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³Treat others as you would like to be treated´
How do human needs influence motivation to work? How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?
WHAT IS MOTIVATON
MOTIVATION is an important factor which encourage person to give their best performance and help in reaching enterprise goal .A positive motivation will help the increase output employees but negative motivation will reduce their performance.
The Nature of Motivation
The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. The goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors.
The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace
Determinants of Individual Performance
Motivation²the desire to do the job. Ability²the capability to do the job. Work environment²the resources needed to do the job.
. direction.MOTIVATION Human Needs Motivation accounts for the level. and persistence of effort expended at work. Need an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire.
What Is Motivation? Direction Intensity Persistence .
higher needs to emerge.´ .Maslow·s Theory ³We each have a hierarchy of needs that ranges from "lower" to "higher." As lower needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for other.
Maslow·s Theory Maslow¶s theory maintains that a person does not feel a higher need until the needs of the current level have been satisfied. Maslow's basic needs are as follows: .
Basic Human Needs Food Air Water Clothin g Physiological Needs Sex .
Safety and Security Protection Stability Safety Needs Pain Avoidance Medical insurance .
Love and Belonging Affection Social Needs Acceptanc e Need of friends Need to give and receive love .
Esteem Esteem Needs Self-Respect Self-Esteem Respected by Others .
Self-Actualization Achieve full potential Fulfillment .
Summary Self-Actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological .
MOTIVATION Human Needs Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs .
The ERG theory is improvement of Maslow's theory Maslow's theory suggested that the person will move to next level only if the need of previous level is satisfied.ERG Alderfer¶s ERG theory focuses on existence. relatedness. Advantages and limitation . and growth needs.
MOTIVATION Human Needs Alderfer¶s ERG Theory Existence Needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. . this need are satisfied by personal relation and social interaction. This need similar to self actualisation need. This include relationship with other people we care about. the existence needs combine the physiological and safety need of Maslow's modal. the existence need are satisfied by material incentive. Growth Needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development.releted need include Maslow's social and esteem need. Relatedness Needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. which are derived from other people.
. This will dissatisfy you. However making the office exactly the right temperature will not motivate you positively.TWO FACTOR Herzberg¶s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfaction Herzberg instead that hygiene factors caused dissatisfaction by their absence. Imagine the office was too cold. but did not cause motivation by their increased presence.
and salary. responsibility. recognition. interpersonal relations. advancement. . such as working conditions. such as a sense of achievement. Motivator Factor is found in job content. or personal growth. organizational policies.MOTIVATION Human Needs Herzberg¶s Two-factor Theory Hygiene Factor is found in the job context.
Herzberg·s Two-Factor Theory Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation Hygiene Factors Company policies Quality of supervision Relations with others Personal life Rate of pay. salary Job security Working conditions Motivational Factors Achievement Career advancement Personal growth Job interest Recognition Responsibility .
Needs Theories Maslow Self-Actualisation Esteem Motivators Herzberg Social Safety Physiological Hygiene Factors .
MOTIVATION VROOMS EXPECTENCY THEORY Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfill them. performance. Vroom separates effort (which arises from motivation). . and outcomes.
.MOTIVATION Thought Processes and Decisions Vroom¶s Expectancy Theory motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence Expectancy a person¶s belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired level of task performance Instrumentality a person¶s belief that successful performance will lead to rewards and other potential outcomes Valence the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other workrelated outcomes.
How Expectancy Theory Works Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning.Performance Link No matter how much effort you put in. Expectancy Effort .Personal Goals Link There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million I=0 V=1 Conclusion: Though you value the reward. probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours E=0 Instrumentality Performance . you will not be motivated to do this task.Rewards Link Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards . .
MOTIVATION Thought Processes and Decisions Vroom¶s Expectancy Theory .
e.g. if I work harder then this will be better. raw materials. supervisor support. Having the right skills to do the job 3. or correct information on the job) .Expectancy Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i. This is affected by such things as: 1. time) 2. Having the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. Having the right resources available (e.
Instrumentality Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received i. Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome . This is affected by such things as: 1. Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes ± e. the rules of the reward µgame¶ 2. there is something in it for me. if I do a good job.e. Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome 3.g.
For example. person who is more intes. if I am mainly motivated by money. Ex. . In getting reorganization for the hard work will not have any valence for cash reward.Valence Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome. I might not value offers of additional time off.
. Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences. Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences.MOTIVATION Reinforcement Operant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequences.
. behavior followed by an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to be repeated.MOTIVATION Reinforcement The law of effect states that behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated.
MOTIVATION Reinforcement Operant Conditioning ± B. F. Skinner .
Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation Reinforcement Theory The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Assumes that: Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. .
Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (cont·d) Kinds of Reinforcement in Organizations (cont¶d) Punishment Weakens undesired behavior by using negative outcomes or unpleasant consequences when the behavior is performed. Extinction Weakens undesired behavior by simply ignoring or not reinforcing that behavior. .
.Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (cont·d) Kinds of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive reinforcement Strengthens behavior with rewards or positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performed. Avoidance Strengthens behavior by avoiding unpleasant consequences that would result if the behavior is not performed.
Specific behaviors are tied to specific forms of reinforcement.Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (cont·d) Providing Reinforcement in Organizations Behavior modification A method for applying the basic elements of reinforcement theory in an organizational setting. .
HOW TO MOTIVATIVE PEOPLE .
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