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Dr. Peter L. Fuhr
Chief Scientist RAE Systems, Sunnyvale, CA firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Peter Fuhr, Presenter: 480+ publications&presentations in wireless sensor networking arena. Old-timer in this area…etc etc.
RAE Systems Inc.
• Pervasive Sensing Company based in Silicon Valley founded in 1991 Capabilities
– Radiation detection
• Gamma and neutron
– Chemical/vapor detection
• Toxic gas, VOC, combustible gas, oxygen, CWA, temperature, humidity, C02
– Redeployable sensor networks – Mobile and fixed wireless monitors – Cargo Container Sensor Systems
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
A number of individuals have provided “content” for these slides. They include: Wayne Manges, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert Poor, Ember Pat Gonia, Honeywell Hesh Kagan, Foxboro/Invensys Kang Lee, NIST Tom Kevan, Advanstar Ramesh Shankar, Electric Power Research Institute Larry Hill, Larry Hill Consulting Rob Conant, Dust Rick Kriss, Xsilogy Gideon Varga, Dept of Energy Jack Eisenhauser, Energetics Michael Brambley, Pacific Northwest National Labs David Wagner, UC-Berkeley Undoubtedly, there are other contributors too (apologies if your name is not listed).
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 3
Wireless Sensor Networking …it’s not cellular telephony …it’s not just WiFi.(and it just may be the next big thing) Each dot represents one cell phone tower. Wireless devices circa 1930 ISA Wireless Security.. Fuhr 4 . P..
Sensor Market: $11B in 2001 Installation (wiring) costs: >$100B • Fragmented market platform opportunity • Installation cost limits penetration reducing installation cost increases market size Highly Fragmented Sensor Market Freedonia Group report on Sensors. P. April 2002 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rob Conant. Dust 5 .
Environmental Monitoring • Conclusions: – – – Rapid Growth in Industrial markets Tank Level Monitoring will remain a significant opportunity Key ‘ User’ Needs: • • • Lower Costs over Wired (or Manual) Solutions Education of Potential Customers on the Technology Demonstration of Operational Reliability & Application ‘ Domain’ Knowledge ISA Wireless Security. Asset Tracking. P.1 billion • Largest Application areas: – – 2002: Tank Level Monitoring. Preventative Maintenance 2006: Tank Level Monitoring. Preventative Maintenance. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss.Industrial Market Sizing Sensor Networking Products • North American Market for Wireless products used in Applications where transmission distances are 1 mile or less: – – – 2002 Total: $107 million 2006 Forecast: $713 million 2010 Estimates: $ 2. Xsilogy 6 .
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss.The True cost per monitored node – to the End User Higher DENSE Bluetooth. P. FLEX SAT. 802.4. WiFi etc SPARSE 1xRTT. Xsilogy 7 .15. etc Higher 3-Yr TOC $$ $ Installation Costs Design For Here Lower Meters $ Radio RF Range (dB) Miles $$$$$ Lower ISA Wireless Security.
PLC) perhaps relying on a 4-20mA signal… ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 8 .g.What to do with the data? Parameter of Interest Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magnetic Output Signal Measurement System Modifier Output Transducer Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magnetic Sensor Power Supply Great! But how do you get the output signal from the sensor to the location where the information will be interpreted (used)? Traditionally the output of the sensor was hardwired to some form of interpretive device (e.. P.
802. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 9 . modulation. Spectrum. encryption.4. spatial…) 4. Bluetooth. others…) 5.15. Security? Who needs it? 2. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. WiFi. An Integrated Solution 6.Outline: 1.
Oh. P. Fuhr 10 . who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! (pretty ridiculous statement isn’t it! ISA Wireless Security.
P.org ISA Wireless Security. Sept. Coral Gables. Fuhr 11 .wireless4industrial. 2003 www.Let’s ask some experts: WINA meeting.
5 day meeting at ISA-HQ in RTP.isa. the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA) was formed to promote the adoption of wireless networking technologies and practices that will help increase industrial productivity and efficiency. P. NC on Feb 11/12 – right after the ISA Wireless Security Expo and conference. Fuhr 12 . WINA will be holding a 1.wireless4industrial.org for WINA meeting details AND www. Check out www.What’s a WINA? In the spring of 2003.org/wireless for the ISA Wireless Security conf details! ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 13 .Back to the Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! ISA Wireless Security.
researchers) ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 14 .Strategy Workshop Participants • • • Suppliers (13) System integrators (6) Industrial end users (10) – Energy/Utilities – Chemicals – Forest Products – Petroleum – Automotive – Electronics • • Industry analysts/venture capitalists (3) Others (associations. media. government. P.
P.End-User View of Industrial Wireless Likes • Mobility • Compactness • Flexibility • Low cost • Capability to monitor rotating equipment • Short range (security) • Ease of installation • High reliability • Impetus to enhance electronics support Dislikes • Change to status quo • Complexity • High cost for coverage in large plants • Security issues • Portability issues (power) • Unproven reliability • Too risky for process control • Lack of experience in troubleshooting (staff) • Restricted infrastructure flexibility once implemented • Lack of analysis tools ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 15 .
sensors. environments) ISA Wireless Security.) • Assured performance & reliability/MTBA* • Software infrastructure.Technology Group: Key Issues • Security – Jamming. P. etc. & systems management • Robustness (at least as good as wired) • RF characterization (radios. hacking. receivers. collectors. technology • True engineered solution (sensors. data. and eavesdropping • Power • Value (clear to customer) • Interoperability – Co-existence with other facility networks. Fuhr *mean time between attention 16 . collectors.
# nodes) Data Reliability Monitor 2-3 2-3 2/5 Control 3-5 3-5 2.) Scalability (Max. Fuhr 17 .Technology Group: Criticality Varies by Application (5 = most critical) Attributes Latency Device Reliability Raw Thru-put (node / aggr. P.5 Applications Alarm 5 5 1/4 Shutdown 5 5 1/1 Biz WLAN 1 1 1/5 5 4 4 1 2-3 1 5 5 5 2 Security Low Cost Gateway Technology Engineered Solution 1-5 5 5 1 5 2 1 5 5 1-3 3-4 4 5 1 1 5 5 2-3 1 3 ISA Wireless Security.5 /2.
Fuhr 18 .Industrial CyberSecurity • The Case of Vitek Boden ISA Wireless Security. P.
– Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 and approached the shire for employment. ISA Wireless Security. – Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewage system experienced 47 unexplainable faults. 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of: – 26 counts of willfully using a restricted computer to cause damage – 1 count of causing serious environment harm • The facts of the case: – Vitek worked for the contractor involved in the installation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatment plant. Fuhr 19 .• On October 31. He was refused. P. causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled.
2000 Vitek was arrested with stolen radio equipment. • Vitek is now in jail… Disgruntled Contractor Rogue Radio PLC PLC 20 Sewage Plant ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr . controller programming software on a laptop and a fully operational controller.How did he do it? • On April 23. P.
4 GHz Antenna ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 21 .A Favorite 2.
P.11 HotSpots in Silicon Valley ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 22 .WarDriving – 802.
Fuhr 23 . P.WarDriving – 802.11 HotSpots in San Francisco ISA Wireless Security.
P.The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! The Answer: We do. Fuhr 24 . So…How do you provide the appropriate level of security within the acceptable price and “inconvenience” margin -> Risk Management! ISA Wireless Security.
op H c es ak r US .. F r ig oe n Cr. P. C m eit r o p t os D gu t d is r nle E p ye m lo e s 20 02 20 01 20 00 19 99 19 98 *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .www.Inside vs.com/losses. Fuhr 25 % of Respondents . ISA Wireless Security. Outside? • Where do attacks come from? 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 F r ig G v oe n o .gocsi.
P.An “Outside” Example. Fuhr 26 . When? April 2001 ISA Wireless Security.
•Launched from overseas and targeted at US critical infrastructure.“Hacker War I” •In the Spring of 2001. P. the US got it’s first a taste of a new form of warfare. Fuhr 27 . ISA Wireless Security.
P.. Fuhr 28 ..com Attack Methods: Denial of Service Attacks •Website Defacement •E-mailing viruses to US Government Employees •“KillUSA” package ISA Wireless Security.." Wired. Honker Union worked with other groups such as the Chinese Red Guest Network Security Technology Alliance •Hackers were encouraged to ".Honker Union •Chinese Hacker Group working to advance and in some cases impose it’s political agenda •During the spring of 2001..make use of their skills for China.
000 sites were hacked in the first 48 hours of the conflict. Fuhr 29 .Cyberwar • Cyber attacks and web defacements increased dramatically after the start of the war against Iraq. • Security consultants state that the war against Iraq made March the worst month for digital attacks since records began in 1995. with many of the attacks containing anti-war slogans. P. • More than 1. ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 30 . is a military academy specializing in electronic warfare • 100 potential cybersoldiers graduate every year ISA Wireless Security. P.Hacker School • North Korea's Mirim College.
P. Fuhr 31 .The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway? The Answer: Everyone. ISA Wireless Security.
Security? Who needs it? 2.15. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Bluetooth. Fuhr 32 .Outline: 1. spatial…) 4.4. encryption. P. Spectrum. WiFi. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. modulation. 802. others…) 5. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. An Integrated Solution 6.
P. Fuhr 33 .A few details… Layered Communications ISA Wireless Security.
(There are a few other factors…such as the physical media.) ISA Wireless Security. ORNL 34 . Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges. The level of protection rests on the encryption algorithm.Encryption The “traditional” method involved encrypting the data prior to transmission over a potentially insecure channel.Wired Data Security . P.
4.15. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. P. Security? Who needs it? How is security achieved in a wired channel? The Situation for Wireless Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. 2.4. Bluetooth.Outline: 1. 802. 3. others…) 5. WiFi. An Integrated Solution 6. Fuhr 35 .
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Pat Gonia. P. Honeywell 36 . THIS is what a wireless sensor network can provide.From many perspectives. Wireless Buildings Key to success: reduced installation costs ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 37 .and they are not interoperable.Modulation E(t) = A(t) cos[ω t + φ (t)] Amplitude Modulation (AM) info is in A(t) Frequency Modulation (FM) info is in ω Phase Modulation (PM) info is in φ (t) Different vendors use different schemes . P h a s e =o 0 P h a s e 0 0 0o = P h a s e 0 0 0o = (o r b a c k too ) 0 P h a s e 0 0 0o = ISA Wireless Security.
The FCC Frequency Assignment Different vendors may use different frequencies within the various ISM bands (green in the diagram). The ISM bands most commonly used are at 433. ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 38 . 915 and 2400 MHz.
P.Multiple Sensors Sharing the Medium: Multiplexing. FDMA. Fuhr 39 . TDMA and CDMA ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 40 . P. “1” in right) ISA Wireless Security.Binary Signaling Formats • Used to Improve Digital Signal Reception and Decision • NRZ: Non-Return to Zero • RZ: Return to Zero • Unipolar: Only one side of 0V • Bipolar: Both sides of 0V • Manchester: Bi-Phase (“0” in left 1/2 time slot.
Easy to implement (inexpensive). F0. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. P. F0. Fuhr 41 . ISA Wireless Security. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. Least secure modulation scheme.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum? Narrowband uses a fixed carrier frequency. F0.
Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. Relatively easy to implement (inexpensive). Uses a carrier frequency that varies with time. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency.) ? Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. Hopping rates may be ~1600 hops/second (ala Bluetooth). F0(t). Invented and patented by actress Heddy Lamarr and her pianist George Antheil. ISA Wireless Security. Very secure modulation scheme (used in military for decades). F0) during any single transmit interval. Fuhr 42 . F0(t). P. The receiver must track the time-varying carrier frequency.
Highly robust technique.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. F0 but interleaves the data with a precise mathematical 0/1 data sequence. so if one “lobe” of the information is jammed. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. The information is replicated many times throughout the bandwidth. Fuhr 43 . the remainder “gets through”. Most secure modulation scheme.) ? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum uses a fixed carrier frequency. ISA Wireless Security. Most complicated scheme (of these presented). P. (This increases the length of the transmitted information vector making it longer). F0 receives the signal and then must “undo” the interleaving. More difficult to implement (more expensive).
Fuhr 44 . P. high power density spectrum is restored if local PN sequence is same as and lined up with received PN sequence Frequency fc ISA Wireless Security.DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM SIGNALS PN Clock Local PN Clock Local Carrier PN Sequence Generator ±1 Data PN Sequence Generator ±1 Carrier Wide BP Filter Narrow BP Filter ±1 Phase Demod Data Data Clock Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density RFI “Spread” RFI Frequency fc Frequency fc Narrow spectrum at output of modulator before spreading Spectrum has wider bandwidth and lower power density after spreading with PN sequence (PN Rate >> Data Rate) Original narrowband.
Fuhr From a security standpoint. P. DSSS is best. 45 ISA Wireless Security.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. .) ? Which is best? Each has its pluses and minuses…and each scheme has its share of die-hard advocates and/or naysayers! Different vendors use these (and other) schemes at different frequencies within the various ISM bands.
P. Fuhr 46 .Reality DSSS FHSS ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 47 . P.No Matter What…Its Just an Electromagnetic Field E(t) = A(t) cos[ω t + φ (t)] A(t): amplitude of the wave ω : radian frequency of the wave φ (t): phase of the wave ISA Wireless Security.
size: 10m Local Area Network: typical radiated power: 20 dBm. size: 100m ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 48 . P.The RF “Footprint” Network “Size” Personal Area Network: typical radiated power: 0 dBm.
P.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Network Topologies? Bus Network Tree Network Ring Network S rNtw r ta e ok ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Ad Hoc Network 49 .
P.The Real World Presents the Wireless Channel with Multipath and Attenuation…and… ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 50 .
P. Fuhr 51 .Real World: Multipath The Effect The Cause ISA Wireless Security.
4GHz ISA Wireless Security.4 GHz Rayleigh Fading @ 2.Real World: Atmospheric Attenuation at 2. Fuhr 52 . P.
Fuhr 53 .4 GHz ISA Wireless Security.Real World: Signal Attenuation at 2. P.
the background Noise level has increased by 12 dB. the overall data rate. P. Fuhr 54 .) ISA Wireless Security. (This plays havoc with the BER or for fixed BER.Real World: And Signal-to-Noise Ratios really do matter! Anecdotal Evidence: As Frankfurt has increased the deployment of 2.4 GHz wireless surveillance cameras.
Fuhr 55 . ISA Wireless Security.Real World: Which Frequency is Best? ALERT! ALERT!! Notice that the operation at 2.45 GHz is WORSE than at 900MHz (which is worse than 433 MHz). P.
802. Bluetooth.Outline: 1. P. WiFi.4. Fuhr 56 . The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. modulation. spatial…) 4. Security? Who needs it? 2. encryption. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. An Integrated Solution 6.15. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. others…) 5. Spectrum. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.
ORNL 57 . These techniques can make the signal virtually undetectable without prior knowledge about the network. such as spreading and interleaving. P. ISA Wireless Security. Interleaving Wireless networks use a variety of techniques to enhance security.Wireless Data Security: Encryption. This can improve the security of the network by orders of magnitude. Spreading. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges.
The Wireless Market
TEXT GRAPHICS INTERNET
< RANGE >
802.11b 802.11a/HL2 & 802.11g Bluetooth 2
< DATA RATE >
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Bluetooth vs. the Rest (cont’d)
Parameter Technology 802.11 HomeRF Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, DSSS2.4GHz, FHSS 2.4 GHz, FHSS 11 chips/bit 50 hops/s 1000+hops/s Data Rate 11Mbps 1 Mbps 1Mbps Power +20 dBm +20 dBm 0, +20dBm Range 50m 50m 1-10m, 50m Topology 128 devices 128 devices 8 devices, CSMA/CA CSMA/CA Piconet Security Optional WEP Optional Encryption Voice ChannelOptional Optional Yes ZigBee (proposed) 2.4 GHz,DSSS 15 chips/bit 40 kbits/s 0dBm 100m 100s devices, CSMA/CA Not yet No
Bluetooth – aka IEEE 802.15.1 ZigBee – aka IEEE 802.15.4
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 59
Side by Side
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
11? ISA Wireless Security. P.802. Fuhr 61 .
Fuhr 62 .The Worldwide View of the 802. P.11 Spectral Space ISA Wireless Security.
P.Radiated Field from a single AP (Kansas City) ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 63 .
Fuhr 64 .20dB Attenuation Profile for Univ of Kansas Eng Bldg.. P. Mesh and AP deployments ISA Wireless Security.
WEP (encrypted traffic) • The industry’s solution: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – Share a single cryptographic key among all devices – Encrypt all packets sent over the air. using the shared key – Use a checksum to prevent injection of spoofed packets ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 65 . P.
WSJ break the story Borisov. P. Aboba.11 WEP standard released Mar 2000 Oct 2000 Jan 30.Early History of WEP 1997 802. 2001 ISA Wireless Security. Moore: some weaknesses Walker: Unsafe at any key size NY Times. Goldberg. 2001 Feb 5. Fuhr Simon. Wagner: 7 serious attacks on WEP 66 .
Fuhr 67 .Subsequent Events Jan 2001 Mar 2001 Borisov.11 network has no clothes Arbaugh: more attacks … May 2001 Jun 2001 Aug 2001 Newsham: dictionary attacks on WEP keys Fluhrer. Wagner Arbaugh: Your 802. P. Goldberg. Shamir: efficient attack on way WEP uses RC4 Arbaugh. Mantin. Mishra: still more attacks Feb 2002 ISA Wireless Security.
P.sourceforge.net/projects/wepcrack/ – To brute force enter into WLAN.com/releases.net • WEPCrack – http://sourceforge. • THC-RUT – http://www.WEP Attack Tools • Downloadable procedures from the Internet – To crack the Key: • AirSnort – http://airsnort.php ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 68 .thehackerschoice.
11 standard.11i standard (Draft 3.flaws include weak encryption. •WPA provides stronger data encryption (weak in WEP) and user authentication (largely missing in WEP).0). Fuhr 69 . (keys no longer than 40 bits).Addresses weak data encryption and user authentication within existing 802. P.11i standard for enhanced wireless security . ISA Wireless Security. possibly early 2004 outstanding issues.WPA a subset of IEEE 802. – 802. – WPA standard joint effort between Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE . static encryption keys.Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) – Flaws in WEP known since January 2001 .11i standard will not be ratified until late 2003. lack of key distribution method. – IEEE developing 802.
ISA Wireless Security. – TKIP based on RC4 stream cipher algorithm. Derivation and distribution method . ‘Michael’. 4.a.11b hardware compared to other available cipher suites. 3.k.k.a.stronger data encryption. Extended 48-bit Initialization Vector (IV) and IV sequencing rules (compared to the shorter 24-bit WEP RC4 key). addresses known vulnerabilities in WEP. 2. ensures messages haven’t been tampered with during transmission.WPA – Data Encryption – WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) . surrounds WEP cipher engine with 4 new algorithms.a.a. 1.Easily deployed and supported in legacy 802. P. New per-packet key mixing function. •TKIP chosen as primary encryption cipher suite . A message integrity check (MIC) . re-keying. Fuhr 70 .
Fuhr 71 . P.WPA – Data Encryption. Temporal Key TA Phase 1 key mixing WEP seed(s) (represented as WEP IV + RC4 key) TTAK Key TSC MIC Key Plaintex t MSDU + MIC Phase 2 key mixing SA + DA + Plaintext MSDU Data MIC Fragment(s) Plaintext MPDU(s) WEP Encapsulation Ciphertext MPDU(s) •DA – Destination Address TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol •ICV– Integrity Check Value TSC – TKIP Sequence Counter •MPDU – Message Protocol Data Unit TTAK– result of phase 1 key mixing of Temporal Key •MSDU – MAC Service Data Unit and Transmitter Address •RSN – Robust Security Network WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy •SA – Source Address WEP IV – Wired Equivalent Privacy Initialization Vector •TA – Transmitter Address ISA Wireless Security. cont’d • the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol.
cont’d – TKIP implements countermeasures . – TKIP is made available as firmware or software upgrade to existing legacy hardware. depending on which attacked – ensures attacker cannot obtain information from attacked key.WPA – Data Encryption. Fuhr 72 . – Countermeasures bound probability of successful forgery and amount of information attacker can learn about a key. ISA Wireless Security.reduces rate which attacker can make message forgery attempts down to two packets every 60 seconds. – After 60 second timeout new PMK or Groupwise Key generated. •TKIP eliminates having to replace existing hardware or having to purchase new hardware. P.
Bluetooth? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 73 . P.
P.Some Specifications • Uses unlicensed 2.BlueTooth. ISA Wireless Security.2.480 GHz frequency range • Frequency hopping spread spectrum 79 hops separated by 1 MHz • Maximum frequency hopping rate: 1600 hops/sec • Nominal range: 10 cm to 10 meters • Nominal antenna power: 0 dBm • One complete Bluetooth data packet can be transmitted within each 625 msec hop slot.402 . Fuhr 74 .
Fuhr 75 . P.Potential Bluetooth Markets ISA Wireless Security.
P.Bluetooth Market Forecast Nov’03: 100M Bluetooth compliant devices worldwide ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 76 .
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
• Adopted Protocols – PPP(Point-To-Point Protocol) – TCP/UDP/IP – OBEX-Session Protocol for IrDA(Infrared Data Association) – Contents Fromat(e.g. vCard, vCalendar) – WAP-Wireless Application Protocol
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
• Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption based on a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices • Security Defined In 3 modes: – Mode1- No Security – Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not Established Before Channel is Established at L2CAP – Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device Initiates Security Before LMP Link is Setup
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Fuhr 80 . P.Bluetooth Security • 3 Levels of Service Access – Require Authorization and Authenication – Require Authentication Only – Default Security for Legacy Applications ISA Wireless Security.
But is this Wireless Link Secure? ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr Newsflash: Jan 2001: Norwegian “hackers” crack a Bluetooth transmission 81 .
Fuhr 82 . P.Analysis of a BlueTooth Transmission High overhead? ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 83 .802.15.4/Zigbee? ISA Wireless Security.
1 (Bluetooth) ISA Wireless Security. Data Link Controller (DLC) guaranteed time slot management.1 • Supports multiple network topologies including Star.15.15.IEEE 802. P.4 IEEE 802.15. Fuhr 84 .15.15.4 LLC LLC. frame validation. channel scan IEEE 802.15. Type I • Low complexity: 26 primitives IEEE 802.4 standard • Includes layers up to and including Link Layer Control – LLC is standardized in 802. ACK.4 MAC versus 131 primitives for IEEE 802. channel access Networking App Layer (NWK) mechanism.4 868/915 MHz PHY 2400 MHz PHY 802. frame delivery. Cluster Tree and • Features of the MAC: Mesh ZigBee Application Framework Association/dissociation.2 beacon management. IEEE 802.
3 DSSS ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 85 .15.15.PHY overview • Speed – 20. 40 or 250 kbps • Channels – 1 channel in the 868MHz band – 10 channels in the 915MHz band – 16 channels in the 2.1 FHSS – 802.4GHz band • Modulation – BPSK (868MHz/20kbs) – BPSK (915MHz/40kbps) – O-QPSK (2. P.11b DSSS – 802.4GHz/250kbps) • Coexistence w/ – 802.
Fuhr 86 . P.MAC overview • Security support • Power consumption consideration • Dynamic channel selection • Network topology – Star topology – p2p topology – cluster-tree network topology ISA Wireless Security.
Device classification • Full Function Device (FFD) – Any topology – Can talk to RFDs or other FFDs – Operate in three modes • PAN coordinator • Coordinator • Device. • Reduced Function Device (RFD) – Limited to star topology – Can only talk to an FFD (coordinator) – Cannot become a coordinator – Unnecessary to send large amounts of data – Extremely simple – Can be implemented using minimal resources and memory capacity ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 87 . P.
P. Fuhr 88 .Transmission management • Acknowledgement – No ACK – ACK – Retransmission – Duplicate detection • Indirect transmission ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 89 .Security • Unsecured mode • ACL mode – Access control • Secured mode – Access control – Data encryption – Frame integrity – Sequential freshness ISA Wireless Security.
P.Scalable Security • Assume the attacker can deploy own nodes (can create a “ring” at some distance from controller)[Wisenet 2003] • Enemy nodes “mimick” the mesh nodes. they ACK the “health inquiry” as if everything was OK – but they do not forward to the rest of the net • The rest of the network is virtually cut off from inspection by controller • Need secure key and a random seed that changes at each round ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 90 .
P.What About: 1451.5? 1xRTT? SAT? CDPD? Others? No time this morning! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 91 .
How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.15. Bluetooth. P. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. 802. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Spectrum. Fuhr 92 . others…) 5.4. WiFi. spatial…) 4. encryption. An Integrated Solution 6. Security? Who needs it? 2. modulation.Outline: 1.
ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 93 . then you should be cognizant of the Industrial Networking arena.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Integrated Industrial Networks? If the sensor network is to integrate into an industrial setting. P.
Industrial Device Network Topology • Typically. which supply strategic data to the enterprise. An industrial network. Ethernet acts as the company's intranet backbone. A gateway (not uncommon in a large system with lots of devices) links devices that have only RS-232 or RS485 ports to the fieldbus system. three layers of networking make up enterprisewide networks. P. or fieldbus. Fuhr . links sensors and smart devices. 94 ISA Wireless Security. and it's linked to controllers or industrial PCs.
Fuhr .Industrial Device Networks • General characteristics for industrial device networks have arisen. P. • Obviously the complexity of the network increases as the functionality is increased. 95 ISA Wireless Security.
Classification of Industrial Networks • Three logical groupings of instrumentation networks used in an industrial setting. • There are over 100 different proprietary networks in the field. ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 96 .
blocking legitimate maintenance and forcing process shutdown. P. Fuhr 97 . • Password changed to obscenity.Inside Security Incident • Employee attacks PLC in another plant area over PLC highway. Plant Highway Disgruntled Employee PLC PLC PLC PLC Steam Plant Paper Plant * Source: BCIT Industrial Security Incident Database (ISID) ISA Wireless Security.
Hardwiring. Fuhr Cost + 98 . P.Network Positioning Data Ethernet TCP/IP ControlNet Foundation Fieldbus H2 Profibus-FMS Profibus-DP Data Highway+ Interbus-S Modbus Plus Remote I/O DeviceNet Other CAN SDS Fieldbus H1 Profibus-PA Modbus HART + + + Functionality Complexity - ASi. Seriplex. - ISA Wireless Security. RS485 etc.
P.Too Focused on Internet Issues? • Myth #1: Our SCADA/PLC/DCS is safe if we don’t connect to the Internet. • Myth #3: Our IT department understands process control issues and security. • Myth #2: Our Internet firewall will protect our control systems. Fuhr 99 . ISA Wireless Security.
Is Industrial Comm Security Too Focused on Internet Issues? Internet Remote Engineering Firewall Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing Logistics Production Planning Enterprise Network Production Networks Ethernet Programming Stations SCAD A Control Network PLC Process Historian WarDialing Attack Modem PLC ))))) Handheld Operator Terminal 802. 2002 100 . P. Fuhr CT. ISA Wireless Security.11 WLAN Field Devices OEM Source (used by permission): Interface Technologies. Windsor.
Spectrum.15. 802. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. WiFi. modulation. An Integrated Solution 6. Bluetooth. Security? Who needs it? 2. P. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. encryption.Outline: 1. spatial…) 4.4. others…) 5. Fuhr 101 .
Quality of Service How Many Bits are Needed? The more bits you xmit.Bit Rate vs. the more power you consume! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 102 .
P. Fuhr 103 .Coding vs. Quality of Service Is Coding Really Necessary? ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 104 .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ISA Wireless Security. P.
Comparing Wireless Tech. P. DSSS FHSS UWB Narrow band ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Range RF Power Battery life Medium Low longest Long High Short short short Numbers In Area High Medium High Lowest Medium Lowest Longest highest 105 .
Technology Beats Marketing in Performance! T e c h n o l o g y v e r su s A ttr i b u te s S u m m a ry C h a rt T e c h n o lo g y DS S S CDM A Low M o b ile F H S S TD M A P ow er A d H oc P ow er E m bedded U W B F D M A D e s ig n sN e t w o rkH a rve s t in gt e llig e nD ive rs it y E C s In ce F NA CDM A FDM A NA CDM A CDM A NA NA CDM A FDM A TD M A NA NA yes yes NA yes NA NA NA yes yes yes NA NA yes NA NA NA yes yes NA NA NA NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA yes yes yes yes yes NA NA NA NA yes NA yes yes yes yes yes yes yes NA NA yes NA yes NA NA NA yes NA yes NA NA A ttr i b u te Long Range NA P lu g -a n d -P la y D S S S L o n g B a t t e ry lifeH S S F L o w R F I ris k D S S S S e lf L o c a t in g D S S S S e c u re UW B H ig h t h ro u g h p uU W B t n o n lin e -o f-s ig hU W B t ro b u s t c o n n e c tD Sn S S io s lo w c o s t FHSS s m a ll s iz e FHSS ISA Wireless Security.8G H 106 .8G H 5.8G H 900M H 5.4G H S t a n d a rd s-a ry 5 . Fuhr B P S K 900M H O pen Q P S K 2. 8 G H M NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA yes NA NA NA M -a ry NA NA NA M -a ry NA BPSK BPSK BPSK 900M H NA 900M H 5. P.8G H 5.8G H 900M H 5.8G H 5.
gocsi.com/losses. Fuhr 107 .Statistics on Types of Attacks De ia o S r ic n l f ev e La t pTh ft po e Ac iv W ea t e ir t p Te c mF a d le o r u U a t o iz dIn id r Ac e s n uh r e s e cs Vir s u F a ia F a d in c l r u In id r Ab s o Ne Ac e s s e ue f t cs S s e P n t aio y t m e er t n T le o E e d o p g e c m v s r p in Sbtg a oa e Th fto P o r t In e f r p iey fo 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 10 2 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 % of Respondents *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute . ISA Wireless Security. P.www.
Cost • Risk reduction is balanced against the cost of security counter measures to mitigate the risk. Optimal Level of Security at Minimum Cost Cost ($) Cost of Security Countermeasures Cost of Security Breaches Security Level ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 108 .Optimization of Security vs.
” *Source: CSPP Guidelines For Analyzing And Managing The Security Vulnerabilities Of Fixed Chemical Sites ISA Wireless Security. P. environmental damage.” • Security Definition: “Risk is an expression of the likelihood that a defined threat will exploit a specific vulnerability of a particular attractive target or combination of targets to cause a given set of consequences. Fuhr 109 . or economic loss in terms of both the incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury.Risk in Safety vs. Risk in Security • Safety Definition: “Risk is a measure of human injury.
g. IP spoofing. • The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in the higher layer protocols. Fuhr . source routing. • The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxy server. P. etc) and forces all traffic to the proxy. Internet External Router Internal Router 110 ISA Wireless Security.Firewall Architectures • The external router blocks attempts to use the underlying IP layer to break security (e. packet fragments.
Fuhr 111 .There’s lot of “Wireless” • From cellphones to PDAs to WiFi to Satellite-based ISA Wireless Security. P.
Wireless LAN Standards ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 112 .
11f – 802.11a – 802.11802. Fuhr .Existing/Developing IEEE 802.11b – 802.2004) New Encryption Protocols (Q2. P.16 – Frequency Hopping/DSSS 54Mbps / HyperLAN (1999) 11Mbps Quality of Service Point 2 Point Roaming (2003) 54Mbps European Inspired Changes (Q2.2004) Port Based Network Access Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) 113 ISA Wireless Security.11e – 802.1x – 802.11g – 802.11 Standards • • • • • • • • • • • 802.11h – 802.11i – 802.15 – 802.
Wireless Backbone for Inflight “Entertainment” On-Board Network Integration PicoCell BTS PicoCell BTS Noise Floor Lifter 6 MCU GSM SERVER SDU ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr …and we haven’t even touched on RFID! 114 . P.
There’s lot of “Wireless” • And it all needs to feel more Secure! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 115 . P.
Fuhr 116 .For a real review of networking security… • Take Eric Byrnes ISA course IC32C… ISA Wireless Security. P.
15.BGW] 2002 1451. Fuhr 2003 WPA Future: 802.Will History Repeat? Cellular networks 1980analog cellphones: AMPS wireless security: not just 802. … ISA Wireless Security.4. WEP 2000 2001 WEP broken [BGW] 2002 digital: TDMA. 802. P. TinyO 2003 Future: ??? 117 2000 Future: 3rd gen.11i .11 analog cloning. GSM 1990 TDMA eavesdropping [Bar] sensor networks WEP badly broken [FMS] attacks pervasive Proprietary systems more TDMA flaws [WSK] GSM cloneable [BGW] GSM eavesdropping [BSW. scanners fraud pervasive & costly wireless networks 1999 802.: 3GPP.11.
P.PATRIOT Act • PATRIOT (Provide Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) • Legally classifies many hacking attacks as acts of terrorism ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 118 .
So… If Nothing else. at least PLEASE do this for your WiFi System! • Conduct site survey • • • • • WLAN Security Countermeasures Identify areas of signal strength and weakness Do a “walkaround” with NetStumbler Document and shut down rogue access points Document and shut down unauthorized wireless NICs AND TURN ON SOME LEVEL OF THE PROVIDED PROTECTION! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 119 . P.
So if your wireless network has primepower (a.Oh… And don’t forget that as you layer in all of these wacky encryption schemes and CDMA and DSSS and…and… that it takes some joules to actually implement this. Fuhr 120 . P. But if you’re going off a battery then it’s a tradeoff of security versus Power Consumption You Choose that one! ISA Wireless Security. AC) you’re ok.a.k.
... P.and in the end. HoneyBee with RFID Two potential forms of wireless sensor networks. And they should both be secure! ISA Wireless Security.. BumbleBee with RF xcvr .... Fuhr 121 ...or.
Bluetooth.15.4. Security? Who needs it? 2. WiFi. The Big Review 7. encryption. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. An Integrated Solution 6. Fuhr 122 . spatial…) 4. Spectrum. 802. others…) 5. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.Outline: 1. Glossary and References ISA Wireless Security. modulation. P.
10BASE-T: IEEE 802.3 standard for a twisted-pair Ethernet network. 10 Mbps transmission rate over baseband using unshielded, twistedpair cable. 802.11: The IEEE 802.11 standard defines both frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum solutions for use in the 2.4-2.5 MHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band. 802.11a: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). 802.11b: The portion of the 802.11 specification that defines the 11 Mbps data rate. A Access Point: Provides a bridge between Ethernet wired LANs and the wireless network. Access points are the connectivity point between Ethernet wired networks and devices (laptops, hand-held computers, point-of-sale terminals) equipped with a wireless LAN adapter card. Analog phone: Comes from the word "analogous," which means similar to. In telephone transmission, the signal being transmitted from the phone—voice, video or image—is analogous to the original signal. Antenna-Directional: Transmits and receives radio waves off the front of the antenna. The power behind and to the sides of the antenna is reduced. The coverage area is oval with the antenna at one of the narrow ends. Typical directional antenna beam width angles are from 90° (somewhat directional) to as little as 20°(very directional). A directional antenna directs power to concentrate the coverage pattern in a particular direction. The antenna direction is specified by the angle of the coverage pattern called the beam width. Antenna-Omni-directional: Transmits and receives radio waves in all directions. The coverage area is circular with the antenna at the center. Omni-directional antennas are also referred to as whip or low-profile antennas. Association: The process of determining the viability of the wireless connection and establishing a wireless network's root and designated access points. A mobile unit associates with its wireless network as soon as it is powered on or moves into range. ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A type of high-speed wide area network.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
B Backbone: A network that interconnects other networks, employing high-speed transmission paths and often spanning a large geographic area. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies, expressed in hertz (Hz), that can pass over a given transmission channel. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit. Bandwidth Management: Functionality that allocates and manages RF traffic by preventing unwanted frames from being processed by the access point. BC/MC: Broadcast frames; Multicast frames Beacon: A uniframe system packet broadcast by the AP to keep the network synchronized. A beacon Includes the Net_ID (ESSID), the AP address, the Broadcast destination addresses, a time stamp, a DTIM (Delivery Traffic Indicator Maps) and the TIM (Traffic Indicator Message). BFA Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector manufactured by MuRata Manufacturing Corporation. Bluetooth: See Wireless Personal Area Networks. Bridge: A device that connects two LANs of the same or dissimilar types. It operates at the Data Link Layer, as opposed to routers. The bridge provides fast connection of two collocated LAN segments that appear as one logical network through the bridge. Buffer: A segment of computer memory used to hold data while it is being processed.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
CAM: Continuously Aware Mode: Mode in which the adapter is instructed to continually check for network activity. Card and Socket Services: Packages that work with the host computer operating system, enabling the Wireless LAN adapter to interface with host computer configuration and power management functions. Cellular Phone: Low-powered, duplex, radio/telephone that operates between 800 and 900 MHz, using multiple transceiver sites linked to a central computer for coordination. The sites, or "cells," cover a range of one to six or more miles in each direction. Centrex: Business telephone service offered by a local telephone company from a local telephone company office. Centrex is basically a single line phone system leased to businesses as a substitute for a business that is buying or leasing its own on-premises phone system or PBX. CDMA and TDMA: The Code Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access standard for wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs) in North America. Circuit switching: The process of setting up and keeping a circuit open between two or more users so that users have exclusive and full use of the circuit until the connection is released. Client: A computer that accesses the resources of a server. Client/Server: A network system design in which a processor or computer designated as a server (such as a file server or database server) provides services to other client processors or computers. CODEC: Coder-Decoder. Audio compression/decompression algorithm that is designed to offer excellent audio performance. Converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals acceptable to modern digital PBXs and digital transmission systems. It then converts those digital signals back to analog so that you may hear and understand what the other person is saying. Computer Telephony Integration: Technology that integrates computer intelligence with making, receiving, and managing telephone calls. Computer telephony integrates messaging, real-time connectivity, and transaction processing and information access.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
such as AT&T. Digital Phone System: Proprietary phone system provided by a vendor. and so on. Mitel. Fuhr 126 ." this bit pattern numbers 10 chips to one per bit of information. direct sequence has higher throughput. host computer or front-end processor. such as a mobile unit's radio card. the dialed digits are passed from the PSTN to the PBX. The signal being transmitted in a digital phone system is the same as the signal being transmitted in an analog phone system.Glossary D Data Terminal: Computer transmit and receive equipment. The system can consist of a proprietary PBX system that converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals. P. Desktop Conferencing: A telecommunications facility or service on a PC that permits callers from several diverse locations to be connected together for a conference call. The second antenna is used only for receiving radio signals. the conversion from analog-to-digital can occur in a digital phone. Commonly referred to as a "chip" or "chipping code. usually performs both encryption and decryption. to the computer system. such as a mainframe or midrange computer. Direct-Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum: Direct sequence transmits data by generating a redundant bit pattern for each bit of information sent. In large PBX systems. Compared with frequency hopping. Decryption: Decryption is the decoding and unscrambling of received encrypted data. ISA Wireless Security. Alternatively. The ability for a caller outside a company to call an internal extension without having to pass through an operator or attendant. wider range and is upgradable in the 2. Northern Telecom. Most data terminals provide a user interface to a more capable host computer. Diversity Reception: The use of two antennas attached to a single access point to improve radio reception. while the primary is used for both transmitting and receiving. which then completes the call. Direct Inward Dialing: DID. and then converts those digital signals back to analog. Driver: A program routine that links a peripheral device. including a wide variety of dumb terminals or terminals without embedded intelligence in the form of programmed logic.4GHz band. The same device.
Frequency Hopping (FH) Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr. expressed in decibels referenced to a half wave dipole. communications protocols.323 conferences to other networks. One Gigahertz (GHz) is one billion Hertz. Gatekeeper: Software that performs two important functions to maintain the robustness of the network: address translation and bandwidth management. interference immunity. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator. Filtering: Prevents user-defined frames from being processed by the access point. GSM: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). The receiving station reassembles the transmitted fragments. There are 79 channels in a 2. with 1 Gbps speeds coming soon. Gateways bridge H. Fragmentation Threshold: The maximum size for directed data packets transmitted over the radio. which is equivalent to the older unit of cycles per second. Glossary Encryption: Entails scrambling and coding information. It uses TCP/IP commands. Microwave ovens typically operate at 2. Gateway: Optional element in an H. servers. before the information is transmitted over a network. within the same building or campus. As its label suggests. Ethernet: A local area network used for connecting computers. the actress. To date. and multimedia formats. typically with mathematical formulas called algorithms.5 hops per channel per second is required in the United States. Gain. dBi: Antenna gain. Fuhr 127 . terminals. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A common Internet protocol used for transferring files from a server to the Internet user. Gateways are not required if connections to other networks or non-H. cost and ease-of-installation. ISA Wireless Security. there has also been a greater selection of WLAN products from which to chose. each channel occupying 1MHz of bandwidth. Frequency hopping technology is recognized as superior to direct sequence in terms of echo resistance. dBic: Antenna gain.Element-level Management: Level of technologies aimed at small or medium-sized businesses. and so on.323 compliant terminals are not needed. frequency hopping transmits using a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a given pattern. is credited in name only for inventing frequency hopping during World War II. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 100 Mbps.323 conference. A minimum hop rate of 2. GHz: International unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz). Gain. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator that is circularly polarized. P. printers. Larger frames fragment into several packets this size or smaller before transmission over the radio. The frame protocol implements asynchronous serial Point-to-Point (PPP) frames similar to those used by serial Internet protocols. Gain.45 GHz. Gatekeepers map LAN aliases to IP addresses and provide address lookups when needed. workstations. Frame Mode: A communications protocol supported by the OEM Modules.4GHz ISM band. dBi: Antenna gain.
IP (Internet Protocol): The Internet standard protocol that defines the Internet datagram as the unit of information passed across the Internet. Enabled by the IEEE 802. Fuhr 128 . Standards body that defined H. science (2. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. The participants on the Internet and its topology change on a daily basis. Emerging network technology offered by local phone companies that is designed for digital communications. speaker.850GHz)--are the radio frequency bands allocated by the FCC for unlicensed continuous operations for up to 1W. and Internet malls. computer telephony. The Internet protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because IP is one of the two fundamental protocols. P. airline reservation systems. as well as interfaces between LANs and other networks. The voice processing acts as a front-end to appropriate databases that reside on general purpose computers.best-effort packet delivery service. In essence. multimedia management. The most popular standard currently in use. and modem.323 and other international standards. The Internet is a virtual network based on packet switching technology. Jitter: Noise on a communications line which is based on phase hits. from different vendors.Glossary H. An Internet phone can be a small phone (such as the NetVision Phone) or a multimedia PC with a microphone. ISA Wireless Security. and voice processing systems. Samples of Internet commerce applications include electronic banking. often referred to as the Information Superhighway. Provides the basis of the Internet connection-less. causing potential phase distortions and bit errors. Internet Commerce: Electronic business transactions that occur over the Internet. Internet Phone: Device used to transmit voice over the Internet. The most recent band approved by the FCC for WLANs was the medical band in January 1997. and bandwidth management for point-to-point and multi-point conferences.323: An umbrella standard from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) that addresses call control. Interoperability: The ability of equipment or software to operate properly in a mixed environment of hardware and software. an intranet is a private Internet reserved for use by people who have been given the authority and passwords necessary to use that network. and medical (5.4-2.725-5. For instance.11 open standard. Internet: World's largest network. Intranet: A private network that uses Internet software and Internet standards. bypassing the traditional PSTN and saving money in the process. International Roaming: Ability to use one adapter worldwide. DTMF (touch tone) input of a Personal Identification Number can be required for access or more unusual and expensive techniques such as voice recognition and voice print matching.4835GHz). ITU: International Telecommunications Union. Interactive Voice Response: System used to access a database access application using a telephone. Handheld PC (HPC): The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Windows CE operating system.. ISM Band: ISM bands--instrumental (902-928MHz).
Layer: A protocol that interacts with other protocols as part of an overall transmission system. consequently. and other Mobile Unit Mode: In this mode. MIB (Management Information Base): An SNMP structure that describes the specific device being monitored by the remote-monitoring program. Modems are used to send digital data signals over the analog PSTN. the WLAN adapter connects to an access point (AP) or another WLAN installed system. Key phone systems are most often found in relatively small business environments. Multipath Fading: A type of fading caused by signals taking different paths from the transmitter to the receiver and. allowing the device to roam freely between AP cells in the network. MAC (Media Access Control): Part of the Data Link Layer. MD5 Encryption: An authentication methodology when MU is in foreign subnet. typically around 50 telephones. this sublayer contains protocols for gaining orderly access to cable or wireless media. Data is received from the network connection and sent out over the serial port. bar-code scanner. Mobile Unit (MU): May be a Symbol Spectrum24 terminal. Fuhr 129 . ISA Wireless Security. Modem: Equipment that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. Because it is possible to have overlapping cells as well as isolated cells. Multipath: The signal variation caused when radio signals take multiple paths from transmitter to receiver. MMCX Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector in use by several major wireless vendors. after changing its point of attachment to the Internet and intranet. as defined by the IEEE. Mobile IP: The ability of the mobile unit to communicate with the other host using only its home IP address. P. interfering with each other. Key Telephone System: A system in which the telephone has multiple buttons permitting the user to directly select central office phone lines and intercom lines. Mobile units appear as network nodes to other devices. Microcell: A bounded physical space in which a number of wireless devices can communicate. Modulation: Any of several techniques for combining user information with a transmitter's carrier signal. third-party device. LPD (Line Printer Daemon): A TCP-based protocol typically used between a Unix server and a printer driver. the boundaries of the cell are established by some rule or convention.Glossary Kerberos: A widely deployed security protocol that was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to authenticate users and clients in a wired network environment and to securely distribute encryption keys. PC Card and PCI adapter.
In a packet switched network. lower powered. This device may be connected to a bar code reader and it may query a central computer for the current price of that item.5 to 1. Pocket PC: The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Pocket PC operating system. higher-frequency competitive technology to cellular.S. PCS operates in the 1. An alternative to a PBX is to subscribe to a local telephone company's Centrex service. Peer-to-peer Network: A network design in which each computer shares and uses devices on an equal basis. Packet switching is a data switching technique only. have less range. PSP (Power Save Polling): stations power off their radios for long periods. Ping: A troubleshooting TCP/IP application that sends out a test message to a network device to measure the response time. the PSTN is provided by AT&T. PBX Phone System: Private Branch eXchange. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) PC Card: A credit card-size device used in laptop computers and available as removable network adapters. ISA Wireless Security. PCS (Personal Communications Service): A new. no circuit is left open on a dedicated basis. and airtime is cheaper. Plug and Play: A feature that allows a computer to recognize the PCI adapter and configure the hardware interrupt. Glossary Packet Switching: Refers to sending data in packets through a network to some remote location. P. The cells are smaller and closer together. Small version of the phone company's larger central switching office. When a mobile unit in PSP mode associates with an access point. thus conserving power. requires less user interaction and minimizes hardware conflicts. memory. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network): Refers to the worldwide voice telephone network accessible to all those with telephones and access privileges. Whereas cellular typically operates in the 800900 MHz range. Point-of-Sale Device: A special type of equipment that is used to collect and store retail sales data.8 GHz range. telephone lines. Power Management: Algorithms that allow the adapter to sleep between checking for network activity. PLD (Data Link Protocol): A raw packet protocol based on the Ethernet frame format. Fuhr 130 .. The AP responds by buffering packets received for the MU. and device recognition addresses.Node: A network junction such as a switch or a routing center. it notifies the AP of its activity status. All frames are sent to the wireless network verbatim--should be used with care as improperly formatted data can go through with undesirable consequences. and access to the public switched telephone network. In the U. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): The basic service supplying standard single line telephones. The idea with PCS is that the phone are cheaper. and are digital.
in a new or expanding installation. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP based intranets. Roaming: Movement of a wireless node between two microcells. P. Two types of spread spectrum exist: direct sequence and frequency hopping. It provides security by "spreading" the signal over a range of frequencies. De-spreading the signal is impossible for those not aware of the spreading parameters. It functions as an addressable entity on the LAN and is the basic building block of the Internet. Interference from narrowband signals is also minimized to background noise when it is de-spread by the receiver. spread spectrum is the most commonly used WLAN technology today. Stream mode transfers serial characters as they are received by encapsulating them in a packet and sending them to the host. change parameters for routers and gateways. The MU continues communicating with that access point until it needs to switch cells or roam. military in World War II to provide secure voice communications. Fuhr 131 . the signal sounds like background noise. ISA Wireless Security. The statistics enable a mobile unit to reassociate by synchronizing its frequency to the AP. Repeater: A device used to extend cabling distances by regenerating signals. as well as the number of devices necessary to provide optimal coverage. The signal is manipulated in the transmitter so that the bandwidth becomes wider than the actual information bandwidth. to them. QoS refers to things like: Is the call easy to hear? Is it clear? Is it loud enough? RBOC (Regional Bell Operating Company): One of the seven Bell operating companies set up after the divestiture of AT&T.S. Site Survey: Physical environment survey to determine the placement of access points and antennas. Router: The main device in any modern network that routes data blocks from source to destination using routing tables and determining the best path dynamically. Roaming usually occurs in infrastructure networks built around multiple access points. Defines the method for obtaining information about network operating characteristics. Spread Spectrum: A transmission technique developed by the U. each of which own two or more Bell Operating Companies (BOCs). Scanning: A periodic process where the mobile unit sends out probe messages on all frequencies defined by the country code. Stream Mode: A communications protocol supported only by the Telnet and TCP protocols.Glossary QoS (Quality of Service): Measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber.
Voice Mail System: Device or system that records. gateway. Token ring is the technique used by IBM and others. P. two-way communications with another terminal. Wi-Fi: A logo granted as the "seal of interoperability" by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). Only select wireless networking products possess this characteristic of IEEE802. TCP/IP is used in the industry to refer to the family of common Internet protocols. must be received by an attached terminal or workstation before that terminal or workstation can start transmitting. which provides for real-time. Wireless AP Support: Access Point functions as a bridge to connect two Ethernet LANs.11b. Canada. Terminal: An endpoint.Glossary T1: A type of dedicated digital leased-line available from a public telephone provider with a capacity of 1. Token Ring: A ring type of local area network (LAN) in which a supervisory frame. or mobile unit. A T1 line can normally handle 24 voice conversations. Hong Kong. UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP/IP is a connection-less protocol that describes how messages reach application programs running in the destination machine.544 Mbps. Telnet (Terminal Emulation Protocol): A protocol that uses the TCP/IP networking protocol as a reliable transport mechanism. With more advanced digital voice encoding techniques.S. provides low overhead and fast response and is well suited for high-bandwidth applications. T1 is the standard for digital transmission in the U. TCP (Transport Communication Protocol): Controls the transfer of data from one client to one host. The two types of voice mail devices are those which are "stand alone" and those which offer some integration with the user's phone system. Fuhr 132 . it can handle more voice channels. or token. Considered extremely stable. Video Conferencing: Video and audio communication between two or more people via a video CODEC (coder/decoder) at either end and linked by digital circuits. and various operating systems. each one digitized at 64 Kbps. and retrieves voice messages. stores. and time-outs. between computers with diverse hardware architectures. providing the mechanism for connection maintenance. ISA Wireless Security. TCP/IP: Networking protocol that provides communication across interconnected networks. and Japan. flow control. retries.
or the Internet. peripheral sharing. WLANs perform traditional network communications functions such as file transfer. a mobile computing device such as a notebook computer. In place of TP or coaxial wires or optical fiber as used in a conventional LAN. P. WLANs must include NICs (adapters) and access points (in-building bridges). or printer-to-hub) and point-to-point (LAN-to-LAN) connectivity within a building or campus. mobile phones. Using the mobile phone as a modem. ISA Wireless Security. Bluetooth is ideal for mobile professionals who need to link notebook computers. PDAs. and for campus communications building-to-building (LAN-LAN) bridges. this cable-replacement technology wirelessly and transparently synchronizes data across devices and creates access to networks and the Internet. Fuhr 133 . and database access as well as augmenting wired LANs. PIMs. and other hand-held devices to do business at home. your corporate intranet. can receive and send information from a network. or a device with a stand-alone radio card. PC-to-hub. WLANs transmit and receive data over electromagnetic waves. e-mail.Glossary Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A wireless LAN is a data communications system providing wireless peer-to-peer (PC-to-PC. Over a short range. Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): Personal area networks are based on a global specification called Bluetooth which uses radio frequency to transmit voice and data. PDA. and in the office. Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): Wide area networks utilize digital mobile phone systems to access data and information from any location in the range of a cell tower connected to a data-enabled network. on the road.
A Few References e J. Expert Verlag 1992. ISA 1997. ISA 1993. IEE 1994. er. 3-8169-0771-7."Fieldbuses for Process Control: Engineering.parallele und serielle Bussysteme in Theorie und Praxis". Hüthig & Pflaum. McGraw-Hill 1993. dis. "The ISA Fieldbus Guide". "Feldbus-Systeme". ISBN 1-55617-760-7 k U. Prentice-Hall. Fuhr 134 . "Fieldbus series". Baran-Harper 1991.. Report DISC PD0014:2000. "Veldbussen". Entwicklung und Anwendung". Fachbericht 37. "How to automate your home". G. ISBN 3-8007-182 Report 27. ISBN 0-9632170-0-3. Oldenbourg Verlag. Franzis Verlag 2001. IEEE. ISBN 0-8186-8824-6. Kluwer 1996. 1997. ISBN 1-55617-637-6. wn. ISBN 3-89429-3 an. 1999. "Digitale Communicatie". "Datenübertragung auf Fahrzeugen mittels serieller Bussysteme". k U. Operation. ISBN 0-07-005592-0. nnsmeyer. 1996 rol Engineering.. "Bussysteme . hler. "Design and validation of computer protocols". P. "Standardisierung der Prozeßdatenkommunikation". rum voor Micro-elektronica.. VDE Verlag 1991. ISBN 0-07-057601-7. "Investigation into the intrinsic safety of fieldbus systems (FISCO)". McGraw-Hill. "The V-series recommendations". 1994/236.A changing future". zeitschrift DE.. ISBN 3-486-285 kort. ebos. "Feldbustechnik in Forschung."Industrial Fiber Optic Networks". "Fieldbus Standard for use in industrial control systems". "Fieldbus for Industrial Control Systems". VDE Verlag. Ref. University of South-Carolina 1998. ISBN 0-412-57890-5. 1993. Wiley 1995. t W.. er J. ISBN 3-7723-5745-8. ISA Press 1995. Franzis Verlag. issues of 1994 and 1995.. "Feldbusse und Geräte-Kommunikationssysteme". "A distributed control & diagnostic architecture for railway maintenance". "Physical Level Interfaces and Protocols". rich D. R. ISBN 1-55617-521-3-G. Chapmann & Hall 1997. ISBN 90-6674-726-9. PTB. "Intelligente sensornetwerken". "Der Feldbus in der Maschinen. ISBN 3-7723-4621-9. report W53. "Serial networked field instrumentation". ig K. ISBN 0-471-95236-1. "Bussysteme für die Gebäudeinstallation. "Colloquium: Fieldbus devices . Springer Verlag. Maintenance". ISBN 90-557-6059-5.und Anlagentechnik". "The OSI Dictionary of acronyms". ISA Wireless Security.. ISBN 1-55617-317-2. mann. Delta Press 1989. "Guide to the evaluation of fieldbus protocols". on. ISA Press 2002.. ISBN 0-13-539834-7. sh Standard Institute.
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P.Questions? Comments? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 136 .
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