Mechanical Properties

MFG 355

Forces and Responses
• Tensile – applied loads “pull” the

Tensile Forces
Gripping Zone Failure Zone Gripping Zone

½ inch

¾ inch

8 ½ inches

Forces and Responses
– Compression – applied loads “squeeze” the

Forces and Responses
• Flexural – applied loads “bend” the

Forces and Responses
• Shear – applied loads are offset

Forces and Responses
• Torsion – applied loads “twist” the

Mechanical Behavior
• Impact (toughness) –
applied loads “hit” the sample

• Impact (charpy, dart)

Mechanical Behavior
• Creep

Elastic Solid
• Stress-strain • What happens when force is removed?
– Recovery

Viscous liquid
• Tensile forces? – cannot exist (like pulling water) • Shear forces • What happens when force stops?
– Viscous flow
Shear Thickening

F/A = ŋ dv/dx = ŋγ

• Newtonian and non-Newtonian
Shear Thinning Newtonian

Measures of Viscosity
• Equation
F/A = τ = ŋ (dv/dx)

• Viscometer

• Time/temperature dependant • Plastic stress-strain
– a) start point – b) proportional limit – c) yield – d) recovery – e) ultimate failure

Mechanical Model of Plastic Behavior

Permanent Deformation (sandpaper) Spring

Interpretation of Plastic Behavior
Intermolecular relationship

Intermolecular relationship

Time Dependence of Plastics
Increasing shear rate



• Increase mechanical properties • Generally fibers • Composites

• Reduce cost • Can potentially decrease mechanical properties • Can improve
– UV stability – Thermal stability – Wear resistance – Electrical conductivity – Flame resistance – CTE

Toughness Modifiers
• Increase impact strength • Increases the potential for movement within the plastic on impact (creep) • Example – ABS

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