Y R A L U VOC AB
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS
◆ Science in the News ◆ Computers and the Net ◆ The Natural World ◆ Observations and Experiments

VOCABULARY in context
ELLIOTT QUINLEY
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VOCABULARY iin nc o n te x t context

EVERYDAY LIVING WORDS HISTORY MEDIA
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GEOGRAPHY WORDS LITERATURE WORDS CAREER WORDS

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MARKETPLACE WORDS
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MUSIC, ART, SCIENCE

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TECHNOLOGY WORDS
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WORKPLACE

Three Watson Irvine, CA 92618-2767 E-Mail: info@sdlback.com Website: www.sdlback.com Development and Production: Laurel Associates, Inc. Cover Design: Elisa Ligon Interior Illustrations: Katherine Urrutia, Debra A. LaPalm, C. S. Arts Copyright © 2002 by Saddleback Educational Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher. ISBN-10: 1-56254-400-4 ISBN-13: 978-1-56254-400-3 eBook: 978-1-60291-484-1

Printed in the United States of America 07 06 05 04 03 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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.......... 18 5 How Does a Radio Work? .................. ▼ Word List ........... 99 ▼ Unit 4 Review ................................. 59 3 Try It Yourself: Making Mold .......................................... 77 6 Have You Ever Seen a Sun Dog? ............................ 71 7 Science in the News: Avoiding Potholes on the Information Highway ........... 15 5 Science in the News: A Very Long-Term Experiment ........................ 37 3 Animal Intelligence . 24 ▼ Unit 1 Review .. 27 UNIT 4 Preview ......... Seas. 46 7 Science in the News: Rewriting the Record Books .................... 56 2 Today’s Weather Forecast: A National Overview ......... and Swells : What’s the Difference? ..... 43 7 Noise Pollution: How Loud Is Too Loud? ................................... 87 4 Why Are Deserts Dry? ...................................................... 81 2 Rabbits and Hares: What’s the Difference? .............. 49 ▼ Unit 2 Review ................................. 52 ▼ End-of-Book Test .................................................. 34 3 What Causes Precipitation? ................... 5 1 Unit 1 Glossary ......CONTENTS ▼ Introduction ........ 96 5 Carbon: A Common Element ..... 21 7 Science in the News: The Dangers of Mercury ...... 80 LESSON UNIT 2 Preview . 68 6 The Amazing Rhino ..................................... 93 4 Try It Yourself: Make a Standing Wave . 9 1 Unit 3 Glossary .... LESSON 4 UNIT 3 Preview . 90 5 Q&A Sites on the Internet ..... 31 2 What’s a Hertz ? .................................................... 74 ▼ Unit 3 Review ........................................ 12 4 Two Kinds of Research: Basic and Applied ......... 55 LESSON UNIT 1 Preview .......... 62 3 Waves............ 102 6 In Pursuit of Knowledge: The Scientific Method .................. 6 2 How Does Sunlight Produce Vitamin D? .. Surf.......... 84 1 Unit 2 Glossary . 30 LESSON 1 Unit 4 Glossary .............................. 105 109 3 ............................ 40 6 Science in the News: Monitoring Vesuvius . 65 4 Some Surprising Facts About Bones .............................................

Workplace and Careers. and suffixes. and the efficient use of a dictionary and thesaurus. word roots. Art. and Music. The program was designed to enrich your personal “word bank” with many hundreds of high-frequency and challenging words. A first-class vocabulary must be constantly renewed! In order to earn a reputation as a firstrate communicator. such as drawing conclusions and completing analogies. Better-than-average “word power” makes it easier to understand everything you read and hear—from textbook assignments to TV news reports or instructions on how to repair a bicycle. are included as reinforcement. your ideas are only as convincing as the words you use to express them. In other words. There are six thematic books in the series—Everyday Living. Follow-up exercises provide a wide variety of practice activities to help you unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words. grammatical word forms. 4 . Science and Technology. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT was written especially for you. Think about it: As far as other people are concerned. Each worktext presents topic-related readings with key terms in context. connotations. Thinking skills. And word power obviously increases your effectiveness as a communicator. Media and Marketplace. prefixes. A word of advice: Don’t stop “thinking about words” when you finish this program. and Literature. History and Geography. These strategies include the study of synonyms and antonyms. you must incorporate the new words you learn into your everyday speech and writing.INTRODUCTION Welcome to VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT! A well-developed vocabulary pays off in many important ways. the vocabulary you use when you speak or write always significantly adds to or detracts from what you have to say.

germanate virtabrate proffessor germinate vertebrate perfesser germenate ANSWERS: 1. 9. 1. _____ Hexagon is the noun form of hexagonal. T 3. F 10. T 8. _____ Dynamic is the adjective form of the noun dynamics. 6. _____ Botanists are scientists who study a type of food poisoning called botulism. germinate 5 . vertebrate 2. F 7. 5. _____ The suffix -ion can be used to turn a verb into a noun. skills. F 4. and concepts you will study in this unit. 3. _____ The prefix -al turns the word digit into digital. SPELLING Circle the correctly spelled word in each group. 7. professor 3. 1. professor 3. _____ The words pollute and sterilize are antonyms. T 9. T SPELLING: 1. 10. _____ Cirrus clouds are dark and dense. F 5. Answers are upside down on the bottom of the page.” 8. _____ The plural form of bacterium is bacteriums. Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false. _____ The words molecule and atom are synonyms. T 6.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS UNIT 1 PREVIEW Here’s an introduction to the vocabulary terms. F 2. vertabrate 2. 4. _____ The Greek root therm means “heat. 2.

each of which is dependent on another for food fossils the remains of organisms that lived long ago organisms living things WORDS IN CONTEXT Complete each sentence with a word from the glossary. Use the other words in the sentence to help you decide which word to add. 1. fine dust. 6 . Check the dictionary definition if you’re still not sure. Following are some important scientific and technical words that all educated people should know. represented by a 0 or a 1 byte a string of eight bits standing for a single character carbohydrates sugars and starches in food that give people energy chemistry the scientific study of what substances are made of and how they can change when combined with other substances climate a region’s average weather over many years crust the outer layer of the Earth diskettes disks made of magnetic material and used to store data entered into a computer ecology the study of how all living things depend on one another erosion the wearing away of soil by wind and water evolution time changes in a species over food chain a group of organisms. one-celled organisms that are visible only through a microscope bit the smallest unit of information used by a computer. The devastating Dust Bowl of the 1930s was caused by the widespread ____________________ of America’s farmland.UNIT 1 Lesson 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS GLOSSARY A glossary is an alphabetical list of unusual or specialized words from a certain field of knowledge. and water vapor) that surrounds the Earth atoms tiny parts into which all things on Earth can be broken down bacteria simple. atmosphere the air (made of gases.

6. vegetables. 5. Each ____________________ of information in a computer program stands for a letter. Some ____________________ are useful for making foods such as cheese. or symbol. The study of the relationship between different populations in a habitat is called _____. The _____ extends more than 1. The continents and the ocean floor are part of the Earth’s _____. _____ is the study of what matter is made of and how it can change. 3.2. . 7 1. number. 4. Then solve the crossword puzzle with words that complete the sentences. Life science is the study of all the ____________________ on Earth. 6. ALCTIME ODFO ACHIN COYLOGE MYSTERCHI STRUC ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 5 A F 3 4 E C C T HERPOSTMAE ____________________ ACROSS 5. A desert _____ is mostly hot and dry. SCRAMBLED WORDS 1 2 First unscramble the words from the glossary.400 miles above the Earth’s surface. 4. Fruits. There are two hydrogen ____________________ and one oxygen ____________________ in a water molecule. and grains are all good sources of ____________________. DOWN 6 C 2. Each of the organisms in a _____ (two words) eats one of the other organisms. other kinds can cause sickness and death. 3.

As weather __r__d__s rocks. All of today’s plants and animals __v__l v__d from tiny one-celled creatures. e. A b__c a t__r__ e i __l a infection can usually be treated with an antibiotic. 1. 7. Over time. u ) to complete a different form of a glossary word. Ch__m__s t s often conduct their experiments in laboratories. i. __t__m__c energy is used to power some submarines. 2. carbohydrates lettuce 3. organisms fleas glaciers chemicals instruments butter proteins potatoes overpopulated humid prosperous 8 . 1.WORD FORMS Add vowels (a. salt from the rocks enters the soil. 5. climate mountainous 2. 6. organisms will f__s s__l__z__ if all the conditions are right. Use context clues for help.” EXAMPLES Circle an example of each boldface glossary item. Scientists call lightning an “__t m__s p h__r__c disturbance. 3. o. The first one has been done for you. 4.

The new chemical formed is called Vitamin D3. Our bodies make the Vitamin D we need by “doing chemistry. This is the Vitamin D your stomach needs to absorb calcium. Vitamin D is added to almost all milk that’s sold in the United States. What three organs of the human body are named in the reading? ___________________ ____________________ ____________________ l k s 3. What two-syllable word in the reading means “to attract and take in another substance”? ____________________ n ____________________ a 9 . where the atoms are rearranged to form a new molecule. Years ago. parents were concerned about the lack of sunshine in the dark winter months. They worried that their children weren’t getting enough Vitamin D. There it is taken apart again and put back together as calcitrol.UNIT 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 2 How Does Sunlight Produce Vitamin D? Vitamin D is a chemical that allows your body to make use of an important nutrient called calcium. It helps young people grow strong teeth and straight new bones. WORD SEARCH 1. When it’s in your skin. Today. Then that chemical ends up in your kidneys. It keeps older people’s bones from getting brittle. What nine-letter word in the reading means “food” or “nourishment”? 4. So the D3 is carried to your liver. Vitamin D is essential to everyone’s nutrition. What eight-letter word in the reading means “the smallest particle of a substance that can exist alone without losing its chemical form”? _____________________ m 2.” Sunlight is a part of the chemical reaction that makes Vitamin D. But your body can’t make use of Vitamin D3 until a few more chemical reactions occur. the ultraviolet energy in sunshine snips up another chemical that is already floating around in your body.

1. e 4. r 3. ________________________________________________________________ 5. spirited. 10 . clear.” Read the list of words containing vit or viv.WORD ROOTS • The Latin roots vit and viv mean “life. ________________________________________________________________ 3. _____ vivid 4. 1. necessary to life e. bright. Use a dictionary if you need help. Complete the following analogies with words from the reading. to continue to live or exist d. It points out a likeness between things that are otherwise unalike. Adjust is to readjust as action is to ______________________. energetic c. means “a substance needed by the body for normal growth and health. ________________________________________________________________ 2. Then write a letter to match each word with its meaning.” The word vitamin. c 2. 1. using the five boldface words above. _____ revival a. act of bringing back to life • Now write sentences of your own. ________________________________________________________________ ANALOGIES An analogy is a statement of relationship. for example. ________________________________________________________________ 4. _____ vital 3. Athlete is to athletic as ______________________ is to energetic. Biology is to biologist as ______________________ is to chemist. Multiply is to multiplication as ______________________ is to r rearrangement. _____ vivacious 5. strong b. lively. _____ survive 2.

fizz ________________________ SECOND PARAGRAPH: 3. leaps _______________________ Complete the puzzle with words from the reading. heart ______________________ THIRD PARAGRAPH: 3. permits 5. plate _______________________ SYNONYMS 3. FIRST PARAGRAPH: 1. ACROSS 1 3 4 3. important 7 4. break _______________________ 1. requires 2.RHYMING WORDS Write words from the reading that rhyme with the words below. shore _______________________ 4. plead ______________________ 2. created 7. happen C 11 . buried ______________________ 1. drowned ____________________ 4. named DOWN N 2 E A O 5 C R 6 F 1. voting ______________________ 2. fluff ________________________ 4. strung ______________________ 2. Clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. offspring 6.

UNIT 1 Lesson 3 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Waves.”? 2. You can see swells in the open water even when the current wind is calm. Swell results from the wind’s past action on the water. What ten-letter adjective in the reading means “going in regular order without a break”? _____________________________ t _____________________________ s 12 . WORD SEARCH 1. What ten-letter noun in the reading means “the surface features of a region. roads. and Swells : What’s the Difference? All four terms refer to the conditions of a large body of water’s surface. more rolling action than that of a wave. The distance between successive crests is called the wavelength. The topography of the coast also affects surf. In their graceful rise and fall. for example. Surf. Sea refers to the distinct features of the wave—such as crests—caused by wind blowing across the water’s surface. etc. waves are a combination of sea and swell. The generic term wave refers to the undulations of the water’s surface. will have small surf. A beach with a gentle. including hills. rivers. offshore slope. It is influenced by the height and energy of the waves. It has a gentler. Seas. A beach that drops off sharply will have larger surf. Surf is the interaction of the waves and the shoreline.

art. 13 . 4. Route 66 is a well-known ETAST ____________________ highway. 3. 4.” Write a word from the reading that begins with each prefix. assigns meaning to 7.WORDS AND MEANINGS Use the clues to help you solve the crossword puzzle. That science fiction story is about TALCGAIC ____________________ warfare in outer space. Answers are words from the reading.means “away from. words or phrases with special meanings in science. 1. tops or summits of waves 8. off-limits until he 2. has an effect on DOWN 1 S 4 5 2 W 3 T G R 6 F 1. colorless liquid found in oceans 5. etc. beautiful ease of movement 6. ACROSS 2.” and the prefix off. The first one has been done for you. The actor waited GATES ___________________ until he heard his cue. describes smooth. 5.means “between. the outside of something 3.or off-. _______________________________ _______________________________ • Now replace each scrambled word in the sentences below with a new word that begins with inter. points toward. qualities or characteristics 8 7 C I C PREFIXES • The prefix inter. Tom said the tree house is MILSTI ____________________ repairs the floor.

3. The store owner hoped his advertisement would have a good ____________________ on sales. If he studies a little harder. affect: to influence or produce an effect upon EXAMPLE: Bright lights affect the eyes. COMPOUND WORDS 1. 2. 1. 1. he can ____________________ a big change in his grades. e. Write affect or effect to complete each sentence. 3. 2. __n d__l__t__ __n s are curvy. wavy motions. u) to complete the words from the reading. W__v__s are a combination of s__ __ and s w__l l. 14 . Surf is influenced by the h__ __g h t and __n__r g y of the waves. o. Are you clear about the difference between the words effect and affect ? effect: the consequence or result of an action EXAMPLE: The moon has an effect on the tides. The distance between cresting waves is named by what compound word? _____________________________ WORD COMPLETION Add vowels (a. i. Why should you allow her bad mood to ____________________ the way you feel? 4. Our assignment was to write a paragraph about one cause and one ____________________ of world hunger.COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS You read that the surface features of the coast affect surf. What compound word (one word made by combining two or more words) is a synonym of the word “beach”? ____________________________ 2.

The bones of longdead creatures that have turned to fossils tell us much about life. 99 percent of the calcium in your body is held in bone—ready for release into the bloodstream as needed. Without them. Some parts—the spongy bones of the spine and hip—renew themselves much more often. vigorous”? 3. wornout bits of bone and putting fresh new material in their place. human bone is a key to understanding who we are as a species. Many people think of the skeleton as a symbol of death. full of dynamic vitality. In fact. What seven-letter noun in the reading means “a group of plants or animals that are alike in certain ways”? 2. these same busy bones are turning out new blood cells. In a broader sense. In fact. WORD SEARCH 1. What seven-letter noun in the reading describes the hardened remains of ancient plants or animals? _______________________ s _______________________ d _______________________ f 15 . specialized cells in your skeleton are chewing up old. What seven-letter adjective in the reading means “active. But each and every bone is a living organ. How do your bones do this? They act as a storage bank for calcium.UNIT 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 4 Some Surprising Facts About Bones Living cells make up less than five percent of your body’s bones—but they are continually busy! At this very moment. every square inch of your skeleton is regenerated every ten years. And they’re making sure that every part of your body gets just the right amount of calcium to keep it going. energetic. Meanwhile. scientists would know very little about the history of vertebrates over the past 600 million years.

16 . Fossils tell us about the history of _____. Then write each unscrambled word next to its synonym (word with a similar meaning). deceased ____________________ 6. A skeleton is often thought to be a ____ of death. Bones release _____ into the bloodstream. 7 F 2. frequently ___________________ 7. Every bone is full of dynamic _____.SYNONYMS First unscramble the words from the reading. 5. 4. 7. beings _____________________ SENTENCE COMPLETION 1 L 2 V Puzzle answers are words from the reading that complete the sentences. quantity ___________________ 3. 3. substance ___________________ 2. Worn-out bits of bone are soon replaced with _____ new material. fewer ______________________ 4. DOWN 6 5 4 C S V I 1. 3 ACROSS S 1. piece ______________________ 5. Fossils are the remains of _____ dead creatures. industrious __________________ 8. SELS _________________________ ADED ________________________ SYBU ________________________ RAPT _________________________ OMANUT _______________________ TRUERACES _____________________ NETFO _________________________ LIARMEAT ______________________ 1. Every bone is a _____ organ. 6. The bones of the spine and hip have a _____ texture.

Are the bones in a 40-year-old the same bones that were there when that person was 25 years old? Explain why or why not. Check a dictionary if you’re not sure! 1. ________________________________________________________________ 3. to renew or give new life to c. _____________________ •the basic unit of living matter (noun) •small room in a jail or prison (noun) •correct or true (adjective) •opposite direction of left (noun) •metal device that unlocks a door (noun) •important or central idea (adjective) •to play a part in a show (verb) •to function or do (verb) 2. genealogy 3. 1. _____________________ 3. What percentage of human bone is not made up of living cells? _________________ 2. Bones hold our bodies upright and protect our inner organs. generation 2. Find a word in the reading that matches each pair of definitions below.” Draw a line to match each word on the left with its meaning on the right. _____________________ UNDERSTANDING THE READING 1. all the people born about the same time d. Write the words on the lines. progeny a.MULTIPLE-MEANING WORDS Some words have entirely different meanings when they’re used in different contexts. ________________________________________________________________ GREEK ROOTS The Greek root gen means “birth. children or offspring b. a family tree or list of ancestors 17 . Describe two more jobs that bones do. regenerate 4. _____________________ 4.

The next one is scheduled to be dug up in 2020. Put in greenhouses.050 seeds in the bottle were set out in a growth chamber. began to grow. William Beal was a botany professor at Michigan State University. What nine-letter noun means “a college or university teacher of the highest rank”? 2. In 1879. What eleven-letter compound word in the reading means “glass buildings that can be heated for growing plants”? 3. The fifteenth bottle was dug up on an April day in the year 2000. To extend the experiment. Professor Beal directed that one bottle should be unearthed every five years. he devised an experiment to determine how long seed would continue to germinate. WORD SEARCH 1. The 1. the plants soon started blooming. Five of William Beal’s bottles still remain buried on the Michigan State campus. The bright yellow flowers were described as “beautiful” by botanists following through with Professor Beal’s experiment. the intervals were lengthened to every ten and then every 20 years. nearly all of them mullein.UNIT 1 Lesson 5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Science in the News: A Very Long-Term Experiment Seeds buried by a botanist 121 years ago have recently bloomed into bright yellow flowers. Twenty-five seedlings. In the late 1800s. What ten-letter noun in the reading means “a test to find out whether a theory is correct”? 18 _______________________ p _______________________ g _______________________ e . To do this he put seeds of mullein plants in 20 glass bottles and then buried them on the campus.

Then write each word next to its synonym (word with a similar meaning). terminate 6.ANTONYMS Use words from the reading to solve the crossword puzzle. sprout ______________________ THINKING ABOUT THE READING 4. characterized ________________ 1. pale. DISCBREED ___________________ NEATIMERG ___________________ CRIEDEDT _____________________ RINWOLFEG _____________________ NEXTED _______________________ EDSIVED _______________________ 1. earlier 1. blooming ___________________ 2. ordered 5. Clue words are antonyms (words that mean the opposite) of the answer words. unearthed 4. dull 3. long 5 3 S 4 G C N 6 L SYNONYMS First unscramble the words from the reading. What’s the name of the branch of science that studies plants and how they grow? _______________ ___________________________ 3. invented ___________________ 3.050 seeds planted in the year 2000 did not grow? 2. lengthen ____________________ ___________________ 6. How many glass bottles of seeds have already been dug up? _______________ 19 . How many of the 1. wither 5. ACROSS DOWN 1 2 B B 2.

Sweet is to taste as ___________________________ is to color. the suffix -ist changes the word botany (the science of plants) into botanist— one who practices botany. s 2. An _________________________ is one who acts. An _________________________ is one who edits. or works with” something. -ist -ian -ant -or -er -ar -ent 1. y 3. Check a dictionary if you need help. Disappear is to vanish as ___________________________ is to stay. An _________________________ practices art. But many other suffixes are also used to show “one who does. 7. Run is to ran as dig is to ___________________________. ___________________________ is to bottle as tin is to can. artist 2. Then complete each analogy with a word from the reading. ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. A _________________________ is one who paints. r 4. Water is to fish as soil is to ___________________________. practices. One who practices magic is a _________________________. Hours are to minutes as ___________________________ are to months. 8. 3. d 7. y 5. Complete the sentences with words that contain the suffixes in the box.SUFFIXES MEANING “one who” In the reading. 1. 5. 4. One who assists is an _________________________. Baby is to child as seed is to ______________________. you must figure out the relationship between the first two words. G 6. One who begs is a _________________________. p 20 . 6. To come up with the missing word. The first one has been done for you. One who resides is a _________________________.

a complete halo results. Sometimes these same crystals—which are in highlevel cirrus clouds—can also create complete rainbow-like halos around the sun. or diagram”? ___________________________ g ___________________________ h 21 . Sun dogs are little patches of rainbow color that appear on the left and right sides of the sun. What seven-letter noun in the reading means “a picture. For a graphic that further explains this phenomenon. ask a reference librarian or surf the Web. WORD SEARCH 1. How are sun dogs created? The ice crystals in the clouds are of different shapes. What six-letter adjective in the reading describes clouds that are “feathery and wispy”? ___________________________ c 2. map. When these hexagonal crystals are oriented in all different directions. Scientists say this is the effect of sunlight refracting as it passes through ice crystals. One type.UNIT 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 6 Have You Ever Seen a Sun Dog? If you glance up at the sun about an hour before sundown or after dawn. The technical name for sun dogs— which are also called “false suns”—is parhelia. What four-letter noun in the reading names a unit of time? 3. will reflect light only to SUN DOG SUN DOG HORIZON the sides of the sun when it is oriented horizontally. shaped like a sixsided plate. you might see a sun dog.

SYNONYMS

Complete the puzzle with words from the reading. Clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words.
1

ACROSS

S

2. spots 5. kind 6. look 7. six-sided
DOWN

2

P

3

C

4 5 6

D

T

G

1. forms 3. total 4. daybreak
LOOK IT UP!

7

H

N

Write the dictionary definition of each word from the reading.

1. phenomenon __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. refracting _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. reflect _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

The word horizontal means “level, flat, parallel to the horizon.” The word vertical means “straight up and down; perpendicular to the horizon.” Write H or V to show whether each item below is horizontal or vertical.

1. _____ the walls of a house 2. _____ the legs of a table 3. _____ a cupboard shelf

4. _____ a flagpole 5. _____ the surface of a pond 6. _____ a city sidewalk

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MYSTERY WORDS

Unscramble the words from the reading that match the definitions.

1. NOTDEERI ______________________: positioned in a certain way 2. SCARTSLY ______________________: regularly shaped pieces formed when many substances become solids 3. CHINCATEL ______________________: describes something used in a particular science, art, or profession
UNDERSTANDING THE READING

Write T or F to show whether each statement below is true or false.

1. _____ Sun dogs always appear just before or after it rains. 2. _____ You can use the Internet to find out more about sun dogs. 3. _____ Sun dogs appear only when there are stratus clouds in the sky. 4. _____ The name “false suns” is also used to describe sun dogs.
WORD FORMS

You can change the form of many words to make different parts of speech. The verb excite, for example, can be changed to the adjective exciting, or the noun excitement. Change the form of each boldface word from the reading according to the directions below. The first one has been done for you.

1. cloud 2. ice 3. appear 4. hexagonal 5. complete 6. reflect

cloudy adjective form: __________________________________
adjective form: __________________________________ noun form: _____________________________________ noun form: _____________________________________ noun form: _____________________________________ noun form: _____________________________________ 23

UNIT 1

Lesson 7

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS

Science in the News: The Dangers of Mercury

Does your family still have an oldfashioned mercury thermometer? These days, most people use the new digital thermometers. They measure temperature faster, and they’re a lot easier to read. How can you get rid of your old thermometer? You can’t just dump it in the trash. That tiny drop of mercury inside can be very dangerous to human health. The half gram of mercury in one broken thermometer is enough to pollute 5 million gallons of water! That’s why a mercury thermometer should never be incinerated or buried in landfill. Instead, old thermometers should be taken to the nearest household hazardous waste site.

Mercury in the environment carries unique risks. It affects the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, and liver. In humans, elevated mercury levels can cause mental and physical retardation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working to reduce human exposure to mercury. In 1998, the American Hospital Association signed an agreement with the EPA to start eliminating mercury from hospitals and clinics. A number of states and cities have recently passed laws making the sale of mercury thermometers illegal.

WORD SEARCH

1. What seven-letter adjective in the reading means “displaying data numerically rather than physically”? _________________________ d 2. What 11-letter noun in the reading means “the conditions that surround a person, animal, or plant and affect its character and growth”? _________________________ e

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2. If the __ __ e __ __ o __ e __ e __ reading is 100°. 7.3. a is used to help forecast the weather. __ __ e __ __ a __ underwear helps to hold in body heat. 1. Because it measures atmospheric pressure. Taylor’s __ __ e __ __ o __ bottle keeps her vegetable soup hot until lunchtime. 5. A unit of length called a __ e __ __ i ___ e __ e __ is one one-hundredth of a meter. What eight-letter noun in the reading means “a place where garbage or rubbish is disposed of by being buried under a shallow layer of earth”? _________________________ l GREEK ROOTS • The Greek root therm. meaning “heat .” appears in a number of English words. 4. The __ i a __ e __ e __ of a circle is a straight line passing through its center. An aircraft’s a __ __ i __ e __ e __ shows height above sea level. • The Greek root meter means “measure. What four-letter noun in the reading means “the basic unit of weight in the metric system: about 1/28 of an ounce”? _________________________ g 4. Add consonants to complete the words. 3. you have a fever. Complete each sentence with a familiar English word containing this root. Bradley uses the __ __ e __ __ o __ __ a __ to turn the furnace on and off. __ a __ o __ e __ e __ 25 .” Add consonants to complete the words containing this root. 6. 8.

Then write each word next to its synonym (word with a similar meaning). signed an agree ______________________________ 3. adding the correct suffix. measure temperature fast ______________________________ 4. 1. frozen c. _____ dangerous SYNONYMS a. hazard ______________________________ waste site 2. _____ elevated 4. ____________________: rubbish 4. ____________________: discard SUFFIXES 3. 1. purify b. lowered First unscramble the words from the reading. ____________________: unlawful 2. _____ incinerated 2. _____ pollute 3. ____________________: unusual What word form will correctly complete each phrase? Rewrite each boldface word.ANTONYMS Write a letter to match each boldface word from the reading with its antonym (word with the opposite meaning). MUPD ______________________ SHART ______________________ NUQUIE __________________________ GALLILE __________________________ 1. new digit ______________________________ thermometers 26 . beneficial d.

1. b 4.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS UNIT 1 REVIEW Here’s your chance to show what you’ve learned in this unit! SENTENCE COMPLETION Write words you studied in Unit 1 to correctly complete the sentences. 1. Off. The suffix ____________________ means “one who practices or does something. i 3. c 6. v 5. 2.” 3. 4. c 2. The words nourishment and nutrition are ____________________. Page is to chapter as bit is to ____________________. The word ____________________ means “to influence or produce an effect.are added to the beginnings of base words to change their meaning. Oak is to maple as stratus is to ____________________.” 6. Then show the same relationship by completing each analogy with a word you studied in Unit 1. and inter.” ANALOGIES Remember that analogies are statements of relationship. 5. Slender is to chubby as ____________________ is to lazy. Ecological is the adjective form of the noun ____________________. The Greek root ____________________ means “birth. Horizontal is to horizontally as ____________________ is to vertically. Figure out the relationship between the first two words. ____________________ such as un-.” i 27 . re-. Steak is to protein as pasta is to ____________________.is to “away from” as ____________________ is to “between.

backward. Check off each word as you find it. features: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5. crystals: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. ___ TOPOGRAPHY ___ EVOLUTION ___ DISKETTES ___ CHEMICAL ___ VERTEBRATES ___ EXPERIMENT ___ FEATURES ___ ECOLOGY ___ SURFACE ___ FOSSILS ___ VITALITY ___ CRYSTALS N D T N E M I R E P X E O S I L T O M D C W V O F O S S I L S C O O C S C H U O K W H G L U E E R T R G O E L U D R N T Y E F O M H T O U B R A S T A I M I I T H N M R T I C M O R A N E A W B A A E N C E T C B S P E L M R E F O O E Y C R T S E Y T I L A T I V O R W F A N O W T H M Z V E I O L G E H L W V U T V G J Y H P A R G O P O T Now use each word in a sentence of your own. down. or diagonally. evolution: ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 28 .HIDDEN WORDS PUZZLE Find and circle the words in the puzzle. topography: _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 3. Be sure that your sentence makes the word’s meaning clear. experiment: _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 4. vertebrates: _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. across. Words may go up. vitality: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 7.

A place where garbage is buried is called a _______________________. treated 4. big crunch cell traded bit 5. swell 7. Sun dogs are little patches of ________________________ color around the sun. 1. chemical: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 10. Your bones release calcium into your _____________________________. fossils: ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 11. 3. drink features swollen surface drop 29 .8. 6. fractures 6. What is a synonym for dawn? ____________________________________ 4. diskettes: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 12. 2. sell 3. What do we call the distance between successive crests of waves? MULTIPLE-MEANING WORDS ___________________________ Circle the word in each pair that can have an entirely different meaning when it’s used in a different context. 1. 5. wave 8. ecology: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 9. surface: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ COMPOUND WORDS Write the compound word from Unit 1 that answers the question or completes the sentence. plants can be grown in a _______________________. In the wintertime. crust 2.

” 7. and skills you will study in this unit. i. observe 4. o. C__r b__n is part of every living thing. _____ The words disprove and verify are antonyms. endangered 1. e. WORD COMPLETION Add vowels (a. T 5. 4. carbon 3. The verb form of observation is the word __b s__r v__. T 4. concepts. 4. The bowhead whale is an __n d__n g__r__d species. T . TRUE OR FALSE Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false. 2. 6. _____ The words characteristics and properties are synonyms. _____ Homonyms are synonyms that sound alike. Answers are upside down on the bottom of the page. T 2. _____ A compound word is made up of two or more words.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS PREVIEW Here’s an introduction to the vocabulary terms. 3. 1. F 7. F 6.means “one million. _____ The prefix kilo. _____ Adding the suffix -al can change a noun to an adjective. 1. __x t__n c t animals are no longer living on the Earth. u) to complete the words. 2. 5. 30 ANSWERS: TRUE OR FALSE : WORD COMPLETION : 1. _____ The plural form of the word theory is theorys. extinct 2. 3. F 3.

used to describe a species that has died out ozone a form of oxygen in a thin layer within the stratosphere precipitation any moisture that falls from the atmosphere respiration the way a cell gets energy by mixing food and oxygen satellite an object that revolves around a planet solar system the sun and all the planets that revolve around it warm-blooded animals whose body temperature stays the same in hot and cold weather water cycle natural process by which water continually condenses. Fish and snakes are ____________________ animals. 2. North America. The ____________________ of Antarctica is in the Southern Hemisphere. Following are some important words from the fields of science and technology. or plant and affect its life evaporation the process by which heat changes water to water vapor extinct no longer living on Earth. evaporates. Antarctica. and condenses again WORDS IN CONTEXT Use context clues (the other words in the sentence) to help you complete the sentences with words from the glossary. Australia. Europe. If you’re not sure. check a dictionary.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 1 GLOSSARY A glossary is an alphabetical list of unusual or specialized words from a certain field of knowledge. 1. and South America environment all the conditions that surround a person. cold-blooded animals whose body temperature changes with the temperature of their environment condensation the process by which gas turns into a liquid continents the seven major land masses on Earth: Africa. 31 . animal. Asia.

In 1957. 32 .3. 11. In a process called the _______________ _______________. Every living thing responds to changing conditions in its _______________________. Squirrels. _______________________ protects the Earth from harmful radiation from the sun. _______________________ begins when the lungs take in air. 6. 13. and mice are all _______________________ animals. _______________________ occurs when water vapor turns into dew. Rain is the most common form of _______________________. 10. In humans. the first manmade _______________________ circled the Earth. Steam coming from a tea kettle is an example of _______________________. 9. 7. 5. 12. all the water on Earth is used over and over again. 4. whales. The dinosaur and the woolly mammoth are examples of _______________________ creatures. 8. Jupiter and Saturn are two planets in our ___________ ____________.

Daisy is to flower as sleet is to ________________________.WORD FORMS To correctly complete each sentence. Begin by thinking about the relationship between the first two words. (environment) ____________________ are those who work to protect Earth’s air and water from pollution. 2. 4. (extinct) Mass ____________________ occurs when many forms of life suddenly disappear from the Earth. rewrite each boldface word in a different form. Venus is to planet as moon is to ________________________. Freezing temperatures ____________________ ANALOGIES Remember that analogies are statements of relationship. water in a puddle will ____________________ quickly. Then complete the analogy by writing the glossary word that makes sense. 1. c 6. s 5. p as ________________________ r is to respiratory. Past is to present as ________________________ e is to living. Environment is to 2. (evaporation) On a sunny day. Human being is to frog as warm-blooded is to ________________________. 1. (condensation) water into ice. c 4. 33 . environmental as continent is to ________________________. 3. Circulation is to circulatory 3.

Its programs are transmitted on waves that number 740. Where did the word hertz come from? It came from a German physicist named Heinrich Hertz. This led to the development of the telegraph and the radio. force. Computer processors run at speeds of about 450 million cycles per second. Megahertz or MHz means millions of cycles per second. Two inand-out cycles per second would be 2-hertz or 2Hz. In the late 1800s.UNIT 2 Lesson 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS What’s a Hertz ? A hertz is the standard unit of frequency used to measure an energy wave. The abbreviations Hz. Each cycle of swing-out and swing-in would be one cycle. energy. If you kept track of time while you watched. and motion”? ______________________ p 34 . Cordless phones broadcast as radio signals that cycle at millions of times a second. What six-letter noun in the reading means “the power of certain forces of nature to do work”? 2. he was the first to produce electromagnetic waves under laboratory conditions. Suppose you were watching a child on a swing. you could measure the swing in hertz. AM radio broadcasts in kHz. and MHz appear in tiny print on lots of appliances. kHz.000 per second. WORD SEARCH 1. Kilohertz means thousands of cycles per second. Household electricity is usually 120 volts at 60Hz—which means it pulses energy at 60 times per second. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “a scientist who studies the interrelationships of matter. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “a device for sending messages by a code of electrical signals”? ______________________ e ______________________ t 3.

6. things like refrigerators. A ____________________ must be one one-millionth of a megaton. Something that weighs one kilogram must be equal to ____________________ grams.” Use this information to help you complete the following sentences. 1. A megabyte must be equal to one million ____________________ of computer memory. The word kilometer must mean ____________________ meters. a complete set of events that repeat in the same order DOWN 5 A 6 M 7 C 1. toasters. any standard term of measurement such as inch. 5. pound. room or building where scientific tests are carried out PREFIXES 2. A megawatt of electrical power must be equal to one million ____________________. A ____________________ must be equal to one million tons. 2.means “thousand” and the prefix megameans “million. 3.WORDS AND MEANINGS 1 L 2 4 Use the clues to help you solve the crossword puzzle. 4. 35 . measurements of an electric current You learned in the reading that the prefix kilo. hairdryers 6. or degree 5. to determine quantity 7. ACROSS U S 3 V 4. information sent by an electromagnetic wave 3.

On the lines below. pulse 4. __________________ = ft. Notice the boldface words in phrases from the reading. kilohertz = __________________ 4. 1. __________________ = oz. quart = __________________ Some words have entirely different meanings when they’re used in different contexts. 8.ABBREVIATIONS You already know that abbreviations—like Mr. measure an energy wave ________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. using the same word with an entirely different meaning. __________________ = min. 1. megahertz = MHz 1. MULTIPLE-MEANING WORDS 5. transmitted 2. __________________ 2. if you kept track _______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ SYNONYMS Draw a line to match each boldface word from the reading with its synonym (word with a similar meaning). gallon = __________________ 6. cycles per second _______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. for Mister—are shortened forms of words. run 3. energy vibration power operate sent 36 . write either the abbreviation or the whole word that matches. hertz = __________________ 3. The first one has been done for you. Then write a sentence of your own.

Why? Because of the higher mountains. 14. 7. Average annual rainfall in the four cities is as follows: Los Angeles. and elevation.83 inches. 0 10 RAINFALL IN INCHES 20 30 40 LOS ANGELES DENVER SEATTLE PHOENIX WORD SEARCH 1. Finally. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “height above sea level”? 2. Ranges such as the Cascades. Western cities near the Pacific Ocean tend to get more precipitation than inland cities. for example. the Sierra Nevada. and Phoenix. 12. These systems are carried along by undulations in the polar jet stream. Three of the most important factors are a location’s latitude.92 inches. Compare the cities of Los Angeles.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 3 What Causes Precipitation? Numerous factors influence the amount of precipitation in a location. What five-letter noun in the reading means “a row or line of connected mountains”? 3. Denver. elevation determines whether precipitation will fall as rain or snow.55 inches. Seattle. most precipitation-producing weather systems come from the west.95 inches. Seattle. In the United States. and the Rockies wring moisture out of the clouds as they are lifted over the mountains. and Phoenix. The jet stream is stronger in higher latitudes. distance from the ocean. What eight-letter noun in the reading means “the length of a line between two points”? ____________________ e ____________________ r ____________________ d 37 . Denver. bringing more storms to northern locales. 37.

fowl /________________________ 7. 5. In the reading. cent /________________________ 5. aunt / _______________________ 2. A city’s ( longitude / latitude ) is its distance north or south of the equator. herd / _______________________ 8. higher / _____________________ 9. not / ________________________ 10. weaker 3. for example. you can find the homophones weather and whether. least 2. 2. Circle the word that correctly completes the sentence. Write a homophone for each word listed below. mane / ______________________ Check a dictionary to help you compare the meanings of longitude and latitude. 1. ACROSS 3 1 M 2 S 3. 38 . oceanfront HOMOPHONES 6 H Homophones are words that sound exactly alike but have different meanings and spellings. bare / _______________________ 3. 6. 1. DOWN insignificant dropped under lower I 4 L 5 O 1. capital / _____________________ 4. Clues are antonyms (words with opposite meanings) of words from the reading. Both longitude and latitude are measured in ( miles / degrees ). 4. chews /______________________ LOOK IT UP! 6.ANTONYMS Solve the crossword puzzle.

4. Then write the word from the reading that shows the same relationship. figure out the relationship between the first two words. 6. s 4. SCARTOF ____________________ are causes that combine to bring about a result. 4. To complete an analogy. Horizontal is to vertical as latitude is to __________________________. LAUDNUSNOIT ____________________ are wavy movements. ( Longitude / Latitude ) is distance measured east or west of an imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole. 3. 2. a 3. Numerous is to plentiful as yearly is to __________________________. Minneapolis is at 45 degrees north ( latitude / longitude ). Warmer is to rain as colder is to __________________________. 39 . Mountain is to mountainous as pole is to __________________________. p MYSTERY WORDS Unscramble words from the reading to correctly complete the sentences. Chicago is at 87 degrees west ( latitude / longitude ). 5. l 2. Lines of longitude and latitude are usually shown on a ( globe / road map ). Liquid causing dampness is called STROMUIE ____________________.3. ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. 1. Precipitation is measured in CHINES ____________________. 1.

air conditioner. This experiment will show you a kind of wave that doesn’t go anywhere. It’s called a standing wave. Look at the water ’s surface. dishwasher. To conduct this experiment. Put the cloth on the machine and place the glass on the cloth. The waves in the water will go from the wall of the glass to the center—and then seem to disappear. etc. Turn on the machine and wait a few seconds. Do you see a pattern of rings? 5. 2. Fill one of the glasses about half full of water. washing machine. 3. If you don’t see a pattern. you’ll need: • several drinking glasses of different sizes • a small cloth such as a dish towel • a plastic bottle of water • a machine that shakes when it operates (clothes dryer.UNIT 2 Lesson 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Try It Yourself: Make a Standing Wave Any surfer will tell you that an ocean wave keeps moving— even when it washes onto a beach. they exactly match the waves coming toward them! WORD SEARCH 1. repeat the experiment with a different size glass of water. What will happen when you finally find the right combination of glass size and shaking machine? You will see ring-shaped standing waves on the water’s surface.) Follow these steps: 1. 4. But the waves don’t actually disappear in the middle. What should you do if you try all the glasses and still don’t see a pattern? Repeat the experiment with a different machine. Which five-letter noun in the reading means “one of the huge bodies of salt water on Earth”? 40 __________________________ o . 6. As they keep going to the other side of the glass.

a. cleans with soap and water b. upright or erect position c. a. What seven-letter adjective in the reading means “more than two but not many”? __________________________ s SYNONYMS Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. to demonstrate 6. or reputation 41 . middle 2. little WORDS IN CONTEXT 6 E L First unscramble the word from the reading and write it on the line. The sea SEWSAH ____________________ the shore.2. wears or carries away 2. ACROSS 1 C 3 2 S 3. The clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answers. type 5. position. Then circle a letter to show the word’s meaning. unable to flow freely b. to test DOWN S 4 5 K S 1. flows over or against c. What seven-letter noun in the reading names a manmade substance used in manufacturing many products? p __________________________ 3. A NAGDINTS ____________________ wave doesn’t go anywhere. vibrates 4. rank. 1. confined.

Read the words listed below. Then write 1. _____ dishonest 5. _____ dislocate 3. guide for making something c. identical c. a. (3) to fail. _____ disbelief 2. check a dictionary. 2. or out of. An electric shaver is a machine that shakes when it APESTORE ____________________. a. visible design Write a letter to match each word from the reading with its antonym (word with the opposite meaning). _____ disagree 4. stop. _____ dissatisfied 8. planned route ANTONYMS b. (2) the opposite of. _____ disown 10. vanish d. _____ toward 4. _____ disregard 7. away b. empty e. 1. _____ displace 6. or refuse to. 1. _____ appear 5. _____ disobey 42 . away from. approximately The prefix dis. _____ full 2. A RENTTAP ____________________ of rings will appear on the water’s surface.3. _____ exactly THE PREFIX dis- a. conducts surgery c. _____ different 3.has three meanings: (1) away. or 3 to show the meaning of the prefix in that word. manages or controls 4. _____ disqualified 9. runs or works b. If you’re not sure.

As the hardest natural substance known. Carbon is an interesting element. So far. and slippery. liquids.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 5 Carbon: A Common Element All things that take up space on Earth—including solids. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “chemical substances formed by combining two or more elements”? ____________________ c 43 . tin. it is found in two different forms that have very different properties. WORD SEARCH 1. Did you know that what we call the “lead” in a pencil is really graphite? Carbon makes up less than one percent of all matter. graphite is used to grease the moving parts of some machines. That means they cannot be broken down into simpler substances. And all matter is made of chemical elements. Chemists have given the name organic chemistry to the branch of chemistry that studies carbon compounds. What ten-letter noun in the reading means “the characteristics or special qualities by which something is known”? ____________________ p 2. What three different forms of matter are mentioned in the reading? ____________________ s ___________________ l ____________________ g 3. In nature. oxygen. diamonds are used to make cutting tools. Because of its properties. scientists have identified 103 elements. black. Another form of the same element is graphite—which is soft. And. Elements are basic. Some of these are gold. and carbon. helium. and gases—are made of matter. A diamond is one form of carbon. or characteristics. But this important element can be found in all foods and is part of every living thing. of course. polished diamonds are beautiful gems often used in jewelry.

science 2. scientific chemical important elementary 44 . and density. 6. 3. 1. The two gases mentioned in the reading are ____________________ and ____________________. NOUN ADJECTIVE 1. What seven-letter adjective in the reading means “having to do with chemical compounds containing carbon”? WORDS IN CONTEXT ____________________ o Use words from the reading to complete the sentences. 3. beauty 4. difference 5. The first one has been done for you. 4. shape. nature 7. Some of the ____________________ of matter are color. 2. odor. WORD FORMS Complete the chart by writing either the noun or adjective form of each word given. Platinum and silver are two ____________________ that are often used in fine jewelry.4. Chemists study ____________________ and how it can change.

type. a division or part of 3. So far. form of carbon that is soft and black 7. lubricate. the hardest substance in nature DOWN 3 4 G 2 B S E 5 G 6 T 7 D 1. to oil. kind. form of matter including oxygen (plural) 2. Then write each word under its synonyms (words with a similar meaning). ACROSS 1 2. 103 of them have been identified. fundamental.WORDS AND MEANINGS Use the clues to help you solve the crossword puzzle. 5. characteristics. ____________________________ 45 . mixtures. __________________________ 3. precious jewels 6. __________________________ 2. TRIPEROPES ______________________ DUMSCOONP _____________________ ROMF _______________________ SEERAG ______________________ 1. combinations. form of matter including iron (plural) SYNONYMS 5. ____________________________ 4. qualities. lightweight metal used to make cans Unscramble the words from the reading. not reducible 4.

a scientist writes a report on the experiment. which is recorded in some detail. Gather all related information. including the Earth. you might talk to others who are working on the same problem. WORD SEARCH 1. For the time being. and outer space”? ____________________ u 2. A scientific experiment is a test—or series of tests— designed to determine whether a theory is correct. Besides reading about the subject. 4. Scientists call this preliminary theory a hypothesis. This process of discovery is called the scientific method . may be used as proof that the theory is correct. Lastly. Suggest a possible answer or solution. What eight-letter noun from the reading means “a written record that proves something”? ____________________ d 3. planets. 2. This document. Record the results. What eight-letter noun in the reading means “everything that exists. they use this idea as the basis for further study and reasoning. sun. You can’t begin to answer a question or solve a problem until you know exactly what it is that you’re trying to learn. The results of one experiment often lead to further experiments. 3. 5. You must research your subject thoroughly to determine what is already known. based on facts learned from observation and experiment. State the problem. What eleven-letter noun in the reading means “careful examination and study of something”? ____________________ o 46 . Conduct experiments to try out the theory.UNIT 2 Lesson 6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS In Pursuit of Knowledge: The Scientific Method Science is the study of nature and the universe. There are five orderly steps in the scientific method: 1.

experiment ____________________ 2. What seven-letter noun in the reading means “something being discussed or examined”? ____________________ s PARTS OF SPEECH • Study the words in the box. Use four of the words you just circled in two different ways. (Hint: You should circle 12 words. discovery ______________________ 3. NOUN: VERB: 4. 1. Circle only the words that can be used as either a noun or a verb. theory ____________________ 47 . Check a dictionary if you’re not sure. proof _____________________ 4. NOUN: VERB: PLURALS Write the plural (names more than one) form of each word from the reading.) problem document experiment determine percent solve state observe study proof learn step subject time basis lead conduct test reading results • Now write sentences of your own.4. NOUN: VERB: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. 1. NOUN: VERB: 3.

introductory 3. Then write each word next to its antonym (word with the opposite meaning). additional 2. avoidance / ____________________ 4. haphazardly / ____________________ 2. ignorance / ____________________ 48 . comprehended 7. follow / ____________________ 3. test 6. 1 ACROSS F 2 P 3 M 5. HOOLTRYHUG _____________________ GELEDWONK _____________________ TURIPUS _____________________ ADLE ________________________ 1. collect 6 4 5 R E K I 7 DOWN 1.SYNONYMS Use words from the reading to complete the crossword puzzle. Clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. process 4. thinking I 8 G ANTONYMS Unscramble the words from the reading. theory 8.

The fourth whale appeared to have been 211 when it was killed! These findings could establish whales as the longest-living mammals on Earth. What seven-letter noun in the reading names a kind of weapon? 3. WORD SEARCH 1. But that was before the Inupiat people of northern Alaska discovered evidence to the contrary. How could that be? Native Alaskan whalers had used only steel harpoons since the 1800s! Scientific researchers were amazed but skeptical. If the results are confirmed. After recent hunts. scientists thought that bowhead whales had a longevity of 80 to 100 years—about the same as humans.000 bowheads in existence. we will know that some whales that are alive today were swimming around the arctic seas during America’s Civil War—or perhaps even when Thomas Jefferson was president! Bowhead whales—each weighing 80 to 110 tons and measuring 50 to 60 feet in length—bear distinguishing white markings on their front lower jaws. to determine ages. Changes in amino acids revealed that three whales were between 135 and 172 years old. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “span of life”? 2. What seven-letter plural noun in the reading means “warm-blooded animals with backbones”? __________________________ l h __________________________ __________________________ m 49 . they found six ancient ivory and stone harpoon points embedded in the blubber of four whales. Further tests on the bowheads’ bones and skin are being conducted to verify the initial estimates of age. they studied the lenses of the whales’ eyes. The bowhead is listed as an endangered species. So.000 to 12. There are thought to be 8.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 7 Science in the News: Rewriting the Record Books Until now.

that raised another issue c. THRENRON ______________________ NICETAN _____________________ MEAZDA _____________________ EROWL _______________________ FRONCDIME ______________________ RIVFEY ___________________________ 1. whales 1. The Inupiats discovered evidence to the contrary. denied ______________________ Circle a letter to show the meaning of the boldface word or words. different in every whale c. a. The bowhead’s jaw has a distinguishing white marking. 1. steal _______________________ 50 4. Then write each unscrambled word next to its antonym (word that means the opposite). bare _______________________ ________________________ _______________________ . sees 5. Find a homophone in the reading for each word listed below. unsurprised _________________ WORDS IN CONTEXT 4. stubbornly inflexible Homophones are words that sound alike but have different meanings and often different spellings. forth _______________________ 3.ANTONYMS First unscramble the words from the reading. wails _______________________ 2. elegant. The first one has been done for you. inn 6. distinct 2. dignified b. disprove ____________________ 5. modern _____________________ 6. conspicuous. a. southern ____________________ 2. that discredited earlier evidence HOMOPHONES b. upper ______________________ 3.

proof 6. 2. first 4. seemed 4. certify 5. _____ The Inupiat people have hunted whales for more than 4. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of words from the story. 1. 3. guesses 7 R UNDERSTANDING THE READING Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false. 4. some kinds of fish were thought to be the longest living animals.000 years. doubtful E 5 E 6 7.SYNONYMS Complete the crossword puzzle. 51 . Write NI if there is no information in the reading to suggest an answer. _____ Bowheads may be the oldest mammals on the planet. showed DOWN S 2. _____ Until recently. buried 3. _____ Scientists can estimate a whale’s age by studying citric acids in the lenses of its eyes. ACROSS 4 1 A 2 E 3 I 1.

Scientists have identified 103 chemical ( processes / elements ). 52 . A scientist who studies matter. energy. 9. The letter groups -ing. The abbreviations kHz and MHz appear in tiny print on lots of ( appliances / lightbulbs ). and -able are common ( suffixes / prefixes ). A city’s ( elevation / latitude ) is its height above sea level. 8. Lines of ( latitude / longitude ) show distance north or south of the equator. 4. SENTENCE COMPLETION Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence. 2. 1. A ( meteor / satellite ) is an object that revolves around a planet. ( Properties / Characteristics ) is a multiple-meaning word. 10. 7. and force is called a ( physician / physicist ). The words synonym and antonym are ( adverbs / antonyms ). 5. 6. 3.UNIT 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS REVIEW Here’s your chance to show what you’ve learned in this unit. -ant. The words seas and sees are called ( abbreviations / homonyms ).

oceans ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. continents ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. energy ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4.HIDDEN WORDS PUZZLE Find and circle the words in the puzzle. compound ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. Include examples in each sentence. backward. Words may go up. or diagonally. ___ CONTINENTS ___ SYNONYM ___ HOMONYM ___ ADJECTIVE ___ ABBREVIATION ___ COMPOUND ___ OCEANS ___ ENERGY ___ ANTONYM ___ NOUN ___ GAS ___ RAIN S N E C K L R W T U P C D K H O M O N Y M K O L E L N M Z B R N D N W P V O M P C N A B T O Q M I P Y O A C I I Y U X Y T U N U C X N E D N G N C J O N X E O T F R A O E G N D N S A Y E B S T J F Y T V D P N L C Z N D D S L B R E S S X C A A B B R E V I A T I O N WORDS IN CONTEXT Write original sentences. 1. across. antonym ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 53 . down. using the words from the hidden words puzzle. Check off each word as you find it.

Then complete the analogy with a word you studied in this unit. Cold is to condensation as warmth is to ___________________________. homonym _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 9. Figure out the relationship between the first two words. abbreviation __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 7. h 54 . adjective ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 10. Extinct is to living as cold-blooded is to ___________________________. p 4. as kHz is to ___________________________. w 6. Weight is to pound as energy wave is to ___________________________.6. gas ____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 12. synonym ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 8. noun __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 11. Rise is to evaporation as fall is to ___________________________. rain ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. e 3. Water is to ocean as land is to ___________________________. 1. k 5. Abbreviation is to Mr. c 2.

aproppriate 4. Shakespearean 2. navigate 3. inventer 2. proper adjectives Joseph 2. rhinoceros 3. navigate. frequencies. 1. and concepts you will study in this unit. snowflake 4. disjointed 5. words with a prefix researcher unforgivable disjointed desired 5. plural nouns celebrates frequencies violates fungi Ouch! Hispanic Shakespearean 3. unforgivable. hairless SPELLING: 1. appropriate 4. Hispanic. 1. substitute. RECOGNIZING EXAMPLES Circle two items in each word group that match the category. fungi 3. compound words broadcasting interaction ecosystem snowflake 4. Answers appear upside down on the bottom of this page. words with a suffix moldy SPELLING hairless imprecise nostrils Underline the two correctly spelled words in each group. studios modems rhinocerus substitute amplafied inventor rhinoceros modams navagate substatute appropriate studioes amplified ANSWERS: RECOGNIZING EXAMPLES: 1. moldy. broadcasting. inventor 2.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS UNIT 3 PREVIEW Here’s an introduction to the vocabulary terms. studios. skills. modems. amplified 55 .

Much like a tornado. 2. or leg axis an imaginary line running through the center of a planet from one pole to the other pole carbon dioxide gas made of carbon and oxygen. check a dictionary.UNIT 3 Lesson 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS GLOSSARY A glossary is an alphabetical list of unusual or specialized words from a certain field of knowledge. 1. circular winds ecosystem all the living things that make up a particular community in a certain environment fertilization the joining of a sperm cell with an egg cell genetics the study of the way animals and plants pass on characteristics to their offspring germination the process by which a young plant breaks out of its seed magma the molten matter under the Earth’s crust parasite an organism that lives in or on another organism Precambrian era the geological era that began 4.5 billion years ago and lasted nearly four billion years tissue a group of cells that all do the same job WORDS IN CONTEXT Use context clues to help you complete the sentences with the correct words from the glossary. wing. 56 . Following are some important words from the fields of science and technology. appendage a body part that sticks out. The _________________________ covers nearly 85 percent of all geological time. a _________________________ can be very damaging. such as an arm. If you’re not sure. it is breathed out of the lungs and taken in by plants chromosomes tiny particles in the nucleus of cells made up of DNA and genes cyclone an area of low pressure with strong.

insects. 9. Humans have 23 pairs of _________________________. including rocks and fossils. RUCLARIC ____________________ winds blow around in a spiral. The _________________________ of a pond includes weeds. you’ve seen a _________________________. If you exercise too hard. 12. plants need _________________________. 2. 13. If you’ve ever seen a flea on a dog. 10. 7. A tree branch and a dog’s tail are both _________________________. worms. a baby inherits genes from both its father and its mother. 1. When _________________________ reaches a volcano’s surface. In order to make food. YOGLOGE ____________________ is the study of the Earth’s crust. and fish. 8. SCRAMBLED WORDS Unscramble the words from the reading to complete the sentences. fruit flies have only four pairs. 6. At _________________________. Every 24 hours. frogs. it is called lava. 57 . Sprouts in a vegetable garden show that _________________________ has taken place. 4.3. _________________________ is the branch of science that explains how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. you may damage your muscle _________________________. 5. 11. the Earth makes a complete rotation on its _________________________.

-al. music ____________________ 3. male reproductive cell 3. Rewrite the words below. dream ___________________ 2. ice ______________________ 5. history ________________________ 6. female reproductive cell 7 B 6. Make them adjectives by adding one of these suffixes: -y. -ic. guilt __________________________ 7. environment __________________ 58 .WORDS AND MEANINGS Use clues to help you complete the crossword puzzle. a speck 4. form of matter that is neither liquid nor solid 5. broken off part or piece of something 7. a thousand million DOWN 3 6 S P F 4 G 5 E C 2. or -ful. Answers are words from the reading. atmosphere ____________________ 8. kind of dioxide formed with oxygen SUFFIXES Suffixes can be used to turn many words into adjectives (describing words). 1. a tiny bit. peace ____________________ 4. ACROSS 1 2 1.

But most of the precipitation there will dissipate by tomorrow morning. increasing clouds. As a group of highpressure systems move across the country. high 30°. The South will be fairly chilly as well. low 39° KANSAS CITY Overcast in the morning. But the relentless weather pattern in both regions is expected to break up by the weekend. What twelve-letter adjective in the reading means “stopping and starting again from time to time”? ____________________________ i 59 . Highs there are projected to be in the upper 40s and lower 50s. high 45°. TODAY’S OUTLOOK IN SELECTED CITIES ATLANTA Rain showers changing to ice and snow. high 45°. low 10° DETROIT Consistent light flurries throughout the day. temperatures are expected to fall even lower. low 28° SEATTLE Intermittent showers until noon. high 25°. Both the Pacific Northwest and the Northeast can expect more rain today as low-pressure systems linger. 0 degrees may be the daytime high. In some extreme northern locations. then mostly sunny. The South will see a few more flurries and showers before this evening. low 5° WORD SEARCH 1. sunny in the afternoon.UNIT 3 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 2 Today’s Weather Forecast: A National Overview People in the northern Midwest can expect frigid temperatures today. Snow will continue to fall across the Midwest.

use the word as a verb. In the other. place. What four regions of the United States are mentioned in the reading? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ PARTS OF SPEECH Many words can be used as either a noun (names a person. rain VERB: _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ NOUN: 4. What eight-letter plural noun in the reading means “sudden light falls of snow or rain”? ____________________________ f 3. snow VERB: NOUN: ______________________________________________________ Freshly fallen snow covered the sidewalk.2. The first one has been done for you. ______________________________________________________________ The weather forecaster said it might snow today. write two sentences using the boldface word from the reading. NOUN: 2. What eight-letter noun in the reading is a synonym of “prediction”? ____________________________ f 4. On the lines below. 1. shower VERB: ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 60 . use the word as a noun. In one sentence. or thing) or a verb (names an action). fall VERB: ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ NOUN: 3.

cease b. develop c. persistent. perhaps cities 5. Then circle a letter to show its antonym (word with the opposite meaning). Check a dictionary if you need help. snow will continue a. uncomfortable c. unyielding 6. continue ANTONYMS 6 R E D Think about the meaning of the boldface word in each phrase. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. steady. to remain. unusual 2. to break up. fluffier 61 . windy b. slightly b. disappear DOWN L 1. some extreme northern locations a. to foresee. 1. sweltering 3. anticipate 5 2. will be fairly chilly a. diminishing c. freezing. places. proceed 4.SYNONYMS 1 Complete the puzzle with words from the reading. remote c. ACROSS 4 E 2 F 3 C 4. darkening b. bitterly cold 3. increasing clouds a. unchanging 4.

and put three slices of bread in clear plastic sandwich bags. and mushrooms are fungi. keep checking for another two weeks. try this experiment: (1) Fill three small cups half full of coffee.UNIT 3 Lesson 3 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Try It Yourself: Making Mold Everyone knows that the Earth is teeming with all kinds of plants and animals. one of the major groups into which all living things are divided”? _________________________ k 62 . Mold grows on damp. decaying things like discarded food or dead trees. To see for yourself. (4) If you don’t see any change. use a magnifying glass to observe the bread and coffee. Draw a sketch if something appears. This is mold—a type of living. green. But plants and animals aren’t the only organisms living on Earth. What five-letter proper noun in the reading names a planet? _________________________ e _________________________ E 3. White. What will you eventually discover? Fuzzy white stuff will appear on the coffee. Molds. Biologists have identified more than a million animals and nearly 400. (2) Then place one bag of bread and one cup of coffee in each of these places: on a sunny windowsill. WORD SEARCH 1. What seven-letter noun in the reading means “in biology. Take notes on any changes you see.000 different types of plants. yeasts. in a dark cabinet or closet. (3) Every day for two weeks. in the refrigerator. or black stuff will appear on the bread. What ten-letter adverb in the reading means “finally” or “in the end”? 2. Another classification of living things is called the fungus kingdom. growing thing that is neither a plant nor an animal.

dry / ________________________ 2. and mold are used in the reading. What nine-letter plural noun in the reading names a kind of edible fungi that have a stalk and a cap? ANTONYMS _________________________ m First unscramble the words from the reading.4. NYNUS ___________________________ MAPD ____________________________ UZZFY ____________________________ HEWIT ___________________________ GEMTINE _____________________ REPAPA ______________________ LUFL __________________________ GINFYAM _____________________ 1. 1. hairless / ____________________ 6. Then write original sentences in which the words have completely different meanings. Then write each unscrambled word next to its antonym (word that means the opposite). draw. (mold) ___________________________________________________________ 63 . black / ______________________ MULTIPLE-MEANING WORDS 5. empty / _____________________ 8. (type) ___________________________________________________________ 2. barren / _____________________ 7. vanish / _____________________ 3. reduce / _____________________ 4. gloomy / _____________________ Notice how the words type. Use a dictionary if you need help. (draw) ___________________________________________________________ 3.

Organize is to organization as classify is to ________________________. Natural is to cotton as manmade is to _________________________. c 5. a sack 2. rotting 4. b 8. Ledge is to windowsill as cupboard is to _________________________. d 3. Either is to or as neither is to _________________________. Then show the same relationship by completing the analogy with the correct word from the reading. ACROSS DOWN 4 D G S 5 T 6 2. thrives 5. General is to specific as scientist is to _________________________. n 64 . c 6. p 4. 1. Alike is to unlike as same is to _________________________. a vegetable 1. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. Figure out the relationship between the first two words. a drawing 7. swarming 6. f 2. to watch 8. dim 3. f 7. Elephant is to animal as yeast is to _________________________.SYNONYMS 1 2 B 3 Complete the puzzle with words from the reading. almost 8 7 N O P ANALOGIES Remember that an analogy is a statement of relationship. Plants is to plant as fungi is to _________________________.

was developed to find a substitute for ivory in the manufacture of billiard balls. Modern research. As they push into the unknown. What five-letter noun in the reading means “a seeking. The first synthetic plastic. Applied research is aimed at a practical goal. they don’t concern themselves with the practical applications of their findings. got its true start in the 1500s with the work of Galileo. for example. basic researchers depend on applied research for the invention of instruments that make further investigations possible. hunt. WORD SEARCH 1. Researchers focus on discovering or inventing new and useful products or better ways of doing something. Applied research is often built on ideas from basic research. They may be trying to find out why birds migrate or whether plants grow on Mars. The inventors of the wheel were great researchers. chemistry. In the natural sciences—such as biology. scholars doing basic research may have little idea of what lies ahead. Basic and applied researchers work hand in hand. and medicine— methods of research are very exact. Wishing only to add to the world’s knowledge. Scientists have developed very accurate instruments such as electronic microscopes. Basic research is aimed at discovering more about the laws of nature. or pursuit”? ___________________________ q 65 .UNIT 3 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 4 Two Kinds of Research: Basic and Applied Research— the quest for information —was born when people first started asking questions and searching for answers. In turn. based on study and experimentation. This early plastic—called Celluloid—paved the way for development of today’s enormous plastics industry.

What seven-letter verb in the reading means “to move from one region to another with the change of seasons”? 3. _____ Scientists involved in applied research are trying to solve specific problems. _____ Basic researchers try to discover more about the laws of nature. APPLY PAST-TENSE VERB: NOUN FORM: INVESTIGATE PAST-TENSE VERB: NOUN FORM: __________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ______________________ ____________________ ONE WHO DOES: ONE WHO DOES: UNDERSTANDING THE READING Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false. _____ Modern research got its start with the discovery of the wheel. _____ The words knowledge and information are synonyms. 1. 2. 4. 3.2. 66 . What ten-letter noun in the reading means “something used in the place of another”? _________________________ m _________________________ s WORD FORMS Complete the chart below with different forms of the verbs apply and investigate.

precise 6. DAD ____________________ f. to concentrate ANTONYMS 7 B First unscramble the words from the reading. ALARUNT ____________________ 2. false d. 1. TRACECAU ____________________ 4. subtract a. devices 3. ACROSS 1 A 2 I 3 4 D E 1. tools. imprecise 67 e. synthetic b. data 7. Clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. RUTE ____________________ 3.SYNONYMS Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. targeted 4. Then draw a line to connect each word with its antonym (word that means the opposite). miniature . improved DOWN 6 5 F I 2. NOURSOME ____________________ 5. to rely 5. CATRICLAP ____________________ 6. useless c.

What eleven-letter plural noun in the reading means “tiny electronic devices made from semiconductors that control the flow of electrical current”? ___________________________ t 2. They are causing minute vibrations in all the metal objects in the room. 4.UNIT 3 Lesson 5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS How Does a Radio Work? The space around you may look empty—but it isn’t. The tuner selects the frequency of the desired station and blocks out the frequencies of other stations. The program current. 5. Now your radio separates the program current from the carrier current. Your radio’s antenna (or aerial wire ) picks up all the radio frequency currents that are in the air around it. AM (amplitude modulation) Radio Wave 2. 3. These sound waves are a copy of those in the broadcasting studio. must be amplified until it can operate the loudspeaker. At all times it is filled with radio frequency waves from nearby radio stations. This is done by transistors. Electronic devices block off the carrier current so that only the program current is left. How does it do this? 1. The loudspeaker changes the program current into sound waves. which is very weak. But you can hear these vibrations only if you turn on your radio. Your radio picks up the radio waves of the station you want to hear and turns them into sound waves. FM (frequency modulation) Radio Wave WORD SEARCH 1. What eight-letter plural noun in the reading means “places with electronic equipment for sending out radio or TV programs”? 68 ___________________________ s .

unwanted c. Figure out the relationship between the first two words. gold. overlapping b. Celebrate is to celebration as vibrate is to _________________________. silenced 3. What five-letter adjective in the reading means “made of a chemical— such as iron. a. ignited b. powerful 2. hollow Analogies are statements of relationship. occupied c. The tuner selects the frequency of the desired station. refined c. Then show the same relationship by completing the analogy with a word from the reading. Gather is to scatter as combine is to _________________________. a.3. Copy is to copies as frequency is to _________________________. f 4. chosen 4. faraway c. a. quiet ANALOGIES b. the program current must be amplified. The space around you is never empty. 1. best b. or aluminum—that conducts electricity”? ANTONYMS ___________________________ m Circle a letter to show the antonym (word that means the opposite) of the boldface word in each sentence. 1. Tongue is to taste as ear is to _________________________. In order to operate the loudspeaker. s 69 . a. h 2. v 3. Nearby radio stations fill the air around you with radio frequency waves.

1. The TV programs I like are on Tuesday night. ____________________ 5. to duplicate 3.SYNONYMS 1 2 3 C Use the clues to help you solve the crossword puzzle. or thing). the same word can be a different part of speech. or adjective (describes a noun or pronoun). ____________________ Is that information current or out-of-date? Will you take a minute to answer my question? Ed programs his computer to do specialized tasks. runs DOWN 1. Notice how the boldface words from the reading are used in each sentence. Minute particles of dust covered the furniture. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meanings) of words from the reading. Then identify the part of speech by writing noun (names a person. ____________________ 4. transforms 5. The North Atlantic current moves across the ocean from Newfoundland to England. generating 2. pulses 4. verb (shows action). ACROSS V 4 5 M S C 1. place. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 6. ____________________ 70 . 3. chooses PARTS OF SPEECH 6 O In a different context. microscopic 6.

The horns are made of closely packed masses of tough hairs. usually weighs less than a ton and is about four feet high at the shoulder. It may weigh three and one-half tons or more and stand six and one-half feet high. however. and the other three kinds live in Asia. The longest one ever measured was 621/2 inches. They usually travel alone. but are sometimes found in small family groups.UNIT 3 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 6 The Amazing Rhino Rhinoceroses are quiet. The largest is the African white rhinoceros. and each foot has three toes. Their bodies. What eight-letter noun in the reading means “part of the body to which an arm or foreleg is connected”? 2. Their legs are short. Some kinds of rhinoceroses have very long horns. thick-skinned animals have heavy bodies and one or two large horns above their nostrils. slowmoving. There are five different kinds of rhinoceroses living today. In captivity. What seven-letter adjective in the reading means “of the same family or kind”? _________________________ s _________________________ r 71 . the Sumatran. These huge. watch out! They can charge an enemy at 30 miles an hour. retiring animals—until they are cornered. Two of these live in Africa. rhinoceroses typically live to be about 50 years old. related to horses. Rhinoceroses do not hunt other animals. they eat only grass and other plants. The female bears only one offspring at a time. They are hoofed animals. If that happens. As herbivores. The smallest rhinoceros. are usually hairless. WORD SEARCH 1.

carnivores DOWN 5 4 T M 6 H 7 A 1. The foot of a rhinoceros has three toes. its enemy better watch out! a. If a rhinoceros is cornered. prey . postpone payment b. foe 72 b. Rhinoceroses can charge at 30 miles an hour. 2 1 Q ACROSS R 3 T 2. launch a running attack c. digits 2. weightless 8.3. competitor c. below 8 H SYNONYMS Circle a letter to show the synonym (word with a similar meaning) of each boldface word from the reading. aggressive 4. take bounding leaps 3. What eight-letter plural noun in the reading means “openings in the nose through which people and some animals breathe and smell”? ANTONYMS _________________________ n Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. a. Clue words are antonyms (words with opposite meanings) of the answer words. thin 6. 1. female 7. hooves c. wispy 5. knuckles b. a. Use a dictionary if you need help. noisy 3.

Rhinoceroses are sometimes found in small groups. China ______________________ 8. Australia __________________ 5. England ___________________ 6. To complete the sentences below. rarely c. a. You can probably figure out that captivity means “kept in a zoo” or “the condition of being held by force” as it is used in the reading. enclosed 6. Scotland ___________________ WORD FORMS Find the word captivity in the reading. Europe ____________________ 3. 73 . write the proper adjective that can be made from each place name. Brazil _____________________ 2. woven b. Their bodies. Russia _____________________ 7. France ____________________ 4. typically 5. a. a. The horns are made of closely packed masses of tough hairs. by the way b. 1. unscramble some different forms of the word captivity. likewise c. occasionally b. The TAPEVIC _________________________ rhino was loaded onto a truck. On the lines below. dense c. are usually hairless. The zoologists tried to RAPTCUE _________________________ a rhinoceros. 2. The rhino’s ROTPACS _________________________ were careful not to injure the animal.4. That word is a proper adjective describing someone or something from Sumatra—a large island in Indonesia. nevertheless PROPER ADJECTIVES You read that the smallest rhinoceros is Sumatran. 3. however. Remember that proper adjectives are always capitalized! 1.

” No less importantly. SHOP. and productively. currency. They detract from the value of the site. WORD SEARCH 1. a former librarian. Look for the “last update” notation on the site’s front page. she coined the term “surfing the Internet. Mrs. Is it a reputable source such as National Geographic or someone you never heard of? Make sure the information comes from a source you can trust. Polly says that the best Web sites for young people should meet certain criteria: They should have authority. middle school students don’t need a lengthy article from a professional medical journal.UNIT 3 Lesson 7 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Science in the News: Avoiding Potholes on the Information Highway Jean Armour Polly. pop-up windows. The Internet Kids and Family Yellow Pages. In a 1992 magazine article. find a well-illustrated article written at a lower level. Specifically. THE GRIZZLY BEAR LAST CHANCE BUY ME LOOK HERE SHOP. Her book. she is a best-selling author.netmom. • Currency Some pages have been on the Web for years without being updated. SHOP!!! TRY THIS DON’T MISS OUT If you’d like. Things such as ads. has been working with computers and modems for 20 years. Polly at www. What seven-letter plural noun in the reading means “electronic devices that connect computers via a telephone line”? 74 _________________________ m . • Acceptable mix of signal to noise Avoid too many distractions. • Age-appropriate To learn about how the heart works.com. has helped hundreds of thousands of young people learn to navigate the Net safely. comfortably. The book has recently come out in its fifth edition. the sites should be age-appropriate. Instead. you can contact Mrs.” Today. and an acceptable “signal-to-noise ratio. the author gives this advice: • Authority Ask yourself who is behind the site. and music that can’t be turned off soon become annoying.

Portrait is to artist as book is to _________________________. 7. 3. What four-letter noun in the reading means “the place where certain information can be found on the Web”? ANALOGIES _________________________ d _________________________ s Analogies are statements of relationship. a Potholes are to highway as problems are to _________________________. 4. What eight-letter proper noun in the reading means “a network linking computers all over the world by satellite and telephone. 8. What twelve-letter plural noun in the reading means “things that interfere with concentration”? 4. First find the relationship between the first two words. f Bear is to bare as sight is to _________________________. connecting users with service networks such as e-mail and the World Wide Web”? _________________________ I 3. Then show the same relationship by completing the analogy with a word from the reading. i 2. 75 . 1. s 5. v Adjective is to adverb as important is to _________________________. Scissors is to divide as modems are to _________________________. 6. I Present is to past as current is to _________________________. l Esteemed is to reputable as worth is to _________________________. c Music is to musician as library is to _________________________.2.

The terms of the agreement were PACECLABET ____________________ to us. assisted DOWN 4 C E 5 C 1. write the antonym (word that means the opposite) of the unscrambled word. Clue words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. but not to them. Her simple question did not require a THYGLEN ____________________ explanation. The constant dripping of a leaky faucet can be quite NONYGAIN ____________________. credibility 5. ACROSS D 2 C 3 A 3. wastefully questionable intolerable concise soothing 1. on the line after each sentence. to devaluate 2. because he uses his time LYVIDROPCUTE ____________________. 76 ____________________ . newness 6. ____________________ 2. suitable 4. complete the sentences by unscrambling the words from the reading. ____________________ 4. Antonyms are words in the box. invented ANTONYMS H First. standards 6 3. recency.SYNONYMS 1 Complete the puzzle with words from the reading. Al accomplishes more than Ben does. Then. ____________________ 3.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS

UNIT 3

REVIEW

Here’s your chance to show what you know about the material you studied in Unit 3.
TRUE OR FALSE

Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false.

1. _____ Overview and outlook are compound words. 2. _____ Basic researchers are concerned with the practical applications of their findings. 3. _____ The adjective form of the noun meteor is meteoric. 4. _____ Current and retiring are multiple-meaning words. 5. _____ The words aerial and antenna are synonyms. 6. _____ The adjective form of wave is spelled wavey. 7. _____ Overcast and flurries are words that might be used to describe the weather. 8. _____ Mushrooms are members of the plant kingdom.
ANTONYMS

Draw a line to match each boldface word from the unit with its antonym (word that means the opposite).

1. annoying 2. current 3. dense 4. appropriate

a. airy b. outdated c. unsuitable d. soothing

77

HIDDEN WORDS PUZZLE

Find and circle the words in the hidden words puzzle. Words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Check off each word as you find it.
_____ CLASSIFY _____ THEORY _____ EXACT _____ QUEST _____ WAVES _____ MASSES WORDS IN CONTEXT _____ GENETICS _____ PARTICLE _____ CONSISTENT _____ FRIGID _____ MOLD _____ FUZZY
L E Q D Y Z Z U F G G P L U A T Q A E C H O H C S R G N T O M C F P I E E S X N A L J R B T E L C S S A K T I U R K V I S S F C Q G G A B S E S S A V E I J P T S I G X C W F D E E A F S E V A W U R N W Y R O E H T Y M T

Now use each word from the puzzle in a sentence of your own. Try to include a scientific fact, explanation, or example in each sentence.

1. fuzzy __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. masses ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. mold ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. waves _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. consistent _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 6. quest __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 78

7. frigid __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 8. exact __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 9. particle _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 10. theory _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 11. genetics _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 12. classify ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
ANALOGIES

Analogies are statements of relationship. Find the relationship between the first two words. Then show the same relationship by completing the analogy with a word from Unit 3.

1. Decay is to rot as predict is to _________________________. f 2. Sea is to oceanography as earth is to _________________________. g 3. Radio waves are to antenna as sound waves are to _________________________. l

4. Singular is to plural as chromosome is to _________________________. c 5. Male is to female as sperm is to _________________________. e 6. Occasional is to steady as intermittent is to _________________________. c 79

_____ Astrology is the scientific study of the universe beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. 3. SENTENCE COMPLETION Circle the words that correctly complete the sentences. Answers are upside down on the bottom of this page. F 2.” 4. 5. The word ( exceeds / extends ) means “goes beyond what is usual or allowed. and skills you will study in this unit. The words categorize and classify are ( homonyms / synonyms ). Animals without backbones are called ( vertebrates / invertebrates ). 6. T 3. TRUE OR FALSE Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false. exceeds 4. F . _____ Healthy humans must have some minerals in their diet. 4. abbreviation 6. inevitable 1. _____ Lead has more density than bread. 80 ANSWERS: SENTENCE COMPLETION: TRUE OR FALSE: 1. synonyms 2. 3. homonyms 5. 1. concepts. The words sights and sites are ( antonyms / homonyms ). WWW is the ( abbreviation / nickname ) of the World Wide Web. 2.UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS PREVIEW Here’s an introduction to the vocabulary terms. 1. _____ A colony of plants or animals may be scattered all over the Earth. T 4. 2. invertebrates 3. An outcome that can’t be prevented can be described as ( catastrophic / inevitable ).

If you’re not sure about some words. astronomy the scientific study of the universe beyond the Earth’s atmosphere consumers organisms that eat other organisms carbohydrates sugars and starches in food that give people energy density the amount of matter per each unit of area or volume force any push or pull on an object habitat the place where an organism lives host an animal on or in which a parasite lives minerals natural substances found in non-living things output processed data that comes out of a computer radiation energy that can move through a vacuum spectrum the rainbow-like band of colors that can be seen when white light is refracted technology the application of scientific and industrial skills to practical use turbine a machine driven by the force of a moving fluid vacuum the absence of matter weathering the process that breaks down rocks and minerals WORDS IN CONTEXT Complete each sentence with the correct word from the glossary. That woodland stream is the _________________________ of beavers. 81 .UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 1 GLOSSARY A glossary is an alphabetical list of unusual or specialized words from a certain field of knowledge. check a dictionary. Over time. 1. 2. erosion and _________________________ can wear down an entire mountain range. Following are some important words from the fields of science and technology.

Scientists who study _________________________ learn about the size and motion of the stars. 82 . 4. Your computer monitor is an _________________________ device. it will sink in a pond. 6.3. 10. Light. There are seven colors in the _______________________ of visible light. 14. 7. grains. heat. A healthy diet for humans includes such _________________________ as iron and salt. A powerful _________________________ engine uses the water in a dam to create electricity. and potatoes. Good sources of _________________________ include vegetables. and X-rays are different kinds of _________________________. Gravity is the _________________________ that holds us on the ground. If nearly all the air is removed from a bottle. 12. Animals are called _________________________ because they cannot make their own food. 15. radio waves. a _____________________ is formed inside. 11. 9. A hog or a cow may be the _________________________ of a parasite such as a tapeworm. 13. Engineers and mechanics use _________________________ to solve practical problems. 8. 5. Because a rock has greater _________________________ than water.

Keyboard is to printer as input is to _________________________. t CATEGORIES 4.ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. a 6. COMPUTER OUTPUT DEVICES ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 4. CARBOHYDRATES ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 3. Plants are to producers as animals are to _________________________. o 2. desert fruits silver bread ocean noodles quartz printer zinc monitor rain forest disk drive 1. figure out the relationship between the first pair of words. Then write the word from the reading that shows the same relationship. MINERALS ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 83 . To complete an analogy. Total is to partial as erosion is to _________________________. Meat is to protein as doughnut is to _________________________. Flower is to botany as planet is to _________________________. 1. c 5. Wind is to windmill as fluid is to _________________________. HABITATS ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 2. w 3. c Write the boxed items under the correct headings.

What four-letter plural noun in the reading means “plant swellings from which leaves or flowers develop”? ______________________________ b 84 . At birth.UNIT 4 Lesson 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Rabbits and Hares: What’s the Difference? Rabbits and hares were once classified as rodents. They have short front legs and long. on the other hand. and twigs. What seven-letter plural noun in the reading means “a very large order of gnawing mammals”? ______________________________ r 2. Hares. or incisors. (So does the cottontail—but in all other ways it is a true rabbit!) WORD SEARCH 1. in the front of their jaws. And they are both vegetarians that eat grass. But rabbits and hares also have a second. make their nests in hollows in the ground. They are able to hop about on the day of their birth. just like rodents. and helpless. they have two pairs of big gnawing teeth. leaves. rabbits and hares are a lot alike. In contrast. powerful hind legs that make them expert runners and leapers. the young of rabbits are blind. Because of this and other differences. They both have big. smaller pair of upper incisors. After all. long ears and stubby tails. newborn hares are born wideeyed and fully furred. and their ears are not so long. HARES RABBITS True rabbits dig far-reaching burrows and bear their young in an underground nest. rabbits and hares are now placed in a separate order from rodents. But rabbits are usually smaller than hares. tender buds. naked. In general.

3. covered 3. lower 6 S SYNONYMS First unscramble the words from the reading. mighty / ______________________ 6. soft / _____________________ 3. short / ____________________ 4. larger DOWN 5 4 U E E 2. ordinarily / ____________________ 5. similar / __________________ 2. WOLPRUFE ________________________ BUSBYT __________________________ SAICFIELDS _______________________ DERENT ______________________ LUAUSLY ______________________ AKEIL ________________________ 1. ACROSS 1 H 2 N 3 F 1. Then write each unscrambled word next to its synonym (word with a similar meaning). bald 4. Clues are antonyms (words that mean the opposite) of the answer words. categorized / __________________ 85 . Which seven-letter plural noun in the reading means “underground holes or tunnels”? ANTONYMS ______________________________ b Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. unskilled 6. front 5.

COMPOUND WORDS _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ HOMONYMS 2. hare / ____________________ hair ________________________________________________________________ The hair on that hare is a beautiful brown color. First write a homonym for each boldface word from the reading. 2. pairs / ____________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. two / ____________________ ________________________________________________________________ 86 . The first one has been done for you. Then write a sentence that contains both words. bear / ____________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4.CATEGORIES List each word in the box under the correct heading. WORDS WITH SUFFIXES _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. tails / ____________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. newborn underground helpless longer vegetarian cottontail 1. 1.

for example. WORD SEARCH 1. Here are a few fascinating facts about animal intelligence: • Many fish have color vision and can recognize each other by color patterns on the head. can be taught to perform tricks. • Toads and frogs learn to respond to their caretakers. The maze is one method scientists use to test animal intelligence. are much brighter than other members of the same colony. How many attempts does the animal make to find its way through the blind alleys of the maze? And how long does the animal remember what it has learned? The answers to these questions are strong indications of the animal’s learning and memory capacities. like some birds. Which animals are smarter? In learning how to solve new problems. Some bees. A maze contains a number of confusing pathways. ants. dogs. the animal’s task is to discover the path that leads to food or some other reward. In a scientific test. But there are wide differences among individual animals of the same species. An animal’s intelligence is measured by how it manages a new situation and how well it solves problems.UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 3 Animal Intelligence Many animals. • An octopus can run mazes and differentiate between a circle. and rats make high scores on various tests. from a flea to an elephant. a square. What thirteen-letter verb in the reading means “to tell the difference between”? _____________________________ d 87 . vertebrates are usually superior to invertebrates. and a triangle. cats. • Squirrels. Chimpanzees. But these acts tell us little about learning ability. have a sense of numbers. and cockroaches.

amount. four insects: _________________________ _________________________ 88 _________________________ _________________________ .2. 1. skills 5. What thirteen-letter plural noun in the reading means “creatures without backbones”? 3. What eight-letter verb in the reading means “found out the exact size. ACROSS 2 I 3 C 4 P 5 S 2. DOWN signs designs tries bewildering 6 A 1. abilities. or extent of something”? ___________________________ m SYNONYMS 1 B Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. explains CATEGORIES 7 C Write examples from the reading that belong to each category. What six-letter noun in the reading means “a group of animals or plants living or growing together”? ___________________________ i ___________________________ c 4. answers. smarter 3. 4. three geometric figures: _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 2. 7. 6. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words.

Then write each one next to its antonym (word that means the opposite). solve ANTONYMS NOUNS colony memory Unscramble the words from the reading. VERBS 1. perform 5. a. write its noun form. An animal must find its way around blind alleys. 3. DRAWER ______________________ ROPERIUS _____________________ INVALIDUDI ______________________ SCANTIGAFIN _____________________ 1. recognize and react to b. 1. If the boldface word is a noun. If the word is a verb. inferior / ____________________ 4. write its verb form. measure 4. 6.WORD FORMS Complete the chart. recognize 2. try to please and impress 89 . Toads and frogs respond to their caretakers. dark passages c. group / _____________________ WORDS IN CONTEXT 3. scary streets b. boring / _____________________ 2. a. punishment / ________________ Circle a letter to show the meaning of the boldface word or words. give intelligent answers to c. dead-end paths 2.

arid stretches of land cover about 30 percent of the Earth’s surface. The Great Basin developed because of the “rain shadow” produced by the Sierra Nevada. The Great Basin. Some deserts were formed because the prevailing winds are too far away from large bodies of water. the Arabian Peninsula. What ten-letter adjective in the reading means “most common or frequent”? ___________________________ p 2. Two deserts in such interior locations are the Gobi and the Turkestan in Asia. The Sahara Desert of Northern Africa is the world’s largest. There are two distinct types of deserts: subtropical and midlatitude. It covers an area of three and a half million square miles. a cool desert of North America. and most of Australia’s interior. WORD SEARCH 1. These barriers— mountain ranges such as the Sierra Nevada.UNIT 4 Lesson 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Why Are Deserts Dry? By definition. Midlatitude deserts are usually found on the downwind side of major geographic barriers. the Sahara. and the Andes—block a large percentage of moisture-laden winds. These stark. Subtropical deserts cover vast expanses between 10 degrees and 30 degrees latitude. the Himalayas. is a good example of a midlatitude desert. deserts are simply regions where the annual amount of evaporation exceeds the annual amount of precipitation. Subtropical deserts include those in Arizona. What ten-letter noun in the reading means “a certain part or amount in every hundred”? 90 ___________________________ p . High-pressure atmospheric conditions in those regions cause the air to sink and grow warmer.

rain forest 5.means “middle or middle part. coastal 2. 91 . Students take _________________________ tests halfway through the semester. The two small planes met in a _________________________ collision. humid.” Complete the sentences below with a word beginning with mid-. small 4. Nebraska are ________________________ cities. _________________________ is the halfway point between dusk and dawn. Clues are antonyms (words that mean the opposite) of the answer words. minor 6. 1 ACROSS I 2. 3. alike. damp THE PREFIX mid- 6 D The prefix mid. same 3. Chicago. 1.3. exterior. 4. Illinois and Omaha. What seven-letter verb in the reading means “goes beyond what is usual or allowed”? ANTONYMS ___________________________ e Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. The cafeteria serves lunch at _________________________. 2. 5. upwind DOWN 3 2 D V 4 M 5 A 1. Use a dictionary if you need help.

(noun) wooden or plastic toy bricks or cubes _____________________ _____________________________________________________________ SYNONYMS Draw a line to match each boldface word from the reading with its synonym (word with a similar meaning). Then write a sentence for each meaning shown. laden 4. stark 2. loaded b. Unscramble the multiple-meaning words from the reading. (verb) roams or wanders about freely ___________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. developed c. (noun) rows or lines of connected mountains ____________________ _____________________________________________________________ b. obstructions d. CHESTRETS ____________________ a. SEGNAR ____________________ a. (verb) draws out to full length or to a greater size ________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. BOLCSK ____________________ a. (noun) unbroken distances_____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ b.MULTIPLE-MEANING WORDS Some words have entirely different meanings when they are used in different contexts. 1. bleak . barriers 3. formed 92 a. 1. (verb) stops movement or progress ______________________________ _____________________________________________________________ b.

com/dr. This is a collection of all previous questions and answers—or at least the most frequently asked questions (FAQs). If one site doesn’t work.math Dr. Most Web sites offering expert assistance also keep an archive.ipl.org/youth/ great references for kids from the Internet Public Library • http://mathforum.com for help with science projects • www. or even longer. That means you have to visit the message board frequently to see if your question was chosen. WORD SEARCH 1. So check out the site’s archive before submitting your question. Some interesting Q&A sites are listed below.howstuffworks. try another one! • www. however. some sites will not respond to your e-mail. Before you start clicking. If your question has already been answered in their archive.ca/ask/ 150 Canadian scientists answer your questions • www. What seven-letter noun in the reading means “a general idea of what a thing or a group of things is”? _________________________ c 93 . These are places you can submit a question for an expert to answer. Other sites require a certain time frame to respond—perhaps two days. there are a few things you should know. Still other sites select and answer only one question of all those received in a day or a week. And they answer it only on a message board. Math accepts math challenges. Just remember that Web sites change frequently.science.UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 5 Q&A Sites on the Internet Do you need the answer to a tricky question? Would you like some help understanding a difficult concept? You can always try one of the Question and Answer (Q&A) sites on the World Wide Web.

If you can imagine a subject. a search engine such as www.yahoo. a. Many Web sites provide FAQs to provide help quickly. Some sites respond only within a certain time frame. international network of electronically connected computers b. you can find out about it on the Internet. an educational chat room for regular users 4. an organization’s list used for regular mailings b. period of time during which something is planned to take place 94 . area on a Web site where users post comments and read the comments of others c. What eight-letter verb in the reading means “putting forward for someone to take or refuse”? WORDS IN CONTEXT _________________________ r _________________________ o Circle a letter to show the meaning of the boldface words in the sentences. Your question may be answered on the site’s message board. a. information about the time an event occurred c. Frequently Asked Questions 2. What ten-letter plural noun in the reading means “books or other sources of information”? 3. a. 1. a.2. Web pages with customized information 3. Facts and Quality c. Fast Accurate Quotes b.com c. date and time of day framed on the screen b.

sights to no sea 1. Then complete the analogy with a word from the reading that shows the same relationship. 5. _____ expert / amateur 8. _____ previous / earlier ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. _____ frequently / rarely 6. 4. knot weak sum ewe N S W T 6 7 5 Y K S SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Write S or A next to each word pair to show whether the words are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) or antonyms (words with opposite meanings). Use words from the reading to complete the crossword puzzle.HOMONYMS Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different meanings and sometimes different spellings. 3. 7. _____ respond / answer 4. 95 . Figure out the relationship between the first two words. Send is to submit as reply is to _________________________. _____ require / need 7. ACROSS DOWN 1 2 3 4 3. _____ submit / receive 2. _____ perhaps / maybe 3. 4. 2. Money is to budget as time is to _________________________. 3. _____ chosen / rejected 5. 1. Clue words are homonyms of words from the reading. 2. Later is to subsequently as earlier is to _________________________. 1. 6. Gymnasium is to gym as mathematics is to _________________________.

Disaster planners are closely monitoring the debate. Another leading expert disagrees. a tremendous flow of hot lava cascaded down the mountain in convulsive waves.D.UNIT 4 Lesson 6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Science in the News: Monitoring Vesuvius Scientists agree about one thing: The world’s most famous volcano will erupt again. What fourteen-letter plural noun in the reading names scientists who specialize in the study of volcanoes? 2. He insists that such signs may be evident for months or even years in advance of a big blow. What seven-letter adjective in the reading describes an effect “caused by an earthquake or explosion”? 96 _____________________________ v _____________________________ s . Vesuvius is currently the subject of a bitter dispute. The city of Pompeii was buried alive in less than 48 hours. quickly evacuating so many people is hopelessly impractical. Italy. That would be enough time to evacuate the 700. Such an eruption today would certainly reach the coastal plain in six minutes. however. One volcanologist says that state-of-the-art equipment will give two or three weeks’ warning before a major eruption occurs.. Looming over the Bay of Naples. The only active volcano on the mainland of Europe. WORD SEARCH 1. How to prepare for the inevitable is the only question. And according to him. Vesuvius is a catastrophe waiting to happen. In 79 A. He says that precursor signs—such as increased seismic activity and changes in the water table—won’t save anybody.000 people who live on Vesuvius’s slopes. He maintains that it’s impossible to pinpoint the time of an eruption. wiping out everything in its path.

NYCETRIAL __________________ / doubtfully SYNONYMS 4. ACROSS 1 2 3 4 S P D I 3. 2. Unscramble the words from the reading and write them next to their antonyms. DOWN argument plain. PINTONIP __________________ / guess 5. 8 T D 97 . 7. 1. TRIBET __________________ / mild Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading.3. TICAVE __________________ / extinct 6. Clues are synonyms (words with a similar meaning) of the answer words. What seven-letter adjective in the reading describes something that comes into sight in a sudden. 4. TONGRINIOM __________________ / ignoring 3. clear explode enormous topic forerunner unavoidable indications 5 E 6 E 7 S 1. frightening way? _____________________________ l ANTONYMS Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. 6. 5. 8. SUMOAF __________________ / unknown 2.

finest instruments in the state b. uncontrollably jerky and shaky c.WORDS IN CONTEXT Circle a letter to show the meaning of the boldface words. ADJECTIVE FORM 1. Vesuvius is the only active volcano. volcano ___________________ 2. On the mainland of Europe. check a dictionary. active ___________________ 2. Convulsive waves of lava completely buried Pompeii. erupt __________________ 3. most advanced technology 4. 1. exploded in all directions b. disaster ___________________ NOUN FORM 1. Lava and burning ashes cascaded down the mountain. evaporate the hot lava 3. curving outward. Check a dictionary if you’re not sure of the spelling. a. mushroomed in a dark cloud 2. immediately leave for safety’s sake b. very dense and heavy 5. most important region c. Can state-of-the-art equipment warn of an eruption? a. artistic renderings c. Would residents have enough time to evacuate? a. catastrophe ___________________ 3. not an island or a peninsula b. not inward b. quickly flowed in large amounts c. board up their homes c. a. occur ___________________ 98 . If you need help. a. centrally located WORD FORMS Rewrite each boldface word from the reading in the form of an adjective or a noun.

UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS Lesson 7 Noise Pollution: How Loud Is Too Loud? Warnings about the dangers of air and water pollution are frequently in the news. roaring. Besides damaging your hearing. Because their bodies are under stress. or shrieking sounds. WORD SEARCH 1. If someone shouts in your ear. they become tense and irritable. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “the quality of having great strength or force”? 2. What nine-letter noun in the reading means “corrupted condition caused by an outside influence”? __________________________ i __________________________ c __________________________ p 99 . At 140 dB. extremely loud sound can break your eardrums. their blood pressure and pulse rates increase. Loud noise stresses the nerves in your ears. and at 180 dB. noise pollution can hurt you in other ways. it can kill you! Hearing loss is common in people who work around constantly thunderous. your ears can be damaged permanently. such as the sound of human breathing. without stopping”? 3. Sound levels above 120 dB cause physical pain. Did you know that the intensity of sound is measured in decibels (dB)? A very faint noise. the sound level may reach 100 dB. is about 5 dB. If the excessively loud noise continues for a long time. What ten-letter adverb in the reading means “steadily and invariably. City-dwellers are especially vulnerable since noise levels are higher in urban areas. When people are exposed to noise levels above 70 dB. But noise pollution is also a serious problem in the modern world.

to the brain and spinal cord”? ANTONYMS ___________________________ n 1 Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the reading. GAMEAD __________________ / injury 2. ancient 7 I SYNONYMS Unscramble the words from the reading. joyful DOWN 6 M E E 1. muscles. What six-letter plural noun in the reading means “bodily fibers that connect organs.4. 3 U 2 P I 4 ACROSS C N 5 3. ARKEB __________________ / rupture 3. unusual 5. Then write the unscrambled words next to their synonyms (words with a similar meaning). diminish 6. STOUSH ____________________ / yells 100 . shielded 7. etc. temporarily 4. IOURSSE __________________ / severe 4. rural 2. Clues are antonyms (words that mean the opposite) of the answer words. 1.

3. Adjective is to noun as intense is to ______________________. Respiration is the scientific term for br__ __th__ng. The adjective form of the noun str__ss is str__ssf__l. 6. e WORD COMPLETION 4. Finger is to knuckle as ear is to ______________________. Then write a word from the reading that shows the same relationship between the second pair of words. A f__ __nt sound is very low and s__ft. i. Increased bl__ __d pressure and pulse r__t__s are two signs of physical stress. u) to complete the words in the sentences. s 3. d 2. e. Soft is to whisper as loud is to ______________________. 101 . 1. 7.ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. Find the relationship between the first two words. s 6. Fahrenheit is to F as decibel is to ______________________. Damage is to injury as strain is to ______________________. 5. A person with c__mpl__t__ hearing loss is d__ __f. r 5. you are not a bit __rr__t__bl__. If you are in a good m__ __d. 1. 4. 2. A p__rm__n__nt disability never goes away. Effect is to cause as flood is to ______________________. i Add vowels (a. o.

diffrences 4. A scientist who studies volcanoes is a ________________________. 102 . 2. MYSTERY WORDS To complete the sentences. 3. When you submit a question to a Web site. add a suffix to the boldface word. vaccum 2. One who pollutes is called a ________________________. intellagence WORD FORMS vacuum whethering diferrences intelligense vaccume wethering differences intelligence To correctly complete each sentence. A book or Web site you refer to for information is called a ________________________. The place where an organism lives is its THABAIT ___________________. To NOTPINIP ___________________ something is to identify it exactly. write the unscrambled words on the lines. weathering 3. 4. 3. 2.UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS REVIEW SPELLING Circle the correctly spelled word in each group. Write the new word on the line. 1. your question is your ________________________. 1. An VERAICH ___________________ is a Web site’s collection of FAQs. 1.

HIDDEN WORDS PUZZLE Find and circle the words in the hidden words puzzle. down. backward. archive ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. erupt __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. Try to include a scientific fact. burrows _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. Words may go up. Check off each word as you find it. homonyms _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 103 . or diagonally. _____ ERUPT _____ HARES _____ DESERT _____ MAJOR _____ RANGE _____ SUBMIT _____ BURROWS _____ HOMONYMS _____ SUPERIOR _____ DOWNWIND _____ INTERNET _____ ARCHIVE I S U P E R I O R B N O H N H L H Q U Z T M A O W A G R X O E X B S M K R S C T R D T D E O J E B I N N E F W H N A S M E I V S R J K Y R B T W I K E R L O M U P N H L T R B U A S A W C H Y E T B J M C O R E R U P T O K S D A J E G N A R S WORDS IN CONTEXT Now use each word from the puzzle in a sentence of your own. 1. explanation. submit _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. hares __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 6. or example in each sentence. across.

p . Yesterday is to outdated as now is to ___________________________. Fall is to snow as cascade is to ___________________________. Explode is to explosion as erupt is to ___________________________. e 3. s 104 4. Lion is to consumer as dandelion is to ___________________________.7. Find the relationship between the first two words. f 5. 1. Internet _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 12. desert __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 8. Much is to little as loud is to ___________________________. major __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 10. Sound is to homonyms as meaning is to ___________________________. Then show the same relationship in the second pair of words by completing the analogy with a word from Unit 4. s 6. range __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 11. downwind _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ANALOGIES Analogies are statements of relationship. l 2. superior _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 9.

pro-. think 7. -ist 3. spongy 6. loyalty 4. inter-. jump. gen. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 2. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 105 EXAMPLES: . therm. vit DOWN 6 4 5 A C V 7 1. daybreak. -ance. anti4. electric. awkwardly 5. red. are.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS END-OF-BOOK TEST ELEMENTS OF VOCABULARY • Complete the crossword puzzle with a word that names the category that could label the clue words. slowly. student. ACROSS 2 1 S N 3 P 2. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 3. soon. Paris. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 4. 1. barnyard R • Now write three examples of your own for each element of vocabulary (crossword puzzle answers). snowshoe. -ment. Answers are some of the elements of vocabulary you’ve been working with in this book.

1. memory _________________ 8. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 6. First figure out a homonym for each boldface word from the book. describing your homonym with two appropriate adjectives. bacterium _________________ 5. criterion _________________ 7. different spellings. HOMONYM PHRASE 1. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 8. ability _________________ . chilly ________________ _______________________________________ son her oldest. hare PLURALS ________________ _______________________________________ Write the correct plural form of each boldface word from the book. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: HOMONYMS Homonyms are words that sound exactly alike. flower ________________ _______________________________________ 4. species _________________ 106 4. Then write a phrase. ELEMENT: ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ EXAMPLES: 7. tallest son ________________ _______________________________________ 3.5. kidney _________________ 2. but have different meanings and often. check a dictionary. sun 2. alley _________________ 6. fungus _________________ 3. flurry _________________ 9. The first one has been done for you. If you need help.

down. gnawing respond ANTONYMS liver autumn aerial modem focus knowledge Find and circle the words hidden in the puzzle. _____ EXTINCT _____ SOLID _____ MULTIPLE _____ URBAN _____ INFERIOR _____ MAJOR _____ PARASITE _____ INTERIOR _____ LATITUDE _____ CONDENSATION _____ OUTPUT _____ VOWELS I N F E R I O R R B A P M O E X T I N C T Z A N U I A L W A G U X R C O L T B S A K P S A T D P T A T D E T J S B I E Q I S E F U H I A N S F S P N V O R T K T R O L O L E I K E R E O U E H L E D N A B R U U W D I I A N C H I E T O J D E D C O R O R U V T O K K W S C R O J A M A R S L X 1. superior / ___________________ 107 . host / ______________________ 9. liquid / _____________________ 4. evaporation / ________________ 10. living / ______________________ 8. Check off each word as you find it. or diagonally. When you have circled all the words. minor / _____________________ 3. backward. write each word next to its antonym (word that means the opposite). input / ______________________ 6. across. rural / ______________________ 12. Words may go up. single / ______________________ 11. consonants / _________________ 2. longitude / __________________ 7.SILENT LETTERS Find and circle the silent letter in half the words listed below. exterior / ___________________ 5.

5. ( Evaporation / Elevation ) determines whether precipitation will fall as rain or snow. Then use each unscrambled word to complete one of the sentences. As it passes through ice crystals. 4. DROOLBETAMS _________________ GLINTHUS _____________________ NAILMAND _______________________ THAWGENVEL _____________________ 1. The distance between successive crests on the ocean’s surface is called the ____________________. Rabbits and hares have a second pair of upper ( incisors / appendages ). COMPOUND WORDS First unscramble the compound words. Noise levels are measured in ( Hz / dB ). The ( tuners / transistors ) in a radio amplify the program current. 2. ____________________ refracts and appears as sun dogs. 6. 2.WORDS IN CONTEXT Circle a word to correctly complete each sentence. 3. Carnivore is to meat-eater as herbivore is to ( vegetarian / cold-blooded ). 3. 1. Calcium is released as needed into the ____________________. Scientists have identified 103 ( organic / chemical ) elements. 108 . 4. Vesuvius is the only active volcano on the ____________________ of Europe.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS WORD LIST Abbreviation ability absorb adjective advance adverb aerial African amino acids amplified analogy Andes annual Antarctica antenna antonym ants appendage application applied research appropriate Arabian Peninsula archive arctic area arid Arizona astronomy atmosphere atoms Australia author authority axis bit bitter blind alleys blood pressure bloodstream blubber boldface botany. botanist branch brittle broadcasting buds burrows byte Calcitrol calcium campus capacity captivity carbohydrates carbon carbon dioxide caretaker cascade catastrophe category cell Celluloid challenges characteristics chemistry chilly chimpanzee chromosomes cirrus classification classify climate coastal cockroach cold-blooded colony compound computers concepts condensation conditions confirm consistent constant consumers context continents contrary contrast convulsive cottontail crests criteria crust crystals currency currents cycle cyclone Damage debate decaying decibels (dB) degrees (°) dense density desert detract devastating devised diagonally differentiate Bacteria barriers basic research bees biologists 109 .

exposure Gas genetics geographic geology germinate.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS WORD LIST digital disaster discovery disk drive diskettes disprove dispute dissipate distinct distinguishing distractions document downwind dynamic extent extinct Factors faint fascinating features fertilization findings flea flurries focus food chain force fossils frequency frigid fungi. fungus furred fuzzy hind hollows homonym hoofed horizon horizontal horns host hydrogen hypothesis Eardrum ecology ecosystem egg electromagnetic electronic element elephant elevated. germination glossary gnawing Gobi graphite greenhouse Habitat halos hare harpoon hazardous waste helium herbivore hertz hexagonal high-pressure system Himalayas Incinerate incisors individuals industrious industry inevitable inferior information inland input instruments intensity interaction interior intermittent Internet intervals inventions. elevation endangered energy enormous environment equipment erosion erupt essential evacuate evaporation evident. inventor invertebrates investigations involved irritable Italy Jet stream Kidneys kilokingdom knowledge 110 . evidence evolution exact exceed excessively expanses experiment expert exposed.

pollution Pompeii practical Precambrian era precipitation precursor prefix preliminary prevailing winds process produced productive professor projected proper adjective proper noun properties pulse pursuit Qualities quartz quest Rabbit radiation radio frequency waves rain forest rain shadow rate ratio 111 . locales longevity longitude looming monitoring mountain ranges mullein plants multiple Naked Naples nature navigate nest newborn noise nostrils notation noun nucleus nutrient nutrition Magma magnifying glass mainland maintains major mammal manufacture Mars masses matter maze measure megamemory mercury message board metal meteor microscopes midlatitude migrate minerals minute modem modern moisture mold molecules monitor Objects observation oceans offshore offspring operate opposite order organic chemistry organisms oriented outlook output overcast overview oxygen ozone Parallel parasite parhelia particle parts of speech pattern percentage permanently perpendicular phenomenon physics.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS WORD LIST Landfill latitude lava laws of nature lenses life science linger liquid liver locations. physicist pinpoint plain planet plastics plural polar pollute.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORDS WORD LIST reaction reflect refracting regenerated regions relationship relentless reputable research respiration respond retardation retiring rhinoceros rodent Satellite scholars scientific method score seas seedlings seismic Sierra Nevada signal site skeptical sketch slopes solar system solid sound waves source space species specific spectrum spongy square miles stark state-of-the-art stations stomach stratus stress stretches subject submit substance substitute subtropical successive suffix Sumatran sun dogs superior surf surface swells synonym synthetic Turkestan twigs Ultraviolet underground undulations unearthed unit universe updated upwind urban Vacuum various vast vegetarians verb verify vertebrates Vesuvius vibrations vitality vocabulary volcanologist volt vowels vulnerable Task technical technology teeming telegraph terminate test theory thermometer thunderous time frame tissue topography transistors transmit tremendous tuner turbine Warm-blooded water cycle water table wave wavelength waves weathering Web sites wither Zinc 112 .

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