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05 Chemical and Physical

05 Chemical and Physical

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Published by suhas deshpande
Very Good power point presentations about plastic technology
Very Good power point presentations about plastic technology

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Published by: suhas deshpande on Jul 11, 2008
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08/13/2010

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Chemical and Physical Properties

MFG 355

Ultraviolet (UV) Light Degradation

Oxidation
• Plastic paint

Chemical resistivity and solubility
None Swelling/softening Dissolving Reacting

PE and H2O

Nylon and H2O PVC and ketone

PVOH and water

Cellulosics and acids

Increasing Chemical Reactivity to Plastic

Chemical Resistivity and Solubility
• PS exposed to gasoline

Chemical Nature and Solventsolute Interactions
• Polar effects
– Like with like

• Steric effects
– Crystallinity

• Physical property effects on solventsolute interactions
– Solvent size – Swelling

Like to like – polar polymer

Thermodynamics of Solvent Interactions
• Equation
ΔG = ΔH – TΔS
• Negative ΔG is favorable • Negative ΔH means bonds are forming • Positive ΔS is standard (increasing)

– When does each term dominate to give a negative ΔG?

Plasticizers
• Increase swelling
– Randomness

• Plasticizers can migrate out

Solvent Welding

Water Repellent
• Surface tension must be LOW
– Silicones = 24 dyne/cm – PTFE = 19 dyne/cm – PVC = 37 dyne/cm

• Water wicking

Corrosion-Resistant
• Availability of electrons • Polymers are better than metals • Fluoropolymers—tightly attached
– Electron shielded

• Chlorine attachment (blocks electron availability)

Coatings
• Decorative and protective
– Adhesion – Weatherability – Water solubility

Environmental Resistance and Weathering

Environmental Stress Cracking
• Hawaii Story
– Crosslinked, LLDPE

• Banana Plantation
– Drawdown

Crazing
• Cracks at stress areas

Permeability
• Diffusion Coefficient
 D = Doe-A/RT

• Fick’s Laws of diffusion
 J = -D dc/dx

• Barrier Properties
 dc/dt = D d2c/dx2

Gas (vapor) Permeation
• Polar groups (solubility) to solvent or gas • Intermolecular size (distance) • Crosslinking and crystallinity

Electrical Properties
• • • • • Resistivity (1018 – 10-6) Dielectric Strength Arc Resistance Dielectric Constant Dissipation Factor (heat up)

Conductive Polymers
H ( C C H H C C H ) n

H ( C C H

H C C H ) n

Conductive Polymers
Conductivity (Ohm-cm)-1 Material Silver Copper Gold Polyacetylene (doped) Steel Silicon Carbon, graphite Polyacetylene (unmodified) Carbon, diamond Alumina ceramic Epoxy Polyethylene, medium density Teflon 6.25 x 105 5.85 x 105 4.44 x 105 .6.0 x 104 - 1.5 x 105 .6.0 x 104 1.56 x 10-3 .1.0 x 10-3 .1.0 x 10-11 to .1.0 x 10-15 .1.0 x 10-14 .1.0 x 10-15 .1.0 x 10-15 .1.0 x 10-16 .1.0 x 10-18

Optical Properties
• Light Transmission
– Clear – Translucent – Opaque

• Colorants
– Dyes – Pigments

• Surface Reflectance

Transparency
• Non-crystalline • Index of refraction – low • Total luminous transmittance – high

Plastic Identification
• Spectroscopy

Flammability
• Self-extinguishing
– Halogen effects (oxygen) – Fillers (Al2O3·3H2O) (heat) – Aromatics (fuel) – Silicones (fuel)

Heat

Fuel

Oxygen

Flammability Tests
• Vertical and horizontal burn tests

Limiting Oxygen Index
Chamber

Sample Sample holder Gas manifold

O2

N2

Flammability Tests
• Radiant panel • Cone calorimeter

Flexibility
• CH2, O are flexible
– PE, Polyisoprene, PEO, Siloxanes

• Polybutylene terephthalate is more flexible than PET • Pendant groups • Crystallinity – reduces flexibility • Copolymers • Plasticizers (soluble)

Heat Resistance
• Stiffening groups along the chain
– Phenyl groups – Tg goes up since it takes more heat to move molecules

• Strong intermolecular H-Bonding • Crystallinity increases heat resistance

Insulating Polymers
• Non-polar is better • Foams
– Air is an insulator

Toughness
• Backbone Structure • Pendant Groups

Thank You

Flammability Tests
• Limiting oxygen index (LOI)

Adhesives
• • • • • • • • Bonding (chemical) between surfaces is best Crosslinking agents (ie siloxanes) Solvent based Latex adhesives – good flow into crevices for mechanical attachment Pressure-sensitive – polymer flow (mechanical) Hot melt – polymer flow Reactive – low molecular weight to get stronger End Groups

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