department. ………………………………………………………. 2 2 M Total = M FLY + M belt Krishnaraja G. MPa ( w)(h) Bending stresses: (σb) M σb = .(1.College of 23 Engineering and technology.3Right Hand Crank Web: Since the bearing 1 and 2 are usually of the same length and symmetrical to the cylinder centerline. Otherwise.16/3) I c lp h M = R1H ( F ) (a − − ) 2 2 wh 3 h And c = 12 2 Substituting the values of M.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Direct stresses(σd) R σ d = 1H ( F ) . 6. Otherwise increase the value of thickness and width and recheck the design. therefore RH1(F) and RH2F() are equal. c and I in bending equation (1. and check against the allowable stresses. which must not exceed the allowable stress in bending.16/3) we get lp h 6 σ b = R1H ( F ) (a − − )( 2 ). To avoid the manufacturing difficulties keep the same dimensions for both Webs by taking higher h and w values. providing the dimensions empirically as used in Left hand crank web and check is made as follows: M = R1 H 1( F ) ( a + σ b = RH 1( F ) (a + lp lp h − ) 2 2 h 6 − )( 2 ).4a. Session 24 to 28.B.4a. the combined bending moment is given by.

If Fp is the gas load along the cylinder centerline. the gas pressure will not be maximum.(3. Its value should be taken low to take care of reversal of stresses in each revolution and to ensure necessary rigidity. The angle usually lies between 250 to 350from the dead center for a constant volume combustion engines and between 300 to 400 for constant pressure combustion engines.1/50 in design data book) Ft M total = π ⎛ d W ⎞ 64 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ( π )(d W ) 4 d W (σ b ) .V. Session 24 to 28. At this angle. 3 FC FP θ ϕ Fr FC Figure 21.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] We know that M Total = σb c (I ) = σb 32 Where dW is diameter of the shaft under flywheel and σb is allowable stress in bending.B.(3. Kodancha.………………….14/45) cos(φ ) Ft = FC sin(φ + θ ) = Krishnaraja G. B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .4b Crank at an angle of maximum twisting moment The twisting moment on the crankshaft will be maximum. 6. HUBLI-31.13/45) cos(φ ) The radial force along the crank F cos(φ + θ ) Fr = FC cos(φ + θ ) = P …………………………. Assistant Professor.College of 24 Engineering and technology. then the thrust FC along the connecting rod is given by (Ref Figure 21 or same as FIG 3. when the tangential force Ft is maximum and this can be calculated graphically by taking pressures from the net effort diagram for different crank angles.(3. Forces on crank Arm The force on the connecting Rod or thrust force FP FC = ……………………………………………………………………. N-mm.12/45) cos(φ ) The tangential force or the rotative effort on the crank FP sin(φ + θ ) ………………………………………………. Automobile Engineering Department.

Kodancha. Shear stress is taken as failure criteria for crankshaft. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . − Fr (b) + RH 1FR (a + b) = 0 Krishnaraja G. HUBLI-31. At this point. Assistant Professor. Automobile Engineering Department. at bearing 1 and 2 Radial force Fr will have two reactions RH1FR and RH2FR at bearing 1 and 2 respectively.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] RH3(BELT) 3 y T1+T2 RV2(W) x RH2FR RH2(BELT RH2FT W 2 b FP R RH1FR 1 Ft Fr a RH1FT Figure 22. B. Session 24 to 28. The reactions at the bearings 2 and 3 due to belt pull (T1+T2) and Flywheel W will be same as before.B. In this position of the crankshaft.College of 25 Engineering and technology.V. Force Analysis of Crank at angle of maximum twisting Moment Tangential force Ft will have two reactions RH1FT and RH2FT respectively. The reactions due Radial force (Fr): To find the reactions RH1FR and RH2FR ∑M 2 = 0. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. the different sections will be subjected to both bending and torsional moments and these must be checked for combined stress.

M b = RH 1FR (a ) . Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Session 24 to 28. 6. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑ Fy = 0 . − FT + R H 1FT + RH 2 FT = 0 R H 2 FT = FT − R H 1FT = FT − R H 2 FT = FT (a ) ( a + b) FT (b) ( a + b) The reactions at the bearings 2 and 3due to Flywheel weight (W) and resultant belt pull (T1+T2) will be as discussed earlier. − FT (b) + RH 1FT (a + b) = 0 F (b) R H 1FT = T ( a + b) . Te = T 2 + M b2 . Automobile Engineering Department. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. Kodancha. − Fr + RH 1FR + RH 2 FR = 0 R H 2 FR = Fr − RH 1FR = Fr − RH 2 FR = Fr (a) (a + b) Fr (b) ( a + b) The reactions due tangential force (Ft): To find the reactions RH1FT and RH2FT ∑M 2 = 0.B. HUBLI-31.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Fr (b) ( a + b) . N − mm Krishnaraja G. N-mm The Twisting moment is. T = RH 1FT ( R) . taken as negative.V. taken as negative. Assistant Professor. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is R H 1FR = ∑F y = 0. B.College of 26 Engineering and technology.4b.1 Crank pin: The bending moment at the centre of the crankpin is. N-mm Equivalent twisting moment.

N-mm In addition to this moment there will be a twisting moment because of tangential force Ft. Assistant Professor. F Bearing pressure. mm (d p )( pb ) Or we can use empirical relation as lp=(0. 2 2 M Total = M FLY + M belt . Te = obtained.4b. HUBLI-31. Where dp is the solid shaft diameter. Bending moment due to flywheel weight is M FLY = ( RV 3(W ) )( y ) Bending moment due to the belt pull is M belt = ( RH 3( BELT ) )( y ) Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other. mm = 16 From this equation the diameter of the crank pin can be obtained. r= Distance from the Neutral axis to the top most fibre.15 and simplifying we get. mm4 32 τ= allowable shear stress. MPa (l p )(d p ) Length of the crankpin.V. π 16 d W (τ ) . Length of the crankpin (lp) can be obtained by suitably choosing/assuming the value of allowable bearing pressure and using the following formula. pb = .College of 27 Engineering and technology. Kodancha. the combined bending moment is given by. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . B. MPa = π d p .3) dp ………………………(Page No 50) Te = π d P (τ ) . The twisting moment.. Diameter of the shaft under flywheel dW can be 3 Krishnaraja G. l p = F . N-mm J=polar moment of inertia. N-mm.15/3) J r Here Te=torque or Torsional moment. Session 24 to 28. 4 dP 2 Substituting the values of J and r in equation 1.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] We know that Te τ = ………………………………………………………………. 2 Te = T 2 + M Total . N − mm We have.(1. Automobile Engineering Department. N-mm 3 6.8 to 1.B. N-mm Therefore Equivalent twisting moment.2 Shaft under the Flywheel: [Diameter of the shaft between bearing 2 and 3] The collective bending moment due to flywheel and the belt pull will be the same as earlier. T = Ft (R) .

Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . which leads to safer side. N-mm 2 2 6 σ rad = M rad ( 2 ). 2 σ x +σ y Krishnaraja G. HUBLI-31. M Tang = Ft (R) .(9) w h F The stress due to direct compression. τxy=τ .College of 28 Engineering and technology.8 and 10) σ total = σ rad + σ Tang + σ d .. = . N-mm (Since here shaft diameter at junction is not considered for calculation.…………………………. σx= σtotal. Shear stress.(10) 2bh Superimposing the stresses (At the upper left corner to the cross section of the crank) will be equal to (Addition of equation 8. τ= ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ σ1 = ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………. σy= 0.(8) bh The bending moment due to tangential component is maximum at the juncture of the crank and shaft.5 Therefore maximum combined stress is given by. Assistant Professor. MPa ………………………………………………………………….(11) Now the twisting moment.. mm 3 4. Session 24 to 28.V. MPa ……………………………………………………………………. Zp=polar section modulus Total combined stress.) 6 σ Tang = M Tang ( 2 ).11a/2) 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ Here σ1= σmax. and to torsion.…………………………………………………………. T T ……………………………. Where. In order to find the correctness of the dimensions of the web it is necessary to check the developed stresses against the allowable stresses. By doing so the bending moment increases and hence the stresses. B. to direct compression.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6.(12) (c ) = J Z bh 2 Where Z – polar section modulus.B. N − mm 2 2 2 We know that. Automobile Engineering Department. on the arm is lp lp lp T = RHIFT (a + ) − FT ( ) = R H 2 FT (b − ).3 Right hand Crank Web: We have used empirical formulae to obtain the values of crank web dimensions. due to radial and tangential components of FP.(1. This web is subjected to bending stresses in two planes normal to each other. And also we know that the Right hand Crank Web is severely stressed. Kodancha. The bending moment due to radial component is lp h M rad = RH 2 FR (b − − ) .…………. σ d = r . MPa ………………………………………………………………………….4b. MPa ………….

The side or overhung crankshafts are used for medium size and large horizontal engines. Hence there is no need to check the left hand crank and its dimensions may be taken as that of the right hand crank. dp lp ds ls Figure. Assistant Professor. the approximate dimensions for the crank pin and the journals may be found. 6.V. R2 = Fp 2 + W T1 + T2 + . 6.4 Left hand Crank Web: This crank web is less severely stressed than the right hand crank since it is not to transmit any power while the right hand crank transmits the power to the flywheel and to the power take off.B. Session 24 to 28. HUBLI-31. only this bearing may be checked for the safe bearing pressure. Kodancha.23 Simple Side Crank Shaft Krishnaraja G. The analysis of the shaft is done at two positions:1. Before the crankshaft is checked for the positions of maximum bending moment and that of maximum twisting moment.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Calculated σmax must be within limits.4 Crankshaft bearings: The distance between bearing 1 and bearing 2 may be assumed to be equal to twice the cylinder diameter. B.4b. When the crank is at angle of maximum twisting moment.N 2 2 R2 .4b. Automobile Engineering Department. The bearing design details are not discussed here. We know that the total reaction at the bearing 2.College of 29 Engineering and technology. therefore. MPa ( L)(d ) Therefore bearing pressure pb = Where L and d are the length and diameter of the bearing. 6. When the crank is at dead centre (maximum bending moment) 2. If it exceeds the safe limit. Bearing 2 is the most heavily loaded. as it is beyond the scope of this subject. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 r w . b can be increased since it does not affect any other dimension. From the length of the crankpin and the thickness of the arm. the lengths of the bearings can be found out. Their main advantage is that it requires only two bearings in either the single or two crank constructions.5 Analysis of side Crank Shaft: The analysis of the side crankshaft is on the same lines as for centre crankshaft.

Force Analysis of side Crank at Dead Center Krishnaraja G. To find the reactions RH1(F) and RH2(F) π ∑M 1 = 0.5. Where D is the diameter of the piston in mm and 4 pmax is the maximum gas pressure Due to this piston gas load there will be two horizontal reactions. − F (b) + RH 2( F ) ( x + y ) = 0 ……………………………………. Assistant Professor. HUBLI-31. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . B. We know that Gas Load.B.. F= D 2 * p max .V. at bearing 2. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. RH1(F) at bearing 1.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6. The notations used are same as that of center crank shaft. Session 24 to 28.…………(13) R2 RV2(W) RH2(F) RH1(BELT) 2 y T1+T2 R1 RV1(W) x W RH1(BELT) RH1(F) 1 b F Figure 24.(Ref Figure 12).College of 30 Engineering and technology. Automobile Engineering Department.1 When the crank is at dead centre Consider a side crankshaft at dead centre with its loads and distances of their application. Kodancha. and RH2(F) .

Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N ……….(16) ( x + y) ∑F y = 0.(15) By substituting equation 14 in equation 15 we get.B.(14) ( x + y) .. N ……………………………………………. taken as negative. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative.College of 31 Engineering and technology. then. HUBLI-31. in between bearings 1 and 2. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. − (T1 + T2 )( y ) + RH 1(belt ) ( x + y ) = 0 Hence R H 1(belt ) = (T1 + T2 )( y ) . Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑F y = 0. Due to this there will be two horizontal reactions. B.……..(17) By substituting equation (16) in equation(17) we get.…………………………………………………. RH1(belt) + RH2(belt) – (T1+T2) =0…………………………………………. R H 2 (belt ) = R H 3(bel )t = (T1 + T2 ) (2) Krishnaraja G.. To find the reactions RH2(belt) and RH3(belt) ∑M 2 = 0.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Hence R H 2( F ) = F (b) . acting horizontally as shown in Figure 12 iv) Weight of the Flywheel (W)..V. RH1(belt) at bearing 1. Automobile Engineering Department.N = ( x + y) ( x + y) Besides gas load.RH2(F) -F =0………………………………………………………. (T + T2 )( y ) (T1 + T2 )( x) R H 2b (elt ) = (T1 + T2 ) − 1 = ( x + y) ( x + y) If x=y. RH1(F) . Session 24 to 28. acting vertically as shown in Figure 12 Reactions at bearing 1 and 2 due to Belt Pull. . Kodancha. R H 1( F ) = F + F (b) F (b + x + y ) . and RH2(belt) at bearing 2. we have two loads iii) Belt pull (T1 + T2 ). Assistant Professor.

5 to 2. (W )( y ) (W )( x) Rv 2(W ) = (W ) − = ( x + y) ( x + y) If x=y. It clearly indicates that the chosen direction is wrong and further calculations are carried out by changing the direction of the reaction. Rv1(W) at bearing1. − (W )( y ) + Rv1(W ) ( x + y ) = 0 Hence Rv1(W ) = (W )( y ) ( x + y) . MPa We know that bearing pressure pb = The value of Allowable bearing pressure is available in Table 3. Session 24 to 28. and Rv2(W).6/49 for various class of work. Automobile Engineering Department. If the student choose a wrong direction for RH2(F) due to gas force F. at bearing2.5.. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment.V.College of 32 Engineering and technology. Kodancha. then after solving we get negative value of RH2(F). F …………………………………. HUBLI-31. To find the reactions Rv1(W) and Rv2(W) ∑M 2 = 0. Due to this there will be two Vertical reactions. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative.. . pb is the allowable bearing pressure on the pin.(18) ∑F y = 0.B. Krishnaraja G.…. N ………………………………………………….…….(20) (l p )(d p ) Where lp and dp are length and diameter of the crankpin respectively. and the various parts will be designed for bending only. 6. B.75 MPa for Automobile Engines. For example pb = 2. there will be no twisting moment.(19) By substituting equation (18) in equation (19) we get.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Reactions at bearing 1 and 2 due to Weight of the Flywheel (W). Assistant Professor. then RV 1(W ) = RV 2 (W ) = (W ) (2) In this position of the crank. Rv2(W) + RV1(W) – (W) =0………………………………………….1a CRANKPIN: The dimensions of the crankpin are obtained by considering the crankpin in bearing and then checked for bending stress. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .

. Kodancha. Krishnaraja G.1) diameter of the crankpin. and using equation (20).75 times of the crankpin length from the crank web.16/3) I c dp πd p 4 Substituting the values of c = and I = in Equation 1. B. N-mm. length and diameter of the pin can be obtained. Automobile Engineering Department..16/3) I c d πd 4 Substituting the values of c = 1 and I = 1 in Equation 1.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] The length of the crankpin is approximately taken as (0. But in actual practice. ranging between M = 2 ⎛3⎞ So a mean value of bending moment i.(1. ⎝4⎠ We know that.16 and solving for σb we 2 64 get. the bearing pressure on the crankpin is not 2 uniformly distributed and may.(1. Session 24 to 28.e.5. (σ b ) = 6.B.) We know that. therefore. Assistant Professor. If it is assumed that the crankpin acts as a cantilever and the load on the crankpin is uniformly distributed.1b Design of Bearing: The bending moment at the center of the bearing 1 is given by M = F (b) .V. then maximum bending moment will be . M σb = ………………………………………………………. πd 3 p This induced bending stress should be within the permissible limits. The crankpin is now checked for bending stress. MPa.College of 33 Engineering and technology. M σb = ………………………………………………………. (Assuming that the gas force is acting at 0. HUBLI-31. M = M = ( F )(l p ) σb c (I ) = σb ⎛dp ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ 64 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( π )(d p ) 4 32M . give a greater value of bending moment ( F )(l p ) and M = ( F )(l p ) .[Refer page no 50 of the data hand book] By taking suitable ratio of length to crank pin. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .16 and solving for d1 we 2 64 get. M = ⎜ ⎟( F )(l p ) may be used.8 to 1.

Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Automobile Engineering Department. Kodancha.5. MR = ( π )σ b (d S ) …………………………………………………………………(23) 3 6.1d Design of Crank Web: When the crank is dead centre.B. The bearing 2 is also made of the same diameter. The thickness and width of the crank web is fixed by empirical relations and checked for induced stresses. i) Flywheel M Vert = Rv 2(W ) ( y ) Resultant Bending Moment 2 M R = ( M HOR + M 2 Vert M =( π )σ b (d1 ) ………………………………………………………………………(21) We know that. HUBLI-31.5 to 0.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] M = σb c (I ) = σb ⎛ d1 ⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3 ( π )(d1 ) 4 32 From equation (21) the diameter of the bearing can be obtained. Length of the bearing can be found by taking.College of 34 Engineering and technology.V. Thickness of crank web t=(0.1c Design of Shaft under the flywheel The total bending moment at the flywheel location will be the resultant of horizontal bending moment due to gas load and belt pull and the vertical bending moment due to the flywheel weight. Session 24 to 28. Assistant Professor. l1=1.5. the crank web is subjected to a bending moment and a direct compressive stress.5d1 to 2d1. Horizontal Bending Moment due to . 6. The length of the bearing is found on the basis of allowable bearing pressure and maximum reactions at the bearings. B. 32 From equation diameter of the shaft dS can be obtained.9) dp Krishnaraja G. i) Piston Gas load M Gas = F (b + x) − R H 1( F ) ( x) ii) Belt Pull M Belt = R H 2 ( BELT ) ( y ) Therefore total horizontal bending moment is MHOR=MGas+MBelt……………………………………………………………………(22) Vertical Bending Moment due to .

Oct 18 to 30 -2007 ..(22) I Substituting the values of M. HUBLI-31. Automobile Engineering Department.(24) bt I= Superimposing the stresses we get.………………………………………. Session 24 to 28.5t + 0.College of 35 Engineering and technology.2 When the crank is at an angle of maximum twisting moment: Consider a position of the crank at angle of maximum twisting moment as shown in Figure 25.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Width of crank web b=(1.5. (σ Total ) = (σ b ) + (σ d ) ≤ (σ allowable ) 6.2 )ds Where dp and ds are diameter of crankpin and crank shaft respectively. Assistant Professor. we get 6M (σ b ) = 2 ………………………………………………………………………….75 * l p ) bt 3 t And c = 12 2 We know that M (σ b ) = (c) ……………………………………………………………………….c and I in the equation (22). Kodancha.1 to 1. Force Analysis of Side Crank at angle of maximum twisting Moment Krishnaraja G.(23) bt F Direct stress (σ d ) = ……………………. Check: Maximum bending moment on the crank web M = F (0.B. RV2(W) RH2FT RH2(BELT) 2 y RH2FR T1+T2 RV1(W) x RH1FR RH1(BELT) RH1FT W 1 b FP Fr R Ft Figure 25.V. B...

14/45) cos(φ ) at bearing 1 and 2 Tangential force Ft will have two reactions RH1FT and RH2FT respectively.(3. Kodancha. when the tangential force Ft is maximum and this can be calculated graphically by taking pressures from the net effort diagram for different crank angles. At this point. the different sections will be subjected to both bending and torsional moments and these must be checked for combined stress. HUBLI-31. The reactions at the bearings 1 and 2 due to belt pull (T1+T2) and Flywheel W will be same as before.(3. B. Session 24 to 28.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] The twisting moment on the crankshaft will be maximum.13/45) cos(φ ) The radial force along the crank Ft = FC sin(φ + θ ) = Fr = FC cos(φ + θ ) = FP cos(φ + θ ) ………………………….B. At this angle.College of 36 Engineering and technology. The reactions due Radial force (Fr): To find the reactions RH1FR and RH2FR ∑M 2 = 0. Forces on crank Arm The force on the connecting Rod or thrust force FP FC = ……………………………………………………………………. In this position of the crankshaft. Krishnaraja G.1/50 in design data book) Ft FC FP θ ϕ Fr FC Figure 26.12/45) cos(φ ) The tangential force or the rotative effort on the crank FP sin(φ + θ ) ……………………………………………….…………………. Automobile Engineering Department. Assistant Professor.V. The angle usually lies between 250 to 350from the dead center for a constant volume combustion engines and between 300 to 400 for constant pressure combustion engines. the gas pressure will not be maximum.(3. then the thrust FC along the connecting rod is given by (Ref Figure 8 or same as FIG 3. If Fp is the gas load along the cylinder centerline. Radial force Fr will have two reactions RH1FR and RH2FR at bearing 1 and 2 respectively. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Shear stress is taken as failure criteria for crankshaft.

V. Session 24 to 28.College of 37 Engineering and technology. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑ Fy = 0 . − Fr + RH 1FR − RH 2 FR = 0 R H 2 FR = Fr − RH 1FR = Fr − R H 2 FR = Fr (b) ( x + y) Fr (b + x + y ) ( x + y) The reactions due tangential force (Ft): To find the reactions RH1FT and RH2FT ∑M 2 = 0. taken as negative. B. − Fr (b + x + y ) + R H 1FR ( x + y ) = 0 F (b + x + y ) RH 1FR = r ( x + y) . taken as negative. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. Krishnaraja G. HUBLI-31. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . − FT + R H 1FT − RH 2 FT = 0 R H 2 FT = FT − RH 1FT = FT − R H 2 FT = FT (b) ( x + y) FT (b + x + y ) ( x + y) The reactions at the bearings 1 and 2 due to Flywheel weight (W) and resultant belt pull (T1+T2) will be same as discussed earlier.B. Automobile Engineering Department. − FT (b + x + y ) + RH 1FT ( x + y ) = 0 F (b + x + y ) R H 1FT = T ( x + y) .Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. Kodancha. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑ Fy = 0 . Assistant Professor.

The most critical section is where the web joins the shaft.5T = = τ xy Z wh 2 σ max = σx +σ y 2 ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .5 Superimposing the stresses we get. σ d = FR wh 6 M bR hw 2 Shear stress due to the twisting moment of FT.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6. T = FT (0. HUBLI-31. N − mm 2 6 M bT = hw 2 dp Bending stress due to the radial force Fr Bending moment due to the radial force. Total compressive stress. This section is subjected to the following stresses: Bending stress due to the tangential force FT i) ii) Bending stress due to the radial force Fr iii) Direct compressive stress due to radial force Fr and iv) Shear stress due to the twisting moment of FT.(1.75l p + 0. Twisting moment due to the Tangential force.5h) Therefore bending stress due to radial force σ bT = Direct compressive stress due to radial force Fr We know that. Bending stress due to the tangential force FT Bending moment due to tangential force.75l p + 0. = 4. Automobile Engineering Department. Session 24 to 28. Kodancha.College of 38 Engineering and technology.5. direct compressive stress. M bT = FT ( R − Therefore bending stress due to tangential force σ bT ).B.11b/2) ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 Krishnaraja G.5h) Therefore shearing stress due to Tangential l force τ = wh 2 Where Z-Polar section modulus. T I r= T 4. B. M bR = FR (0. σ C = σ bT + σ bR + σ d = σ x Now the total or maximum normal and maximum shear stresses are given by. Assistant Professor.2a Design of Crank Web: The dimensions of the crank pin and Crank web are taken same as obtained in crank at dead centre..V.

M Hbelt = ( RH 2 ( BELT ) )( y ) Therefore total horizontal bending moment. Diameter of the shaft under flywheel dW can be 3 Krishnaraja G. the combined bending moment is given by. This total maximum stress should be less than the maximum allowable stress.2b Design of Shaft under the flywheel: Horizontal bending moment acting on the shaft due to piston gas load. 2 Te = T 2 + M Total .5. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .B. T = Ft (R) .. B. Assistant Professor. M VFLY = ( RV 2(W ) )( y ) Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other. N-mm. N-mm In addition to this moment there will be a twisting moment because of tangential force Ft. Automobile Engineering Department. Te = obtained. 6.(1. π 16 d W (τ ) .V. Session 24 to 28. N − mm We have.College of 39 Engineering and technology. The twisting moment. N-mm Therefore Equivalent twisting moment. HUBLI-31. 2 2 M Total = M VFLY + M Ht .. 2 2 M H 1 = FP (b + x) − ⎡ (RH 1FR ) + (RH 1FT ) ⎤ x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Horizontal bending moment acting on the shaft due to belt pull.12/2) ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 Here σy=0. M H = M H 1 + M Hbelt Vertical bending moment due to flywheel. Kodancha.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] τ max ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 =± ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ……………………………………….

50 N π 4 Substituting the values in equation (P1.1) (l p )(d p ) Where lp and dp are length and diameter of the crankpin respectively. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .[Refer page no 50 of the data hand book] Let us take lp=1. Session 24 to 28.8MPa N=200rpm σb=800MPa pb=85MPa We know that bearing pressure pb = The length of the crankpin is approximately taken as (0.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Problems: Problem No 1 Design an overhung crank pin for an engine having the following particulars: Cylinder diameter Stroke Maximum explosion pressure in the cylinder Engine Speed Permissible bending stress for pin Permissible Bending stress Given data: Cylinder diameter Stroke Maximum explosion pressure in the cylinder Engine Speed Permissible bending stress for pin Permissible Bearing stress Solution: F ------------------------------(P1. B.8MPa =200rpm =1000MPa =85MPa D=300mm L=500mm Pmax=1. Assistant Professor.50 (1. Kodancha.B.College of 40 Engineering and technology. MPa =300mm =500mm =1. Automobile Engineering Department. pb is the allowable bearing pressure on the pin.88mm Krishnaraja G.8 = 127234.1d p )(d p ) Diameter of the crank pin = dp=36.8 to 1. HUBLI-31.V.1dp We know that gas load F= F= π 4 D 2 * p max 300 2 *1.1) we get 85 = 127234.1) diameter of the crankpin.

b) Diameter of the shaft journal Given that: Safe bearing pressure Bending stress Principal stress in the shaft journal Given Data: Referring to Figure 24. standard diameter of dp=40mm is taken. Session 24 to 28. MPa. [12M] VTU Krishnaraja G. σmax =65MPa.25MPa <800MPa. The axial distance between the centre of the crankshaft journal and the crank pin is 400mm and the crank is 500mm long.75) (σ b ) = π (40) 3 = 668. hence safe.V. Problem No 2 A force of 120kN acts tangentially on the crank pin of an overhang crank.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Referring the table 3.50)(44)(0. (σ b ) = 32M .16 and solving for σb we Substituting the values of c = 2 64 get. Kodancha. Determine a) Diameter and length of the crankpin journal. b=400mm and R=500mm pb=5MPa.5a/48. B.. F=120(10)3N : 5MPa : 65MPa : 65 MPa FEB 2005. σb=65MPa. Assistant Professor.(1. M σb = ………………………………………………………. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .16/3) I c dp πd p 4 and I = in Equation 1.B. πd 3 p 32(127234.1)(40)=44mm Check: ⎛3⎞ M = ⎜ ⎟( F )(l p ) ⎝4⎠ We know that.College of 41 Engineering and technology. Automobile Engineering Department. HUBLI-31. Length of the crankpin lp=(1.

16/3) I c ⎝4⎠ dp πd p 4 Substituting the values of c = and I = in Equation 1. Session 24 to 28. Bearing pressure pb = F lp *d p And assuming ratio of length to diameter of the crank pin as 1.hence safe. Assistant Professor. 2 64 32(120)(10) 3 (171. MPa. diameter of the crank pin dp= 135. = ………………………………………(1. ⎡ 16 1 ⎤ dS = ⎢ (M + M 2 + T 2 ) X ⎥ -----------------------------(3. 5= 120(10) 3 1. (σ b ) = πd p π (140) 3 b) Bending moment at the shaft journal M=F(b)=120(10)3(400)=48(10)6. T=F(R)=120(10)3(500)=60(10)6. (σ b ) = 3 .85mm Taking ds=220mm as standard diameter (T3. We know that. HUBLI-31.3.4/48) Krishnaraja G.75) 32M = 57. K=0.4mm lp = 5 *140 pb * d p Check: M σb ⎛3⎞ M = ⎜ ⎟( F )(l p ) .16 and solving for σb we get. Automobile Engineering Department. because of solid shaft.College of 42 Engineering and technology.5a we get ⎡ 16 2 ⎤3 dS = ⎢ (48(10) 6 + (48(10) 6 ) 2 + 60(10) 6 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ π (65) 1 1 3 ( ) = 213.4)(0.B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N-mm Twisting moment at the shaft journal. 120(10) 3 F = = 171.V.5a/42) 1− K 4 ⎦ ⎣ πσ max Here.3(d p ) * d p Solving we get. N-mm According to maximum normal stress theory.4/48] Minimum length of the crankpin. Substituting the values of M.87mm Adopting the standard diameter dp= 140mm [ T3. B.26MPa < 65MPa .Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Solution: a) We know that. Kodancha. T and σmax in equation 3.

46MPa 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ Maximum Shearing Stress:(τmax) τ max ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 =± ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ……………………………………….10MPa J π (75) 4 Maximum Principal Stress:(σ1) σ1 = σ x +σ y 2 ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………. N-mm M ( y ) 9(10) 5 (37.V.(1. N-mm Twisting moment T=10(10)3(125)=12..27 100 Bending moment M=10(10)3(40+25+25)=9(10)5.72 − 0 ⎤ 21. HUBLI-31.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Problem No 3 Determine the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress at section A-A for the crank shown in Figure 15 when a load of 10kN is assumed to be concentrated at the center of the crank pin.72 − 0 ⎤ 2 =± ⎢ ⎥ + 15.12/2) 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 τ max ⎡ 21. Session 24 to 28. Assistant Professor.60MPa 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2 Krishnaraja G. Kodancha.10 =29. Automobile Engineering Department.10 =18.5)(64) σx = = = 21. 25 R25 10kN A 125 R37.College of 43 Engineering and technology. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .11a/2) ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 2 ⎡ 21.73 + 0 2 + ⎢ σ1 = ⎥ + 15. B.5)(32) = = 15.73MPa I π (75) 4 τ xy = T (c) 12...B.5(10)5.5(10) 5 (37.(1.5 25 A 40 Figure.

HUBLI-31.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Problem No 4 Design a plain carbon steel centre crankshaft for a single acting four stroke single cylinder engine for the following data: Bore = 400 mm. the pressure on the piston is 1N/mm2 and the torque on the crank is maximum. Assistant Professor. When the crack has turned through 350 from the top dead centre. p35=1MPa.5 kN. W=50(10)3 N. Weight of flywheel used a pulley = 50 kN. a) Design of the crankshaft when the crank is at the dead center R3 RV3(W) RH3(BELT) 3 y T1+T2 R2 RV2(W) x W RH2(BELT) RH2(F) 2 b F a RH1(F) 1 Figure 28. L=600mm or R=300mm.B. Given Data: D=400mm.5MPa. Total belt pull = 6. b) Angle of maximum twist. Mean effective pressure = 0.V.College of 44 Engineering and technology. Automobile Engineering Department. pmean=0. Engine speed = 200 rpm.. Session 24 to 28. Stroke = 600 mm. B. Assume any other date required for the design. (l/R)=5 Crankshaft is designed for the two positions: a) Crank is at dead center.5(10)3 N. pmax=2. θ=350. Maximum combustion pressure = 2. T1+T2=6.5 N/mm2. Force Analysis of Crank at Dead Center Krishnaraja G.5 M/mm2. The ratio of the connecting rod length to the crank radius is 5. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .5MPa. Kodancha.

Kodancha. then. RH2(belt) at bearing 2. and RH3(belt) at bearing 3.25(10) 3 . so that. therefore RV 2(W ) = RV 3(W ) = then RV 2(W ) = RV 3(W ) = (W ) (2) (50(10) 3 ) = 25(10) 3 . acting horizontally as shown in Figure 28 ii) Weight of the Flywheel (W). 2 * D 2 * 400 Therefore a = b = = = 400mm 2 2 Due to gas load. there will be two horizontal reactions. N (2) In between bearings 2 and 3. x=y.16(10) 3 .Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Piston Gas load F= π 4 D 2 * p max = π 4 400 2 * 2. Automobile Engineering Department. Krishnaraja G. RH1(F) at bearing 1. acting vertically as shown in Figure 28 Reactions at bearing 2 and 3 due to Belt Pull. (T + T2 ) Since. and the various parts will be designed for bending only.5(10) 3 ) = 3. Due to this there will be two horizontal reactions. HUBLI-31. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Its value is computed after calculating the crankpin length. R H 2 (belt ) = R H 3(bel )t = 1 (2) R H 2(belt ) = RH 3(bel )t = (6. so that . Assistant Professor.5 =314. B. we have two loads i) Belt pull (T1 + T2 ). then. there will be no twisting moment.College of 45 Engineering and technology. N ( 2) In this position of the crank. at bearing 2. N ( 2) Reactions at bearing 2 and 3 due to Weight of the Flywheel. Since. x=y.16(10)3 N Assume that the distance between bearing 1 and 2 is equal to twice the piston diameter (D) and distance a=b. Session 24 to 28. Taking x=y. R H 1( F ) = RH 2( F ) = RH 1( F ) = RH 2( F ) = F . To find the reactions RH1(F) and RH2(F) Since a=b.N (2) 314. and RH2(F) . N = 157.V.B.08(10) 3 .

Standard value of diameter dp=200mm is adopted. Session 24 to 28. one direct compressive stress and the other bending stress due to the gas load F. HUBLI-31. M = RH 1( F ) (a ) . Assistant Professor. Kodancha. pb = .5b/48) Substituting the values of c = get. B.65(200)+6.. mm = =157mm (200)(10) (d p )( pb ) 62832(10) 3 = π d p (83) 3 6.(1.16(10) 3 F .65 dp + 6.6 MPa to 12. M = dp 2 and I = πd p 4 64 in Equation 1.56mm. (Refer T15. (Refer T3.35mm Krishnaraja G.V. (Refer T3.35 =136.College of 46 Engineering and technology. M σb = ……………………………………………………….16/3) I c σb=allowable bending stress for the crankpin.4a. The thickness h=0.B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . l p = 314. Automobile Engineering Department.11/314) F Bearing pressure. Let us take pb=10MPa. It may be assumed as 83MPa.5a/48) Length of the crankpin (lp) can be obtained by suitably choosing the value of allowable bearing pressure. There will be two stresses on it.2 Left Hand Crank Web: The crank web is designed for eccentric loading.16 and solving for M we σb c (I ) = σb ⎛dp ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ M = π 32 ⎞ 64 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( π )(d p ) 4 d p (σ b ) . N-mm 3 32 We get dp=197.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] CRANKPIN: The bending moment at the centre of the crankpin is.35mm………………………………………(Page No 50) =0.4 MPa.08(10)3(400) = 62832(10)3. MPa (l p )(d p ) Length of the crankpin. We know that bearing pressure for the given type of engine is between 9. N-mm =157. N-mm We know that.

Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Let us take h=137mm The width ‘w’may be assumed to be as follows: 9 w = d p + 12.38MPa I= Superimposing the direct and bending stresses. Kodancha.23MPa<83MPa. Session 24 to 28.…(Page No 50) 8 9 = 200 + 12. Assistant Professor. we get Total stress on the crank web=σd+σb=4.7mm Let us takew=238mm Since the empirical relations are used it is advised to check the developed stresses against the given values. B.82MPa (238)(137) Bending stresses: (σb) M σb = . Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . MPa =4.. Automobile Engineering Department. MPa 2 2 bh 157 137 6 σ b = 157.7.College of 47 Engineering and technology. mm …………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………. Direct stresses (σd) R σ d = 1H ( F ) .. c and I in bending equation (1.B. Krishnaraja G.16/3) we get lp h 6 σ b = R1H ( F ) (a − − )( 2 ).(1.85+53. MPa ( w)(h) 157. HUBLI-31.V.16/3) I c lp h M = R1H ( F ) (a − − ) 2 2 bh 3 h And c = 12 2 Substituting the values of M.08(10) 3 (400 − − )( ). Hence Design is safe.7. MPa 2 2 238(137) 2 =53.08(10) 3 σd = . mm 8 w=237.38=58.

Use standard diameter as dW=125mm [Ref. we have x=y=400mm Bending moment due to flywheel weight is M FLY = ( RV 3(W ) )( y ) =25(10)3(400) =10(10)6. Shaft Under the Flywheel: [Diameter of the shaft between bearing 2 and 3] ⎛ ⎞ l Length of the bearing. Yield stress=196MPa] 10. 2 2 M Total = M FLY + M belt = (10 *10 6 ) 2 + (1.46mm. Session 24 to 28. the combined bending moment is given by. 3 π 32 d W (65) 3 Diameter dW=116. Taking x=y. Automobile Engineering Department. Assistant Professor. we have x+y=369+300+clearance=369+300+131(to make it round off) =800mm.V.25 (10)3(400) =1. HUBLI-31.08(10)6. N-mm Bending moment due to the belt pull is M belt = ( RH 3( BELT ) )( y ) =3. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . taking FOS n=4. l1 = l 2 = l3 = 2⎜ a − p − h ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 157 ⎛ ⎞ − 137 ⎟ =369mm l1 = l 2 = l3 = 2⎜ 400 − 2 ⎝ ⎠ Assuming width of the flywheel as 300mm. T3/48] Krishnaraja G. B. N-mm Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other. the dimensions of the right hand crank web h=137mm and w=238mm are taken equal to the dimensions of the left hand crank web. Kodancha.3(10)6. N-mm.B. N-mm σb σb π 4 We know that M (I ) = ( )(d W ) Total = c 32 For plain carbon steel taking σb=65MPa [Ref T1.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Right Hand Crank Web: From the balancing point of view.3 *10 6 ) 2 =10.8/418.08(10) 6 = M total = π ⎛ d W ⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ d W (σ b ) .College of 48 Engineering and technology.

B.580 sin(φ ) = The force on the connecting Rod or thrust force FP ……………………………………………………………………. sin(35) =0. Kodancha. Forces on crank Arm sin(θ ) We know that.(3.63(10)3. Krishnaraja G.14/45) Fr = 126.58 + 35) =94.College of 49 Engineering and technology. Automobile Engineering Department. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N Tangential force Ft will have two reactions RH1FT and RH2FT at bearing 1 and 2 respectively. Assistant Professor.66(10)3 N Ft FC FP θ ϕ Fr FC Figure 29..V. Session 24 to 28.12/45) FC = cos(φ ) 125..….50(10) 3 cos(6.95(10)3.50(10) 3 sin(6.66(10) 3 =126. HUBLI-31. N The radial force along the crank Fr = FC cos(φ + θ ) …………………………………….B.(3.………………….50(10)3 N cos(6.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] b. sin(φ ) = --------------------------<Remember> L R Where φ is the angle of inclination of the connecting rod with the line of stroke.. Crank at an angle of maximum twisting moment We know that piston gas load F p = π 4 D 2 * p35 = π 4 400 2 *1 =125.58 + 35) =83.58) The tangential force or the rotative effort on the crank Ft = FC sin(φ + θ ) ……………………………………………………………. Radial force Fr will have two reactions RH1FR and RH2FR at bearing 1 and 2 respectively.(3.1147 5 Therefore φ=6. The reactions at the bearings 2 and 3 due to belt pull (T1+T2) and Flywheel W will be same as before.13/45) FC = Ft = 126.

95(10) 3 RH 1FT = RH 2 FT = T = =41.975(10)3. N ( 2) 2 The reactions due tangential force (Ft): F 83. Session 24 to 28. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Assistant Professor. B.B.College of 50 Engineering and technology. At this point. Force Analysis of Crank at angle of maximum twisting Moment In this position of the crankshaft.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] RV3W RH3(BELT) 3 y T1+T2 RV2(W) x RH2FR RH2(BELT) RH2FT W 2 b FP Fr Ft R RH1FR 1 a RH1FT Figure 30. The reactions due Radial force (Fr): R H 1FR = RH 2 FR = Fr 94. Kodancha. Krishnaraja G.63(10) 3 = =47.315(10)3.V. Shear stress is taken as failure criteria for crankshaft. the different sections will be subjected to both bending and torsional moments and these must be checked for combined stress. N ( 2) ( 2) The reactions at the bearings 1 and 2 due to Flywheel weight (W) and resultant belt pull (T1+T2) will be as discussed earlier. Automobile Engineering Department. HUBLI-31.

dp=139. B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N-mm Equivalent twisting moment. N-mm In addition to this moment there will be a twisting moment because of tangential force Ft. Automobile Engineering Department.737(10) 6 = π 16 3 d P (τ ) . N-mm M b = 47. HUBLI-31.95(10) 3 (300) =25. N-mm Krishnaraja G.1mm. T = RH 1FT ( R) . The twisting moment.3 *10 6 ) 2 =10. Te = T 2 + M b2 . N − mm Te = (25.B. N − mm Te = (12. Session 24 to 28. N-mm The Twisting moment is. 2 2 M Total = M FLY + M belt . N-mm T = 41. N − mm =27.926(10)6.737(10)6.975(10) 3 (300) = 12. T = Ft ( R) . N-mm Therefore Equivalent twisting moment. N-mm d P (42) (The value of τ=0.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Crank pin: The bending moment at the centre of the crankpin is. 2 Te = T 2 + M Total .13(10)6.60 * 10 6 ) 2 + 18.60(10)6.315(10) 3 (400) =18.926 * 10 6 .e higher among the two). Since this value of crankpin is less than the already calculated value of dp=200mm. We shall take dp=200mm and lp=157mm Shaft under the Flywheel: [Diameter of the shaft between bearing 2 and 3] The collective bending moment due to flywheel and the belt pull will be the same as earlier.185(10)6. N-mm T = 83. Bending moment due to flywheel weight is M FLY = ( RV 3(W ) )( y ) Bending moment due to the belt pull is M belt = ( RH 3( BELT ) )( y ) Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other. Assistant Professor. M b = RH 1FR (a ) .08(10) 6 ) 2 .6σ) = (10 *10 6 ) 2 + (1.4 to 0.08(10)6. N-mm 3 π 16 Solving we get.College of 51 Engineering and technology. N − mm =22. the combined bending moment is given by. Kodancha.(i. N-mm ( ) 2 We know that Te = 22.185(10) 6 ) 2 + (10.V.

Te = π 16 τ=(0. By doing so the bending moment increases and hence the stresses.25mm Standard value of dW=160mm is adopted.6)*σ=(0. due to radial and tangential components of FP.315(10) 3 (400 − − ) =11. which leads to safer side. N-mm 2 2 Bending stress in radial direction 6 ).College of 52 Engineering and technology.95(10) 3 (300) =25. 3 π 16 d W (35) 3 dW=157. Hence dW=160mm 6. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Let us take τ=35MPa 27.) M Tang = 83. This web is subjected to bending stresses in two planes normal to each other. Assistant Professor. and to torsion. In order to find the correctness of the dimensions of the web it is necessary to check the developed stresses against the allowable stresses.5 to 0.5MPa to 39MPa. dp=200mm.3 Right hand Crank Web: We have used empirical formulae to obtain the values of crank web dimensions. N-mm 2 2 157 137 M rad = 47. The various dimensions obtained are w= 238mm.185(10)6.5 to 0. And also we know that the Right hand Crank Web is severely stressed.B. HUBLI-31.4b. The bending moment due to radial component is lp h M rad = RH 2 FR (b − − ) .6)*65=32. Earlier value of dW is 125mm is less than dW=160mm. Session 24 to 28.97(10) 6 ( ). Automobile Engineering Department.V. MPa 2 ⎟ ⎝w h⎠ Krishnaraja G. N-mm (Since here shaft diameter at junction is not considered for calculation. B. N-mm σ rad = M rad ( σ Tang = M Tang ⎜ ⎛ 6 ⎞ . to direct compression. M Tang = Ft ( R) . lp=157mm. N-mm. MPa =16. MPa wh 2 6 σ rad = 11.08MPa 238(137) 2 The bending moment due to tangential component is maximum at the juncture of the crank and shaft.13(10) 6 = d W (τ ) .Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] We have. Kodancha.97(10)6. h=137mm.

Assistant Professor. MPa =37MPa Now the twisting moment.45MPa 2(238)(137) Superimposing the stresses (At the upper left corner to the cross section of the crank) will be equal to σ Tang = 25. τxy=τ . ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ σ1 = ⎥ + τ xy ………………………………. 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 Left hand Crank Web: This crank web is less severely stressed than the right hand crank since it is not to transmit any power while the right hand crank transmits the power to the flywheel and to Krishnaraja G. τ xy = Total combined stress.49(10) 6 (4. mm 3 4.60 =41. B. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Design is safe. MPa σ total = 16.60MPa (c ) = = J Z 238(137) 2 Therefore maximum combined stress is given by. Shear stress. σ d = r . MPa =19.B. Session 24 to 28. Kodancha.08 + 19.(1. T T τ xy = (c) = J Z Where Z – polar section modulus. on the arm is lp lp lp T = RHIFT (a + ) − FT ( ) = R H 2 FT (b − ).47 + 1.47MPa 238 (137) F The stress due to direct compression. N − mm 2 2 2 157 T = 41.5) =13.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 6 ). MPa 2 wh 3 94. MPa =1. HUBLI-31. Automobile Engineering Department.975(10) 3 (400 − ).11a/2) 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ Here σ1= σmax.185(10) 6 ( 2 σ total = σ rad + σ Tang + σ d .. 2 σ x +σ y σ1 = 37 + 0 2 ⎡ 37 − 0 ⎤ 2 + ⎢ ⎥ + 13.63(10) σd = .49(10)6 2 We know that.45.V. σy= 0. = wh 2 . σx= σtotal. N − mm =13.46MPa<83MPa.5 T T 13.College of 53 Engineering and technology.

Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] the power take off. Hence there is no need to check the left hand crank and its dimensions may be taken as that of the right hand crank. Crankshaft bearings: The distance between bearing 1 and bearing 2 may be assumed to be equal to twice the cylinder diameter. From the length of the crankpin and the thickness of the arm, the lengths of the bearings can be found out. Bearing 2 is the most heavily loaded, therefore, only this bearing may be checked for the safe bearing pressure. We know that the total reaction at the bearing 2, F p W T1 + T2 + + , N here FP to taken as maximum, i.e. R2 = 2 2 2 314.16(10)3 N instead of 125.66(10)3 N 314.16(10) 3 50(10) 3 6.5(10) 2 + + =185.33(10)3, N 2 2 2

R2 =

**Therefore bearing pressure pb =
**

pb =

R2 , MPa here d=dw=160mm, L=369mm ( L)(d )

185.33(10) 3 , MPa =3.14MPa<10MPa, hence the design of bearing is safe. (369)(160)

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of 54 Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

**Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51]
**

Problem No 5 Design a side or overhung crankshaft for a 250mm X 300 mm gas engine. The weight of the flywheel is 30kN and the explosion pressure is 2.1 MPa. The gas pressure at the maximum torque is 0.9 MPa, when the crank angle is 350 from I.D.C. The connecting rod is 4.5 times the crank radius.

Given Data: D=250mm, L=300mm, or R=150mm, W=30(10)3N, pmax=2.1MPa and p35=0.9MPa, l/r=4.5 Material taken: σb=allowable bending stress for the crankpin= 83MPa. (Refer T3.5b/48) Solution: Crankshaft is designed for the two positions: a) Crank is at dead center; b) Angle of maximum twist; a) Design of the crankshaft when the crank is at the dead center

RV2(W) RH2(F) 2 y

RV1(W) x

W

RH1(F) 1 b

F

Figure 31. Force Analysis of side Crank at Dead Center

Gas Load, F =

π

4

D 2 * p max

F=

π

4

250 2 * 2.1 =103.1(10)3, N

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of 55 Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

**Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51]
**

Crankpin: The dimensions of the crankpin are obtained by considering the crankpin in bearing and then checked for bending stress.

F (l p )(d p ) Where lp and dp are length and diameter of the crankpin respectively. pb is the allowable bearing pressure on the pin, MPa

We know that bearing pressure pb =

The length of the crankpin is approximately taken as (0.8 to 1.1) diameter of the crankpin.[Refer page no 50 of the data hand book] Let us take, lp=dp And solving for the dimensions of crankpin, we get 10 = 103.1(10) 3 (d p )(d p )

Diameter of the crankpin dp=101.54mm Standard diameter dp= 110mm is adopted (Refer T3.5a/48) Length of the crankpin lp=110mm Check: Bending moment M = ⎛ 3 ⎞( F )(l p ) may be used. ⎜ ⎟

⎝4⎠

6 ⎛3⎞ M = ⎜ ⎟(103.1(10) 3 )(110) =8.51(10) , N-mm ⎝4⎠

We know that, M σb = ………………………………………………………..(1.16/3) I c dp πd p 4 and I = in Equation 1.16 and solving for σb we Substituting the values of c = 2 64 get, 32M (σ b ) = 3 , MPa. πd p 32(8.51)(10) 6 (σ b ) = =65.13MPa.<83MPa. π (110) 3 This induced bending stress should be within the permissible limits, Hence design is safe.

Design of bearings:

Let d1 be the diameter of the bearing 1. Thickness of web t=h=(0.5 to 0.9) dp ………………………………………..(Page No 50) Let us take h=0.6dp=0.6(110)=66mm Length of the bearing l1=1.7dp=1.7(110)=187mm

Krishnaraja G. Kodancha, Assistant Professor, Automobile Engineering Department, B.V.B.College of 56 Engineering and technology, HUBLI-31; Session 24 to 28, Oct 18 to 30 -2007

72mm Let us take d1=155mm The bearing dimensions are taken same for bearing 2.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] We know that bending moment.65MPa [Refer T15.3mm Krishnaraja G. mm We know that bending moment. M = F (0.College of 57 Engineering and technology. MPa = . N-mm ⎛ 6 ⎞ . MPa wh 103(10) 3 1.75l p + 0. N − mm M=25(10)6. i. M = F (0.56(10) 3 σd = . Kodancha.B. Session 24 to 28. N-mm 32 M We know that bending stress. HUBLI-31. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .39(10) 3 1. (σ b ) = πd 31 Assuming bearing material as Phosphor bronze. MPa = .75(110) + (0. N − mm M=11. σb=68.5(h).9(10)6. MPa w w(66) 2 6 .9(10) ( ).75(110) + 66 + 0. MPa ( w)(66) w Superimposing the stresses and equating to allowable stress we get σ all = σ b + σ d .V.5(l1 ). N − mm M = 103(10) 3 [0.39(10) 3 σ b = 11. N − mm M = 103(10) 3 [0.2/309] Solving for d1.65) = πd 31 The diameter of the bearing d1=154. we get 32(25(10) 6 ) (68. B.5)66]. Automobile Engineering Department. MPa Bending stress σ b = M ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝w h ⎠ 6 16.56(10) 3 + w w The direct Stress.75l p + h + 0. Assistant Professor.e l1=l2=187mm Design of crank web w=Width of the crank web. σ d = Fp The width of crank web w=216.5(187)]. MPa 83 = 16.

RH2(F) -F =0 R H 1( F ) = F + F (b) F (b + x + y ) . then RV 1(W ) = RV 2 (W ) = (2) (30(10) 3 ) = 15(10) 3 . Assuming the width of the flywheel as 250mm l l Length ( x + y ) = 250 + 1 + 2 + Clearance 2 2 187 187 ( x + y ) = 250 + + + 23 = 460mm 2 2 l b = 0.2(10) 3 . Kodancha.N = ( x + y) ( x + y) Krishnaraja G. Rv1(W) at bearing1. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is ∑ Fy = 0 . at bearing2.V. − F (b) + RH 2( F ) ( x + y ) = 0 F (b) 103(10) 3 (242) RH 2(F ) = = = 54.75(110) + 66 + 2 Taking x=y=230mm Reactions: Reactions at bearing 1 and 2 due to Weight of the Flywheel (W). and RH2(F) . Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. taken as negative.College of 58 Engineering and technology.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Design of shaft under the flywheel Let dS be the Diameter of shaft under the flywheel. N ( 2) Reactions at bearing 1 and 2 due to Piston Gas Load(F). Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . N (230 + 230) ( x + y) . RH1(F) . B. (W ) Here x=y.B. Due to this there will be two Vertical reactions. Session 24 to 28. and Rv2(W). RH1(F) at bearing 1. Due to this piston gas load there will be two horizontal reactions.75l p + h + 1 2 187 =242mm b = 0. RV 1(W ) = RV 2 (W ) = To find the reactions RH1(F) and RH2(F) ∑M 1 = 0. Automobile Engineering Department. HUBLI-31. Assistant Professor. at bearing 2.

45(10)6.2(10) 3 (230) = 12. MR = ( π 32 )σ b (d S ) 3 12. R H 1( F ) = In this position of the crank. HUBLI-31. B.64mm Since the diameter of the bearing is 155mm> 116.College of 59 Engineering and technology. N (230 + 230) Since there is no belt tension. Therefore total horizontal bending moment is MHOR=MGas+MBelt=12. Flywheel M Vert = Rv 2(W ) ( y ) M Vert = 15(10) 3 (230) =3. Session 24 to 28.45 *10 6 ) 2 =12. Hence dS=155mm is adopted Krishnaraja G.46 *10 6 ) 2 + (3.2(10) 3 .93(10) 6 = ( π 32 )83(d S ) 3 The diameter of the shaft under flywheel dS=116.B. there will be no twisting moment.V.46(10) 6 .46(10)6. Assistant Professor. N-mm Resultant Bending Moment 2 M R = ( M HOR + M 2 Vert M R = (12. and the various parts will be designed for bending only. N-mm Vertical Bending Moment due to . Automobile Engineering Department. N − mm MBelt=0. Horizontal Bending Moment due to Piston Gas load M Gas = F (b + x) − R H 1( F ) ( x) M Gas = 103(10) 3 (242 + 230) − 157.64mm. therefore the horizontal reactions due to the belt tension are not taken.93(10)6.46(10)6+0=12. N = 157. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Kodancha. N-mm We know that.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] 103(10) 3 (242 + 230 + 230) .

HUBLI-31.1275 4.V. Crank at an angle of maximum twisting moment We know that piston gas load F p = π 4 D 2 * p35 = π 4 250 2 * 0. B.9 =44. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .College of 60 Engineering and technology. Automobile Engineering Department.B. Session 24 to 28.18(10)3 N Ft FC FP θ ϕ Fr FC Figure 32.5 Therefore φ=7. We know that. Kodancha. Force Analysis of Side Crank at angle of maximum twisting Moment sin(θ ) --------------------------<Remember> L R Where φ is the angle of inclination of the connecting rod with the line of stroke.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] b. Assistant Professor. Forces on crank Arm RH2FT 2 y RH2FR RV1(W) x RH1FR W RH1FT 1 b FP Fr Ft Figure 33. sin(φ ) = sin(35) =0.320 sin(φ ) = Krishnaraja G.

Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] The force on the connecting Rod or thrust force FP FC = …………………………………………………………………….32 + 35) =29989.13/45) cos(φ ) Ft = 44543 sin(7. The reactions at the bearings 1 and 2 due to Flywheel Weight W will be same as before.67N Krishnaraja G.(3.College of 61 Engineering and technology. Session 24 to 28.………………….50N The radial force along the crank FP cos(φ + θ ) …………………………. the different sections will be subjected to both bending and torsional moments and these must be checked for combined stress.32) The tangential force or the rotative effort on the crank Ft = FC sin(φ + θ ) = FP sin(φ + θ ) ……………………………………………….14/45) cos(φ ) Fr = 44543 cos(7. − Fr (b + x + y ) + R H 1FR ( x + y ) = 0 F (b + x + y ) RH 1FR = r ( x + y) R H 1FR = 32935 (242 + 230 + 230) (230 + 230) =50261. Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. B. Shear stress is taken as failure criteria for crankshaft.V.(3. At this point.B. Radial force Fr will have two reactions RH1FR and RH2FR at bearing 1 and 2 respectively. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . HUBLI-31. The reactions due Radial force (Fr): To find the reactions RH1FR and RH2FR ∑M 2 = 0.(3. Automobile Engineering Department.18(10) 3 =44543N cos(7. In this position of the crankshaft. Kodancha.32 + 35) =32935N Fr = FC cos(φ + θ ) = Tangential force Ft will have two reactions RH1FT and RH2FT at bearing 1 and 2 respectively.12/45) cos(φ ) FC = 44. Assistant Professor.

− Fr + RH 1FR − RH 2 FR = 0 R H 2 FR = Fr − RH 1FR = Fr − R H 2 FR = RH 2 FR Fr (b + x + y ) ( x + y) Fr (b) ( x + y) 32935(242) =17326.67N = (230 + 230) The reactions due tangential force (Ft): To find the reactions RH1FT and RH2FT ∑M 2 = 0. Assistant Professor. − FT (b + x + y ) + RH 1FT ( x + y ) = 0 F (b + x + y ) R H 1FT = T ( x + y) 29989. N ( 2) Krishnaraja G. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative. HUBLI-31.58N (230 + 230) ∑F y = 0.V.50(242) R H 2 FT = =15777. RV 1(W ) = RV 2 (W ) = (30(10) 3 ) = 15(10) 3 . Clock Wise direction is taken as positive bending moment and Counter Clockwise as negative bending moment. Upward force is taken as positive and downward is taken as negative. Kodancha. Automobile Engineering Department.50(242 + 230 + 230) R H 1FT = =45766.College of 62 Engineering and technology.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] ∑F y = 0. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . − FT + R H 1FT − RH 2 FT = 0 R H 2 FT = FT − RH 1FT = FT − R H 2 FT = FT (b + x + y ) ( x + y) FT (b) ( x + y) 29989. .08N (230 + 230) The reactions at the bearings 1 and 2 due to Flywheel weight (W) will be same as discussed earlier. . B. Session 24 to 28.B.

5h) M bR = 32953(0. T = FT (0.50(150 − dp 2 ). M bT = FT ( R − M bT = 29989.5h) Krishnaraja G. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .75l p + 0. Kodancha. Width of crank web w=216.5 * 66) =3.3mm Thickness of crank web h=66mm The most critical section is where the web joins the shaft.3)(66) 2 Direct compressive stress due to radial force Fr We know that.54MPa 66(216.85(10) 6 σ bT = =5.85(10)6. N − mm =2.31MPa (66)(216. Twisting moment due to the Tangential force. iv) Bending stress due to the tangential force FT Bending moment due to tangential force. B.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Design of crank web The dimensions are taken same as calculated in crank at dead center. Assistant Professor.V. σ d = FR wh σd = 32953 =2.75 *110 + 0. Automobile Engineering Department. Session 24 to 28. N-mm 2 6 M bT Therefore bending stress due to tangential force σ bT = hw 2 6 * 2.B.College of 63 Engineering and technology.81 *10 6 ) =24.3) Shear stress due to the twisting moment of FT.26MPa (216.81(10)6 N-mm Therefore bending stress due to radial force σ bR = 6 M bR wh 2 σ bR = 6(3. HUBLI-31.75l p + 0. The same dimensions are checked here for combined stress. direct compressive stress.3) 2 Bending stress due to the radial force Fr Bending moment due to the radial force. This section is subjected to the following stresses: Bending stress due to the tangential force FT i) Bending stress due to the radial force Fr ii) Direct compressive stress due to radial force Fr and iii) Shear stress due to the twisting moment of FT. M bR = FR (0. N − mm 110 ).

B. Session 24 to 28. = 4.46 *10 6 ) = τ xy =16. N-mm Therefore shearing stress due to Tangential l force τ = wh 2 Where Z-Polar section modulus. M H = M H 1 + M Hbelt M H = 5.11 − 0 ⎤ 2 = + ⎢ ⎥ + 16.5T = = τ xy Z wh 2 τ= 4.18(10) 3 (242 + 230) − ⎡ (50261.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] T = 29989. N-mm Vertical bending moment due to flywheel. Total compressive stress.46(10)6.V.B.45(10)6.(1.College of 64 Engineering and technology. Kodancha.10MPa<83MPa 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 Hence the calculated values of dimensions of crank web are safe Design of Shaft under the flywheel: Horizontal bending moment acting on the shaft due to piston gas load.53MPa (216. N-mm Therefore total horizontal bending moment.5(3.31 =32.75(110) + 0. Automobile Engineering Department.54 + 24.26 + 2. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .11 + 0 ⎡ 32.50(0.22(10) 6 + 0 = 5.11MPa Now the total or maximum normal and maximum shear stresses are given by.5(66)) =3.67 ) + (45766. HUBLI-31. σ C = σ bT + σ bR + σ d = σ x σ x = 5.58) ⎤ * 230 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 = 5. M VFLY = ( RV 2(W ) )( y ) M VFLY = (15 *10 3 )(230) =3..11b/2) 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 Here σy=0. N-mm Krishnaraja G..22(10) .53 =39.5 T I r= T 4. 2 2 M H 1 = FP (b + x) − ⎡ (RH 1FR ) + (RH 1FT ) ⎤ x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 M H 1 = 44. Assistant Professor.3)(66) 2 Superimposing the stresses we get. σ max = σx +σ y 2 ⎡σ x − σ y ⎤ 2 + ⎢ ⎥ + τ xy ……………………………….22(10)6. σ max 32.

N-mm T = 29989.5(10)6. Session 24 to 28. Kodancha. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . Since the diameter of the bearing is 155mm> 97. N-mm.22 *10 ) 6 2 6 2 =6. Assistant Professor.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Since these bending moments act at right angles to each other.71(10) 6 = π 16 d S (τ ) .26(10)6.50(150) =4.B.5(10) 6 ) 2 + (6.College of 65 Engineering and technology. T = Ft (R) . N-mm Therefore Equivalent twisting moment. the combined bending moment is given by.78mm can be obtained. 2 Te = T 2 + M Total . N-mm In addition to this moment there will be a twisting moment because of tangential force Ft. B.71(10)6. N − mm Te = (4. Automobile Engineering Department.26(10) 6 ) 2 . Hence dS=155mm is adopted Krishnaraja G. HUBLI-31.45 *10 ) + (5. The twisting moment.5σb Diameter of the shaft under flywheel dS=97.78mm.V. N-mm We have. Te = 7. 3 3 π 16 d S (42) Here τmax=0. N − mm =7. N-mm M Total = (3. 2 2 M Total = M VFLY + M Ht .

2003 5.net/used-crankshaft-mechanical. Satya Prakashan. N K giri. R B gupta. Schaum’s Outline Series. Eurasia Publishing House. 3. S K Kataria and Sons.2006 7. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.Sharma and D. Hall.College of 66 Engineering and technology. http://www. Automobile Mechanics. Laughlin. Holowinko. Tata McGraw-Hill. Theory and Problems of Machine Design.K.automotix. 2005 8. 1993 4.html Krishnaraja G.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] References: 1. B. 1965 6. Design Data Hand Book. Assistant Professor. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . HUBLI-31. A text Book of Machine Design. K.V. A text Book of Machine Design. Crouse/Anglin. 2002. 1989 2. Mahadevan and K. Automotive Mechanics. CBS publication.Aggarwal. R S Khurmi and J K Gupta. Khanna Publishers.C. P M Heldt. P. Auto Design . Kodancha. Session 24 to 28. High Speed Combustion Engines. 2003 9. Balaveera Reddy. Automobile Engineering Department.B.

What are the materials used for the crankshaft. Session 24 to 28. Automobile Engineering Department. Permissible bending stress for pin = 9.50 KN. At maximum torsional moment.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Questions from Previous University Question Papers. The mean effective pressure is 0.College of 67 Engineering and technology.40 m by 0. Cylinder diameter = 300 mm. 1. Center Crankshaft and Overhung Crankshaft. Design a overhung crankshaft for the steam engine to the following specifications: Diameter of piston = 400mm Stroke of piston = 600mm Maximum steam pressure =1.0 N/mm2 Speed of the engine= 100rpm Design shear stress for the crank shaft and crank pin = 3. The ratio of the connecting rod length to the crank radius is 4.625 MPa. Indicate clearly the positions of pins & journals and the provision for fabrication. (04M) FEB 2006 VTU 4.4 N / mm2 6. Distinguish between i. Sketch a typical crankshaft used for a four cylinder engine.81 N / mm2 & (8M) FEB 2006 VTU Bearing stress = 83. (6M) Model QP VTU 7. Write a note on balancing of crankshafts.VTU 3. Design & draw the sketch of an overhung crankpin for an engine having the following particulars. Assistant Professor. the gas pressure is 0. HUBLI-31. Kodancha.75 KN. The weight of the flywheel is 54. Stroke = 500 mm.975 MPa. And the total belt pull is 6. VTU 2.8 N/mm2 Engine speed = 200 rpm. Explain the methods of manufacturing crank shaft? (05M) July 2006.B.V. ii Built-up Crankshaft and Integral Crankshaft. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 .60 m single acting four stroke single Cylinder engine to operate at 200 rev/min. when the crank angle is 360. B.0 N/mm2 The horizontal distance between crank shaft and crank pin=350 mm (15M) July 2006. (14M) Model QP VTU Krishnaraja G. Design a plain carbon steel crankshaft for a 0. The flywheel is used as a pulley. (8M) FEB 2006 VTU 5.8. Assume suitable values for the missing data. Maximum explosion pressure in the cylinder = 1.5 N/mm2 Design tensile stress for the crank shaft and key = 6.49 MPa and the maximum combustion pressure is 2.

How a crankshaft is balanced? Krishnaraja G. HUBLI-31. Automobile Engineering Department. Piston Diameter 250mm Stroke 400mm Maximum Combustion Pressure 2.5 times the crank radius.College of 68 Engineering and technology.5MPa. The gas pressure at maximum torque is 0. single cylinder engine for the following data. The weight of the flywheel is 80kN and the explosion pressure is 2.5MPa Weight of the flywheel 16kN Total Belt Pull 3kN Length of the connecting rod 950mm When the crank has turned through 300 from the top dead center.B. Design a plain carbon steel centre crankshaft for a single acting four stroke. Design aside crank shaft for a 500mmX600mm gas engine. 2.V. What are the methods and materials used in the manufacture of crankshafts. Any other data required for the design may be assumed. Oct 18 to 30 -2007 . B.Theory and Design of Automotive Engines [AU51] Model Questions 1. the pressure on the piston is 1 MPa and the torque on the crank is maximum. Explain the various types of crank shafts 4. The connecting rod is 4. 5. Assistant Professor.9MPa. Any other data required for the design may be assumed. when the crank angle is 300. Kodancha. Session 24 to 28. 3.

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