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You are on page 1of 19

CONTENT PAGE

• Abstract / summary 2

• Introduction 3-4

• Aims / objectives 4

• Theory 5-6

• Apparatus 6

• Experimental procedure 7

• Result 8-11

• Sample calculation 12

• Discussion 13-14

• Conclusion 15

• Recommendation 16

• References 16

• Appendices 17-19

1

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

Objectives of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when

applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure flow rates and both static

and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a

range of steady flow rates. The combination of venturi meter complete with manometer and

the hydraulic bench were used. The experiment was conducted in order to find the time taken

to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure difference at all

manometer tube (static head), velocity, dynamic head and also the total head. The data was

collected at three adjusted head differences which were 50mm, 100mm and 150mm for both

convergent and divergent flow. The experiment was run based on the Bernoulli’s principle. In

fluid dynamics, Bernoulli’s principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed

of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid’s

potential energy.[3] For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2),

0.1613m (h3), 0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1),

0.1840m (h2), 0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference

and 0.2132m (h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm

pressure difference. Meanwhile, for divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m

(h2), 0.1459m (h3), 0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m

(h1), 0.1607m (h2), 0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure

difference and 0.1798m (h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for

150mm pressure difference. The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase

when the pressure difference increases.

2

INTRODUCTION

the speed of moving air or a flowing fluid is accompanied by a decrease in the air or fluid’s

pressure. Swiss scientist, Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), demonstrated that, in most cases the

pressure in a liquid or gas decreases as the liquid or gas move faster.[8] This is an important

principle involving the movement of a fluid through the pressure difference. Suppose a fluid

is moving in a horizontal direction and encounters a pressure difference. This pressure

difference will result in a net force, which is by Newton’s Second Law will cause an

acceleration of the fluid.

Bernoulli’s theorem states that the total energy (pressure energy, potential energy and

kinetic energy) of an incompressible and non-viscous fluid in steady flow through a pipe

remains constant throughout the flow, provided there is no source or sink of the fluid along

the length of the pipe.[5] This statement is due to the assumption that there is no loss energy

due to friction.

P/ + gh + 1/2 V2 = constant

Figure 1

3

The converging-diverging nozzle apparatus is used to show the validity of Bernoulli’s

Equation. It is also used to show the validity of the continuity equation where the fluid flows

is relatively incompressible. The data taken will show the presence of fluid energy losses,

often attributed to friction and the turbulence and eddy currents associated with a separation

of flow from the conduit walls.[4]

OBJECTIVES

1. To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow

of water in a tapered duct.

2. To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or

divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

4

THEORY

Clearly stated that the assumptions made in deriving the Bernoulli’s equation is:

• The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the critical velocity for

the liquid.

V12 P1 V2 P

+ + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2

2g γ 2g γ

Starting from a fluid element along a streamline derived the Bernoulli equation for steady

one-dimensional flow of an incompressible, in viscid fluid;

V2 P P0

+ +z

2g γ γ

Where;

z = the elevation,

If horizontal tube levelled correctly, then z1=z2 and the Bernoulli’s equation is simplified as;

+ + z1 = + + z2 + = +

2g γ 2g γ 2g γ 2g γ

V12 V2 P

= Velocity head = hv Total head, hT = hs + hv= +

2g 2g γ

5

Then derive the expression for the velocity V along the streamline as function of γ , P and

P0. From the continuity equation for steady incompressible flow, the mean velocity U at each

cross-section of the Venturi tube is:

Q

U

A

APPARATUS

1. Venture meter

3. Hydraulic bench

4. Stop watch

5. Water

6

PROCEDURE

The air bleed screw

venturi

2. Setup the venturi for the convergent flow position. Fully open the flow control valve

to let the water flow into the venturi and manometer tubes.

5. Regulate the air bleed screw until water level in manometer tubes reach 140 mm.

7. Regulate valve 1 slowly to get the different between water level in manometer tube

H1 and H5 is 50 mm.

9. Drop the ball in the water tank. Decide the volume of water that will be taken, let say

3liter, take the time for volume of water to reach the 3liter.

10. Repeats steps 7-8 for difference between H1 and H5 to be 100 mm and 150 mm.

7

13. Repeats steps 3-9.

RESULTS

• Divergent flow

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

8

Distance Area of duct, Static Velocity, Dynamic Total

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

• Convergent flow

9

3 x 10-3 48.5 6.19 x 10-5

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

10

3. Pressure difference: 150mmH2O

into duct A (m2) x 10-6 head v (m/s) head (m) head, h0

(m) (mm) (m)

SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS

Volume collected = 3 L

1000L = 1m3

3.00L = 3.00L x 1m3

1000L

= 3.0 x 10-3 m3

Flow rate =

= 0.003

24.47

11

Velocity, v =

= 1.23 x 10-4

490.9 x 10-6

= 0.2506 m/s

Dynamic head =

= (0.2506)2

2 x 9.81

= 3.201 x 10-3m

= 0.2132 m

DISCUSSION

equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow

rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of

known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. This experiment is based on the Bernoulli’s

principle which relates between velocities with the pressure for an inviscid flow.

apparatus (F1-15) along with the hydraulic bench (F1-10) were used. This instrument was

combined with a venturi meter and the pad of manometer tubes which indicate the pressure of

h1 until h8 but for this experiment only the pressure in manometer h1 until h5 being measured.

A venturi is basically a converging-diverging section (like an hourglass), typically placed

between tube or duct sections with fixed cross-sectional area. The flow rates through the

venturi meter can be related to pressure measurements by using Bernoulli’s equation.

12

From the result obtained through this experiment, it is been observed that when the

pressure difference increase, the flow rates of the water increase and thus the velocities also

increase for both convergent and divergent flow. For the convergent flow, the flow rate is

6.19 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure difference is 50mm, 9.26 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure

difference is 100mm and 1.23 x 10-4 m3/s when the pressure difference is 150mm.

Meanwhile, for the divergent flow, the flow rate is 9.80 x 10-5 m3/s when the pressure

difference is 50mm, 1.270 x 10-4 m3/s when the pressure difference is 100mm and 1.50 x 10-4

m3/s when the pressure difference is 150mm. Other than that, the result also show that the

time taken for 3L water to be collected become faster from 50mm to 150mm pressure

difference for both convergent and divergent flow.

For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2), 0.1613m (h3),

0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1), 0.1840m (h2),

0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.2132m

(h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm pressure

difference. The result show a rise at each manometer tubes when the pressure difference

increases.

For divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m (h2), 0.1459m (h3),

0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m (h1), 0.1607m (h2),

0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.1798m

(h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for 150mm pressure

difference. The results also show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the

pressure difference increases.

From this experiment, it is found that the total head pressure increase for convergent

and divergent flow for each manometer tube readings. Therefore, it can be concluded that the

Bernoulli’s equation is valid when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and

absolute velocity values increase along the same channel.

Although the experiment proof that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for both flow but

the values obtain might be slightly differ from the actual value. This is because there is some

error maybe happen during the experiment is done. While taking the reading of the

manometer, there might be possibility that the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the

scale. Thus, this error will contribute to the different in the values obtained. Other than that,

the readers must take the accurate reading from the manometers. In order to get the accurate

13

value, the water level must be let to be really stable. Thus, a patient is needed in order to run

this experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment is conduct may

influence the result of the experiment.

CONCLUSION

For convergent flow, the total head is 0.1658m (h1), 0.1635m (h2), 0.1613m (h3),

0.1542m (h4) and 0.1467m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1918m (h1), 0.1840m (h2),

0.1815m (h3), 0.1741m (h4) and 0.1610m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference and 0.2132m

(h1), 0.2135m (h2), 0.2094m (h3), 0.2004m (h4) and 0.1851m (h5) for 150 mm pressure

difference. Meanwhile, for divergent flow, the total head is 0.1520m (h1), 0.1463m (h2),

0.1459m (h3), 0.1606m (h4) and 0.1787m (h5) for 50mm pressure difference, 0.1684m (h1),

0.1607m (h2), 0.1387m (h3), 0.1668m (h4) and 0.1984m (h5) for 100mm pressure difference

and 0.1798m (h1), 0.1649m (h2), 0.1408m (h3), 0.1670m (h4) and 0.2111m (h5) for 150mm

pressure difference. The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the

pressure difference increases.

From the result obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for

convergent and divergent flow as both of it does obey the equation. For both flow, as the

pressure difference increase, the time taken for 3L water collected increase and the flow rates

of the water also increase. Thus, as the velocity of the same channel increase, the total head

pressure also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.

14

RECOMMENDATION

1. Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get more

accurate results.

2. Make sure the trap bubbles must be removing first before start running the

experiment.

3. The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when taking

the reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error.

4. The valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant values of the pressure

difference as it is quite difficult to control.

5. The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and must

be only a person who taking the time.

15

REFERENCES

Experiment

www.wbabin.net/science/tombe29.pdf

Lab-Report

help/fluid-mechanics/Bernoullis-theorem.aspx

http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf

http://www.yourdictionary.com/computer/bernoulli-s-principle

16

APPENDICES

17

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

18

Figure 6

Figure 7

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