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. ART OF MANUFACTURING
S 0 A P S,
THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES:
THE BEST KETlIODS FOR lUXING ALL xnrns OF HARD, SOFT, AND TOILET SOAPS;
OLIVE OIL SOAP, AND OTHERS
lOCBSBARY IN THE PAIIBIC.!.TION OP CLOTHS;
1'0R MAKING TRANSPARENT AND OAMPHINE OIL OANDLES.
PRACTICAL SOAP AND CANDLE MAul, AT COLOG"", PI! 111' R'V"E •
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PHILADELPHIA: • • _ ... ' •• __ - >,
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LIN D SAY & B L A K I S' T o N.
The endeavours to make known the continually improving methods in the art of soap-boiling for the benefit of the trade in general, have given birth within the last thirty years to a variety of publications treating of the subject more or lesa at large, but which, with the exception of a small number, have scarcely reached mediocrity, none gone beyond it, and have therefore rested on the shelf as without object and no value, and for the good reason that they were incapable of developing the incessant progress in this important branch of industry and its special relations.
It is this progress, and 'principally the improvement in the manufactory of soda and its employ in the preparation of soap, on account of the decreasing supply of potash, to which we have devoted for manl years our most active exertions, best experience, and careful experiments, and to possess ourselves of them, we have not shrunk from making considerable sacrifices, with the assurance that whilst our brethren in the trade reaped the benefit of them in an economic point of ;view, we secured on our part active increase to the generous recompense which in a measure we have already happily realized.
With respect to the communications we have made, we are perfectly convinced tha.t in no work whatever is there any mention made of them, and consequently all is as new as it is practicable, and that every soap-boiler of any experieace will be able to follow with great ease the method we have
. prescribed; and we should hear with the liveliest feelings of proud satisfaction, that our communications have led the way to ulterior improvements.
Weare convinced that our instructions will be found 'of the greatest utility in every manufactory of whatever extent it may be; and that they will facilitate :the means of succeeding in any object necessary to be attained, and therefore we are enabled to make head against any opposition under whatever form it may appear.
We have given every requisite indication to develope the preparation of the soft soap, with that perfect knowledge of the subject arising from a profound consideration of its possible advantages; and likewise we have described the method of making hard soap with the employ of cocoanut oil and palm oil, whereby not only an improvement in the manipulation will be found, but also a considerable saving in expense, without deteriorating in the least the quality of the merchandise.
Cologne OIl ~e RhlDe.
Preface . 3
_ Establishment of a manufactory for green soap, 9
. The utensils necessary for the manufactoy, 10
On the analysis of the water, to discover whether it
contains any substance detrimental to the soap, 12
Preparation of the lessive or lie, 15
Preparation of lie from soda, 19
Greases or fat for green soap, • 21
Boiling the soap, 24
Boiling soap in the German manner, 26
On the shortness of the soap, 35
Too little water in the soap, 36
Too weak in lime, 38
Too strong in lime, 40
On the addition of the resin, 42
Boiling soap with half soda lie, 45
Brown coloured soap, . 51
The most advantageous manner of using lumps of tal-
low for making soap, 53
Boiling soap after the English manner, 57
Nine substances to be added to increase the quantity
of soap, 61
Addition of salt, 64
Addition of potato starch, 66
Addition of dextrine, 68
Addition of glue, 69
Davidson's cheap process of rendering the most fetid whale oil completely inodorous and fit to burn in
Preparation of pomades and oils for the hair, • 216,
Pomade for colouring the hair (cosmetics.) 218
Preparation of soap to be used in the cloth manufac-
tories, dyeing, washing, and spinning establish-
Hard and unsalted soap for milling cloth of superior
quality, • 221
Olive soap fo!' milling cloth, 224
Olive soap of a second quality to be used in manufac-
turing cloth, 226
Oleine soap for manufacturing cloth, • 228
Economic soap for manufacturing cloth, 228
Preparation of soap for bleaching Indiennes, 237
811ft soap for spinning establishments, 238
Olive soap for dyers of thread in Turkey red, 239
Establishment of a Manufactory for Green Soap.
For the manufacture of such an article, a ground floor only is required, and of dimensions according to the extent of the concern: supposing; for example, that a boiler containing fifty tons, or two hundred quarters, is to be employed, a space of seventy feet long, and twenty-five feet wide, is necessary. If such a manufactory can be established near a running stream, it would be attended with great advantage, because working with such water is much better than with springwater. The neighbourhood of saline or mineral springs must be especially avoided.
10 THE MOST RECENT. DISCOVERIES
Utensils necessary for the Manufactory.
For boiling fifty tons, a round iron boiler is required, the plates being riveted, seven feet deep, and nine feet in diameter on the top, and sloping off to six feet diameter at the bottom. To empty the vessel completely, the bottom must be concaved nine inches. There will also be wanting a boiler, five and a half feet deep, and five feet in diameter, for boiling the lime and potash for the lie, or lessive. The bottom must be of iron plates,
..Jbree-fourths of an inch thick; but the sides need not be so thick: the bottom must also be concaved, to empty it properly.
Also, three square iron reservoirs, four feet deep, and five feet square, must be procured, to mix the lime with the potash, and also three square iron reservoirs, each three and a half feet in diameter, and four feet deep, to preserve the lie. If much soda be not used, those reservoirs will be sufficient, for a smaller quantity can be dissolved with the potash; but should the consumption of soda amount to more than one-sixth of the potash, then it will be better to prepare the soda by itself. In that case three other reservoirs will be
· IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETO. 11
wanting, each four feet deep, by four feet square, to dissolve the soda with the lime, and also another reservoir to contain the prepared soda lie. A separate boiler is not necessary to boil the soda with the lime, because that can be done in the potash boiler; but if not confined for space, and a little more expense be not an object, then a separate vessel for boiling the soda is to be recommended.
To mix the lime with the lie, an iron rod one inch in size, with a shovel at the end, half a foot wide, is used to detach the lime from the bottom. Also an iron rod with a rake at the end, a foot wide, with teeth six inches long, to scrape more effectually the lime from the bottom; and also a dung fork, with a wooden handle, to break the lumps of lime. The fork must be made one foot long, and nine inches wide, of stout iron plate, and divided into three, like a dung-fork; the teeth must be one inch wide, and the extremity must be crossed with a square piece of iron, to avoid scratching the rivets of the reservoir. A wooden-handled crutch is also wanted, with a plate of iron one foot square, and pierced with several holes an inch in size. Lastly, we will observe, that the reservoirs need be only three-eighths of an inch thick.
12 THE MOST.RECENT DISCOVERIES
On the Analysis of the Water, to discover. whether it contains any Substance detrimental to the Soap.
It is well known to all soap-boilers, that every kind of water is not suitable for the manufacture of beautiful, clear, green soap; and this arises from the different peculiar substances combined with it, and which it derives from the soil or earth from whence it ISsues.
The waters which are considered most un- . suitable, are those which contain muriatic acid, carbonic acid, sulphuric acid, and salt; those in which iron, lime, and alkali are found, are less objectionable. It is therefore of the greatest importance to be able to know whether any noxious matters or properties exist in the water proposed to be used in a manufactory of soap. For that purpose, we will give some useful and necessary indications.
, With the view of subjecting the water to a technical analysis or examination, a certain quantity must be put into a glass or glass tube ; which, on the addition of particular ingredients, must remain undisturbed, and without losing its original purity. If there be any
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 13
muriatic acid in the water, a white precipitate
will be formed by adding nitrate of silver:
the presence of carbonic acid is discovered, when, by the addition of lime water, the same precipitate follows; sulphuric acid shows itself
on the addition of nitrate of barytes. Iron is present, when, on inserting tincture of gall-
nuts, the water becomes dark blue. Lime is disengaged by adding oxydated acid of alkali, it r_,': which disturbs the water, and a precipitate
is visible. Alkali predominates, when litmus paper, dyed ,blue, and, after being reddened
in acid, becomes blue again, when immersed
in the water. Finally, if lead or copper be present in tHe water, a black precfpitate will
be formed by adding hydro-sulphuric acid. These matters are found, if not altogether,
yet separately, in almost every water; but always according to the situation of the spring,
and in very different and varied proportions.
When the first three mentioned matters, namely, muriatic acid, carbonic acid, and sulphuric acid, exist in the water, a small quantity of salt can be used on adding soda, because
. the soap, on account of these ingredients, becomes disturbed; therefore, it would not be advantageous to boil with such water, for then 2*
14 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
the profit of using cheap. soda would be lost. The soap boiled in such water, although well worked, is disturbed at the commencement of the ebullition, to the same degree as if a large quantity of soda had been used originally, and becomes clear as slowly as that article: such defects can only be remedied by using a great quantity of lime. However, on these points the soap-boiler need not be vexed, because all water, without exception, contains these matters, and no spring water has yet been found, although drinkable, which does not possess those qualities with which it would not be possible to manufacture a good green soap. ThE! neighbourhood of tha sea, or saltworks, and mineral mines, form the only exception to this rule, because the springs near are so overcharged with extraneous matters, that the water is not fit to be drunk.
Should iron, lime, or alkali be found in the water, the making of green soap is not attended with any disadvantage, because the iron is absorbed by the lime; and when lime predominates, there is less need of it for corrosion, for when the water contains more alkali, the more lime is wanted. Such water is only found near turf-pits, or bogs of turf,
IN !lANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 15
and on account of its softness, is very suitable for the manufacture of green soap. For toilette soaps, and for soap quite white, the employment of water containing sulphuric or ferruginous qualities should be avoided, because the first becomes of a blue colour, and the latter yellow.
Preparation of the Lessive, or Lie.
In the greater part; of the fabrics, for the last few years, they have discontinued the use of pans formerly employed in the preparation of the lessive, into which they drew it from the bottom; on the contrary, they now use reservoirs, into which the prepared lie is drawn off clear from the top; the object of which is, to obtain cheaper and quicker labour, and from which, certainly, there results a saving of labour, and a considerable saving of lime. However, there are many soap-boilers who do not practise such exactitude, and work without boiling the lie with the lime; throwing in the lime, broken in small pieces, into a weak lie, which produces, it is true, an ebullition of lime with the lie, but does not produce such a corrosiveness as if the lime had been boiled with the potash. It
16 TIlE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
is indifferent whether the lie be first heated, and then the lime poured in, with the supposition that the boiling lime gives heat enough, which is an error, because a good corrosiveness is only obtained by the continual heat of the lime and potash together, unless much lime is used, which is not necessary for corrosion. The American potash will give a proof, being almost corrosive from its boiling,
'whilst the caleinated ashes have much less strength of lime. Therefore, it would be equally possible to obtain a saleable soap, by adding dry lime to the lie, when American potash has been used; but the soap would be much finer, if by boiling the lie had been freed more from the carbonic acid. It is true this method is very simple; but it has this disadvantage, that the lessive thus prepared is less corrosive, the soap not so clear, much softer, and of a disagreeable odour. That arises from the lime being an agent destructive of the carbonic acid contained in the potash, not having sufficient power; and this arises, again, because the lime' dissolved in a strong lie is divided less finely than in a weak lie, and remains always in the form of small peas, although appearing as if boiled.
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 17
There will be found at the bottom smallpieces, which appear like the lime found in the pans, according to the ancient method: this deposits itself so firmly at the bottom, that it is scarcely possible to remove it when cold. Such lime gives out its strength from its exterior only, and therefore cannot receive the carbonic acid sufficiently; whilst this defect is remedied when separated into particles as small as possible, before the lime is poured into the lessive. In order to attain this object, and get as good a lie as possible, it is necessary to make use of the lie remaining from the last boiling, and put it into the lie vessel, which must be but a third of the size of the boiler, and heat it underneath. When it boils, the potash must be poured in. The American potash must be previously broken into pieces as large as the fist, and boiled until entirely melted. This can be effected in one hour with calcined ashes, whilst with American ashes, it takes two or three hours.
The lie, when weighed hot, should be at most thirty degrees, and at least twenty-eight degrees. If more than thirty degrees, the American ash will not dissolve, whereas potash dissolves in thirty-six degrees; and If
18 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
weaker lie be used, then the first lie will be too weak.
When we have a good American potash, and would not use soda, one thousand eight hundred and forty pounds for fifty tons of soap are wanted, or two thousand of Russian or Hungarian, or two thousand three hundred of Rhenish potash. When broken entirely, then the lime must be added, which must be previously kilned or slacked in a tub holding about two hogsheads, placed near the boiler, and it should be poured in hot in the state of mortar. In summer, the proportion must be from twenty to twenty-five pounds of lime to one hundred pounds of American ashes; in winter, on the contrary, from fifteen to twenty at most may be used.
If soft grease be used, such as hempseed or linseed oil, then from thirty to thirty-five pounds of lime in summer, and in winter from twenty to twenty-five will be sufficient. For calcined potash, one-third more lime will be required, and we have the annoyance of not being able to stir up the lie in the reservoirs. The American ashes dissolve entirely by boiling; but it is not so with the calcined potash, with which often a quantity of sand is fraud-
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 19
ulently mixed. The mixture must boil two hours without ceasing, at a strong heat, and be stirred continually with an iron fork, such as the brewers use, to prevent any lime from sticking to the bottom. In slacking the lime, care must be taken to' begin with a lie at two or three degrees of heat, until it is heated, and then the cold lie which has been used to dissolve the potash. Farther, in order to slack the lime well, that it may not burn in different places, not more than one hundred pounds must be slacked at a time.
Lastly, after having added the lime, and letting it boil two hours, the fire must be taken out, and the lie left to deposit until the next day, when the clear lie must be drawn off, or tapped and soaked again with a weak lie. It may then be drawn off the next day without boiling afresh. If the lie is not1ifteen degrees, it can be soaked a third time, and this last lie may be used to commence boiling with.
Preparation of Lie from Soda.
In order to prepare a soda lie for green soap, the aforesaid weak lie of ten to fifteen degrees, must be poured into the boiler, and
20 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
made to boil. That done, add English or German soda at eighty degrees, until the lie attains the strength of thirty degrees, taking care to stir it well while pouring in, that no lumps be formed. When all is dissolved, the lime is to be added in the same manner as for the potash lie, with this difference, that for every one hundred pounds of soda, fifty of lime must be added, to make it more corrosive, and that all the. substances which prevent the soap from clarifying may thus be absorbed by the lime. For that reason, the soda lie should boil an hour longer than the potash lie, consequently three hours. When it has sufficiently deposited, it must be drawn off, the first at twenty-five degrees, the second at twenty, and the third at :fifteen degrees. These three lessives are poured together, to make one at eighteen degrees, which is proper for boiling. AB it is of great importance, in winter, to have a soap perfectly greasy, which is neither long, disturbed, nor vitreous, a third lie is wanted, composed of Russian or Rhenish potash dissolved in water, and of the strength of twenty-eight to thirty degrees. As soon as the soap becomes clear by the frosty weather, this lessive is added as a last application, to
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETO. 21
render the soap softer by means of the lime; but for the lessive without lime, no more than a sixth part should be used of the entire lessive, otherwise the soap acquires a bad smell, is not quite clear, and does not froth well.
Greases, or Fat, for Green Soap.
For making soft soap, linseed oil, hempseed oil, rape oil, olive oil, South Sea whale oil, and others are used. The use of liquid oil depends on the lowness of the price, and the season for which the soap is boiled. In Germany, South Sea whale oil is generally used, the import duty being but one shilling and sixpence per quintal, while on other oils it is five shillings. Soap, however, can be boiled with all sorts of liquid grease, although one grease does not saponify as well as another, and the product is very different. South Sea whale oil yields more soap, because, by the melting of the blubber the watery parts evaporate, while rape oil or linseed oil gives much less soap, as the mucilaginous plants which contain these oils only become heavy and evaporate, and do not absorb the lie.
For one ton of soap, five pounds less of whale oil are used than of rape oil, and four 3
22 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
pounds less than linseed oil. There is also an important difference in the weight of the stearine of the oil. The more stearine it contains, the more the soap is disturbed in the winter: hempseed oil, linseed oil, and clear whale oil, contain less stearine, and make, on that account, a better soap for the winter. The stearine matter in the oil can be discovered by putting it into iced water; and we will indicate the manner hereafter.
The faster the oil congeals, and becomes white, the less fit it is for soap for the winter. Besides these different oils, the following can be used, in case the prices are low, namely, stearine, brown linseed oil, sediment of olive oil, seal oil,palm oil, zott oil, dodder oil, sediment of palm oil, cocoanut oil, oleique, tallow, laid, and oil of rancid lard.
The first is the stearine which deposits in the casks and tubs; brown linseed oil is the sediment of linseed oil, which is mixed with the sediment of clarified oil and sold; zott oil comes from the south of France, and from America; the dodder oil is the poppy oil ~ckened.
01eique is a manufactured oil, which, added the rate of one-fifth to other greases, can
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 23
be used in making soft soap, and costs always twenty or twenty-five per cent. less than w hale or common oil.
Among the oils which amalgamate badly, lard oil must be classed, although very often used, and which, in America, is extracted by pressing the fat parts of the hog; and from twenty-five to thirty per cent. of hard matter is obtained, which is used for making candles. The residuum is an oil, more or less brown, compared to the South Sea whale oil. This lard oil amalgamates the best, when, on the evening before the boiling, it is boiled in a lie of twelve degrees, and left to settle until the next day, when the solution is effected.
However, much olive or tallow oil is used at present; but these absorb the lie very quickly, if used alone, and when mixed with other greases, come to the top, but which can be prevented by stirring quickly. Every soapboiler should make it an invariable rule to
,amalgamate the potash, at fifteen degrees, with the grease, and let it settle during the night; for by this means, not only a sure solution is obtained, but the greater advantage of the finer parts of the grease developing better, and taking up more lie, so that from
24 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
one to one and 80 half pounds less whale oil can be used to the ton, than if worked faster.
Boiling the Soap.
The whole quantity of whale oil or common oil is to be put into the boiler at once in the proportion it is to be used: however, in order to know how much grease can be changed into soap with the prepared lie, we must ascer- . tam how many barrels of one hundred gallons each of whale oil or other oil we have. To saponify a measure containing one hundred gallons of grease, one and a half measures of potash lie at twenty-one degrees will be wanted. We will take twenty-one degrees as
80 medium, for the lie should "be divided into three parts, the first ll.t fifteen, the second at twenty-one, and the third at twenty-seven, making sixty-three degrees, the medium of which is twenty-one degrees. One measure twenty-one degrees, the one-half at ten and a half, together, thirty-one and a half degrees.
When the lessive is thus prepared and calculated, the quantity of grease can be easily calculated with exact lie scales and measures; for the object would not be better obtained at thirty degrees than at thirty-three, without
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 25
the risk of spoiling the soap. If the lie of soda is used, thirty-one degrees would be too strong, for soda lie cannot be used so strong. If with mild grease, linseed or hempseed oil, one half of soda lie and one half of potash lie are used, the saturation of the oil will take place at twenty-six or twenty-seven degrees, whilst, as we have said before, the lie of potash requires thirty-one degrees. This arises, because neither common oil nor whale oil can absorb as much of 'the soda lie as the potash lie, without disturbing and thickening the soap; and for that reason, the employ of a greater quantity of soda requires a greater quantity of oil than that of potash alone: however, at the low price of English soda,_the profit will always be considerable, although three Ills. more of oil to the ton be required. In every case, it is quite requisite in using a great proportion of soda to add a solution of potash without lime, which should be prepared before the ebullition, and at a strength of twenty-five degrees. This dissolved potash is added when the soap has absorbed nearly sufficient of the soda lie. The soap is then saturated with two-thirds of soda and one-third of potash dissolved, and this is done, because
26 THE M:OST RECENT DISCOVERIES
the soap when almost saturated does not amalgamate well with soda alone, but on the contrary, in mixing with the potash water becomes a paste. Such a method also produces more soap than with the lie of soda alone.
Boiling Soap in the German manner.
When the quantity of lie required for the boiling is ready and duly calculated, the common or whale oil to be used is put into the boiler; when soda' is not to be employed, for fifty tons of soap of two hundred and forty each, four thousand eight hundred and fifty will be required. If one half soda is to be used, then four thousand nine hundred and fifty will be required in summer, and in winter one pound more to the ton must be added for longer boiling. For a medium we will make a calculation of an operation, and begin with a boiling of four thousand eight hundred of whale oil and lie of potash without any soda. When the whole quantity of oil is in the boiler, for four thousand eight hundred oil .
24 meast_:lres of lie at 15 degrees
24" "" " 21 "
24" "" " 28 "
" " " 64 "
IN MANUF AOTURING SOAPS, ETC. 27
3 : 64 I 211 medium.
48 barrels of grease require 72 measures each measure 2H
i " lOj
total .. 32 degrees.
With good manipulation thirty degrees are often sufficient. First, the lie at fifteen degrees is used, adding twelve measures to the oil and raking well from the bottom to the top.
. It is proper for this mixture to rest for a day and be raked during that time; for then the solution before boiling is secured, and also the oil expands better, and gives more soap. 'I'hen begin to boil with a moderate fire, and as soon as it is seen that the lie is united to the oil, which is known by the mass falling from the spatula in the form of light leaves, and does not run off like water, and if it remains on the surface when it begins to boil, and without the heat increasing all at once, the lie ascends from the bottom above the oil, which always happens with a slight noise, easily to be known.
The water on the surface should not boil yellow, and with flakes like dirty soap, nor . throw out a considerable wet steam smelling
28 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
of the lie, for when the solution is perfect, this steam should smell of oil, and boil afterwards with a noise at the bottom of the furnace, or ascend to the top with a slight white froth. If the solution has not yet taken place, the boiling must be continued with a weaker fire for half an hour, by which means the solution will be effected without further obstacle. If not, three or four measures of lie at fifteen degrees must be added again, which will certainly accomplish it, because this 0001- , ing always produces a change. But if after the employ of this means, the object is not attained, the fire must be entirely put out, and the mass left till the next day, or, in continuing a very weak fire, pour in with a watering pot a weak potash lie at three degrees till the solution is effected. It will take place after adding two or three buckets of weak lie, and especially if a little old soap from a former boiling, taken from the cask, be added.
In this manner the union will be effected without further delay, and will be known by the bubbling of the soap, and also by the mass attaching to the spatula in leaves. In the bubbling, if steam arises smelling of whale oil, and of different 'colours, it is a. sign that the.
IN MANUF A.CTURING SOAPS, ETC. 29
soap still requires some lie, of which five or six measures must be added. directly, and boiled with it five or ten minutes, or until it is certain that the solution is effected, and the same quantity must be continued until all the weak lie is consumed.
Then only is the medium lessive to be applied, which' is to be let boil each time that five measures are put in, to prevent the lie from sticking to the bottom. If time permit, we should leave the soap reunited to the lie at fifteen or twenty degrees, to settle in the boiler until the next day, and then begin to boil. In adding the first lie, it often happens
- that the soap condenses on account of the lime being too prevalent in the lie. This must be prevented as much as possible by a quantity of, lie, without which, by the appearance of bluish steam, we know that the grease is evaporating. When the soap flows from the spatula in the form of large leaves, there is lie wanting, which must be supplied immediately, and added continually. In such a case, ten measures of lie must be put in, instead of five.
A soap disposed to condense quickly absorbs the lie, and condenses when it is wanting,
30 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
until it flows clear from the spatula; but the clarification of the soap is not perfect until the half at least of the strongest lie has been added, and twenty-six or twenty-seven degrees used for one hundred pounds of grease. The soap should then be allowed to boil properly, in adding lie from twenty-nine to thirty degrees per ton.
It is recommended to observe minutely the development of the soap on the sides of the boiler, before the boiling in the furnace affords the proof. For this purpose, a little- iron pot, containing not more than half a pint, is made to boil with gas, or a spirit lamp. A spoonful of the liquor is put into this pot, and made to boil, to evaporate the water, to see if the lie is gray and the soap short. If this does not succeed in about two minutes, the soap still wants lie, which may be added without fear of spoiling any thing. Such a trial of a teaspoonful acts as well as adding an entire measure to fifty tons, and therefore one should proceed with much care and attention. Besides, this trial occasions no loss of time, since a circular tube, fitted under the pot, lets the gas escape by six or eight holes; or a spirit lamp with four holes for the meshes, makes
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 31
as much water evaporate in two minutes, as in half an hour in the boiler.
A strong lessive is to be added to the soap in the boiler, until a gray colour is seen in the drops poured on the glass; and this gray must not be more than a fourth, and at most a third of the size of the soap. This is a sign that the soa.p is entirely saturated with lie. If the soap still appears thready, and not short, it still contains too much water, which must be extracted by boiling, by which a firmness is obtained. If boiled with a lie above twenty-one degrees, the soap will lengthen on the glass, but it will be clear; if the lie is twenty-one degrees, and consequently not retaining more water than is necessary, then the soap will already show its slimy skin.
There is a dry surface, which the soap shows after cooling; on putting aside this skin, a shining and thready soap will appear, which will be more or less in proportion to the water to be evaporated. We can ascertain whether the soap still retains too much water, by pouring a little into a coloured saucer, and placing it on a bucket of cold water, to cool it quickly. In putting the finger on the soap, after its cooling, if it appear shining, there is
32 THE HOST RECENT DISCoVERIES
too much water; if, on the contrary, when the place touched is not at first shining, but appears like a rough grain, which afterwards becomes so, there is not too much water. However, as long as the roughness does not continue, and the place touched becomes brilliant, there is too much water, which must be evaporated until the shining does not appear, and rough grains maintain themselves at least half an hour. The soap is then short enough, and when the clarification is visible, the soap may then be considered as quite finished. If the lie is added a little too quickly, and the water is made to evaporate to condense the soap, the gray becomes more visible, and the soap is disturbed from having used too much, and possibly at two-thirds above proof.
After these operations, the soap will become shorter; but it will want the necessary transparency, a fault only to be repaired by adding oil. In proportion to the gray, one-half or one-third measure of whale oil must be mixed with as much lie, at two or three degrees, and a double quantity of hot soap from the boiler, and thrown on the soap in the boiler, when the clarification and firmness will follow after boiling one-fourth of an hour. Adding
IN lUNUF ACTUBING SOAPS, ETC. 33
the whale oil with the lie is more edvaatageous, because it comes into the boiler in that state of soap which would be caused by ebullition: this is necessary for a soap made with strong lie; otherwise, in adding oil without lie to the oil almost prepared, it would not produce as much soap, because it has not had time to melt, and sufficient humidity does not exist in the soap, unless it is obta.ined by continual boiling. Besides, the oil precipitates to the bottom, and proves that it evaporates by the appearance of a disturbed steam.
When, on such a. soap, a fine gray appears, and the next day disappears, there is lie still wanting; in which case, as much cold lie must be applied as will cause the gray to reappear. The signs by which we know that the soap made with potash is finished, are the following: in drawing out the spatula, and turning it to pour out the soap, fine drops must appear, not thready, but having a leafy appearance. There should be seen, in the drops running along the handle, when beginning to cool, a. slight curve not elongated. On pouring the hot soap into the glass, to prove it, a. particle of silver gray should be seen, but which, after cooling, should disappear, and
34 THE )[OST RECENT DISOOVDIES
leave the superficies of a spider's web on it. This is seen more easily, when, on pouring out a drop, the size of a. shilling, on a gla.ss, it is not effaced without adhering to it, and which, after cooling, on taking it off with a small piece of wood or a knife, still appe8.l'8 on it. One can find, by passing the finger or a small piece of wood over the soap, a little thickened, if it still lengthens.
The soap must then be left quiet for ten or fifteen minutes, when the line which at first appeared fine and saponaceous, will become shining, and appear watery. If the soap keep its rough grain, and does not resume its shining, it may be considered finished. If, on the contrary, it is not saturated sufficiently with lie, it will be dry to the touch, when cooled, and on remaining on the glass, will begin to be disturbed; so much so, that on the outside there will be a shining edge, and in the middle a troubled circle will be seen.
This same uneven appearance is found in soap strong with lime, and also when there is too much water; in which case, great attention must be paid to the gray of the lie. If this gray exist, on pouring it on the glass, and the soap remaining on it becomes troubled in
IN'KANUFAOTURING SOAPS, ETC. 35
the middle, and on passing the finger over it, the shining appears again, the evaporation must still continue, without adding lie, until no more disturbed spots are seen, and the soap remains quite clear, with the exception of the surface, which resembles a spider's web. If these spots be deemed of no importance, as soon as the temperature becomes cold, and towards the winter, the soap will become either white or long (ropy.) Such a soap at first becomes heavy in the cask; afterwards, the superfluous water freezes, and at the same time, the soap being strong of lie, this last will ooze out, at least in part.
On the shortness of the Soap.
When the soap has nearly finished boiling, sometimes a proof is made in a saucer placed obliquely with the proof in the corner left to cool. Not more than about i oz. must be poured out for this proof. After cooling, on drawing the thumb nail over the soap, if there is found a dry skin which does not attach to the thumb, and is dry, without being greasy, it is a sign that the soap is not well boiled, and that much water remains. The boiling must then continue until, on pressing
86 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
on the soap, it does not give way, but sticks to the finger, and under the surface, 'Which appears to have finished boiling, the soap is seen to dilute no more. The gray of the lie should be perfectly seen on a coloured cup, as it remains longer on it than on a glass, but in no case should there be enough to cover the whole surface of the soap; it should be entirely lost in a quarter of an hour, otherwise? the soap is too strong of lie, and whale or common oil must be added. If some of the soap supposed to be finished is put on a glass, and collected together with a small piece of wood, and this repeated several times, it should not yield, but show a firm separation. In boiling in the summer, a small line of the size of a packthread may be left; but this must not occur in winter.
Too little Water in the Soap.
If the lie has been applied too strong, and the soap boiled too fast without adding lie, it may easily happen that after the boiling there is too little aqueous matter in the soap, which is discovered in the boiler when the soap concretes 88 firmly as if finished; in which case, after pouring out a specimen, it
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 37
is directly disturbed and short without 8 sufficient firmness, and when on pressing the finger, it takes up a skin like oil. Under this skin is a disturbed hard soap, at first short, but when left becomes glassy like frozen soap. Then the soap in the furnace does not boil in a sufficiently soluble state, and will have a disturbed appearance on the surface. If strong lie is then added to it, there will not be an immediate union, but some white spots will form, which will not mix with the soap but by continual boiling. In such a case, there is nothing more serviceable than to throw in a barrel of whale oil witli some lie at ten degrees, and with as gentle a fire as possible. If this does not succeed, a. little lie at six degrees with a little oil can be added, after which, when the clarification is obtained, the soap may be regarded as finished. This can be effected also by adding weak lie at from-five to ten degrees, which is easily tried in a bucket; but in general the soap, which is short, disturbed, and vitreous, is too strong of lie, and for that reason, the . addition of whale oil is to be recommended.
T. yak ia :u..
It is poalJle, even hebe the hoiIiu& to bow by the eoIour of the lie if it is too weak m lime, mr when it is potash, it hu a IJmwn eoIour, not yellmr, and moeJ1s of potash, and when poured into a pm, the froth or the lie m. appean dUectly, and at twenty-bro degrees ferments with BDIphnrie acid at seven degreeB. In preparing, attentionmust be paid to boil the lime and the potash together mr two houm, by which means, in caae of calcareous dispropoI&tion, 88 shown above, the want or COI'I"08iveness will be corrected with certainty. This must be specially &Toided in summer in the boiling, because it prevents the firmness of the 8Oap. It may be seen during the boiling, because the 80ap never concretes when lie is added, and more so, when on cIarifying, the soap deposits itself Hat on the gl888 like oil, and during the cooling whilst warm has the appearance of round soap mixed with lie. In this round m88S, there are dark spots, which appear till the end of the boiling, and which, after cooling, are no longer vi@ible. In no case can a :fine clear article be obtained, such as it should be, when on touching it
IN )[AlfUli' ACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 39
• becomes softer, and when held longer in the hand begins to melt. .
To manufa.cture a saleable article, it must not be boiled. faster than necessary, because the produce will be less, and in washing with it the soap gives out a bad smell. These defects may also appear, even should the lie possess the requisite corrosiveness, and that is, when the sediment of refined oil has been used, which, from containing sulphuric acid, has taken away during the boiling the corrosiveness of the lime. If this sediment is to be used, the sulphuric acid must be removed, which is done by mixing with a barrel of sediment another barrel of corrosive soda lie at 25 degrees, which must be left to corrode cold and be heated afterwards. Then the separated soap will be found on the top, and the sulphurous lie at the bottom. The top is then taken off, and when almost clear it is added to the other, it no longer having the power to deteriorate the quality. The soap will reabsorb the suppressed lie through the aqueous matters. The lessive which is found at the bottom under the oil, must be put into the weak lie, to leave the sulphuric natron in the lime, otherwise the strength would be lost.
40 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
This method can be recommended to all • who make use of the brown linseed oil of Holland, which also contains vitriol. When the soap is finished, there is no way to augment the calcareous strength, and when many have recourse to weak lie for that purpose, after its evaporation, the lime which is added
is not capable of affording any' important advantage.
Such a soft soap can be used very well in winter, but not in summer. If this defect be found in summer, 10 or 12 per cent. of melted tallow can be added, which will immediately reproduce the firmness. However, more than that quantity cannot be added without the appearance of white spots in the soap. Saponifying the tallow with weak lie before it is added, will be better than uniting it cold with the soap. A soap too weak in lime mixes badly, and for that reason, flour of p0- tatoes should be spread dry over the soap.' About one or two pounds per ton will be sufficient.
Too strong in Lime.
It is found when the lie is disturbed on adding lime water. The soap thickens fast, and concretes in the boiler when the medium
IN JLUroPACTURING SOAPS, ETO. 41
lie is added, and forms into small lumps. In proving, a paste dry and stiff appears, which is not sufficiently greasy when the gray of the lie shows itself. In the furnace, the soap concretes in boiling, is of a yellow white, and flows from the spatula in thick masses. This cannot be considered a defect, as it can be corrected by a lie without lime, after renewed proofs, which is the surest and most advantageous way of working. We will subsequently return to this method, and describe it more minutely, and will only remark for the present, that besides its certainty, it increases the produce of the soap, which cannot be when the. calcareous state is too weak.
When the soap is almost clear, some potash lie t
at twenty-five degrees must be added, until on proving the soap, it has lost its dry and stiff
feel. If the soap is greasy enough before all
the lie is put into the boiler, the non-corro-
sive lie must be discontinued, and the corro-
sive lie continued. In working with soda lie,
the great stiffness of the soap is also much lessened, and if not enough, some salt must
be dissolved in warm water, which if the soap
is very watery must be twenty-five degrees,
whilst for soap almost finished, brine at fifteen
42 THE MOST RECENT DISCO'QlUES
degrees is required. One should aseertain how much the soap wants, as sometimes one pound is sufficient, and at others three pounds per ton are required.
In winter the surplus, of lime must be avoided, otherwise the soap becomes white too soon; in the summer, on the contrary, it is necessary to obtain firmness in the soap, especially when it is from linseed or hempseed oil, or whale oil, and it does not congeal.
On the addition of Resin.
There are many soapboilers at present who add the resin to the soap immediately, and begin to boil: however, this method is very disadvantageous, because the turpentine in the resin evaporates in . boiling, and scarcely any increase of soap is obtained: it is attended with another disadvantage,-such a soap with six per cent. of resin smells stronger than by another method with twelve per cent. In other fabrics pulverized resin is added, mixing one hundred pounds with one hundred and twenty pounds of soda lie at twenty-five degrees, by which the resin becomes perfectly saturated. This method is not to be censured, because on account of the weak degree of heat
IN KA.NuFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 43
to which the resin is subjected, the strong odour of the turpentine cannot exhale to any extent. However, this method is only applicable to a boiler of twenty-five tons, because in the larger ones the manipulation becomes difficult, and likewise the dust which escapes from the resin is very hurtful to the lungs.
Other manufacturers melt the resin with zott oil or whale oil, and boil them together; but this method is not to be recommended, because such a mass of grease must be added to the soap whilst being clarified, and before being formed, that it will produce the same disadvantage as when the resin is added on beginning to boil.
The method of using resin proved to be the most advantageous, consists in melting it in boiling lie, and adding it when the soap is finished. For this purpose, one hundred and sixty lbs. of potash lie at twenty-five degrees, are required for one hundred pounds of resin, and made to boil; then the- pulverized resin is poured in, and the fire kept up until all is melted, and then taken out. This resinous soap must be mixed the next day, when the heat is not strong, and if so, the day after, otherwise the soap would be too warm; and
44 THE MOST RECENT DISOOVEIUIS
also on account of its weight, the resin would stick to the bottom, which OCCUl'8 when more than ten per cent. is used.
To prevent this, the soap should remain in the boiler until it is cooled to from forty-five to fifty degrees of Reaumur; and by raking it well, it will not deposit in the boiler. This can be also avoided by raking into the soap two or three pounds of potato Hour to one. hundred of resin, which will cause the Soap to concrete. This resinous soap is first to be mixed with a double quantity of finished soap, and raked in afterwards. The Hour is no longer visible in the soap, for it is changed into a real gum, and takes up much water. Should it be necessary to add a little lie, there is not much trouble in doing that.
If green soap is to be made, resin must be added in moderate quantities, on account of its brown colour, and therefore three or four per cent. will be sufficient. To employ ten or twelve per cent. the brown colour must be taken. away, which is effected by taking a measure of soda lie at twenty-five degrees, instead of potash, to dissolve it, by which the resinous soap will remain on the top, and the lie at the bottom. The soap on the top must
IN MANUFACTURING"SOAPS, ETC. 4&
be taken- off, and the brown lie at the bottom poured into the· vat for weak lie.
Ry renewing this process' with a lie which need not be so: strong, a resinous soap is obtained which is only slightly brownish. It is' then almost free from lie, like a white saline' soap, and yields in weight but one to-one and· a half pound. When this soapy resin, thus deprived of lie, is. added to: the soap, there can be still some weak lie added, because- the soap' of resin contains but little watery matter;" when the soapy resin is added, and during the cooling, before drawing out, twenty per cent. of ream can be used without forming a deposit; but then' it cannot be made a green soap, but must continue brown.
Boiling. Soap: with half. Soda.· L16.
This method is generally employed in Hol~ land, and on account of the fine soap made in that country, deserves to be the object of great attention; The pure hempseed oil, linseed oil, and oil of colza are used, with an addition of a little whale oil: in using the first two oils, more soda can always be employed than with the oil of colza, When much soda is used, the potash lie and the soda
46 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
lie must be added, each separately. They must be strong of lime, and when boiled together, the American potash will take forty
- per cent. in summer, and thirty in winter; but the soda lie must contain fifty pounds of lime for one hundred of soda, at ninety degrees. If the boiling is with whale oil, the proportion of lime with the potash must be
.. diminished a third, but that with soda must be the same. Besides this lie, a solution of potash is still to be used, which should be always kept in reserve, and of a strength of twentyeight to thirty degrees.
The boiling is then performed in the following manner: two-thirds of the oil to be used in the boiling must be mixed with the potash lie, which must not be less than seventeen degrees, and then the strong lie of twentyfour degrees to twenty-six is to be added. The soap is then united, but not clear; the remainder-of the oil is then to be added, and directly the corrosive lie at eighteen is to be used. The quantity to be employed should be divided into three parts, two of which should be immediately put into the boiler with the oil. The whole is then heated, and the fire put out for three or four hours, to
IN HA.NUF ACTURING SOAPS, ETC. .4.,
give time for the soda to unite with the oil, which certainly could be effected by boiling, but would leave too much froth on the soap. The last is to be always charged with about one-third of non-corrosive potash solution, to obtain a more certain and better union, because in adding potash, the salt becomes inoffensive, and in general by working with noncorrosive lie a larger produce of soap is effected. This lie is continued until the soap is clear. Then great attention must be paid to proving the gray of the lie, which should scarcely be seen; but if seen, and the soap is not short but long and ropy, it must be left to boil, in order' to evaporate the superfluous water: on concretion, the gray of the lie will still appear, which must be removed from the glass by adding oil or whale oil till the soap in a drop on the glass shows a gray not larger than a pin's head, and the soap should be short and no longer cold. When there is still much watery matter in the soap, it will soon be disturbed, and a clear border will be seen: if, on the contrary, it contains little water, only dull spots will appear, which should be entirely evaporated before the soap can be considered as finished, otherwise the soap would become ropy in the cask.··
4:8 THE )(oST RECENT DISCOVElUES
It must be considered a normal basis, when ~o-1ifths or one-half of BOOa is used, and adding the lie when the soap is clear, to work gently and prudently, so as not to precipitate; because, with much sods, a separation takes place when the soap is too strong, and much time Will be consumed before being able by adding oil to recover a fine union. In using so much soda, only twenty-six degrees per ton are required, but with potash thirty to thirtyone degrees are needful. After the fire is taken out, and the soap (judging by the proof) is finished, on adding some oil the gray of the lie will be got rid of. This is done for three reasons, first, to prevent the great froth which in using much soda always forms on the soap, and which cannot be raked in with it entirely, and can only be effected by adding some oil; and for a boiling of sixty tons generally from fifty to one hundred will be sufficient. Second, to prevent the deposit of the soda lie, which readily takes place in using one-half soda, and when the gray has been too strong. Third, to be able to add next day what may be necessary.
The next day, the froth is raked under the soap, and strong corrosive lie at twenty degrees
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 49
mixed with it without :fire till on proving the soap recovers its gray; it will then possess sufficient firmness. When the soap has reposed three or four hours, it must be raked again properly and proved. If the gray is gone, some lie must be added, but if not, it is useless. The raking and mixing is, indispensable for soap from soda, and increases its beauty to a considerable and surprising degree. It must be observed, that the lie added the next day is not done with ladles, but with a
watering pot. .
If it is intended to dye the soap green, for sixty tons, two pounds of ground indigo are used in proportion to the brown colour it must have. To dissolve the indigo, a strong potash lie must be evaporated in a small boiler to eighty-six degrees, into which the indigo is put, which will be dissolved after an hour's boiling; this mixture is then poured into the lie that is to be used the next day, and is poured on the soap by means of a watering pot. The soap should then be raked with the mixture, until not a single spot of blue appears, otherwise the spots would appear on the linen; the soap must then be left as long as possible in the boiler, that it may be put into the cask as
60 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
cold as possible! A deposit of the lie is thus prevented, and at the same. time, the object attained of there not being so much smooth soap in the cask, and the froth not appearing on the top. Whe.n the soap in the cask is cold, there is nothing to do, but to take off the upper skin. In a soap well made, that which is under the skin can remain in the cask, because, when it is closed, that which is smooth and soft will be lost in tile soap, because the internal heat of the soa.p will cause it to move . to the top. By closing the cask, the surface
will become as clear as the bottom. Putting in the indigo during the boiling, is not a good method; it is true, that the indigo would appear in the boiler, but afterwards it would become brown.
Many makers dissolve the indigo with sulphuric acid. instead of lie, which dissolves the indigo directly into the smallest partieles; and for this purpose, as much acid is wanted ~. will change it into a thick broth, which must rest two days, and then strong lie should be added, until litmus p;;tper will no longer be coloured red, and the next day the soap must be coloured. If it is boiled with potash, the colour will hold, but if used with much
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 51
soda, the colour is lost in the cold soap. In this case, the soap will become a. brownish green in the cask; but if exposed to the air, will become entirely green on the surface. We must not omit to remark, that such a soap has not a good appearance, and is not very saleable. -
Brown Coloured Soap.
In many fabrics, soap is not coloured green, but brown; andespecia.llywhere much whale oil or sediment of dirty oil is used, in order, by that means, to hide the dirt by the brown colour. This. colour is given by gallnuts and carcuma.
For a boiling of :fifty tons, one or one and a half pound of gallnuts, and as much carcUID:a, are employed. When the nuts are bruised, the whole is put into a kettle, and boiled with a bucketfull of potash lie at five degrees, and afterwards passed through a. piece of cloth, for the purpose of dyeing. That which remains on the cloth will still give out some colour, which is to be mixed with lie at five degrees; the brown lie which is on the surface after some days, is used to boil the new colour in, throwing in the old.
52 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
Such a brown colour is very fine, and can be recommended for use, when whale oil or sediment of oil is employed.
For green or brown soap, we no longer dissolve the resin first, nor add it to the soap in a dry or pulverized state, but by means of an iron sieve, suspended by a roller over the boiler. The resin is put into the sieve, and let down into the. soap when finished. The resin melts gradually, and passes through the sieve. This operation is continued with quantities of from seventy to eighty pounds, until the intended quantum is used, which gives the advantage of the odour of the turpentine not being developed during the solution, which saves the soap from smelling so strong, and likewise the small pieces of stick remain in the sieve. Then, by mixing with cold corrosive potash, or soda-lie, at twenty-six degrees, the gray of the lie which was lost will reappear on the glass. There must then be no more boiling: however, it is a good plan to put a. little fire under, that the lie which may have deposited at the bottom, and could not be raked to the surface, can mix better with the soap. It is sufficient when the soap presents sometimes a wavy appearance in the boiler.
IN MA.NUFACTUllUTG SOA.PS, ETC. 63
The most advantageous maimer of using lumps of Tallow for making Soap.
Those who, besides the manufacture of soap, OCGUPY themselves a.lso in making candles, or only melting ta.llow as an article of commerce, can derive a considerable advantage from using the lumps of tallow, which can be more profitably employed than when, on being entirely squeezed out, they are sold to fatten cattle. When these lumps are made use of, they must be melted without acid, in an iron boiler, The grease must be skimmed off as long as any can be obtained, by pressing with the skimmer; and having left the lumps to roast until they are brown and hard, they must 00 thrown into a strainer or a tub, that all the grease may run out.
When tallow is dearer than oil, the lumps must not be much pressed, so that some of the grease may remain in them. The small lumps are taken out of the tub or press, and broken into small pieces by the hand. These pieces are left to cool, and cut in the grease trough with a sharp iron, until they are entirely pulverized, and afterwards put into one or two oil casks cut in half, with some lie of
64 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
potash at fifteen degrees, and stirred up with a shovel, that they may be thus washed. There must be just lie enough to cover the lumps. For a. measure of lumps, one-half or two-thirds of a measure of lie will be enough. It is then left to repose five or six days, and stirred every day, in case there should be any lie sticking at the bottom.
At the end of six or eight days, the whole is saponified, and the lumps thrown into a greasy boiler, and made to boil for solution with the lie. If the solution has not taken place at fifteen degrees, the lie at ten degrees is used to boil with, and when a paste is formed, a little more strong lie is to be added, until it begins to be clear; then the whole is thrown into a tub, to remain until wanted.
In adding all the lie cold at first, these lumps give out a. bad smell, and if, with twothirds of a measure of lie, they do not become thin, one-third more lie must be added; but this disappears in a great measure in the first boiling, as soon as the solution of soap takes place. When cold, after boiling, these lumps are like silver gray soap, long and concrete; after the cooling, there should not remain
IN MANUFAOTURING SOAPS, ETC. 55
any of the lie at the bottom of the cask, which would prove that the desired solution has not been well effected. The boiling of the lumps can be kept up three or four hours, with good stirring, and added to the soap when cold, and with a weak fire, when the soap begins to be clear; otherwise, if the soap is thin, the lumps readily stick to the bottom and become red. It is therefore necessary to stir up the bottom with a rake, when adding them, that nothing should adhere to the bottom. The soap will then appear of a dark colour, and the lumps will look as if not entirely melted; but one must not be deceived by that, for those streaks, visible in the boiling soap, will not appear in the finished cold soap, dyed brown, which will be a transparent mass, and cannot be seen when soaping the linen .
. For a boiling of fifty tons, three or four to.is of this soap from lumps may be used, not in winter, but in weather free from cold, as in the middle of February, or the end of October; for the cold forms gray white lines in the soap, which proceed from the tallow contained in the lumps. ~ for cheapness, linseed or hempseed oil can be used, instead of whale oil, the lumps can be added in winter.
56 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
The lumps from melted grease, worked and prepared in winter, can be preserved in casks without bottom till summer, and then employed fur soap. In order to remove the filaments remaining in the soap charged with lumps, a plate of iron pierced with holes an inch long and two lines wide, is placed in the' funnel through which the soap runs from the' kettle into the cask, so that the soap may pass across it. When it is stopped, the lumps which fill the holes must be taken away with an iron scraper, and thrown aside as useless. This iron plate should be placed nine inches distant from the opening through which the soap flows out. If the soap is drawn out by' a tap, an iron plate with turned edges must be made, so as to clear away the dirt during its running out.
Lastly.we will observe that in using lumps, a profit of from one shilling and sixpence to two shillings per ton more is made than by using whale oil, because the lumps change into a paste in the' soap, and absorb a considerablequantityof lie; and' further, all other' substances may be added, as if they were not' in thesoap.
IN ll.!NUF AOTURING SOAPS, ETC. 67
Boiling Soap after the English manner.
The English have a Tery different manner from that already described. It consists in using oil to clarify the soap instead of lie, with the idea, in which they have a firm. belief, that the grease rarifies into fine watery particles, that by continual boiling it yields a less quantity of soap, and that the evaporation is effected quicker.
Whilst we can call in doubt the justice of the first point, because there is not enough time for the grease. to be saponifled with the weak lie, we yet allow the belief as to the quicker evaporation to be fully justified. Certainly this method is only practised in fabrics where little lie is employed. A quicker evaporation is not necessary when a little weak lie is used. The weak lie does not yield more profit than the strong, provided the oil has time to unite with the first lie and rest a day with it, in consequence of which this troublesome boiling is superfluous. When the oil evaporates, it is the fault of the manufacturer in not having given the lie early enough, and therefore a whitish disturbed steam. arises, smelling of oil, and which in fact it contains.
68 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
The method is the following: whale oil, or some other oil in solution with weak lie, is poured, half at a time, into the boiler: 8.8 soon as the union is seen, the lie is added at short intervals, in great quantities, so that the soap has scarcely time to boil. About five measures of strong lie for fifty tons are kept back as a reserve, in case of need. Mter a slight boiling, all the rest of the lie is added in four quantities. The soap has thus a superfluity of lie at the time of the ebullition. It is allowed to boil until, on proving, the lie begins to deposit, on which the whale oil or other oil is added in the following proportions: if fifty tons are boiled, fifty measures of oil are required; if the half is used, the other half is divided into six parts, so that each time four measures are added. At the first appearance of lie being wanted, four measures are poured in. The whole is left to boil half an hour before taking out a proof, unless the oil is not yet in fusion with the lie. In this case, the union· is certainly better, but by boiling the separation will again occur, and in proportion as the water evaporates.
After the first addition of the oil, it is pe~ mitted to boil an hour, and four measures are
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 59
then added. They continue in this way until the measures are reduced to three, of which one measure, with one-third measure of strong lie at three degrees, brought to a pap, is added, until the clarification and necessary shortness of the soap are obtained.
The rules to be observed in this method of boiling soap are: the soap on the glass should always show itself gray before adding the oil afresh; it should not be long, but short, and when lie is wanted, what is in the spatula. after being plunged into the soap, becomes a whitish gray, although the soap is boiling in the furnace a clear yellow; on pouring out the proof on the glass, the soap is first clear and then becomes gray or dark; the soap having been already strongly boiled, and therefore needing oil, the gray shows itself directly; on the contrary, if the gray shows itself slowly, one must wait before adding more oil. It is quite necessary that the oil be not added before the soap is short, and if using potash lie, it should be at nineteen or twenty degrees at most. If the lie be stronger, there must be time allowed for its diffusion, before more oil is added-three-q uarters of an hour may be sufficient. That is seen on
60 THE )[OST RECENT DISCOVElUES
proving the soap, according to which one must act so as not to disturb the union.
Should all the oil be in the boiler excepting three or four measures, a little weak lie must be mixed with it each time, to accelerate the union with the soap, because, whilst the soap is becoming thick, the watery parts having disappeared, the oil will not dissolve soquickly as in a more liquid soap. In a word, the soap is worked with oil and a weak lie, until it is as firm, clear, and short 88 it should be. However, it is not advantageous to boil until it is clear, for the fire can be taken out better when the soap is too thick. The complete clarification is only obtained by adding and raking the oil, by which too great an evaporation of the watery matter is avoided, and likewise the inevitable result of & less produce. The gray of the soap should not be too strong when the fire is taken out; not more so than when, by means of a measure of oil, we are sure it could be made to disappear entirely. On pouring out the proof, the soap should appear clear, but on reposing, the gray should cover one-third of the soap. If the soap is still long, the boiling must be continued, which depends on the strength of the
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 61
lie employed. The using of the greases at equal prices depends on the temperature. In summer; South Sea whale oil, in winter, hempseed and linseed oil, in spring and autumn, one-half whale oil and one-half linseed oil. If whale is cheaper, it can be boiled without linseed oil, by a method shown hereafter.
Nine Substances to be added to increase the Quantity of Soap.
During the last few years, many makers of soap have made use of certain substances added to the soap, to obtain a cheaper article, by which means other makers, who know not those said substances, find themselves in a disadvantageous position-the soap being sold at a cheaper rate than they can afford to sell it. The knowledge of these substances is attended with advantages that each maker should take into consideration, if he would make progress against opposition. We will state, as follows, the substances we know of, and develope their application.
The substances to be added are:
1. Purified and white resin.
3. Potato starch.
62 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
6. Ground gun-flints, (sulphate of barytBs.)
7. Alum, or sulphuric clay.
8. Cocoanut oil.
9. Lie without lime.
To whiten the resin, it must be melted in a boiler, and left to repose until the dirt deposits itself at the bottom, which will take place in half an hour. The clear resin is then drawn off into a boiler, adding to every one hundred pounds a bucket of soda lie at nine degrees. The whole must be kept to boil for an hour, and then the fire lessened by opening the door. As soon as the boiling ceases, the resin deposits at the bottom, and the lie, which is quite brown, remains on the top. After having taken off and thrown away this brown lie, the resin at the bottom will be yellow, and not white enough, and must therefore be washed with water, one bucket to one hundred pounds of resin, which, like the lie, will remain on the top, and must be taken off and, thrown away. By a third washing, the water will be entirely discoloured. The resin is then left to deposit, and placed in a cask to cool, or it may be changed immediately into
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 63
a resinous soap by means of strong lie. When the resin is washed, taken out of the boiler and cooled, it presents a yellow colour, like honey, and has almost entirely lost its strong smell, because, by the evaporation, the oil of turpentine still left in the resin goes off without losing weight, but, on the contrary, is increased, by the strength proceeding from the lessive.
If this resin be intended for sale to other soap-boilers, it must be poured into the casks, and, after being stirred several times, left to cool. This stirring is necessary, otherwise the resin will become sandy, in cooling in the casks.
If this resin is to be made into. soap immediately, one hundred pounds of potash lie at twenty-six degrees must be mixed with eighty of resin, and a. clear resinous soap will be produced, which can be raked into the finished soap; but it must be worked without fire. When applied in this manner, fifteen per cent. may be used, which would not give a stronger smell nor a browner colour than if seven per cent. had been used in another manner. In using fifteen per cent., it is quite necessary that the gray of the lie. should be stronger
64 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVElUES
than usual, but the resin will absorb some of the lie afterwards. Moreover, purifying the resin gives this advantage, that in washing with the soap, it does not affect the skin, and does not chap the hands of the washerwoman. The pricking of the resin on the skin can be in a great measure avoided, by working the potash without lime.
Addition of Salt.
If the soap is finished enough to show the gray of the lessive, and if short and clear, to a boiling of fifty tons half a measure of whale oil is added to make the gray disappear. The day after, fifteen pounds of brine at nine degrees, to every ton, are raked in, which of course will make the gray reappear. If the. soap is to be of a better quality, instead of fifteen pounds at nine degrees, ten pounds at thirteen degrees must be added, on which the soap will be covered with a kind of spider's web, but which disappears on the cooling, without the soap becoming glassy. This brine can be employed both in summer and winter, and produces a soap two shillings per ton cheaper. It can also be used in boiling with linseed or hempseed oil, and half soda and
IN lUNUF AClTUlUNG SOAPS, ETC. 65
half potash Iie,: in which case the brine must be at twenty degrees, and the quantity lessened six to eight pounds per ton.
Among all the additions, that of brine is the best and most advantageous, and a good soap-boiler will certainly make use of it, after having made his calculations. However, a strong proportion of lime is necessary, because, on adding salt, the soap becomes a little softer, which a soap weak in lime, and already soft, cannot bear. The addition of brine must never take place on the day the soap is boiled, whilst it is yet warm, thin, and glassy; and it must be poured on through a'watering-pot, that it may be equally distributed in fine drops, and during this addition another raking must be given. The addition of resin does not prevent that of brine also, but, on the contrary, they can be used together. If the soap is disturbed after the addition of the brine, a. little whale oil mixed with soap is to be raked into the boiler, after which the clarifica.tion will take place. To each ton, from one and a half to two measures will be sufficient.
66 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
Addition.Df Potato Starch.
This addition is already very ancient, and many soap-boilers employed it formerly, but latterly have discontinued it, not knowing how to get rid of the gum which is formed in the flour of the potato. We have made many experiments for that purpose, and have arrived at the following method, which we consider the best:
The potato flour intended to be used is to be dissolved cold in the proposed quantity of brine, stirring it continually and properly. It must be left to settle until the next morning, in a tub or vat, apart, after which it may be raked in among the soap. By its infusion with the brine, the lumps which form in dissolving it with the lie are avoided. In dissolving potato flour in water to prevent the lumps, it absorbs too much water to add to a. soap nearly finished, and cannot be got rid of otherwise than by boiling, unless the soap has not been already strongly boiled. The soap containing potato flour must not be boiled, because in boiling the flour reunites in one complete mass, and forms places in the soap . not transparent. For the flame reason, a soap
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETc. 67
which contains potato flour must not be reboiled, because, after the boiling, the starch shows itself in points, as if the sediment of oil had been used. In this manner it is discovered when the soap of another maker contains potato flour. Should one have such a soap, which still contains too much water, and which becomes long in the cask, some finished soap must be added; it can also be merely heated and shortened by muriatic acid, without boiling the soap.
The potato flour not only absorbs the water from the soap, but it also requires its own saturation of potash, because it takes away the gray from the prepared soap. It can be used as much as eight pounds to a ton; but then the soap is disturbed, and therefore we recommend not to exceed four pounds per ton; and also it is only to be used in the summer months, because a soap of this kind, made in winter, offers no resistance to the cold, and is disturbed on account of the surcharge of aqueous matters resting in the soap, in consequence of the profitable employ of potato flour.
, If the soap is well prepared and short, ten pounds of brine at six degrees can be used to
68 THE .OST RECENT DISOOVEBIES
dissolve four pounds of potato flour; if the soap is still long, the brine must be at nine degrees. Thus, as we have already observed, the soap having need of lie after the addition of potato flour, some corrosive lie and potash at twenty-six degrees must be given to it, until the gray again sppeers.
Addition of Dextrine.
Dextrine is a flour from potatoes changed into a gum, which is made use of to stift'en linen, and to gum the cotton st¢fs in printing fabrics. It is found in commerce in small brown lumps, and then ground or pulverized in a mortar to a state of yellow powder, which sticks to the wetted finger, and is transparent. It is treated in the same manner as the potato flour, but it renders the soap more tra.nspa.-rent than the last: however, as it is dearer, it is not much used. The extra expense in using it is only five shillings per hundred weight.
The best method with the dextrine, is, to grind it small, and strew it in powder on the soap, and to rake in, for every pound of dextrine, three pounds of potash lie at five de. grees.. If the soap is still weak in lie, the last
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 69
must be used at twenty-three degrees. The dextrine has the same qualities as the potato flour, and should be preferred to the latter, as the soap keeps more transparent with it.
Addition of Glue.
Among the substances most advantageous to add in winter, is the cabinet-maker's glue, or animal glue, when it is cheap.
The glue must be soaked in rain water, and boiled with six pounds of water for one of glue, until it is melted. For each ton or soap, one pound of glue, with the said quantity of water, must be used, and raked in with the soap, the day after boiling: however, the gum having need of much lie for its saturation, a potash lie of twenty-three degrees must be prepared for the gray.
In working with the glue, the soap does not thicken as well as with the potato flour, . or the dextrine, but is always thin, and the glue freely sticks to the bottom. The employ of it then is inadmissible, if much resin is . used, because it will be found united with it at the bottom.
Great attention must qe paid also in taking. the soap from the boiler as cold as possible, 7
70 THE )[OST RECENT DISCOVERIES
and to stir it often in large tubs, to prevent a deposit.
Addition of gr01rnd Gun-flints, (sulphate of barytes.)
This substance can be employed in making black soap; however, it is not suitable when the soap is to be used for bleaching, or for manufacturing purposes, as it always forms a. deposit.
When SUlphate ofbarytes is to be employed, five pounds per- ton must be boiled in potash lie at twenty-two degrees, until all is melted. This takes place in two or three hours, and double the quantity of lie will be required for that purpose. The next day it is raked into the finished soap. No traces of it are seen in the soap, and the only fear is, that it will be felt by the fingers when rubbing it on the linen; but as soon as it is used in washing, and the strength of the sulphate is lost in the water, the first state is resumed in depositing itself. Although this deposit is so trifling, that it is sometimes not to be seen, still it makes the linen harsh and stiff. The cheapness of this substance, being but five shillings per hundred weight, is in a great measure the cause of its consumption.
IN ~ACTUlUNG SOAPS, ETC. 71
Addition of Alum.
Alum, when dissolved, is suitable for an addition to green soap; especially is it adviseble to be added when united with brine, because it destroys the gray produced by the salt.
When fifty tons of soap are to be boiled:
In Summer. 400 lbs. water. 37 " salt. 121" alum.
260 lbs. water. 24 " salt.
S " alum.
61" manganese. 4" manganese.
These being well mixed together, will be added to the soap when nearly finished. If the gray is too much lost, after the addition of the alum, some lie must be given.
Alum alone can likewise be employed thus: i>r fifty tons of soap, fifty pounds of alum are dissolved in hot water, and strong lie of potash poured in, until in this boiling liquid some white spots appear, which precipitate. This deposit is sulphuric gravel, which the potash disengages from the alum. The potash lie must be continued untillacmus paper, when dipped in, preserves its blue colour, which will prove that the last trace of acid in the
72 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVE_RIES
alum is consumed; for until that is the case,
lacmus paper becomes red. .
This mixture is left to repose until the next day, when all will be precipitated. ~ clear water will be found on the top, whilst the sulphuric gravel will be at the bottom in a white mass, of the consistency of broth. The clear is drawn off, and kept until the next solution of alum; and the sediment at the bottom, diluted with a little water, is added to the soap. Some strong lie must be again added, because the sulphuric gravel consumes a great quantity of lie. This method is to be recommended in winter, as the soap will not then become too stiff.
Mixture of Soap with Cocoanut Oil.
Cocoanut oil is well known to be disposed to absorb some quantity of water, and for that reason, is made use of, in many instances, to increase the quantity of black soap. The best method is not to begin boiling with it, but to add it to the soap when finished; for in boiling with it, the soap becomes a heavy and badly shortened paste.
When cocoanut oil is used, for a boiling of fifty tons, one hundred lbs, are required. This
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 73
mass is poured into another boiler, and heated. with one hundred pounds soda lie at twenty degrees, and thus changed into a soap, but too weak in lie. To this soap three hundred pounds of brine at fifteen degrees must be added, and when the whole is well united, left to cool. If this cocoanut soap is to be added, it must be cut into pieces of two inches at most, and given to the finished soap. These pieces dissolve very quickly, and unite with the other soap. However, we do not approve of this method, because a grease so hard as the cocoanut oil, when united with the soap, often produces white spots on it.
Although the soap is well saturated with this oil, and on proving appears well prepared, still it absorbs even in the cask much of the strength of the lie which it yet requires from the soap, which then becomes long and disturbed. This mixture is only calculated as a medium whereby a quantity of brine can be added to the soap, and may be done without the addition of cocoanut oil, which we have never considered as advantageous. Cocoanut oil is well known to produce more soap than whale oil, but to add it immediately on the ebullition is, as we have before re-
74 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
marked, a bad method, on account of the heavy paste it produces, and also too much froth in boiling. But bad cocoanut oil is often cheaper than whale oil, and the use of it consequentlyadvantageous. To profit by this advantage, the soap must be made almost to boil, and the cold oil given to the soap, which is shortened by a lie at twenty-six degrees, as soon as the oil is melted. It is not advantageous to use more than fifteen per cent., as the soap by means of the cocoa nut oil is brought to a stiff paste, and by adding much, the profit is lost by the necessary evaporation. We therefore advise the use of cocoanut oil in summer, because in winter it makes soap white too fast, and in general only when much linseed or hempseed oil is used, because whale oil contains in itself cold matter enough already.
Employ of Non-corrosive Lie.
The employ of potash not corrosive, may, it is true, be recommended as a means whereby a favourable produce can be effected: however, it must be previously ascertained that the soap is already strong enough of lime, which is done by finding it -sufficiently firm
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 75
on proving it. When non-corrosive is to be used, the soap should be nearly finished, and appearing as if wanting only about two or three measures of lie more to be quite finished; then some potash at twenty-five degrees must be given. If two or three measures of corrosive lie are supposed to be sufficient, then double the quantity of non-corrosive lie will be wanting to obtain the gray, which happens because a soap absorbs more, as the lie without lime is not so mordant, and although the union is not deranged, and no disturbance appears, yet the soap becomes softer, which is not disadvantageous when it is strong in lime, since, on proving properly, we have at hand the means of judging, and knowing when it is necessary to discontinue the use of the non-corrosive lie, and to recommence with corrosive lie to prevent the soap from becoming too soft.
Employ of Non-corrosive Lie to save Linseed or Hempseed Oil.
In countries where they boil with whale oil only instead of oil, it is necessary to possess the means of sparing the oil, and still to be able to obtain an article which does not
76 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
whiten. This means consists in the prepa.ration of lie without lime. For this purpose, the soap is boiled in the German manner, and the oil poured all at once into the boiler, and made clear by means of, lie. If the soap is clear on the spatula without having sufficient. lie, it must be given without lime, till the soap' is clear, and if it is to be preserved till winter, not only must a third of the lime be retired by addition of potash, but also the lime must be frothed as much as possible by means of the potash.
The convincing indications should be the following. On pouring out the proof, the hot soap should run clear on the glass; after the cooling, melt gently on the finger, and be covered with a skin, as if boiled too strongly, and should whilst still warm on the glass, appear as if some dust had been thrown upon it. If the signs of not being too weak in lime have not yet appeared, some whale oilmixed with lie must be added, and shortened again by means of potash lie. Such a soap boiled for the winter with whale ~il, without adding other oil, will not bear soda, for the whale oil being a cold grease, the addition of soda makes the soap whiten still faster. The
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 77
appearance also is not so favourable, as it remains disturbed, and the smell is very disagreeable. The best advice to give is, when there is no great difference in price between whale oil and other oil, to employ one with the other. And on this point we must also take the season into consideration: the soap boiled in September is generally used about the end of November, and consequently has no need of oil; whereas, on the contrary, one-fifth can be employed in October, one-third in Novem- . ber, and two-fifths in December. By this oil we mean only hemp seed and linseed oil, for all the other oils weJrnow of do not resist the cold better than whale oil. If common oil and whale oil are equal in price, we should give the preference to oil for winter. soap, because, in the first place, the article is finer, and more soda can be used, which is always cheaper than potash, and moreover, it is not necessary to evaporate the soap so much. Even if the difference should be one-sixth the cwt., we should choose the oil.
When the whale oil soap boiled in winter is not soft enough, and the vessel too full to add more oil, the object can be attained by mixing for fifty tons of soap one-half sulphuric acid
78 THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
with half a bucket of weak lie, and pouring it on the soap whilst boiling, and continuing till it has attained the proper degree of firmness. By this method, the lime froths up, and changes into a sulphuric gypsum. We have in this manner given as much as three pounds sulphuric acid to a boiling, and have notwithstanding obtained a very satisfactory result.
Prompt and easy means of proving the quality of the Soda and Potash sold in commerce.
Among all the alkalies of commerce there is no soda or potash to be found of perfect purity; the least impure are those which contain carbonic acid and water ; then follow those containing ashes, carbonate of lime, brick earth, argillaceous earth, oxydes of iron, manganese, and copper; also the muriatic and sulphuric alkalies, the last often fraudulently mixed, and which the consumer has not the power to discover.
For a long time a medium has been sought by which every one could prove for himself the value or purity of soda and other alkalies. The ariometer, which is so convenient for proving the lie and the acids, is of no use for
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 79
this purpose. Different acids have been tried, of which, the sulphuric acid has obtained the preference, being always to be found, and always of the same concentrated strength of sixty-six of Beaume: the best and quickest way to ascertain the value of different samples of alkalies is by saturation with sulphuric acid.
Decroizelles has made an instrument for the purpose, which consists of a glass tube eight to ten inches long, and seven to eight lines in diameter, closed at the bottom by the pedestal on which it stands, and the top open, with a projecting brim, which is waxed to prevent the liquor running along the brim while being poured out; a scale of a hundred lines is cut on it from the top to the bottom with a diamond pen.
The proving liquid is composed of nine parts of rain or river water, which are poured into a bottle large enough to contain double the quantity. Then one part of concentrated sulphuric acid at sixty-six degrees is dropped into the water, at the same time carefully shaking the bottle. Without this precaution, the bottle might break in the hand from the sudden heat produced by the acid at the
80 THE MOST RECENT DISOOVEIlIES
bottom, to which it descends at once, on account of its specific gravity, but which shaking prevents. It is then left to cool. This" mixture should be at twelve and a half degrees of temperature according to Reaumur, and nine degrees according to Beaume,
If this mixture is stronger, viz., more than nine degrees, some water must be added to reduce it to the exact degree, and when under the nine degrees, as much acid must be given as will raise it to that scale, taking care always to shake the bottle when adding. This proving fluid must be kept in a bottle well corked or with a close fitting glass stopper,'
To prove with the alkali metre, the weight of one decagram or two shillings worth of potash is dissolved in a glass or cup of hot water sufficient to fill three-fourths of the tube. The solution can be hastened with a small wooden or glass stirrer. When dissolved, it is poured into the glass tube, which is then filled with water. This is poured back into the glass or cup, and another tube full of water added to it. It is then stirred and left for the dirt to deposit; the tube is then filled with the clear solution, which is poured into a cup for the proof. Some pieces of paper dyed a light red
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 81
by laemus are placed on the rim of a small plate; on the other side some pieces of lacmus dyed paper, but not red.
The proving fluid is then poured into the tube which has been cleansed with water to the line o. The tube is held obliquely in the left hand to allow the fluid to run on the solution of potash or soda, the half of which has been poured into a glass for the proposed saturation. Whilst the fluid is flowing But in a small stream, an effervescence will be produced by the escape of the carbonic acid. When the liquid has been poured out to line forty, the saturation may be tried, and for that purpose a small quantity adhering to the end of the aforesaid stirrer may be applied to one of the red pieces of paper. If it becomes blue, more liquid must be added, but in a. contrary case the potash is of an inferior quality. The liquid is still to . be poured out, and proved from time to time till the effervescence ceases, and the blue lacmus paper becomes light red. The tube is then held upright, and it can be at once seen by the scale, how much of the fluid has been used. If the fluid shows fifty-six on the scale, then the potash has fifty-five, as one degree is to be allowed for the excess of satu-
82 . THE HOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
ration. This fifty-five degrees is the medium degree of the potash of commerce.
If saving of time be an object, there is a. quick method of proving, by dissolving only five grammes of potash in hot water and proceeding at once to the saturation. This is a. very expeditious method, but less exact on account of the foreign matters mixed with the alkalies, and can only be resorted to by mutual agreement between buyer and seller.
The many thousand trials which have been made within the last forty years give the following proportionate result.
American potash first quality 60-65
" reddish caustic" " 60-63
" potash second" 50-55'
" grayish caustic" " 50-55
Russian white potash . 52-58
Dantzig " " 45-52
" blue " 45-· 52
Alicante soda • 20-33
Egyptian nitre 20-33
Soda and nitre 2-3 quality 10-15
Carbonate of soda crystallized and dry 36.
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 83
Decision of the exact time that the Soap. can be kept.
Every soap-boiler should invariably possess the means of knowing whether the soap still in the boiler can be kept during the probable approaching temperature. In order to ascertain this point, we have a method perfectly sure, and at the same time very simple, which, without drawing the soap from the boiler, gives us the tranquillizing assurance that in the interval of two or three months, it will not deteriorate in the casks. For winter soap, we take ice for the purpose, and for summer soap, we make use of warm water. A thermometer is also wanted, which is not fixed to wood, a glass tube, some Glauber salts and muriatic acid; the glass tube must be six or eight inches long, and in the inside threequarters of an inch in diameter.
In boiling soap, which should always be. done, so that it will keep two months at least, we must take into consideration the probable temperature of those two months, and also the country we inhabit, which last point is of the greatest importance in this respect.
When we-boil soap for the winter, we must, although, in September, so manage that the
84 THE MOST RECENT DISOOVElUES
cold which will arrive two months later, shall not exercise an injurious influence on the soap. In September the soap should already be able to support the temperature of the freezing point. In October, it should bear from three to five degrees, in November seven degrees, in December and January from eight to ten degrees below freezing point.
Also in February, it should still brave the temperature of the freezing point, and in March, by a heat of seven degrees, and in April and the other summer months by a heat of twenty degrees, it should not change
from its original good quality. .
It would be impossible to state an invariable criterion by the indications we are about to give, as all depends on the heat or coolness of the summer, and the severity or mildness of the winter; and therefore these indications must only serve as a means of calculation in
·boiling for the different seasons. Every soapboiler should keep in view the time his merchandise will have to be kept, and his boiling must depend on that point. If a maker has customers near his fabric, he may suppose all his goods will be sold in a month, whilst the maker who sends his merchandise to a dis-
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 85
tance, should reckon two months as the duration of its sale. A maker who,in the first po. sition, would boil beforehand for two months, would find in autumn the disadvantage of having a soap too much boiled, and without the necessity of so much boiling. The same inconvenience would occur in spring, if in March soap is boiled for the month of May, for one night's frost, which often happens in March and April, would make the soap white or long. - We repeat, that every soap-boiler should consider well the time he will have to keep his soap; also the temperature at the time of boiling, and the probable state of the weather when his soap will be sold. To examine a soap for the approaching temperature, some ice is wanted for the months after October, which must be thus prepared.
A pint glass must be one-third filled with Glauber salts, and muriatic acid poured on it till the salts are covered. This mass when melted will show, on the thermometer placed inside, a temperature of twelve to :fifteen degrees below zero. If much Glauber salts are used, the cold will last a long time. Glauber 'salts with sulphuric acid at forty-one degrees produce a cold fiv~ degrees of }tea,UUlUI',
86 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
Snow with the salts gives fifteen degrees; twothirds of snow and one-third sulphuric acid will produce thirty degrees. This mass so formed is not ice, but becomes so, when wa.ter in small quantities comes in contact with it.
If a soap for the autumn must keep a.t six degrees below zero, the Glauber salts must· be dissolved a little in the muriatic acid, on which the cold will decrease from twelve or fifteen to five. or six degrees. Then some hot soap must be poured into the glass tube, and the thermometer introduced into it, and then the glass tube placed in the solution of ice and left there till the thermometer shows the degree at which the soap is intended to remain. When the thermometer has remained some time at this point, and in the ice, the tube is taken out, and also the thermometer from the soap. If after this operation, the soap is preserved clear and firm, we can reckon with certainty upon itskeeping always to that degree, end without becoming disturbed and long. But should it appear still either troubled or long, it will be necessary to evaporate more water by a longer boiling.
When a soap boiled for the summer is to be examined to ascertain whether it will atend-
IN M.ANUF AOTURING SOAPS, ET(J. 87
the heat without becoming fluid, some warer is used at the degree of heat to which, in midsummer the temperature generally a.rrives. In this respect it is s¢licient to expose the. soap to a trial of twenty degrees of Besumur. If after that trial the soap does not become soft, the heat will neither injure :nor soften, it. If the soap has been well prepared, (sad all the qualities of a good soap.boiled enough have been seen on the glass according to the before described indications,) should it become soft, this defect must be remedied before being put into the casks. First, it must be tried to repair the fault by an addition of lessive to increase the hardness, as the soap can bear more of the gray of lie in summer than in winter; if this does not succeed, and the soap is still soft, there is lime wanting. without doubt, which must be given in the next boiling: to increase the hardness it is indispensably necessary to add some melted tallow to this boiling.
Under these circumstances, according to the softness of the soap, from four to six per cent. of whale oil or common oil must be poured into the soap, and as soon as it is melted, as much soda lie at thirteen to fifteen
88 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
degrees must be poured in till-the soap is saturated afresh: the mixture must boil for an hour, and the soap worked according to the instructions, and after that- the hardness will appear. In such a case it is not right to saturate the tallow with strong lie to save time in boiling; for in so doing, the tallow will not unite with the soap sufficiently, and will form white spots in the soap later. In those countries, where in summer, on account of the low price, or to avoid giving the so~p the smell of whale oil, they boil with linseed or hempseed oil, it is necessary at the commencement to add five or ten per cent. of tallow, or ten to fifteen per cent. of palm oil when it is cheaper, by which also the firmness is obtained: however, we must observe that this addition of tallow or palm oil must not be employed from October until March.
If whale oil or oil of colza is boiled with an addition of lumps, then the addition of tallow is superfluous: however, if the soap does not preserve its necessary hardness, it is either too short of lime, or too weak in lie.
Lastly, we will add, that in using palm oil, the preference should be given to that which is whitened, to which point we will refer hereafter,
IN KANUFAGTUJUNG SOAPS, ETG. 69
To shorten the Soa.p without Fire.
It often happens, that in preparing the soap, too much water is left in it; and as a consequence, the next day there appefmJ in the boiler more water than there should be; no other means to remedy this defect were formerly known than to light the :fire again, or to shorten it with salt and strong lie: but if the soap shows enough of the gray of the lie, an excess only will have been given, and a disturbed soap, 'which should especially be avoided for the winter boiling. Therefore, as the soep cannot bear another boiling, when an augmentation is applied, we have recourse to the following method.
One or two tons of soap, according to the size of the boiler, are put into a tub or an open cask, and muriatic acid poured on till the lie is separated from the soap. After letting it stand till the lie has sunk, the soap which is separated is put into the boiler, and the lie which cannot be used again, is put aside. This soap, containing no water, will absorb sufficient in the boiler. It will melt with the other soap, and take up as much water as it has lost, and thereby all the soap
90 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
in the boller will shorten without the need of fire. . By this process seventy pounds of lie to each ton is taken away. Such a separation can be effected by the addition of the strongest lie, but the granulated soap separated and swimming on the lie should be mixed with a little oil before being added to the soap, otherwise the soap would be overcharged. The proportion of muriatic acid remaining in the soap is not at all injurious to it, but sulphuric acid must not be employed.
If the soap in the boiler is a little cold, that which is to be added can be heated in another boiler, or, in case of extremity, a little fire may be made under the large boiler, but not more than is necessary to heat it moderately; for. on account of. the substances added, the mass must not boil, otherwise all the advantages hitherto obtained would be lost.
Manufacture of Transparent Soap (Oleine.)
By this name is called the oil obtained by the pressure of tallow or palm oil when making the bougies of stearine, and of which a fourth and even a third is employed for black soap, in order to produce a firmness in
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 91
the soap. In the fabrics of stearine, there is generally a soap made by the name of oleine, which is much esteemed not more for its qualities or washing purposes, than for its agreeable odour of violet. This soap is not made entirely of oleine, but with an addition of onefourth or one-third of whitened palm oil, which gives it the smell of the violet.
To boil such a soap, a lie as strong as possible must be prepared, and immediately begun with one at twenty degrees instead of fifteen, and finished with one from twenty-five to twenty-eight degrees.
A great proportion of lime is necessary, for the oleine contains much vitriol, which absorbs the lime from the lie, which should not be short of lime. . When the soap is worked with lie too weak, it becomes too soon troubled, and white: the American potash only should be used as much as possible; it contains more lime or corrosive strength than all the others. We cannot advise the use of soda for this soap; for if used the soap whitens too fast, and on that account the increase of soap by adding other substances is inadmissible. The whitening so quickly arises from there being still much - tallow in the oleine, and also the palm oil is still charged with s~aim.~.
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In autumn and in winter, the addition or linseed oil is requisite, and in the proportion of one-half oleine, one-fourth linseed oil, and one-fourth palm oil. As the soap of oleine is boiled more strongly than whale oil soap, a hundred pounds must be used for each ton of two hundred and forty pounds, whereas with ninety-six pounds of whale oil, a ton of soap can be made. The soap of oleine cannot be dyed green, because the brown of the oleine will not admit of a. fine green: an addition of gall-nut and curcuma is the best.
Fabrication of soft White Soap.
Different sorts are made under this denomination, and are distinguished from each other by their softness or hardness. The best is that which is quite soft like green soap, and preserves that greasy state, and does not dry \ on the sides through resting in the casks. 0 ~" -:
To make white soft soap, sixty per cent. of melted tallow and forty per cent. of South sea whale oil are boiled together, with potash lie of twenty-two degrees for the medium, as for green soap till it is short and clear: although the clear will remain only a short time on the glass, yet this soap will be white after cooling.
IN 1LA!TUFACTUBING SOAPS, ETC. 93
If for a measure weighing one hundred pounds a measure and a half of lie at twenty-two degrees are used, the proportion of lie will be well arranged, and if the soap does not yet showthe gmy,more lieis tobe added until it is seen on proving on the glass, whereon it must be boiled, to make it short, for this soap must be as short as black soap. When this is effeeted, two pounds of salt must be added to each hundred pounds of grease, and dissolved by stirring continually; or instead of salt, some brine at twenty-eight degrees is poured in, but which must not boil with it. The salt is added that the soap may become whiter and lose the clear appearance of green soap. If it is wished to increase the quantity of the soap, some .white clay can be added, first broken into small pieces, and boiled in lie at twenty degrees, and raked into the soap when settling before the cooling; another mixture can also be employed, which produces a soap equally good, soft and white, and of an agreeable odour, viz., sixty per cent. of whitened palm oil and forty per cent. of linseed oil.
This is boiled as we have before described, but with the difference that sixty per cent. 9
94 . THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
potash and forty per cent. soda lie are to be used. The soda lie must be added last, with a moderate fire. For this sort of soap, baked clay can also be employed, and also ground gun flints. These two ways of boiling which are thus described, yield one ton of soap for the hundred pounds. If a prudent addition is to be made, not more than fifteen pounds of clay or gun flints should be used to the ton, otherwise the deposit in the wash tub would be too remarkable.
Soft White Soa.p yielding 400 pounds.
To make such a soap, there must be: 75 tallow
25 cocoanut oil;
and made to boil together' with two parts of potash lie and one part of soda, till the soap leaves a sharp biting on the tougue; then a brine at twenty degrees must be added till a strong paste is formed when cooling, and on pressing it with the finger on the glass it separates; on which it is to be put into the cask. This soap cannot be weighed like the green soap with a ladle, but must be cut from the cask. Being very cheap, it is made use
IN 1LANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 95
of, in many countries, for washing and scourmg.
Soft Brown Soap, partly firm.
This soap of forty per cent. tallow and forty per cent. whitened palm oil boiled with onehalf potash lie and one-half soda lie; after the boiling, twenty-five per cent. of resin mixed with potash lie until it is saponified must be added. The resin must have absorbed enough lie to show the gray when proved, and be clear; it should be properly raked into the soap, so as to prevent a deposit. The sediment of potter's clay can be used; but this soap must be always drawn out cold, because the clay and resin, being heavier than the soap, readily deposit at the bottom.
Examination of potash to discover whether it is mixed with soda or salt.
With respect to the potash to be used, the American should always have the preference, as being the most powerful, and depositing the less dirty matter, which is all consumed by a strong boiling. But it is a subject of complaint that the American potash is not 80
96 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVEJUES
strong 88 formerly, which is attributed to a mixture with soda. After the American, the Russian, the Hungarian and Rhenish potash follow, neither of which is so strong of lime 88 the American, nor so good for boiling lie, 88 the lime concretes more in the others, and is more difficult to be stirred in the lie tubs.
It is often complained that the different sorts of potash are adulterated, and often with truth, there being clay, crystallized soda, and salt frequently found in them. Potash mixed with clay produces in the solution a considerable earthy deposit which renders the raking with the lime more difficult: however, this fraud can be easily detected, for on examining the potash with the alkali metre, an infinitely less degree of strength is found than a good potash contains.
The addition of soda is not so easily discovered, because it likewise shows its strength on the alkali metre; but it is not that soda of seventy to eighty per cent. which is mixed, but common soda crystallized, which is first pulverized and mixed with a blue, to give it the outward appearance of potash. This fraud, when it exists, is easily discovered by a magnifying glass, which shows the parts
IN MANUFACTURING SOAPS, ETC. 97
dyed. When these' parts are in water, the colour disappears, whilst the transparent parts which the colour could not penetrate remain in the hand.
This method is employed to discover the falsification by salt, which betrays itself still more easily, because in weighing the potash with the alkali metre, the salt which it may contain does not indicate the degrees, and consequently the low degree on the metre leads immediately to the detection.
To find the mixing of muriate of soda (kitchen salt) With the potash, a certain quantityof potash must be weighed and dissolved in rain water previously saturated with clear nitrous acid. Then some drops of a diluted solution of nitrate of silver are added, on which a gradual precipitate will quickly deposit at the bottom. From the quantity of this deposit an estimate can be formed of the extent of the adulteration. But as the proof is rather expensive, it is better to saturate a certain weight with sulphuric acid, and to evaporate the mass, to have it dried with a moderate heat in a porcelain saucer. The salt mass is then dissolved in rain water, and brought to a state of crystallization. The sulphate of
98 THE MOST BBCENT DISCOVEJUBS
potash will crystallize first in small pointed crystals of a pyramidical form, and afterwards, when no more sulphate of potash deposits from the remainder of the lie, the sulphate of soda (Glauber salts) formed from nitre; or the muriate of soda (kitchen salt) will crystallize in the form of columns, which exposed to a dry air, decompose, or are reduced to powder. By the quantity of this last salt, the extent of the adulteration with kitchen salt or soda is found. A complete or exact chemical analysis is not necessary for the object we have in view, and it is sufficient to know the rules whereby a falsification on a grand scale can be detected.
In order to increase the weight of the potash it is often taken out of the casks and spread on the floor for eight or ten days and often stirred. The object in doing this is perfectly obtained, as it increases the weight from six to ten per cent. without being in the least falsified; but potash worked thus is hard
• and round like small nuts, and pieces are found iIi the middle of the casks white on one side and blue on the other; in short, this potash has generally the appearance of having been powdered with dust. Everyone who
IH lLUWFAC'1'1JlUNG SOAPS, ETC. 99
is not able to form a judgment by the exterior appearance of potash can easily convince himself by means of' the aJk.ali metre of its value.
WhiteniD.g Palm Oil.
Palm oil is whitened or discoloured in four
1. By heat and contact with air.
2. Chromate ofpota.sh and muriatic acid. S. Sulphuric acid and black magnesia. 4. Nitrous acid.
To whiten palm oil by heat when the opera.- . tion is "suitable to the purpose and on a large scale, an iron plated pump is necessary. It
is made like the pumps used to draw the oil from the ca.sks; it has no spout, but only a straight tube with an iron valve in the sucker. The oil is pumped from the top, and flows into an iron plate fitted round the pump and pierced with holes, that, in running through them into the boiler, the oil may come in contact with the air. To make the pump stand -. upright in the boiler, it is fastened below and above to an iron cross, to prevent its moving when worked. The pump must be the width of a hand distant from the bottom, to keep
100 THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES
the oil (which might otherwise cake by the heat and stick to the bottom) in movement by pumping. The pump should be of the
- size of a stove-pipe, (five or six inches,) and of the form used on board ship, and with a handle as long as possible, so as, while pumping, to avoid breathing the emanations, which are very injurious to the lungs. This labour is best done in a covered shed,' open on the. sides.
The day before the whitening, the palm oil must be melted, but the sediment which deposits must not be thrown into the boiler. After having made a fire under the boiler, and heated the mass to sixty or seventy-five degrees of Reaumur, the pumping must commence, and the heat be increased to eighty or eighty-five, and later to ninety degreesproving from time to time the gradation of the heat by a thermometer fixed to the end of a stick, in order to keep it within limits. As soon as the heat comes to eighty-five degrees, the fire must be kept up gently, and the oil will begin to be whiter, which can be seen better by dropping a little on a white plate and letting it cool. If about one thousand pounds are prepared, after boiling two
IN J[ANUFAO'1'O'1UNG SOAPS, ETC. 101
or three hours, and pumping continually, the oil will be of a clear yellow; and then it is time to put the fire completely out, because whitening the oil until the yellow disappears is not right, for this takes place by the heat which the oil contains in itself. .As the boiler still retains much heat, after the fire is taken out, the pumping must continue for half or three-quarters of an hour, to prevent the oil from caking.
Instead of' a pump, an iron plated sieve may be used, which, fixed to a long pole, can be put into the pil, which is allowed to run through, and is thus subjected to a contact with the air for some time.
After being left until the next day, the oil is to be separated from the sediment and worked. In its cold state it will be of a gray yellow, which is lost in the boiling, whilst the sweet odour, which is peculiar to it, remama,
This method of whitening oil must be done by pumping in an iron boiler, and the boiling should not be brought too fast to the greatest heat; but rather there should be three hours at least allowed from the commencement of the boiling to its being whitened, otherwise
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the oil cakes too much. Bad palm oil ~ften requires six or eight hours' boiling.
Whitening by Chromate ,of Potash.
The oil must first be freed from its sediment by being melted and precipitated; and then, with a heat of sixty-five degrees, half a pound of chromate of potash, previously dissolved in two pounds of water, must be added to every one hundred of oil, and carefully and constantly stirred. On every one hundred pounds of oil, one of muriatic acid must be then poured, which, with a continual stirring, will produce a green colour. All must remain until the following day in the cask, when the green will have sunk to the bottom. The clear oil on the top can be drawn off, and when washed once or twice with warm water, can be used.
This method can be recommended to those makers who cannot, on account of the neighbourhood, occasion the strong smell arising from whitening the oil by heat. If sulphuric acid and black magnesia be employed, then to everyone hundred pounds of oil at sixtyfive degrees of heat, three pounds of sulphuric acid and four of magnesia must be added, by which also the yellow will be got rid of; but
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