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Wireless Sensor Systems: Security Implications for the Industrial Environment

Dr. Peter L. Fuhr
Chief Scientist RAE Systems, Sunnyvale, CA pfuhr@raesystems.com

Dr. Peter Fuhr, Presenter: 480+ publications&presentations in wireless sensor networking arena. Old-timer in this area…etc etc.

RAE Systems Inc.
• Pervasive Sensing Company based in Silicon Valley founded in 1991 Capabilities
– Radiation detection
• Gamma and neutron

– Chemical/vapor detection
• Toxic gas, VOC, combustible gas, oxygen, CWA, temperature, humidity, C02

– Redeployable sensor networks – Mobile and fixed wireless monitors – Cargo Container Sensor Systems

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


A number of individuals have provided “content” for these slides. They include: Wayne Manges, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert Poor, Ember Pat Gonia, Honeywell Hesh Kagan, Foxboro/Invensys Kang Lee, NIST Tom Kevan, Advanstar Ramesh Shankar, Electric Power Research Institute Larry Hill, Larry Hill Consulting Rob Conant, Dust Rick Kriss, Xsilogy Gideon Varga, Dept of Energy Jack Eisenhauser, Energetics Michael Brambley, Pacific Northwest National Labs David Wagner, UC-Berkeley Undoubtedly, there are other contributors too (apologies if your name is not listed).
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 3


P.. Wireless devices circa 1930 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 4 ..Wireless Sensor Networking …it’s not cellular telephony …it’s not just WiFi.(and it just may be the next big thing) Each dot represents one cell phone tower.

Dust 5 . P. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rob Conant.Sensor Market: $11B in 2001 Installation (wiring) costs: >$100B • Fragmented market  platform opportunity • Installation cost limits penetration  reducing installation cost increases market size Highly Fragmented Sensor Market Freedonia Group report on Sensors. April 2002 ISA Wireless Security.

Xsilogy 6 . Preventative Maintenance. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss. P.Industrial Market Sizing Sensor Networking Products • North American Market for Wireless products used in Applications where transmission distances are 1 mile or less: – – – 2002 Total: $107 million 2006 Forecast: $713 million 2010 Estimates: $ 2.1 billion • Largest Application areas: – – 2002: Tank Level Monitoring. Preventative Maintenance 2006: Tank Level Monitoring. Asset Tracking. Environmental Monitoring • Conclusions: – – – Rapid Growth in Industrial markets Tank Level Monitoring will remain a significant opportunity Key ‘ User’ Needs: • • • Lower Costs over Wired (or Manual) Solutions Education of Potential Customers on the Technology Demonstration of Operational Reliability & Application ‘ Domain’ Knowledge ISA Wireless Security.

FLEX SAT.15. Xsilogy 7 . etc Higher 3-Yr TOC $$ $ Installation Costs Design For Here Lower Meters $ Radio RF Range (dB) Miles $$$$$ Lower ISA Wireless Security. P. 802.4. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss. WiFi etc SPARSE 1xRTT.The True cost per monitored node – to the End User Higher DENSE Bluetooth.

P.g.. Fuhr 8 . PLC) perhaps relying on a 4-20mA signal… ISA Wireless Security.What to do with the data? Parameter of Interest Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magnetic Output Signal Measurement System Modifier Output Transducer Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magnetic Sensor Power Supply Great! But how do you get the output signal from the sensor to the location where the information will be interpreted (used)? Traditionally the output of the sensor was hardwired to some form of interpretive device (e.

Fuhr 9 . WiFi. encryption. others…) 5. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. 802. Spectrum. modulation. P. Security? Who needs it? 2. spatial…) 4. Bluetooth.4.15. An Integrated Solution 6. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.Outline: 1.

Oh. who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! (pretty ridiculous statement isn’t it! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 10 .

org ISA Wireless Security.wireless4industrial. Coral Gables. 2003 www. Fuhr 11 . Sept. P.Let’s ask some experts: WINA meeting.

5 day meeting at ISA-HQ in RTP. Check out www.What’s a WINA? In the spring of 2003. NC on Feb 11/12 – right after the ISA Wireless Security Expo and conference. Fuhr 12 .wireless4industrial.isa. WINA will be holding a 1. the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA) was formed to promote the adoption of wireless networking technologies and practices that will help increase industrial productivity and efficiency. P.org for WINA meeting details AND www.org/wireless for the ISA Wireless Security conf details! ISA Wireless Security.

P. Fuhr 13 .Back to the Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! ISA Wireless Security.

media. Fuhr 14 . researchers) ISA Wireless Security. P. government.Strategy Workshop Participants • • • Suppliers (13) System integrators (6) Industrial end users (10) – Energy/Utilities – Chemicals – Forest Products – Petroleum – Automotive – Electronics • • Industry analysts/venture capitalists (3) Others (associations.

P.End-User View of Industrial Wireless Likes • Mobility • Compactness • Flexibility • Low cost • Capability to monitor rotating equipment • Short range (security) • Ease of installation • High reliability • Impetus to enhance electronics support Dislikes • Change to status quo • Complexity • High cost for coverage in large plants • Security issues • Portability issues (power) • Unproven reliability • Too risky for process control • Lack of experience in troubleshooting (staff) • Restricted infrastructure flexibility once implemented • Lack of analysis tools ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 15 .

data. collectors. environments) ISA Wireless Security.Technology Group: Key Issues • Security – Jamming. etc. collectors.) • Assured performance & reliability/MTBA* • Software infrastructure. hacking. P. and eavesdropping • Power • Value (clear to customer) • Interoperability – Co-existence with other facility networks. & systems management • Robustness (at least as good as wired) • RF characterization (radios. sensors. receivers. technology • True engineered solution (sensors. Fuhr *mean time between attention 16 .

) Scalability (Max.Technology Group: Criticality Varies by Application (5 = most critical) Attributes Latency Device Reliability Raw Thru-put (node / aggr. Fuhr 17 .# nodes) Data Reliability Monitor 2-3 2-3 2/5 Control 3-5 3-5 2.5 Applications Alarm 5 5 1/4 Shutdown 5 5 1/1 Biz WLAN 1 1 1/5 5 4 4 1 2-3 1 5 5 5 2 Security Low Cost Gateway Technology Engineered Solution 1-5 5 5 1 5 2 1 5 5 1-3 3-4 4 5 1 1 5 5 2-3 1 3 ISA Wireless Security. P.5 /2.

Industrial CyberSecurity • The Case of Vitek Boden ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 18 .

He was refused. 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of: – 26 counts of willfully using a restricted computer to cause damage – 1 count of causing serious environment harm • The facts of the case: – Vitek worked for the contractor involved in the installation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatment plant. Fuhr 19 . – Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 and approached the shire for employment. ISA Wireless Security.• On October 31. P. causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled. – Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewage system experienced 47 unexplainable faults.

2000 Vitek was arrested with stolen radio equipment. controller programming software on a laptop and a fully operational controller. P.How did he do it? • On April 23. • Vitek is now in jail… Disgruntled Contractor Rogue Radio PLC PLC 20 Sewage Plant ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr .

Fuhr 21 .A Favorite 2.4 GHz Antenna ISA Wireless Security. P.

Fuhr 22 .11 HotSpots in Silicon Valley ISA Wireless Security.WarDriving – 802. P.

P.11 HotSpots in San Francisco ISA Wireless Security.WarDriving – 802. Fuhr 23 .

Fuhr 24 . So…How do you provide the appropriate level of security within the acceptable price and “inconvenience” margin -> Risk Management! ISA Wireless Security. P.The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! The Answer: We do.

P. Fuhr 25 % of Respondents .Inside vs. F r ig oe n Cr. C m eit r o p t os D gu t d is r nle E p ye m lo e s 20 02 20 01 20 00 19 99 19 98 *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .gocsi. Outside? • Where do attacks come from? 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 F r ig G v oe n o .. ISA Wireless Security.www.com/losses. op H c es ak r US .

When? April 2001 ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 26 .An “Outside” Example.

the US got it’s first a taste of a new form of warfare. •Launched from overseas and targeted at US critical infrastructure.“Hacker War I” •In the Spring of 2001. Fuhr 27 . ISA Wireless Security. P.

Fuhr 28 ..Honker Union •Chinese Hacker Group working to advance and in some cases impose it’s political agenda •During the spring of 2001...com Attack Methods: Denial of Service Attacks •Website Defacement •E-mailing viruses to US Government Employees •“KillUSA” package ISA Wireless Security. P." Wired.make use of their skills for China.. Honker Union worked with other groups such as the Chinese Red Guest Network Security Technology Alliance •Hackers were encouraged to ".

• Security consultants state that the war against Iraq made March the worst month for digital attacks since records began in 1995. with many of the attacks containing anti-war slogans. • More than 1.Cyberwar • Cyber attacks and web defacements increased dramatically after the start of the war against Iraq. Fuhr 29 . P. ISA Wireless Security.000 sites were hacked in the first 48 hours of the conflict.

Hacker School • North Korea's Mirim College. P. is a military academy specializing in electronic warfare • 100 potential cybersoldiers graduate every year ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 30 .

P. Fuhr 31 .The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway? The Answer: Everyone. ISA Wireless Security.

The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. spatial…) 4. Bluetooth.4. An Integrated Solution 6. modulation.15. WiFi. 802. P. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.Outline: 1. Security? Who needs it? 2. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Spectrum. others…) 5. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 32 . encryption.

P.A few details… Layered Communications ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 33 .

) ISA Wireless Security. ORNL 34 . Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges. (There are a few other factors…such as the physical media. The level of protection rests on the encryption algorithm.Encryption The “traditional” method involved encrypting the data prior to transmission over a potentially insecure channel. P.Wired Data Security .

3. others…) 5. P. 4.Outline: 1.15.4. Security? Who needs it? How is security achieved in a wired channel? The Situation for Wireless Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. An Integrated Solution 6. 2. Fuhr 35 . WiFi. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. Bluetooth. 802.

From many perspectives. THIS is what a wireless sensor network can provide. P. Wireless Buildings Key to success: reduced installation costs ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Pat Gonia. Honeywell 36 .

Fuhr 37 .and they are not interoperable.Modulation E(t) = A(t) cos[ω t + φ (t)] Amplitude Modulation (AM) info is in A(t) Frequency Modulation (FM) info is in ω Phase Modulation (PM) info is in φ (t) Different vendors use different schemes . P h a s e =o 0 P h a s e 0 0 0o = P h a s e 0 0 0o = (o r b a c k too ) 0 P h a s e 0 0 0o = ISA Wireless Security. P.

Fuhr 38 . 915 and 2400 MHz. ISA Wireless Security. The ISM bands most commonly used are at 433.The FCC Frequency Assignment Different vendors may use different frequencies within the various ISM bands (green in the diagram). P.

Fuhr 39 . P. FDMA.Multiple Sensors Sharing the Medium: Multiplexing. TDMA and CDMA ISA Wireless Security.

P. “1” in right) ISA Wireless Security.Binary Signaling Formats • Used to Improve Digital Signal Reception and Decision • NRZ: Non-Return to Zero • RZ: Return to Zero • Unipolar: Only one side of 0V • Bipolar: Both sides of 0V • Manchester: Bi-Phase (“0” in left 1/2 time slot. Fuhr 40 .

Narrowband or Spread Spectrum? Narrowband uses a fixed carrier frequency. F0. F0. Fuhr 41 . Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. ISA Wireless Security. Least secure modulation scheme. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. Easy to implement (inexpensive). P. F0.

Uses a carrier frequency that varies with time. F0(t).Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. The receiver must track the time-varying carrier frequency. F0(t). Relatively easy to implement (inexpensive). Invented and patented by actress Heddy Lamarr and her pianist George Antheil. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. ISA Wireless Security. F0) during any single transmit interval.) ? Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. P. Hopping rates may be ~1600 hops/second (ala Bluetooth). Very secure modulation scheme (used in military for decades). Fuhr 42 .

Highly robust technique. The information is replicated many times throughout the bandwidth. so if one “lobe” of the information is jammed.) ? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum uses a fixed carrier frequency.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. Fuhr 43 . ISA Wireless Security. F0 but interleaves the data with a precise mathematical 0/1 data sequence. P. the remainder “gets through”. (This increases the length of the transmitted information vector making it longer). Most secure modulation scheme. Most complicated scheme (of these presented). More difficult to implement (more expensive). The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. F0 receives the signal and then must “undo” the interleaving.

DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM SIGNALS PN Clock Local PN Clock Local Carrier PN Sequence Generator ±1 Data PN Sequence Generator ±1 Carrier Wide BP Filter Narrow BP Filter ±1 Phase Demod Data Data Clock Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density RFI “Spread” RFI Frequency fc Frequency fc Narrow spectrum at output of modulator before spreading Spectrum has wider bandwidth and lower power density after spreading with PN sequence (PN Rate >> Data Rate) Original narrowband. high power density spectrum is restored if local PN sequence is same as and lined up with received PN sequence Frequency fc ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 44 . P.

DSSS is best. . 45 ISA Wireless Security. P.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. Fuhr From a security standpoint.) ? Which is best? Each has its pluses and minuses…and each scheme has its share of die-hard advocates and/or naysayers! Different vendors use these (and other) schemes at different frequencies within the various ISM bands.

Reality DSSS FHSS ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 46 . P.

Fuhr 47 . P.No Matter What…Its Just an Electromagnetic Field E(t) = A(t) cos[ω t + φ (t)] A(t): amplitude of the wave ω : radian frequency of the wave φ (t): phase of the wave ISA Wireless Security.

The RF “Footprint” Network “Size” Personal Area Network: typical radiated power: 0 dBm. P. Fuhr 48 . size: 100m ISA Wireless Security. size: 10m Local Area Network: typical radiated power: 20 dBm.

Fuhr Ad Hoc Network 49 . P.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Network Topologies? Bus Network Tree Network Ring Network S rNtw r ta e ok ISA Wireless Security.

P.The Real World Presents the Wireless Channel with Multipath and Attenuation…and… ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 50 .

Real World: Multipath The Effect The Cause ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 51 .

Real World: Atmospheric Attenuation at 2. P.4 GHz Rayleigh Fading @ 2.4GHz ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 52 .

Fuhr 53 .4 GHz ISA Wireless Security. P.Real World: Signal Attenuation at 2.

(This plays havoc with the BER or for fixed BER.Real World: And Signal-to-Noise Ratios really do matter! Anecdotal Evidence: As Frankfurt has increased the deployment of 2.4 GHz wireless surveillance cameras. the background Noise level has increased by 12 dB. the overall data rate. P.) ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 54 .

ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 55 .45 GHz is WORSE than at 900MHz (which is worse than 433 MHz).Real World: Which Frequency is Best? ALERT! ALERT!! Notice that the operation at 2. P.

Security? Who needs it? 2. Bluetooth. spatial…) 4. others…) 5. modulation. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. encryption.4.Outline: 1. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. 802. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.15. Spectrum. WiFi. Fuhr 56 . P. An Integrated Solution 6. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.

This can improve the security of the network by orders of magnitude. P. These techniques can make the signal virtually undetectable without prior knowledge about the network. ORNL 57 . such as spreading and interleaving. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges. Interleaving Wireless networks use a variety of techniques to enhance security. Spreading. ISA Wireless Security.Wireless Data Security: Encryption.

The Wireless Market







802.11b 802.11a/HL2 & 802.11g Bluetooth 2









ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


Bluetooth vs. the Rest (cont’d)
Parameter Technology 802.11 HomeRF Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, DSSS2.4GHz, FHSS 2.4 GHz, FHSS 11 chips/bit 50 hops/s 1000+hops/s Data Rate 11Mbps 1 Mbps 1Mbps Power +20 dBm +20 dBm 0, +20dBm Range 50m 50m 1-10m, 50m Topology 128 devices 128 devices 8 devices, CSMA/CA CSMA/CA Piconet Security Optional WEP Optional Encryption Voice ChannelOptional Optional Yes ZigBee (proposed) 2.4 GHz,DSSS 15 chips/bit 40 kbits/s 0dBm 100m 100s devices, CSMA/CA Not yet No

Bluetooth – aka IEEE 802.15.1 ZigBee – aka IEEE 802.15.4
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 59

Side by Side

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


Fuhr 61 .11? ISA Wireless Security.802. P.

P.11 Spectral Space ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 62 .The Worldwide View of the 802.

Fuhr 63 .Radiated Field from a single AP (Kansas City) ISA Wireless Security. P.

. Mesh and AP deployments ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 64 .20dB Attenuation Profile for Univ of Kansas Eng Bldg. P.

WEP (encrypted traffic) • The industry’s solution: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – Share a single cryptographic key among all devices – Encrypt all packets sent over the air. P. using the shared key – Use a checksum to prevent injection of spoofed packets ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 65 .

Goldberg.11 WEP standard released Mar 2000 Oct 2000 Jan 30. Aboba. Wagner: 7 serious attacks on WEP 66 . P. WSJ break the story Borisov. Fuhr Simon. 2001 Feb 5. Moore: some weaknesses Walker: Unsafe at any key size NY Times. 2001 ISA Wireless Security.Early History of WEP 1997 802.

Goldberg. Shamir: efficient attack on way WEP uses RC4 Arbaugh. Fuhr 67 .Subsequent Events Jan 2001 Mar 2001 Borisov. P. Mishra: still more attacks Feb 2002 ISA Wireless Security.11 network has no clothes Arbaugh: more attacks … May 2001 Jun 2001 Aug 2001 Newsham: dictionary attacks on WEP keys Fluhrer. Wagner Arbaugh: Your 802. Mantin.

thehackerschoice. P.WEP Attack Tools • Downloadable procedures from the Internet – To crack the Key: • AirSnort – http://airsnort.net/projects/wepcrack/ – To brute force enter into WLAN.com/releases.php ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 68 .sourceforge.net • WEPCrack – http://sourceforge. • THC-RUT – http://www.

flaws include weak encryption.Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) – Flaws in WEP known since January 2001 .11i standard will not be ratified until late 2003.WPA a subset of IEEE 802. ISA Wireless Security. possibly early 2004 outstanding issues. – WPA standard joint effort between Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE .11i standard (Draft 3. – 802.Addresses weak data encryption and user authentication within existing 802. static encryption keys. •WPA provides stronger data encryption (weak in WEP) and user authentication (largely missing in WEP). lack of key distribution method. – IEEE developing 802.0).11 standard.11i standard for enhanced wireless security . (keys no longer than 40 bits). P. Fuhr 69 .

Derivation and distribution method .a. surrounds WEP cipher engine with 4 new algorithms.stronger data encryption. •TKIP chosen as primary encryption cipher suite .k. 1. 4. Extended 48-bit Initialization Vector (IV) and IV sequencing rules (compared to the shorter 24-bit WEP RC4 key). ensures messages haven’t been tampered with during transmission. A message integrity check (MIC) . New per-packet key mixing function. 2. re-keying.a.a. ISA Wireless Security. – TKIP based on RC4 stream cipher algorithm. Fuhr 70 . addresses known vulnerabilities in WEP.WPA – Data Encryption – WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) .k.a. P. 3.Easily deployed and supported in legacy 802.11b hardware compared to other available cipher suites. ‘Michael’.

Temporal Key TA Phase 1 key mixing WEP seed(s) (represented as WEP IV + RC4 key) TTAK Key TSC MIC Key Plaintex t MSDU + MIC Phase 2 key mixing SA + DA + Plaintext MSDU Data MIC Fragment(s) Plaintext MPDU(s) WEP Encapsulation Ciphertext MPDU(s) •DA – Destination Address TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol •ICV– Integrity Check Value TSC – TKIP Sequence Counter •MPDU – Message Protocol Data Unit TTAK– result of phase 1 key mixing of Temporal Key •MSDU – MAC Service Data Unit and Transmitter Address •RSN – Robust Security Network WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy •SA – Source Address WEP IV – Wired Equivalent Privacy Initialization Vector •TA – Transmitter Address ISA Wireless Security. cont’d • the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. Fuhr 71 . P.WPA – Data Encryption.

•TKIP eliminates having to replace existing hardware or having to purchase new hardware. Fuhr 72 . – Countermeasures bound probability of successful forgery and amount of information attacker can learn about a key.reduces rate which attacker can make message forgery attempts down to two packets every 60 seconds. cont’d – TKIP implements countermeasures . ISA Wireless Security. – After 60 second timeout new PMK or Groupwise Key generated. depending on which attacked – ensures attacker cannot obtain information from attacked key. – TKIP is made available as firmware or software upgrade to existing legacy hardware.WPA – Data Encryption. P.

Bluetooth? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 73 . P.

P.Some Specifications • Uses unlicensed 2.480 GHz frequency range • Frequency hopping spread spectrum 79 hops separated by 1 MHz • Maximum frequency hopping rate: 1600 hops/sec • Nominal range: 10 cm to 10 meters • Nominal antenna power: 0 dBm • One complete Bluetooth data packet can be transmitted within each 625 msec hop slot. Fuhr 74 .2. ISA Wireless Security.BlueTooth.402 .

Potential Bluetooth Markets ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 75 . P.

P.Bluetooth Market Forecast Nov’03: 100M Bluetooth compliant devices worldwide ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 76 .

Bluetooth Protocol Stack
• Adopted Protocols – PPP(Point-To-Point Protocol) – TCP/UDP/IP – OBEX-Session Protocol for IrDA(Infrared Data Association) – Contents Fromat(e.g. vCard, vCalendar) – WAP-Wireless Application Protocol

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


Bluetooth Security
• Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption based on a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices • Security Defined In 3 modes: – Mode1- No Security – Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not Established Before Channel is Established at L2CAP – Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device Initiates Security Before LMP Link is Setup
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr

Bluetooth Security
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


Fuhr 80 . P.Bluetooth Security • 3 Levels of Service Access – Require Authorization and Authenication – Require Authentication Only – Default Security for Legacy Applications ISA Wireless Security.

But is this Wireless Link Secure? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Newsflash: Jan 2001: Norwegian “hackers” crack a Bluetooth transmission 81 . P.

P. Fuhr 82 .Analysis of a BlueTooth Transmission High overhead? ISA Wireless Security.

Fuhr 83 .802.4/Zigbee? ISA Wireless Security.15. P.

2 beacon management.15.1 • Supports multiple network topologies including Star. channel scan IEEE 802. frame delivery. Cluster Tree and • Features of the MAC: Mesh ZigBee Application Framework Association/dissociation.4 MAC versus 131 primitives for IEEE 802. P.15. IEEE 802.15. Type I • Low complexity: 26 primitives IEEE 802. frame validation.1 (Bluetooth) ISA Wireless Security. channel access Networking App Layer (NWK) mechanism.15.IEEE 802.15.4 standard • Includes layers up to and including Link Layer Control – LLC is standardized in 802.4 IEEE 802.4 868/915 MHz PHY 2400 MHz PHY 802. ACK.4 LLC LLC. Fuhr 84 . Data Link Controller (DLC) guaranteed time slot management.15.

15.4GHz band • Modulation – BPSK (868MHz/20kbs) – BPSK (915MHz/40kbps) – O-QPSK (2.3 DSSS ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 85 .11b DSSS – 802.PHY overview • Speed – 20. P.4GHz/250kbps) • Coexistence w/ – 802.15. 40 or 250 kbps • Channels – 1 channel in the 868MHz band – 10 channels in the 915MHz band – 16 channels in the 2.1 FHSS – 802.

MAC overview • Security support • Power consumption consideration • Dynamic channel selection • Network topology – Star topology – p2p topology – cluster-tree network topology ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 86 .

• Reduced Function Device (RFD) – Limited to star topology – Can only talk to an FFD (coordinator) – Cannot become a coordinator – Unnecessary to send large amounts of data – Extremely simple – Can be implemented using minimal resources and memory capacity ISA Wireless Security.Device classification • Full Function Device (FFD) – Any topology – Can talk to RFDs or other FFDs – Operate in three modes • PAN coordinator • Coordinator • Device. P. Fuhr 87 .

Transmission management • Acknowledgement – No ACK – ACK – Retransmission – Duplicate detection • Indirect transmission ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 88 . P.

P.Security • Unsecured mode • ACL mode – Access control • Secured mode – Access control – Data encryption – Frame integrity – Sequential freshness ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 89 .

P. they ACK the “health inquiry” as if everything was OK – but they do not forward to the rest of the net • The rest of the network is virtually cut off from inspection by controller • Need secure key and a random seed that changes at each round ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 90 .Scalable Security • Assume the attacker can deploy own nodes (can create a “ring” at some distance from controller)[Wisenet 2003] • Enemy nodes “mimick” the mesh nodes.

P. Fuhr 91 .5? 1xRTT? SAT? CDPD? Others? No time this morning! ISA Wireless Security.What About: 1451.

Spectrum. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Fuhr 92 .4. An Integrated Solution 6. modulation. others…) 5. P. Security? Who needs it? 2. Bluetooth. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. spatial…) 4.Outline: 1. WiFi.15. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. 802. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. encryption.

ISA Wireless Security. P.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Integrated Industrial Networks? If the sensor network is to integrate into an industrial setting. Fuhr 93 . then you should be cognizant of the Industrial Networking arena.

A gateway (not uncommon in a large system with lots of devices) links devices that have only RS-232 or RS485 ports to the fieldbus system. P. An industrial network. or fieldbus. Fuhr . which supply strategic data to the enterprise. and it's linked to controllers or industrial PCs. three layers of networking make up enterprisewide networks. 94 ISA Wireless Security.Industrial Device Network Topology • Typically. links sensors and smart devices. Ethernet acts as the company's intranet backbone.

Fuhr . P. • Obviously the complexity of the network increases as the functionality is increased.Industrial Device Networks • General characteristics for industrial device networks have arisen. 95 ISA Wireless Security.

Classification of Industrial Networks • Three logical groupings of instrumentation networks used in an industrial setting. • There are over 100 different proprietary networks in the field. Fuhr 96 . P. ISA Wireless Security.

P.Inside Security Incident • Employee attacks PLC in another plant area over PLC highway. Plant Highway Disgruntled Employee PLC PLC PLC PLC Steam Plant Paper Plant * Source: BCIT Industrial Security Incident Database (ISID) ISA Wireless Security. blocking legitimate maintenance and forcing process shutdown. • Password changed to obscenity. Fuhr 97 .

Fuhr Cost + 98 . Hardwiring. Seriplex. - ISA Wireless Security. P.Network Positioning Data Ethernet TCP/IP ControlNet Foundation Fieldbus H2 Profibus-FMS Profibus-DP Data Highway+ Interbus-S Modbus Plus Remote I/O DeviceNet Other CAN SDS Fieldbus H1 Profibus-PA Modbus HART + + + Functionality Complexity - ASi. RS485 etc.

• Myth #3: Our IT department understands process control issues and security. Fuhr 99 . • Myth #2: Our Internet firewall will protect our control systems.Too Focused on Internet Issues? • Myth #1: Our SCADA/PLC/DCS is safe if we don’t connect to the Internet. ISA Wireless Security. P.

ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr CT. 2002 100 .Is Industrial Comm Security Too Focused on Internet Issues? Internet Remote Engineering Firewall Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing Logistics Production Planning Enterprise Network Production Networks Ethernet Programming Stations SCAD A Control Network PLC Process Historian WarDialing Attack Modem PLC ))))) Handheld Operator Terminal 802.11 WLAN Field Devices OEM Source (used by permission): Interface Technologies. Windsor.

15. Bluetooth.Outline: 1. P. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. 802. WiFi. spatial…) 4. modulation. An Integrated Solution 6. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Security? Who needs it? 2.4. others…) 5. Spectrum. encryption. Fuhr 101 . The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.

Fuhr 102 . the more power you consume! ISA Wireless Security. Quality of Service How Many Bits are Needed? The more bits you xmit.Bit Rate vs. P.

Coding vs. Fuhr 103 . P. Quality of Service Is Coding Really Necessary? ISA Wireless Security.

P.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 104 .

P. DSSS FHSS UWB Narrow band ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Range RF Power Battery life Medium Low longest Long High Short short short Numbers In Area High Medium High Lowest Medium Lowest Longest highest 105 .Comparing Wireless Tech.

Technology Beats Marketing in Performance! T e c h n o l o g y v e r su s A ttr i b u te s S u m m a ry C h a rt T e c h n o lo g y DS S S CDM A Low M o b ile F H S S TD M A P ow er A d H oc P ow er E m bedded U W B F D M A D e s ig n sN e t w o rkH a rve s t in gt e llig e nD ive rs it y E C s In ce F NA CDM A FDM A NA CDM A CDM A NA NA CDM A FDM A TD M A NA NA yes yes NA yes NA NA NA yes yes yes NA NA yes NA NA NA yes yes NA NA NA NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA yes yes yes yes yes NA NA NA NA yes NA yes yes yes yes yes yes yes NA NA yes NA yes NA NA NA yes NA yes NA NA A ttr i b u te Long Range NA P lu g -a n d -P la y D S S S L o n g B a t t e ry lifeH S S F L o w R F I ris k D S S S S e lf L o c a t in g D S S S S e c u re UW B H ig h t h ro u g h p uU W B t n o n lin e -o f-s ig hU W B t ro b u s t c o n n e c tD Sn S S io s lo w c o s t FHSS s m a ll s iz e FHSS ISA Wireless Security.8G H 900M H 5.8G H 5. P. Fuhr B P S K 900M H O pen Q P S K 2. 8 G H M NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA yes NA NA NA M -a ry NA NA NA M -a ry NA BPSK BPSK BPSK 900M H NA 900M H 5.8G H 5.8G H 900M H 5.8G H 106 .4G H S t a n d a rd s-a ry 5 .8G H 5.

gocsi. P. Fuhr 107 .www.Statistics on Types of Attacks De ia o S r ic n l f ev e La t pTh ft po e Ac iv W ea t e ir t p Te c mF a d le o r u U a t o iz dIn id r Ac e s n uh r e s e cs Vir s u F a ia F a d in c l r u In id r Ab s o Ne Ac e s s e ue f t cs S s e P n t aio y t m e er t n T le o E e d o p g e c m v s r p in Sbtg a oa e Th fto P o r t In e f r p iey fo 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 10 2 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 % of Respondents *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .com/losses. ISA Wireless Security.

P. Fuhr 108 .Optimization of Security vs. Cost • Risk reduction is balanced against the cost of security counter measures to mitigate the risk. Optimal Level of Security at Minimum Cost Cost ($) Cost of Security Countermeasures Cost of Security Breaches Security Level ISA Wireless Security.

Fuhr 109 . environmental damage. Risk in Security • Safety Definition: “Risk is a measure of human injury. or economic loss in terms of both the incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury.” • Security Definition: “Risk is an expression of the likelihood that a defined threat will exploit a specific vulnerability of a particular attractive target or combination of targets to cause a given set of consequences.” *Source: CSPP Guidelines For Analyzing And Managing The Security Vulnerabilities Of Fixed Chemical Sites ISA Wireless Security.Risk in Safety vs. P.

g. Internet External Router Internal Router   110 ISA Wireless Security.Firewall Architectures • The external router blocks attempts to use the underlying IP layer to break security (e. P. Fuhr . • The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in the higher layer protocols. etc) and forces all traffic to the proxy. • The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxy server. packet fragments. source routing. IP spoofing.

P. Fuhr 111 .There’s lot of “Wireless” • From cellphones to PDAs to WiFi to Satellite-based ISA Wireless Security.

Wireless LAN Standards ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 112 .

2004) New Encryption Protocols (Q2.2004) Port Based Network Access Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) 113 ISA Wireless Security.15 – 802.11b – 802.11802.11h – 802.11 Standards • • • • • • • • • • • 802.11i – 802. Fuhr .11g – 802.11f – 802.Existing/Developing IEEE 802. P.11a – 802.11e – 802.1x – 802.16 – Frequency Hopping/DSSS 54Mbps / HyperLAN (1999) 11Mbps Quality of Service Point 2 Point Roaming (2003) 54Mbps European Inspired Changes (Q2.

Wireless Backbone for Inflight “Entertainment” On-Board Network Integration PicoCell BTS PicoCell BTS Noise Floor Lifter 6 MCU GSM SERVER SDU ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr …and we haven’t even touched on RFID! 114 . P.

P.There’s lot of “Wireless” • And it all needs to feel more Secure! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 115 .

For a real review of networking security… • Take Eric Byrnes ISA course IC32C… ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 116 .

802.: 3GPP. … ISA Wireless Security. WEP 2000 2001 WEP broken [BGW] 2002 digital: TDMA.11 analog cloning.11. TinyO 2003 Future: ??? 117 2000 Future: 3rd gen.BGW] 2002 1451. P.11i .Will History Repeat? Cellular networks 1980analog cellphones: AMPS wireless security: not just 802. GSM 1990 TDMA eavesdropping [Bar] sensor networks WEP badly broken [FMS]  attacks pervasive Proprietary systems more TDMA flaws [WSK] GSM cloneable [BGW] GSM eavesdropping [BSW.15. scanners fraud pervasive & costly wireless networks 1999 802. Fuhr 2003 WPA Future: 802.4.

P. Fuhr 118 .PATRIOT Act • PATRIOT (Provide Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) • Legally classifies many hacking attacks as acts of terrorism ISA Wireless Security.

So… If Nothing else. P. Fuhr 119 . at least PLEASE do this for your WiFi System! • Conduct site survey • • • • • WLAN Security Countermeasures Identify areas of signal strength and weakness Do a “walkaround” with NetStumbler Document and shut down rogue access points Document and shut down unauthorized wireless NICs AND TURN ON SOME LEVEL OF THE PROVIDED PROTECTION! ISA Wireless Security.

But if you’re going off a battery then it’s a tradeoff of security versus Power Consumption  You Choose that one! ISA Wireless Security. So if your wireless network has primepower (a. Fuhr 120 . P.k. AC) you’re ok.a.Oh… And don’t forget that as you layer in all of these wacky encryption schemes and CDMA and DSSS and…and… that it takes some joules to actually implement this.

and in the end. HoneyBee with RFID Two potential forms of wireless sensor networks........ And they should both be secure! ISA Wireless Security. BumbleBee with RF xcvr ... P.or. Fuhr 121 .

The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.4. Spectrum. Fuhr 122 . Glossary and References ISA Wireless Security.15. An Integrated Solution 6.Outline: 1. encryption. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. 802. WiFi. The Big Review 7. spatial…) 4. others…) 5. P. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Security? Who needs it? 2. modulation. Bluetooth.

10BASE-T: IEEE 802.3 standard for a twisted-pair Ethernet network. 10 Mbps transmission rate over baseband using unshielded, twistedpair cable. 802.11: The IEEE 802.11 standard defines both frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum solutions for use in the 2.4-2.5 MHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band. 802.11a: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). 802.11b: The portion of the 802.11 specification that defines the 11 Mbps data rate. A Access Point: Provides a bridge between Ethernet wired LANs and the wireless network. Access points are the connectivity point between Ethernet wired networks and devices (laptops, hand-held computers, point-of-sale terminals) equipped with a wireless LAN adapter card. Analog phone: Comes from the word "analogous," which means similar to. In telephone transmission, the signal being transmitted from the phone—voice, video or image—is analogous to the original signal. Antenna-Directional: Transmits and receives radio waves off the front of the antenna. The power behind and to the sides of the antenna is reduced. The coverage area is oval with the antenna at one of the narrow ends. Typical directional antenna beam width angles are from 90° (somewhat directional) to as little as 20°(very directional). A directional antenna directs power to concentrate the coverage pattern in a particular direction. The antenna direction is specified by the angle of the coverage pattern called the beam width. Antenna-Omni-directional: Transmits and receives radio waves in all directions. The coverage area is circular with the antenna at the center. Omni-directional antennas are also referred to as whip or low-profile antennas. Association: The process of determining the viability of the wireless connection and establishing a wireless network's root and designated access points. A mobile unit associates with its wireless network as soon as it is powered on or moves into range. ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A type of high-speed wide area network.

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


B Backbone: A network that interconnects other networks, employing high-speed transmission paths and often spanning a large geographic area. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies, expressed in hertz (Hz), that can pass over a given transmission channel. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit. Bandwidth Management: Functionality that allocates and manages RF traffic by preventing unwanted frames from being processed by the access point. BC/MC: Broadcast frames; Multicast frames Beacon: A uniframe system packet broadcast by the AP to keep the network synchronized. A beacon Includes the Net_ID (ESSID), the AP address, the Broadcast destination addresses, a time stamp, a DTIM (Delivery Traffic Indicator Maps) and the TIM (Traffic Indicator Message). BFA Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector manufactured by MuRata Manufacturing Corporation. Bluetooth: See Wireless Personal Area Networks. Bridge: A device that connects two LANs of the same or dissimilar types. It operates at the Data Link Layer, as opposed to routers. The bridge provides fast connection of two collocated LAN segments that appear as one logical network through the bridge. Buffer: A segment of computer memory used to hold data while it is being processed.

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr




CAM: Continuously Aware Mode: Mode in which the adapter is instructed to continually check for network activity. Card and Socket Services: Packages that work with the host computer operating system, enabling the Wireless LAN adapter to interface with host computer configuration and power management functions. Cellular Phone: Low-powered, duplex, radio/telephone that operates between 800 and 900 MHz, using multiple transceiver sites linked to a central computer for coordination. The sites, or "cells," cover a range of one to six or more miles in each direction. Centrex: Business telephone service offered by a local telephone company from a local telephone company office. Centrex is basically a single line phone system leased to businesses as a substitute for a business that is buying or leasing its own on-premises phone system or PBX. CDMA and TDMA: The Code Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access standard for wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs) in North America. Circuit switching: The process of setting up and keeping a circuit open between two or more users so that users have exclusive and full use of the circuit until the connection is released. Client: A computer that accesses the resources of a server. Client/Server: A network system design in which a processor or computer designated as a server (such as a file server or database server) provides services to other client processors or computers. CODEC: Coder-Decoder. Audio compression/decompression algorithm that is designed to offer excellent audio performance. Converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals acceptable to modern digital PBXs and digital transmission systems. It then converts those digital signals back to analog so that you may hear and understand what the other person is saying. Computer Telephony Integration: Technology that integrates computer intelligence with making, receiving, and managing telephone calls. Computer telephony integrates messaging, real-time connectivity, and transaction processing and information access.

ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr


P.Glossary D Data Terminal: Computer transmit and receive equipment. Decryption: Decryption is the decoding and unscrambling of received encrypted data." this bit pattern numbers 10 chips to one per bit of information. ISA Wireless Security. which then completes the call. The same device. while the primary is used for both transmitting and receiving. and so on. Desktop Conferencing: A telecommunications facility or service on a PC that permits callers from several diverse locations to be connected together for a conference call. such as a mainframe or midrange computer. Most data terminals provide a user interface to a more capable host computer. Driver: A program routine that links a peripheral device. Compared with frequency hopping.4GHz band. Mitel. usually performs both encryption and decryption. Fuhr 126 . the conversion from analog-to-digital can occur in a digital phone. The second antenna is used only for receiving radio signals. Digital Phone System: Proprietary phone system provided by a vendor. Alternatively. the dialed digits are passed from the PSTN to the PBX. and then converts those digital signals back to analog. direct sequence has higher throughput. Direct-Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum: Direct sequence transmits data by generating a redundant bit pattern for each bit of information sent. host computer or front-end processor. Diversity Reception: The use of two antennas attached to a single access point to improve radio reception. such as a mobile unit's radio card. The signal being transmitted in a digital phone system is the same as the signal being transmitted in an analog phone system. Northern Telecom. The system can consist of a proprietary PBX system that converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals. Direct Inward Dialing: DID. The ability for a caller outside a company to call an internal extension without having to pass through an operator or attendant. In large PBX systems. including a wide variety of dumb terminals or terminals without embedded intelligence in the form of programmed logic. to the computer system. such as AT&T. Commonly referred to as a "chip" or "chipping code. wider range and is upgradable in the 2.

It uses TCP/IP commands. cost and ease-of-installation. Microwave ovens typically operate at 2.323 conference. with 1 Gbps speeds coming soon.45 GHz. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator that is circularly polarized. dBi: Antenna gain. Larger frames fragment into several packets this size or smaller before transmission over the radio. Gatekeeper: Software that performs two important functions to maintain the robustness of the network: address translation and bandwidth management. typically with mathematical formulas called algorithms. workstations. Gatekeepers map LAN aliases to IP addresses and provide address lookups when needed. is credited in name only for inventing frequency hopping during World War II. Ethernet: A local area network used for connecting computers. Gateways bridge H. and so on. Frequency hopping technology is recognized as superior to direct sequence in terms of echo resistance.323 conferences to other networks. each channel occupying 1MHz of bandwidth. A minimum hop rate of 2.5 hops per channel per second is required in the United States. Glossary Encryption: Entails scrambling and coding information.Element-level Management: Level of technologies aimed at small or medium-sized businesses. Fuhr 127 . Gain. P. frequency hopping transmits using a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a given pattern. Gateways are not required if connections to other networks or non-H. There are 79 channels in a 2. The receiving station reassembles the transmitted fragments. servers. Fragmentation Threshold: The maximum size for directed data packets transmitted over the radio. which is equivalent to the older unit of cycles per second. GHz: International unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz). Gain. Gateway: Optional element in an H. Frequency Hopping (FH) Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr. Gain. expressed in decibels referenced to a half wave dipole. To date. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A common Internet protocol used for transferring files from a server to the Internet user. ISA Wireless Security. GSM: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). One Gigahertz (GHz) is one billion Hertz. communications protocols.323 compliant terminals are not needed. and multimedia formats. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator. dBic: Antenna gain. The frame protocol implements asynchronous serial Point-to-Point (PPP) frames similar to those used by serial Internet protocols. Frame Mode: A communications protocol supported by the OEM Modules. As its label suggests. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 100 Mbps. Filtering: Prevents user-defined frames from being processed by the access point. terminals. interference immunity. before the information is transmitted over a network.4GHz ISM band. dBi: Antenna gain. there has also been a greater selection of WLAN products from which to chose. the actress. printers. within the same building or campus.

323 and other international standards. ISM Band: ISM bands--instrumental (902-928MHz). IP (Internet Protocol): The Internet standard protocol that defines the Internet datagram as the unit of information passed across the Internet. An Internet phone can be a small phone (such as the NetVision Phone) or a multimedia PC with a microphone. The most popular standard currently in use. from different vendors. DTMF (touch tone) input of a Personal Identification Number can be required for access or more unusual and expensive techniques such as voice recognition and voice print matching. Internet: World's largest network.Glossary H. and medical (5. Intranet: A private network that uses Internet software and Internet standards. The voice processing acts as a front-end to appropriate databases that reside on general purpose computers. The Internet protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because IP is one of the two fundamental protocols. speaker. Interactive Voice Response: System used to access a database access application using a telephone. Standards body that defined H. The Internet is a virtual network based on packet switching technology. Internet Commerce: Electronic business transactions that occur over the Internet. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. Handheld PC (HPC): The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Windows CE operating system. and modem. P. Fuhr 128 . and bandwidth management for point-to-point and multi-point conferences. and Internet malls. Interoperability: The ability of equipment or software to operate properly in a mixed environment of hardware and software. computer telephony. causing potential phase distortions and bit errors. Jitter: Noise on a communications line which is based on phase hits. Emerging network technology offered by local phone companies that is designed for digital communications. ISA Wireless Security.11 open standard.323: An umbrella standard from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) that addresses call control. and voice processing systems. as well as interfaces between LANs and other networks.best-effort packet delivery service. Provides the basis of the Internet connection-less.4835GHz). often referred to as the Information Superhighway. Enabled by the IEEE 802. airline reservation systems. bypassing the traditional PSTN and saving money in the process.725-5. The most recent band approved by the FCC for WLANs was the medical band in January 1997.4-2. In essence. science (2. Samples of Internet commerce applications include electronic banking. Internet Phone: Device used to transmit voice over the Internet. multimedia management. an intranet is a private Internet reserved for use by people who have been given the authority and passwords necessary to use that network. International Roaming: Ability to use one adapter worldwide. The participants on the Internet and its topology change on a daily basis.. ITU: International Telecommunications Union.850GHz)--are the radio frequency bands allocated by the FCC for unlicensed continuous operations for up to 1W. For instance.

consequently.Glossary Kerberos: A widely deployed security protocol that was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to authenticate users and clients in a wired network environment and to securely distribute encryption keys. MMCX Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector in use by several major wireless vendors. Key Telephone System: A system in which the telephone has multiple buttons permitting the user to directly select central office phone lines and intercom lines. Microcell: A bounded physical space in which a number of wireless devices can communicate. P. MD5 Encryption: An authentication methodology when MU is in foreign subnet. Layer: A protocol that interacts with other protocols as part of an overall transmission system. bar-code scanner. ISA Wireless Security. Mobile IP: The ability of the mobile unit to communicate with the other host using only its home IP address. interfering with each other. Mobile Unit (MU): May be a Symbol Spectrum24 terminal. allowing the device to roam freely between AP cells in the network. Fuhr 129 . Multipath: The signal variation caused when radio signals take multiple paths from transmitter to receiver. Modem: Equipment that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. the boundaries of the cell are established by some rule or convention. Data is received from the network connection and sent out over the serial port. the WLAN adapter connects to an access point (AP) or another WLAN installed system. typically around 50 telephones. as defined by the IEEE. third-party device. Mobile units appear as network nodes to other devices. Modulation: Any of several techniques for combining user information with a transmitter's carrier signal. MAC (Media Access Control): Part of the Data Link Layer. Because it is possible to have overlapping cells as well as isolated cells. LPD (Line Printer Daemon): A TCP-based protocol typically used between a Unix server and a printer driver. Key phone systems are most often found in relatively small business environments. after changing its point of attachment to the Internet and intranet. Multipath Fading: A type of fading caused by signals taking different paths from the transmitter to the receiver and. MIB (Management Information Base): An SNMP structure that describes the specific device being monitored by the remote-monitoring program. Modems are used to send digital data signals over the analog PSTN. and other Mobile Unit Mode: In this mode. PC Card and PCI adapter. this sublayer contains protocols for gaining orderly access to cable or wireless media.

PCS operates in the 1. no circuit is left open on a dedicated basis. PLD (Data Link Protocol): A raw packet protocol based on the Ethernet frame format.5 to 1. lower powered. In the U. Small version of the phone company's larger central switching office. Ping: A troubleshooting TCP/IP application that sends out a test message to a network device to measure the response time. Power Management: Algorithms that allow the adapter to sleep between checking for network activity. The idea with PCS is that the phone are cheaper. and access to the public switched telephone network.. telephone lines.8 GHz range. Fuhr 130 . ISA Wireless Security.Node: A network junction such as a switch or a routing center. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): The basic service supplying standard single line telephones. it notifies the AP of its activity status. All frames are sent to the wireless network verbatim--should be used with care as improperly formatted data can go through with undesirable consequences. and airtime is cheaper.S. have less range. Whereas cellular typically operates in the 800900 MHz range. PBX Phone System: Private Branch eXchange. In a packet switched network. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) PC Card: A credit card-size device used in laptop computers and available as removable network adapters. Packet switching is a data switching technique only. The AP responds by buffering packets received for the MU. PSP (Power Save Polling): stations power off their radios for long periods. the PSTN is provided by AT&T. memory. thus conserving power. higher-frequency competitive technology to cellular. Point-of-Sale Device: A special type of equipment that is used to collect and store retail sales data. and are digital. and device recognition addresses. This device may be connected to a bar code reader and it may query a central computer for the current price of that item. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network): Refers to the worldwide voice telephone network accessible to all those with telephones and access privileges. P. PCS (Personal Communications Service): A new. Pocket PC: The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Pocket PC operating system. requires less user interaction and minimizes hardware conflicts. Peer-to-peer Network: A network design in which each computer shares and uses devices on an equal basis. An alternative to a PBX is to subscribe to a local telephone company's Centrex service. When a mobile unit in PSP mode associates with an access point. Glossary Packet Switching: Refers to sending data in packets through a network to some remote location. The cells are smaller and closer together. Plug and Play: A feature that allows a computer to recognize the PCI adapter and configure the hardware interrupt.

Router: The main device in any modern network that routes data blocks from source to destination using routing tables and determining the best path dynamically. The signal is manipulated in the transmitter so that the bandwidth becomes wider than the actual information bandwidth. The MU continues communicating with that access point until it needs to switch cells or roam. The statistics enable a mobile unit to reassociate by synchronizing its frequency to the AP. Stream Mode: A communications protocol supported only by the Telnet and TCP protocols. Interference from narrowband signals is also minimized to background noise when it is de-spread by the receiver. QoS refers to things like: Is the call easy to hear? Is it clear? Is it loud enough? RBOC (Regional Bell Operating Company): One of the seven Bell operating companies set up after the divestiture of AT&T. in a new or expanding installation. P. Fuhr 131 . change parameters for routers and gateways. as well as the number of devices necessary to provide optimal coverage. Two types of spread spectrum exist: direct sequence and frequency hopping. It provides security by "spreading" the signal over a range of frequencies. Stream mode transfers serial characters as they are received by encapsulating them in a packet and sending them to the host. Spread Spectrum: A transmission technique developed by the U. De-spreading the signal is impossible for those not aware of the spreading parameters. each of which own two or more Bell Operating Companies (BOCs).Glossary QoS (Quality of Service): Measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber.S. military in World War II to provide secure voice communications. ISA Wireless Security. Roaming: Movement of a wireless node between two microcells. spread spectrum is the most commonly used WLAN technology today. Scanning: A periodic process where the mobile unit sends out probe messages on all frequencies defined by the country code. Defines the method for obtaining information about network operating characteristics. Site Survey: Physical environment survey to determine the placement of access points and antennas. the signal sounds like background noise. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP based intranets. It functions as an addressable entity on the LAN and is the basic building block of the Internet. to them. Roaming usually occurs in infrastructure networks built around multiple access points. Repeater: A device used to extend cabling distances by regenerating signals.

must be received by an attached terminal or workstation before that terminal or workstation can start transmitting. Terminal: An endpoint. and retrieves voice messages. TCP/IP is used in the industry to refer to the family of common Internet protocols. between computers with diverse hardware architectures. P. and various operating systems.544 Mbps. and time-outs. Fuhr 132 . Considered extremely stable. Token ring is the technique used by IBM and others. retries. Only select wireless networking products possess this characteristic of IEEE802. TCP/IP: Networking protocol that provides communication across interconnected networks. or mobile unit. Hong Kong. Canada.11b. T1 is the standard for digital transmission in the U. ISA Wireless Security. UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP/IP is a connection-less protocol that describes how messages reach application programs running in the destination machine. providing the mechanism for connection maintenance. or token. Token Ring: A ring type of local area network (LAN) in which a supervisory frame.Glossary T1: A type of dedicated digital leased-line available from a public telephone provider with a capacity of 1. Voice Mail System: Device or system that records. stores.S. Wireless AP Support: Access Point functions as a bridge to connect two Ethernet LANs. A T1 line can normally handle 24 voice conversations. it can handle more voice channels. each one digitized at 64 Kbps. With more advanced digital voice encoding techniques. two-way communications with another terminal. Wi-Fi: A logo granted as the "seal of interoperability" by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). Video Conferencing: Video and audio communication between two or more people via a video CODEC (coder/decoder) at either end and linked by digital circuits. and Japan. which provides for real-time. gateway. TCP (Transport Communication Protocol): Controls the transfer of data from one client to one host. provides low overhead and fast response and is well suited for high-bandwidth applications. The two types of voice mail devices are those which are "stand alone" and those which offer some integration with the user's phone system. flow control. Telnet (Terminal Emulation Protocol): A protocol that uses the TCP/IP networking protocol as a reliable transport mechanism.

and other hand-held devices to do business at home. PDAs. or a device with a stand-alone radio card. and in the office. can receive and send information from a network. PIMs. Using the mobile phone as a modem. this cable-replacement technology wirelessly and transparently synchronizes data across devices and creates access to networks and the Internet. PDA. PC-to-hub. Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): Personal area networks are based on a global specification called Bluetooth which uses radio frequency to transmit voice and data. In place of TP or coaxial wires or optical fiber as used in a conventional LAN. and for campus communications building-to-building (LAN-LAN) bridges. Over a short range. peripheral sharing. WLANs must include NICs (adapters) and access points (in-building bridges). e-mail. mobile phones. your corporate intranet. Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): Wide area networks utilize digital mobile phone systems to access data and information from any location in the range of a cell tower connected to a data-enabled network. WLANs transmit and receive data over electromagnetic waves. or printer-to-hub) and point-to-point (LAN-to-LAN) connectivity within a building or campus. Fuhr 133 . P. ISA Wireless Security. on the road. or the Internet. Bluetooth is ideal for mobile professionals who need to link notebook computers. WLANs perform traditional network communications functions such as file transfer. a mobile computing device such as a notebook computer. and database access as well as augmenting wired LANs.Glossary Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A wireless LAN is a data communications system providing wireless peer-to-peer (PC-to-PC.

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