Guidelines Smaw[1] | Welding | Electric Arc

155 095 B

2010−02

Processes
Stick (SMAW) Welding

Guidelines For Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6. Electrode Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10. Typical Weld Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11. Welding Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12. Welding Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13. Welding Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14. Welding Horizontal Beads And Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15. Welding Vertical Beads And Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17. Welding Overhead Butt Joints And Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1. Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2. Excessive Spatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3. Incomplete Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4. Lack Of Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5. Excessive Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6. Burn-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7. Waviness Of Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8. Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22

1-1. D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be present. D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly grounded receptacle outlet. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. D Do not drape cables over your body. gratings. damaged. and discharge input capacitors according to instructions in Maintenance Section before touching any parts. or another electrode from a different machine. D Frequently inspect input power cord for damage or bare wiring − replace cord immediately if damaged − bare wiring can kill. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. do not work alone! D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment.READ BEFORE USING som _2009−08 7 Protect yourself and others from injury — read and follow these precautions. and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. D Do not touch hot parts bare handed. state. hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. constant voltage wire welder is recommended. This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC SHOCK. SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter welding power sources AFTER removal of inputpower. operate. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. undersized. away. Read and follow all Safety Standards. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. D Turn Off inverter. D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process. D If AC output is required. attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections. use of a DC. maintain. wire reel. and protected from hot metal and sparks. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the hazards. In most situations. ground. and follow the related instructions to avoid the hazard. when in cramped positions such as sitting. or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage. Arc Welding Hazards The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual to call attention to and identify possible hazards. The safety information given below is only a summary of the more complete safety information found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. Maintain unit according to manual. could result in death or serious injury. D Keep cords dry. Lockout/tagout input power according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910. insulated welding gloves and clothing to prevent burns. use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder. watch out. or scaffolds.SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. or lying. drive roll housing. disconnect input power. Indicates special instructions.147 (see Safety Standards). D To handle hot parts. MOVING PARTS. if not avoided. Indicates a hazardous situation which. 2) a DC manual (stick) welder. and HOT PARTS hazards. if movement is confined. kneeling. if not avoided. D Do not use AC output in damp areas. ground it directly with a separate cable. and local codes. or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. D Turn off all equipment when not in use. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. D Properly install and ground this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national. Only qualified persons should install. HOT PARTS can burn. 155 095 Page 1 . D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any single weld output terminal. NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury. D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required. will result in death or serious injury. D Keep all panels and covers securely in place. When you see the symbol. on metal structures such as floors. . or if there is a danger of falling. D When making input connections. And. D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work. D Use only well-maintained equipment. use proper tools and/or wear heavy. or poorly spliced cables. D Do not touch live electrical parts. During operation. Symbol Usage DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which. and repair this unit. D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level. free of oil and grease. keep everybody. For these conditions. D Wear dry. 1-2. D Do not use worn. use remote output control if present on unit. especially children. D Allow cooling period before working on equipment. the wire. D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp locations or while wearing wet clothing. D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece or worktable as near the weld as practical. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent contact with any metal object.

consumables. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin. drums. D Wear protective clothing made from durable. and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. spot welding. and degreasers. heavy shirt. cleaning. D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. floor. the area is well ventilated. or liquid vapors (such as gasoline). D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. and a cap. D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash. D Do not weld on closed containers such as tanks. and grinding cause sparks and flying metal. Welding produces fumes and gases. or pipes. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF) can affect ImplantedMedical Devices. 155 095 Page 2 CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. regulators. D If ventilation is poor. be sure to treat them carefully. D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter lenses to protect your face and eyes from arc rays and sparks when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49. D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields even under your welding helmet. maintain them and associated parts in good condition. Sparks fly off from the weld. glare and sparks. such as tanks.252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby. flame-resistant material (leather. D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. wear an approved air-supplied respirator.7 m) of the welding arc. ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. from your person before doing any welding. explosion. D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form highly toxic and irritating gases. . D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder. associated equipment. they can throw off slag. D Be aware that welding on a ceiling. warn others not to watch the arc. Do not breathe the fumes. D Keep your head out of the fumes. sparks. or pipes. Do not oversize or bypass them. D Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather gloves. correct procedures. NOISE can damage hearing.1 (see Safety Standards). Welding on closed containers. and fire hazards. Shielding gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure. D If inside. D Remove any combustibles. D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10. or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. chipping. plasma arc cutting. hot workpiece. D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat. D Shut off shielding gas supply when not in use. D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders. or spraying operations. D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. and sufficient number of persons to lift and move cylinders. D Do not weld in locations near degreasing. D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. Welding fumes and gases can displace air and lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from traveling long. D Do not weld on coated metals. As welds cool. or cadmium plated steel. a cylinder can explode. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause sparks. D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. bulkhead. slag. mechanical shocks. or induction heating operations. gas. or wool) and foot protection. or fire. lead. D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is high. inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process. gouging. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. cleaners. D Use the right equipment. possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock. sparks. D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder.1 and Z87. can cause them to blow up. Noise from some processes or equipment can damage hearing. unless they are properly prepared according to AWS F4. cuffless trousers. WELDING can cause fire or explosion. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your helmet. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. Sparks can fly off from the welding arc. The flying sparks. BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill. D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted Medical Devices should keep away. wire brushing. drums. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. D After completion of work. or partition can cause fire on the hidden side.FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous. D Read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for metals. and arcs. such as galvanized. D Welding. and while wearing an air-supplied respirator. FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes. If this is not possible. open flames. and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910. D Do not weld where the atmosphere may contain flammable dust. tightly cover them with approved covers.1 listed in Safety Standards). ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin. D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding. and fittings designed for the specific application. D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. If damaged. unless the coating is removed from the weld area. D Watch for fire. overheating. D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result. glowing embers. physical damage. heavy cotton. high shoes. D Use only correct shielding gas cylinders. D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated. hoses. Check and be sure the area is safe before doing any welding. and flames. such as a butane lighter or matches. D Always ventilate confined spaces or use approved air-supplied respirator. Be sure the breathing air is safe. coatings.

ARC WELDING can cause interference. H. FLYING SPARKS can injure. and national. OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING D Allow cooling period. D Be sure all equipment in the welding area is electromagnetically compatible. D D D D STATIC (ESD) can damage PC boards. Locate welding operation 100 meters from any sensitive electronic equipment. such as on the floor.1-3. D Do not press gun trigger until instructed to do so. or guards when maintenance is finished and before reconnecting input power. move. D Do not install unit near flammables. rated. panels. Read the safety information at the beginning of the manual and in each section. or shielding the work area. or guards for maintenance and troubleshooting as necessary. be sure forks are long enough to extend beyond opposite side of unit. computers. and protected to handle this unit. D Reinstall doors. safety services. or servicing unit. and body protection. If notified by the FCC about interference. using shielded cables. D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with proper guards in a safe location wearing proper face. and use grounding and shielding to minimize the possibility of interference.) can interfere with radio navigation. D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face. Operation. FALLING EQUIPMENT can injure. or any other accessories. D Perform maintenance and service according to the Owner’s Manuals. and communications equipment. stop using the equipment at once. Additional Symbols For Installation. covers. MOVING PARTS can injure. keep spark gaps at correct setting. MOVING PARTS can injure. follow rated duty cycle. D Follow the guidelines in the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (Publication No. If interference still occurs. covers. keep weld cables as short as possible. or any metal when threading welding wire. D Have only qualified persons remove doors. D Use equipment of adequate capacity to lift and support unit. over. other people. gas cylinders. D Use proper static-proof bags and boxes to store. D Read and follow all labels and the Owner’s Manual carefully before installing. The user is responsible for having a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem resulting from the installation. panels. close together. and guards closed and securely in place. Be sure this welding machine is installed and grounded according to this manual. or ship PC boards. 94−110) when manually lifting heavy parts or equipment. D D D D WELDING WIRE can injure. And Maintenance FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard. READ INSTRUCTIONS. D Keep equipment (cables and cords) away from moving vehicles when working from an aerial location. NOT running gear. D High-frequency (H. D Use only genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer. D If using lift forks to move unit. D Have only qualified persons familiar with electronic equipment perform this installation. RADIATION can cause interference. state.F. 155 095 Page 3 . D Use lifting eye to lift unit only. Have the installation regularly checked and maintained. panels. To reduce possible interference. and down low. D Electromagnetic energy can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment such as computers and computer-driven equipment such as robots. D Do not install or place unit on. D Keep all doors. Keep high-frequency source doors and panels tightly shut. or near combustible surfaces. D Sparks can cause fires — keep flammables away. using line filters. and local codes.F. D Keep away from pinch points such as drive rolls. hand. D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before starting to weld again. D Do not point gun toward any part of the body. D Put on grounded wrist strap BEFORE handling boards or parts. industry standards. D Keep away from moving parts. D Keep away from moving parts such as fans. covers. operating. the user must take extra measures such as moving the welding machine. D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is properly sized. D Do not block or filter airflow to unit.

Safety in Welding. and other reproductive harm. About Implanted Medical Devices: Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before performing or going near arc welding.org). and Allied Processes. from Canadian Standards Association. website: www. in some cases.com). 1-5. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry. 5060 Spectrum Way. 7. 4330 East West Highway. Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. Protective measures for persons wearing medical implants have to be taken. gouging. 4. from U.cdc. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).ihs.nfpa. 3. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator. Superintendent of Documents. MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555. sit or lean on the welding power source. Chantilly.org and www. Do not weld whilst carrying the welding power source or wire feeder.org). Pittsburgh. Safe Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection.1.) Battery posts. or other reproductive harm. (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. pacemakers. Part 1910. cancer. is 312-353-2220. from National Fire Protection Association. and Part 1926. from National Fire Protection Association. Bethesda. Quincy. 1600 Clifton Rd. website:www.1. Cutting. OSHA. 5th Floor. access restrictions for passers−by or individual risk assessment for welders.1-4. MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555. For example. Do not place your body between welding cables. EMF fields may interfere with some medical implants.gov). e. Suite 100.S. National Electrical Code. chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Box 371954. For Gasoline Engines: Engine exhaust contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer.ihs. CGA Pamphlet P-1. P. Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding. 4221 Walney Road. PA 15250-7954 (phone: 1-866-512-1800) (there are 10 OSHA Regional Offices— phone for Region 5. Safe Practices for the Preparation of Containers and Piping for Welding and Cutting. Keep head and trunk as far away from the equipment in the welding circuit as possible.com).org. birth defects. 25 West 43rd Street. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).gov). Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders.global. ANSI Standard Z87. Government Printing Office. website: www. MD 20814 (phone: 301-504-7923. Quincy.com). NY 10036 (phone: 212-642-4900.1. sparky. All welders should use the following procedures in order to minimize exposure to EMF fields from the welding circuit: 1. 2. then following the above procedures is recommended. and Other Hot Work. GA 30333 (phone: 1-800-232-4636. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Atlanta. from American National Standards Institute. Wash hands after handling.global.ansi. website: www. U.csa-international. from Compressed Gas Association.osha. Subpart Q.nfpa. Chicago. For Diesel Engines: Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer. website: www. Connect work clamp to workpiece as close to the weld as possible. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. plasma arc cutting. EMF Information Electric current flowing through any conductor causes localized electric and magnetic fields (EMF).gov/NIOSH).g. or induction heating operations. spot welding. New York. Canada L4W 5NS (phone: 800-463-6727. 5. 6. Principal Safety Standards Safety in Welding.O. and Allied Processes. Subpart J. website: www. ANSI Standard Z49. NFPA Standard 51B. Welding current creates an EMF field around the welding circuit and welding equipment. California Proposition 65 Warnings Welding or cutting equipment produces fumes or gases which contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause birth defects and.2. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them. website: www. website: www. website: www.cganet. Cutting. Do not work next to. website: www. or using a cable cover. 1-6. VA 20151 (phone: 703-788-2700. terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. If cleared by your doctor.org). Title 29. CSA Standard W117. 155 095 Page 4 . Ontario.S. Cutting. American Welding Society Standard AWS F4. Do not coil or drape cables around your body.cpsc. Standards Sales.5 et seq. NFPA Standard 70. birth defects.

and the position of the welding. and feeding the electrode downward at a constant speed as it melts. 157 858 155 095 Page 5 . It is preferable to weld on work in the flat or horizontal position. called flux. and a small electrode requires less amperage than a large one. Thin metals require less current than thick metals. The electrode core provides most of the weld filler metal. When the electrode is moved along the workpiece at the correct speed the metal deposits in a uniform layer called a bead. Current is a more practical measure of the power in a weld circuit and is measured in amperes (Amps). The amperage needed to weld depends on electrode diameter.SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Stick welding is a process which melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc between a coated metal electrode and the workpiece. The voltage (Volts) is governed by the arc length between the electrode and the workpiece and is influenced by electrode diameter. The power in a welding circuit is measured in voltage and current. The electrode outer coating. when forced to weld in vertical or overhead positions it is helpful to reduce the amperage from that used when welding horizontally. the size and thickness of the pieces to be welded. assists in creating the arc and provides the shielding gas and slag covering to protect the weld from contamination. The best welding characteristics are usually obtained using DC power sources. moving the electrode at a uniform speed. 1 Stick Welding Power Source − Constant Current (CC). The Stick welding power source provides constant current (CC) and may be either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). AC Or DC Insulated Electrode Holder Workpiece Work Clamp 2 3 1 4 2 3 4 Ref. Best welding results are achieved by maintaining a short arc. More specific information on the Stick welding procedure is provided in the following sections. depending on the electrode being used. However.

2 5 4 2 3 Work Clamp Electrode Place as close to the weld as possible. arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in. Remove slag and check weld bead before making another weld pass. Examine the weld bead to determine if the arc length is correct. Workpiece Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. electrodes should be about 1/8 in. A short arc with correct amperage will give a sharp. Tools Needed: 151 593 155 095 Page 6 . Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter. Before striking an arc. crackling sound. Follow recommendations of the electrode manufacturer when setting weld amperage (see Section 3-2). Typical Stick Welding Set-Up ! 1 Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece. (3 mm). 7 Slag Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag. 4 5 3 6 1 7 6 Insulated Electrode Holder Electrode Holder Position Arc Length Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. diameter electrodes should be about 1/16 in. A small diameter electrode requires less current than a large one. (1.6 mm). Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in.SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) PROCEDURE 3-1. insert an electrode in the electrode holder.

EN EP. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart ELECTRODE DIAMETER 100 150 200 250 AMPERAGE RANGE 300 350 400 6010 & 6011 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 1/16 5/64 3/32 6013 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 7014 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 7018 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 7024 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 Ni-Cl 308L PENETRATION ELECTRODE POSITION 6010 6011 6013 7014 7018 7024 NI-CL 308L EP EP EP. FASTER CAST IRON STAINLESS *EP = ELECTRODE POSITIVE (REVERSE POLARITY) EN = ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (STRAIGHT POLARITY) Ref.EN EP EP ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL FLAT HORIZ FILLET ALL ALL DEEP DEEP LOW MED MED LOW LOW LOW MIN.EN EP EP. ROUGH HIGH SPATTER GENERAL SMOOTH. EASY.3-2. EASY. S-087 985-A USAGE DC* AC 450 50 155 095 Page 7 . FAST LOW HYDROGEN. STRONG SMOOTH. PREP.

use a quick twist to free it. electrode was lifted too high. Electrode Workpiece Arc 1 1 2 3 Bring electrode straight down to workpiece. scratch-start technique is preferred for ac welding. 2 3 S-0049 155 095 Page 8 . If electrode sticks to workpiece. If electrode sticks to workpiece. use a quick twist to free it. then lift slightly to start arc. 2 3 S-0049 3-4. If arc goes out. immediately lift electrode slightly after touching work. . Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique ! Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece.3-3. The 1 1 2 3 Electrode Workpiece Arc Drag electrode across workpiece like striking a match. electrode was lifted too high. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique ! Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece. If arc goes out.

Direction Of Welding End View Of Work Angle Side View Of Electrode Angle Fillet Welds 45° 10°.30° 45° Direction Of Welding End View Of Work Angle Side View Of Electrode Angle S-0660 155 095 Page 9 . 10°. travel at a uniform speed. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. hold a short arc. Hold the electrode nearly perpendicular to the work. practice running beads of weld metal on flat plates using a full electrode. To 90° 90° produce the best results. although tilting it ahead (in the direction of travel) will be helpful.30° .3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder Groove Welds After learning to start and hold an arc.

3 S-0054-A Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely. Electrode Movement During Welding 1 . Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual. however.3-6. Limit weave width to a maximum of 2-1/2 times diameter of electrode. 155 095 Page 10 . 1 2 3 Stringer Bead − Steady Movement Along Seam Weave Bead − Side To Side Movement Along Seam Weave Patterns 2 Use weave patterns to cover a wide area in one pass of the electrode. a weave bead or multiple stringer beads work better.A single stringer bead is satisfactory for most narrow groove weld joints. for wide groove weld joints or bridging across gaps.

30° Angle Too Small Drag Angle Too Large Arc Length Spatter Too Short Normal Too Long Travel Speed Too Slow Normal Too Fast S-0661 155 095 Page 11 .3-7. travel speed. Weld bead shape is affected by electrode angle. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . and thickness of base metal. Electrode Angle Correct Angle 10° . arc length.

3-8. Uneven Bead Slight Crater During Welding Bad Overlap Poor Penetration 1 2 3 4 5 S-0053-A 3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 Fine Spatter Uniform Bead Moderate Crater During Welding No Overlap Good Penetration Into Base Metal 1 2 3 4 5 S-0052-B 155 095 Page 12 . Poor Weld Bead Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 Large Spatter Deposits Rough.

Typical Weld Joints Groove (Butt) Joint Groove (Butt) Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Flat Position Welds Horizontal Position Welds Groove (Butt) Joint Groove (Butt) Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Vertical Position Welds Overhead Position Welds 804 248 155 095 Page 13 .3-10.

depositing a bead on each side of the joint and fusing one to the another (no bevel needed).) Perform a similar exercise on 1/4 in. On heavier plates. (19 mm) thick and when. (5 mm) thick can often be welded without special preparation using the square groove weld. electrode for the first bead and finish with a 5/32 in.) Separate the squared edges of the material about 1/16 in. (3mm) of material thickness. 2 3 4 Square Groove Weld Single V-Groove Weld Double V-Groove Weld Materials up to 3/16 in. deposit a bead for each 1/8 in. Start with a 1/8 in. when welding thicker materials it may be necessary to prepare the edges (Vgroove) of butt joints to ensure good welds. Workpiece distortion occurs when heat is applied locally to a joint. Generally. Perform a similar exercise on thicker materials. cleaning the joint between layers. (6 mm) material. Cut the bevel with oxyacetylene or plasma cutting equipment. (5-19 mm) thick. 1/16 in. it may be necessary to weave the top layers to fill the groove. test them as described in Section 3-18. Generally.6 mm) Root Face 30° 3 4 S-0662 155 095 Page 14 .3-11. (Avoid thinner materials since they require greater skill. One side of a metal plate will “curl” up toward the weld. (6 mm) plate beveled 30°. Distortion will also cause the edges of a butt joint to pull together ahead of the electrode as the weld cools. However. Practice making a single V-groove weld on 1/4 in. (1 mm) beyond the bottom of the “V” or root. After completing the practice welds. A grinder can also be used to prepare bevels. Remove scale from material after cutting. electrode. you can weld from one side only.6 mm) and make a butt weld all the way through with a 1/8 in. regardless of thickness. Groove (Butt) Joint Training Procedure Practice welding butt joints on 1/8 in. Create a 30 degree angle of bevel on materials in V-groove welding. (4 mm) electrode. (1. the single V-groove is used on materials up to 3/4 in. (You may need to adjust the weld current and travel speed to obtain the desired weld. 2 The single or double V-groove weld is good for materials 3/16 − 3/4 in. (4 mm) or thicker material. Be sure to penetrate about 1/32 in. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints Types Of Groove (Butt) Joint Welds 1 1 Tack Welds Prevent butt joint distortion by tack welding the materials in position before final weld. (1.

2 Single-Layer Fillet Weld 30° Or Less 1 3 Multi-Layer Fillet Weld S-0063 / S-0064 155 095 Page 15 . Remove slag before making another weld pass. Welding Lap Joints 1 30° Or Less 1 2 3 Electrode Single-Layer Fillet Weld Multi-Layer Fillet Weld Move electrode in circular motion. Weld both sides of joint for maximum strength. Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Use any of the weaving patterns shown in Section 3-6.3-12. 3 Multi-Layer Deposits Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Remove slag before making another weld pass. Square edge of the weld surface. Welding Tee Joints 1 2 1 Electrode Fillet Weld 2 45° Or Less Keep arc short and move at definite rate of speed. 2 1 3 S-0060 / S-0058-A / S-0061 3-13. Hold electrode as shown to provide fusion into the corner. For maximum strength weld both sides of upright section.

45° Direction Of Welding Make Third Weld Pass. 155 095 Page 16 Completed Weld. Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints Single Pass Bead Weld . Tilt Electrode 15° Toward Direction Of Welding. Direction Of Welding 90° Direction Of Welding 30° Tilt Electrode 15° In Direction Of Travel Make First Weld Pass (Root Pass). gravity may distort the molten metal. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. 15° Single Pass Horizontal Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Or First Pass Of Multi-Layer Deposit 2 30° 30° Bevel Material If Necessary (See Section 3-11). 1 .3-14. This technique is not 90° 1 2 Electrode Backing Strip Direction Of Welding 90° Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). suitable for all electrodes. When welding horizontally. Make Second Weld Pass. 804 260 .

Welding upward is easier and is shown in these illustrations. Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints Single Pass Bead Weld . Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). suitable for all electrodes. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. (12 mm) Wide Weld vertically by carrying the weld upward or starting at the top and welding down. Direction Of Welding 90° . gravity may distort the molten metal. 90° 1st Pass 2nd Pass Hesitate With Slight Up And Down Motion. This technique is not 1 2 Electrode Backing Strip Whipping Up Motion Weave Bead 1/2 in. Shorten Arc At Arrowheads When At Center Of Weld. Direction Of Welding Direction Of Welding 4th Pass OR 3rd Pass Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Subsequent Layers 804 260 155 095 Page 17 . Single Pass Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Or First Pass Of Multi-Layer Deposit 2 90° Direction Of Welding Arrows Show Lifting Up Of Electrode And Return To Crater. When 1/2 in (12 mm) Direction Of Welding 1 welding vertically.3-15.

3-16. This technique is not For maximum strength. Shows Weaving Motion. gravity may distort the molten metal. weld both sides of joint. . Direction Of Welding 90° First Weld Pass Shows Weaving Motion. When 90° welding vertically. Direction Of Welding OR Direction Of Welding 90° Direction Of Welding 90° Subsequent Weld Passes Shows Weaving Motion. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints Tee Joint Weld . suitable for all electrodes. 90° Lap Joint Weld 804 260 155 095 Page 18 . Arrows Show Lifting Up Of Electrode And Return To Crater.

(12 mm) Direction Of Welding 1/2 in (12 mm) 30° First Weld Pass Subsequent Weld Passes 804 260 155 095 Page 19 . use a welding motion that draws arc out and slightly away from the crater to allow weld puddle to solidify. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. gravity may distort the molten metal. When weaving is necessary. suitable for all electrodes. Direction Of Welding Draw arc out and away from crater to let weld puddle soldify.3-17. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints Groove (Butt) Joint Weld 2 . Welding Patterns Overhead Welding Technique 1 1/2 in (12 mm) 2 3 Sequence Of Multiple Weld Passes Tee Joint Weld 1/2 in. . When welding overhead. Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). use the pattern shown. When welding overhead. This technique is not 90° 90° Direction Of Welding 15° Electrode Position 1 1 2 Electrode Backing Strip Welding overhead is the most difficult welding skill to master.

(51-76 mm) 2 1 S-0057-B SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING 4-1. rust. Weld Test 1 2 3 Vise Weld Joint Hammer Strike the weld joint in the direction shown. coatings. Reduce arc length. (51-76 mm) If the weld breaks. Damp electrode. the arc may have been too long or the electrode was moved incorrectly which allowed molten slag to be trapped in the weld. moisture. Workpiece dirty. A good weld bends over but does not break. the arc length was probably too long. If the weld contains bits of slag.3-18. 1/4 in. If the weld is porous (many holes). Possible Causes Arc length too long.4 mm) 2 1 2 To 3 in. examine it to determine the cause. Use dry electrode. This may happen on a V-groove joint made in several layers and calls for additional cleaning between layers. and dirt from work surface before welding. 155 095 Page 20 . (6. paint. Corrective Actions Remove all grease. 3 3 2 To 3 in. Porosity Porosity − small cavities or holes resulting from gas pockets in weld metal. slag. oil. If the original beveled surface is visible the material was not fully melted which is often caused by insufficient heat or too fast a travel speed.

Corrective Actions Material too thick. slag. Increase amperage. too high. Arc length too long or voltage Reduce arc length or voltage. Momentarily hold arc on groove side walls when using weaving technique. oil. Corrective Actions Increase amperage. Joint preparation and design must provide access to bottom of groove. 4-3. Reduce travel speed. Possible Causes Insufficient heat input. and dirt from work surface before welding.4-2. moisture. Select larger electrode and increase amperage. Improper welding technique. rust. Select larger electrode and increase amperage. Place stringer bead in proper location(s) at joint during welding. Excessive Spatter Excessive Spatter − scattering of molten metal particles that cool to solid form near weld bead. paint. coatings. Improper weld technique. Remove all grease. Lack Of Penetration Lack Of Penetration − shallow fusion between weld metal and base metal. Insufficient heat input. Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle. Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle. Possible Causes Amperage too high for electrode. 4-4. Workpiece dirty. Incomplete Fusion Incomplete Fusion − failure of weld metal to fuse completely with base metal or a preceeding weld bead. 155 095 Page 21 . Lack of Penetration Good Penetration Possible Causes Improper joint preparation. Adjust work angle or widen groove to access bottom during welding. Corrective Actions Decrease amperage or select larger electrode.

Make tack welds along joint before starting welding operation. Corrective Actions Use restraint (clamp) to hold base metal in position. Excessive Penetration Excessive Penetration − weld metal melting through base metal and hanging underneath weld. 4-7. Base metal moves in the direction of the weld bead. Corrective Actions 4-8. Weld in small segments and allow cooling between welds. Predict anticipated weld distortion and precamber base metal. Excessive Penetration Good Penetration Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Possible Causes Unsteady hand. Corrective Actions Select lower amperage. Distortion Distortion − contraction of weld metal during welding that forces base metal to move. Waviness Of Bead Waviness Of Bead − weld metal that is not parallel and does not cover joint formed by base metal. Increase travel speed. Increase and/or maintain steady travel speed.4-5. Corrective Actions Select lower amperage. Practice technique. 4-6. Adjust travel speed. Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Use smaller electrode. Improper weld technique. Use two hands. Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Select lower amperage for electrode. 155 095 Page 22 . Burn-Through Burn-Through − weld metal melting completely through base metal resulting in holes where no metal remains. Use smaller electrode.

125 in.) 16 Gauge (.078 in.375 in.) 5/16 in.Notes MATERIAL THICKNESS REFERENCE CHART 24 Gauge (.) 1/8 in.) 18 Gauge (.313 in.) 22 Gauge (.) 1/4 in.5 in.) 1/2 in.025 in.) . (.037 in.) 3/16 in.) 3/8 in. (.25 in.188 in.) 20 Gauge (.063 in. (.050 in.031 in.) 14 Gauge (. (. (. (.

. Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual.Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely.

welding.org Over 80. Ohio 45373 1-800-332-9448 www.000 trained since 1930! .Notes Start Your Professional Welding Career Now! 400 Trade Square East. Troy.

Co. Always provide Model Name and Serial/Style Number. WI 54914 USA International Headquarters−USA USA Phone: 920-735-4505 Auto-Attended USA & Canada FAX: 920-735-4134 International FAX: 920-735-4125 For International Locations Visit www. Contact your Distributor for: Welding Supplies and Consumables Options and Accessories Personal Safety Equipment Service and Repair Replacement Parts Training (Schools. Model Name Purchase Date Distributor Address City State Zip Serial/Style Number (Date which equipment was delivered to original customer. ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS − PRINTED IN USA © 2010 Miller Electric Mfg. Videos.millerwelds. contact your distributor and/or equipment manufacturer’s Transportation Department. Books) Technical Manuals (Servicing Information and Parts) Circuit Diagrams Welding Process Handbooks To locate a Distributor or Service Agency visit www. 2010−01 . For assistance in filing or settling claims.Owner’s Record Please complete and retain with your personal records.com Contact the Delivering Carrier to: File a claim for loss or damage during shipment. An Illinois Tool Works Company 1635 West Spencer Street Appleton. Co.com or call 1-800-4-A-Miller Miller Electric Mfg.MillerWelds.) For Service Contact a DISTRIBUTOR or SERVICE AGENCY near you.

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