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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

• Abstract / summary 2

• Introduction 3-4

• Aims / objectives 4

• Theory 5-6

• Apparatus 6

• Experimental procedure 7

• Result 8-11

• Sample calculation 12

• Discussion 13-14

• Conclusion 15

• Recommendation 16

• References 16

• Appendices 17-19

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ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

Objectives of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when
applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure flow rates and both static
and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a
range of steady flow rates. The combination of venturi meter complete with manometer and
the hydraulic bench were used. The experiment was conducted in order to find the time taken
to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure difference at all
manometer tube (static head), velocity, dynamic head and also the total head. The data was
collected at three adjusted head differences which were 50mm, 100mm and 150mm for both
convergent and divergent flow. The experiment was run based on the Bernoulli’s principle. In
fluid dynamics, Bernoulli’s principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed
of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid’s
potential energy.[3] For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2),
0.1613m (h3), 0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1),
0.1840m (h2), 0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference
and 0.2132m (h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm
pressure difference. Meanwhile, for divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m
(h2), 0.1459m (h3), 0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m
(h1), 0.1607m (h2), 0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure
difference and 0.1798m (h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for
150mm pressure difference. The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase
when the pressure difference increases.

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INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli’s theorem which is known as Bernoulli’s principle, states that an increase in


the speed of moving air or a flowing fluid is accompanied by a decrease in the air or fluid’s
pressure. Swiss scientist, Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), demonstrated that, in most cases the
pressure in a liquid or gas decreases as the liquid or gas move faster.[8] This is an important
principle involving the movement of a fluid through the pressure difference. Suppose a fluid
is moving in a horizontal direction and encounters a pressure difference. This pressure
difference will result in a net force, which is by Newton’s Second Law will cause an
acceleration of the fluid.

Bernoulli’s theorem states that the total energy (pressure energy, potential energy and
kinetic energy) of an incompressible and non-viscous fluid in steady flow through a pipe
remains constant throughout the flow, provided there is no source or sink of the fluid along
the length of the pipe.[5] This statement is due to the assumption that there is no loss energy
due to friction.

P/ + gh + 1/2 V2 = constant

Figure 1

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The converging-diverging nozzle apparatus is used to show the validity of Bernoulli’s
Equation. It is also used to show the validity of the continuity equation where the fluid flows
is relatively incompressible. The data taken will show the presence of fluid energy losses,
often attributed to friction and the turbulence and eddy currents associated with a separation
of flow from the conduit walls.[4]

Figure 2 a. Convergent flow; b. Divergent flow; c. Schematic diagram of the apparatus.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this experiment are

1. To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow
of water in a tapered duct.

2. To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or
divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

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THEORY

Clearly stated that the assumptions made in deriving the Bernoulli’s equation is:

• The liquid is incompressible.

• The liquid is non-viscous.

• The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the critical velocity for
the liquid.

• There is no loss of energy due to friction.

Bernoulli’s equation may be written as;

V12 P1 V2 P
+ + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2
2g γ 2g γ

Starting from a fluid element along a streamline derived the Bernoulli equation for steady
one-dimensional flow of an incompressible, in viscid fluid;

V2 P P0
+ +z
2g γ γ

Where;

γ = the specific weight of the fluid

z = the elevation,

V = the velocity on the centre streamline in the Venturi tube,

P and P0 = the static and stagnation (total) pressure respectively

If horizontal tube levelled correctly, then z1=z2 and the Bernoulli’s equation is simplified as;

V12 P1 V22 P2 V12 P1 V22 P2


+ + z1 = + + z2 + = +
2g γ 2g γ 2g γ 2g γ

V12 V2 P
= Velocity head = hv Total head, hT = hs + hv= +
2g 2g γ

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Then derive the expression for the velocity V along the streamline as function of γ , P and
P0. From the continuity equation for steady incompressible flow, the mean velocity U at each
cross-section of the Venturi tube is:

Q
U
A

Q is the volume flow rate, A is the cross-section area.

APPARATUS

1. Venture meter

2. Pad of manometer tubes

3. Hydraulic bench

4. Stop watch

5. Water

6. Water tank equipped with valves water controller

7. Water host and tubes

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PROCEDURE
The air bleed screw

Pad of manometer tubes

The control valve

venturi

1. Switch on the main switch and the pump.

2. Setup the venturi for the convergent flow position. Fully open the flow control valve
to let the water flow into the venturi and manometer tubes.

3. Adjust the air bleed screw.

4. Closed the control valve and valve 1.

5. Regulate the air bleed screw until water level in manometer tubes reach 140 mm.

6. Fully open the flow control valve.

7. Regulate valve 1 slowly to get the different between water level in manometer tube
H1 and H5 is 50 mm.

8. Take the reading from H1 until H5.

9. Drop the ball in the water tank. Decide the volume of water that will be taken, let say
3liter, take the time for volume of water to reach the 3liter.

10. Repeats steps 7-8 for difference between H1 and H5 to be 100 mm and 150 mm.

11. Switch off the pump.

12. Setup the venturi for the divergent flow position.


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13. Repeats steps 3-9.

14. Close the valve1 and flow control valve.

15. Switch off the main power and pump.

RESULTS

• Divergent flow

a) Pressure difference: 50mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)

3 x 10-3 30.59 9.80 x 10-5

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total


into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 150 0.199 2.018 x 10-3 0.1520

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 125 0.646 0.0213 0.1463

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 105 0.896 0.0409 0.1459

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 100 1.090 0.0606 0.1606

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 100 1.243 0.0787 0.1787

b) Pressure difference: 100mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)

3 x 10-3 23.62 1.270 x 10-4

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Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total
into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 165 0.259 3.419 x 10-3 0.1684

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 125 0.837 0.0357 0.1607

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 70 1.161 0.0687 0.1387

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 65 1.413 0.1018 0.1668

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 65 1.618 0.1334 0.1984

c) Pressure difference: 150mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)

3 x 10-3 20.0 1.50 x 10-4

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total


into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 175 0.306 4.772 x 10-3 0.1798

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 115 0.989 0.0499 0.1649

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 45 1.371 0.0958 0.1408

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 25 1.669 0.1420 0.1670

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 25 1.911 0.1861 0.2111

• Convergent flow

1. Pressure difference: 50mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)


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3 x 10-3 48.5 6.19 x 10-5

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total


into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 165 0.1261 8.105 x 10-4 0.1658

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 155 0.4080 8.484 x 10-3 0.1635

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 145 0.5658 0.0163 0.1613

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 130 0.6885 0.0242 0.1542

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 115 0.7885 0.0317 0.1467

2. Pressure difference: 100mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)

3 x 10-3 32.4 9.26 x 10-5

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total


into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 190 0.1886 1.813 x 10-3 0.1918

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 165 0.6104 0.0190 0.1840

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 145 0.8464 0.0365 0.1815

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 120 1.030 0.0541 0.1741

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 90 1.180 0.0710 0.1610

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3. Pressure difference: 150mmH2O

Volume collected (m3) Time (s) Flow rate (m3/s)

3 x 10-3 24.47 1.23 x 10-4

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total


into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0
(m) (mm) (m)

1 h1 0.000 490.9 210 0.2506 3.201 x 10-3 0.2132

2 h2 0.0603 151.7 180 0.8108 0.0335 0.2135

3 h3 0.0687 109.4 145 1.1243 0.0644 0.2094

4 h4 0.0732 89.9 105 1.3682 0.0954 0.2004

5 h5 0.0811 78.5 60 1.5669 0.1251 0.1851

SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS

Example: For convergent (difference of about 150mm)

Volume collected = 3 L
1000L = 1m3
3.00L = 3.00L x 1m3
1000L
= 3.0 x 10-3 m3

Flow rate =

= 0.003
24.47

= 1.23 x 10-4 m3/sec

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Velocity, v =

= 1.23 x 10-4
490.9 x 10-6

= 0.2506 m/s

Dynamic head =

= (0.2506)2
2 x 9.81
= 3.201 x 10-3m

Total head = static head + dynamic head

= 0.210 + x 3.201 x 10-3

= 0.2132 m

DISCUSSION

The objectives of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli


equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow
rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of
known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. This experiment is based on the Bernoulli’s
principle which relates between velocities with the pressure for an inviscid flow.

To achieve the objectives of this experiment, Bernoulli’s theorem demonstration


apparatus (F1-15) along with the hydraulic bench (F1-10) were used. This instrument was
combined with a venturi meter and the pad of manometer tubes which indicate the pressure of
h1 until h8 but for this experiment only the pressure in manometer h1 until h5 being measured.
A venturi is basically a converging-diverging section (like an hourglass), typically placed
between tube or duct sections with fixed cross-sectional area. The flow rates through the
venturi meter can be related to pressure measurements by using Bernoulli’s equation.

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From the result obtained through this experiment, it is been observed that when the
pressure difference increase, the flow rates of the water increase and thus the velocities also
increase for both convergent and divergent flow. For the convergent flow, the flow rate is
6.19 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure difference is 50mm, 9.26 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure
difference is 100mm and 1.23 x 10-4 m3/s when the pressure difference is 150mm.
Meanwhile, for the divergent flow, the flow rate is 9.80 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure
difference is 50mm, 1.270 x 10-4 m3/s when the pressure difference is 100mm and 1.50 x 10-4
m3/s when the pressure difference is 150mm. Other than that, the result also show that the
time taken for 3L water to be collected become faster from 50mm to 150mm pressure
difference for both convergent and divergent flow.

For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2), 0.1613m (h3),
0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1), 0.1840m (h2),
0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.2132m
(h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm pressure
difference. The result show a rise at each manometer tubes when the pressure difference
increases.

For divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m (h2), 0.1459m (h3),
0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m (h1), 0.1607m (h2),
0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.1798m
(h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for 150mm pressure
difference. The results also show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the
pressure difference increases.

From this experiment, it is found that the total head pressure increase for convergent
and divergent flow for each manometer tube readings. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
Bernoulli’s equation is valid when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and
absolute velocity values increase along the same channel.

Although the experiment proof that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for both flow but
the values obtain might be slightly differ from the actual value. This is because there is some
error maybe happen during the experiment is done. While taking the reading of the
manometer, there might be possibility that the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the
scale. Thus, this error will contribute to the different in the values obtained. Other than that,
the readers must take the accurate reading from the manometers. In order to get the accurate
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value, the water level must be let to be really stable. Thus, a patient is needed in order to run
this experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment is conduct may
influence the result of the experiment.

CONCLUSION

For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2), 0.1613m (h3),
0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1), 0.1840m (h2),
0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.2132m
(h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm pressure
difference. Meanwhile, for divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m (h2),
0.1459m (h3), 0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m (h1),
0.1607m (h2), 0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference
and 0.1798m (h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for 150mm
pressure difference. The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the
pressure difference increases.

From the result obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for
convergent and divergent flow as both of it does obey the equation. For both flow, as the
pressure difference increase, the time taken for 3L water collected increase and the flow rates
of the water also increase. Thus, as the velocity of the same channel increase, the total head
pressure also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.
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RECOMMENDATION

1. Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get more
accurate results.

2. Make sure the trap bubbles must be removing first before start running the
experiment.

3. The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when taking
the reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error.

4. The valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant values of the pressure
difference as it is quite difficult to control.

5. The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and must
be only a person who taking the time.

6. The leakage of water in the instrument must be avoided.

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REFERENCES

1. Bernoulli experiment, 27 August 2010 at http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125607/Bernoulli-


Experiment

2. Bernoulli’s Principle and the Theory of Flight, 27 August 2010, at


www.wbabin.net/science/tombe29.pdf

3. Bernoulli’s principle, 27 August 2010, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli's_principle

4. Bernoulli Lab Report, 27 August 2010, at http://www.scribd.com/doc/23106099/Bernoulli-


Lab-Report

5. Bernoulli's theorem, 27 August 2010, at http://www.transtutors.com/physics-homework-


help/fluid-mechanics/Bernoullis-theorem.aspx

6. Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration, 27 August 2010, at


http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf

7. Bernoulli’s Principle, 27 August 2010, at http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/mod_tech/node68.html

8. Bernoulli’s Principle – Computer Dictionary Definition, 27 August 2010, at


http://www.yourdictionary.com/computer/bernoulli-s-principle

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APPENDICES

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Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

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Figure 6

Figure 7

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