1. Our understanding of how strategy development in organizations can be enhanced through employing different strategy lenses.

Describe the design and experience lenses. Give examples to illustrate your understanding. Answer Strategic lenses provide four angles of strategy which can be viewed and implemented at corporate level. These strategic lenses help in approaching strategic problems from different perspectives. Looking at problems from different perspectives will raise new issues and provide new solutions. The four lenses of strategy are as follows: a) Strategy as a design ± this takes the view that strategy development can be a logical process in which the forces and constraints on the organisation are weighed carefully through analytic and evaluative techniques to establish a clear strategic direction. This creates conditions in which carefully planned strategic implementation should occur. Apple- feasibility , stakeholders, b) Strategy as experience ± here, the view is that future strategies of the organization are based heavily on the experience of managers and others in the organization based on their experience in previous strategies. c) Strategy as ideas ± the ideas lens lays emphasis on the importance of promoting diversity in and around organizations, which can potentially generate genuinely new ideas. Here, strategy is seen as not so much planned from the top as emergent from within and around organizations as people respond to an uncertain and changing environment with a variety of initiatives. Google (Innovation) IBM d) Strategy as discourse ± this lens sees strategy in terms of language. Managers spend most of their time communicating. Therefore, command of strategy language becomes a resource for managers by which to shape objective strategic analyses to their personal views and to gain influence, power and legitimacy. Approaching strategy as a discourse makes managers very attentive to the language in which they frame strategic problems, make strategy proposals, debate issues and then finally communicate strategic decisions. Infosys, General Electricals Strategic Design Lens A basic premise of the business is that companies have goals and customers have needs. Strategic choice can be made logically and objectively on the basis of linear, analytic, evaluative procedures driven by top managers or other managers working with them. This involves: a) Establishing clear objectives developed to reflect stakeholder expectations and use them as a basis for evaluating various options.

b) Making argued cases for explicit options on the basis of clear understanding of the strategic position of the strategic position of the organization arrived at analytically. c) Evaluating options by systematically examining their relative merits in terms of: a. Whether the strategic options significantly address the strategic issues of the organization. b. Whether it is feasible to implement the strategic option c. Whether the option is acceptable to stakeholders This approach is high on rationality and legitimacy, but low on innovation as the process is pre-defined. Apple: Strategic Experience Lens As per the strategic experience lens, the strategy develops incrementally on past strategy, past experience and the culture of the organization within a political context. Hence, strategic choices made are heavily influenced by past experience. Hence, such past experience may restrict innovation or constraint innovation as it may not be in line with the existing corporate culture. As this approach relies on past experience, managers have ready-made solutions on the basis of their experience and applying them to circumstances which match such strategic actions. The strategies that have been evolved have been done so on the basis of experimentation in the past, hence it is possible that strategies of successful organizations will be imitated by new competitors. This approach is high on legitimacy, but low on rationality and innovation. Eg: low cost airlines,airtel

2. Describe the four criteria for an organization¶s core competence. Explain how core competences can be identified and leveraged to develop strategies. Give example(s) to support your argument.

Key success factors in industry for survival- Support activities in a Value chain Critical success factors for competitive advantage ± on basis of primary activities, competitive advantage can be derived.

Resource based ± Competences Threshold- Minimum ± find out with help of key success factors Unique ± VRHN ± Critical success factors Core competences are the skills and abilities by which resources are deployed through an organization's activities and processes such as to achieve competitive advantage in ways that others cannot imitate or obtain. Core competencies are always a balance between the unique capabilities that we have already demonstrated and those we need to acquire to maintain or gain competitive advantage. Core competencies serve as a source of competitive advantages. But core competencies create competitive advantages on long-term. So, we can also look at Hanson¶s model that uses 4 criteria to identify long term competitive advantages: - Valuable- it refers to swot analysis because it allows using opportunities - Rare - Costly to imitate - Non-substitutable and/or disabling threats.

These 4 elements are equivalent to the previous points that describe core competencies. Core competencies don¶t only concern R&D and final products. It could also be a process, an Organization evolution, and human resources methods and so on. Core competency lead to competitive advantage when:    They relate to an activity that underpins the value in the product features They lead to levels of performance that are significantly better than competitors They are difficult for competitors to imitate

St t i it i y y y y R C t ilit i t t t : t i t i Threshol C ilities ilities for competiti e advantage Competitive advantage and strategic capabilities: Resources: This includes tangible and intangible resources of the company. Tangible resources are the physical assets of the company li e the labor. plant etc. Again. the resources can be classified in four categories: y y y y Physical resources.eg: cash Human resources.eg: patents Competences: Competency means the skills and abilities by which resources are deployed effectively through an organi ation¶s activities and resources. intangible includes the intellectual properties.eg: plant Financial resources. reputation etc.eg: people in the firm Intellectual capital. .

In different languages . firm infrastructure. and logistics. Capabilities for competitive advantage include: y y Unique resources Core competences Unique resources: This includes those resources that strengthen the competitive advantage and those that cannot be imitated by others. y Trade-offs may need to be made to achieve the threshold capability required for different sorts of customers. HD Services Core competences: Core competences includes the skills and capabilities by which resources are deployed through an organization¶s activities and processes. Packages by sun DTH Threshold Resources: Set up box.Threshold capabilities: These are those capabilities needed for an organization to meet the necessary requirements to compete in a given market. Understanding market and needs of people. to survive in the changing environment the firm has to address the challenges that it faces. Putting these concepts together. The further challenge is to achieve competitive advantage and this can be achieved by developing strategic capabilities that the competitors find difficult to obtain or imitate. Low cost. This could be attained through the unique resources that the firm has. Identifying and managing threshold capabilities raises at least two significant challenges: y Threshold levels of capability changes as critical success factors change or through the activities of competitors and new entrants. The strategic capabilities to face these challenges are dependent on the resources and the competencies a firm has. antenna. so as to achieve competitive advantage in ways that others cannot imitate and obtain.

Firm Infrastructure. Antenna. weekly meetings.  Behaviours ± these are the day to day in which an organization operates and can be seen by people both inside and outside the organization. Channels. Trying to identify a paradigm is difficult as these are assumed to exist within an organization. focus on process rather than outcomes and so on. to new recruits and so on. Antenna. which is a set of assumptions held in common and taken for granted within an organization. The insiders within the organization cannot view these taken for granted assumptions and hence. Strategic Alliance and Bundling of products 3. The various elements of cultural web include:  Paradigm ± these are the collective experiences applied to a particular situation to make sense of it and inform a particular course of action.Sun DTH: Resources ± Set Top Box. Channels. . (page ± 194 ± 203) The culture of an organization is often conceived as consisting of 4 layers:  Values ± which include statements about an organization¶s mission statement. It is also referred to as paradigm. Give example to support your argument. Firm Infrastructure. how the organization is structured and controlled and softer issues around symbolic behaviours  Taken for granted assumptions ± they are the core of an organization¶s culture. basic  Beliefs ± these are more specific. objectives or strategies. How many working days  Stories ± Stories told by members of the organization to each other. Logistics. Describe the concepts of organizational culture and the cultural web. An instance of routine may be long working hours because of the nature of work. not possible to understand culture fully. Logistics. Radio Stations Unique ± HD Set Top Box.like place for sitting The cultural web is a means of understanding the existing culture and its effects on the performance of the organization. Assumptions about company  Rituals and Routines ± They are the ways things are done on a day to day basis and which have been followed for a long period of time within the organization. a pattern can be understood by taking into consideration other aspects of the culture. Radio Stations Threshold ± Set Top Box. which people find difficult to explain. Explain how these concepts can influence the process of strategic management. Like. This includes the work routines.same for middle management & top management. in that they can be distinguished in how people talk about issues in the organization. They are the aspects of the organizational life. may act to implant organizational history and also flag up important events and personalities.

how cost-based advantages can be sustained? Give example to support your argument. maintain or create meaning over and above their functional purpose. Strategic strength is a supply-side dimension and looks at the strength or core competency of the firm. events and acts.  Control Systems ± Measurements and reward systems emphasize what is important to monitor within the organization. that convey. Cost Leadership Strategy Air Deccan. a performance management central system will help the managers in effectively appraising their employees by measuring standards with actual performance and so on. To succeed at offering the lowest price while still achieving profitability and a high return on investment. 4. or at least the lowest price to value ratio. Consider Porter¶s three generic strategies. The form of language used in an organization may also be particularly revealing. office layout. then it will be difficult for employees to address their grievances with the top management. the firm must be able to operate at a lower cost than its rivals. For instance a hierarchical structure will reveal that taking orders is mandatory within an organization.These three generic strategies are defined along two dimensions: strategic scope and strategic strength. cars and titles have a functional purpose but are also about maintaining status and hierarchy. In your opinion. Porters Generic Strategies . 1. Power distance is high  Organizational structure ± organizational structure is likely to reflect power and show important roles and relationships.This is a way of letting people know what is important in an organization. In particular he identified two competencies that he felt were most important: product differentiation and product cost (efficiency). There are three main ways to achieve this. If there is high power distance.  Power Structures ± the most powerful groupings within an organization are likely to be closely associated with core assumptions and beliefs. For example. Tata Nano This strategy involves the firm winning market share by appealing to cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. offices. For instance. Strategic scope is a demand-side dimension and looks at the size and composition of the market you intend to target. When go for interview can be get view about company  Symbols ± They are objects. This is achieved by having the lowest prices in the target market segment. .

or an airline that turns around flights very fast. technology. and limiting the number of models produced to ensure larger production runs. Overheads are kept low by paying low wages. locating premises in low rent areas. This specialty can be associated with design. i. or customers service. Maintaining this strategy requires a continuous search for cost reductions in all aspects of the business. This could be achieved by bulk buying to enjoy quantity discounts. The associated distribution strategy is to obtain the most extensive distribution possible. squeezing suppliers on price. or backward integration. establishing a cost-conscious culture. This will include outsourcing. Differentiation Strategy Can be in Product Differentiation & Differentiation is aimed at the broad market that involves the creation of a product or services that is perceived throughout its industry as unique. and create an entry barrier to potential competitors. this may mean for example a restaurant that turns tables around very quickly. Other procurement advantages could come from preferential access to raw materials. These approaches mean fixed costs are spread over a larger number of units of the product or service. using standard components. Wal-Mart is famous for squeezing its suppliers to ensure low prices for its goods. The second dimension is achieving low direct and indirect operating costs. offering basic no-frills products and limiting customization and personalization of service. Differentiation is a viable strategy for earning above average returns in a specific business because the resulting brand loyalty lowers customers' sensitivity to price. working with vendors to keep inventories low using methods such as Just-in-Time purchasing. etc. features. brand image. R&D and advertising. Dell Computer initially achieved market share by keeping inventories low and only building computers to order.e the firm hopes to take advantage of economies of scale and experience curve effects. network. dealers. instituting competitive bidding for contracts. Higher levels of output both require and result in high market share. controlling production costs. This is achieved by offering high volumes of standardized products. mass production becomes both a strategy and an end in itself. and minimizing other costs including distribution. Production costs are kept low by using fewer components. Promotional strategy often involves trying to make a virtue out of low cost product features. 2. it will involve production of high volumes of output. In service industries. In manufacturing. Increased . For industrial firms. who may be unable to achieve the scale necessary to match the firms low costs and prices. The company or business unit may then charge a premium for its product. increasing asset capacity utilization.The first approach is achieving a high asset turnover. resulting in a lower unit cost. The third dimension is control over the supply/procurement chain to ensure low costs.

The unlimited resources model utilizes a large base of resources that allows an organization to outlast competitors by practicing a differentiation strategy. Examples of the successful use of a differentiation strategy are Hero Honda. or innovative processes. Asian Paints. talented personnel (e.g.BMW This dimension is not a separate strategy per se. An organization with greater resources can manage risk and sustain losses more easily than one with fewer resources. or in a defined. The firm can choose to compete in the mass market (like Wal-Mart) with a broad scope. unique technical expertise (e.broad marketCan target niche narrow . Perstorp BioProducts. rather than dynamic. The advantage is static. A differentiation strategy is appropriate where the target customer segment is not price-sensitive. This deep-pocket strategy provides a short-term advantage only. customers have very specific needs which are possibly underserved. it will not sustain its competitive position is over time. the basis of competition will still be either cost leadership or differentiation. the market is competitive or saturated. If a firm lacks the capacity for continual innovation. Successful brand management also results in perceived uniqueness even when the physical product is the same as competitors. Variants on the Differentiation Strategy The shareholder value model holds that the timing of the use of specialized knowledge can create a differentiation advantage as long as the knowledge remains unique. . 3. Chiquita was able to brand bananas. and the firm has unique resources and capabilities which enable it to satisfy these needs in ways that are difficult to copy. Buyers loyalty can also serve as an entry barrier -new firms must develop their own distinctive competence to differentiate their products in some way in order to compete successfully. and MercedesBenz automobiles. In either case. HLL. This model suggests that customers buy products or services from an organization to have access to its unique knowledge. and Nike could brand sneakers. These could include patents or other Intellectual Property (IP). This way. a sports team's star players or a brokerage firm's star traders).g. Starbucks could brand coffee. focused market segment with a narrow scope. Apple's design skills or Pixar's animation prowess). Focus or Strategic Scope Can target mass market. but describes the scope over which the company should compete based on cost leadership or differentiation. Apple Computer.costs can usually be passed on to the buyers. Nike athletic shoes. because the purchase is a one-time event. Fashion brands rely heavily on this form of image differentiation.

rapid table turnover and employs staff on minimum wage. People element of the strategy has three related issues: . how human resources can enable the success of strategy? And how human resources should be managed to enable the strategic success for a business organization? (Page ± 475 ± 481) Knowledge and the experiences of the people in the organization are the two very crucial factors that can influence the success of the strategy because of this the people related issues should be the focal part for the managers of the organizations not only the HR manager. However. Examples of firm using a focus strategy include Southwest Airlines. The firm typically looks to gain a competitive advantage through product innovation or brand marketing rather than efficiency. How cost-based advantages can be sustained? Cost leadership strategies are only viable for large firms with the opportunity to enjoy economies of scale and large production volumes. 5. Small businesses can also be cost leaders if they enjoy any advantages conducive to low costs. a local restaurant in a low rent location can attract price-sensitive customers if it offers a limited menu. which targets poor urban American families who cannot drive to Wall-Marts in the suburbs because they do not own a car. A focused strategy should target market segments that are less vulnerable to substitutes or where a competition is weakest to earn above-average return on investment. These should be distinct groups with specialized needs. with provides short-haul point-topoint flights in contrast to the hub-and-spoke model of mainstream carriers. you can better meet the needs of that target market. The choice of offering low prices or differentiated products/services should depend on the needs of the selected segment and the resources and capabilities of the firm. It is hoped that by focusing your marketing efforts on one or two narrow market segments and tailoring your marketing mix to these specialized markets. Though the role of formal HR structures and systems is quite important in supporting the successful strategies but sometimes they might obstruct the strategy if they are not adapted to the types of strategies being pursued. People are at the heart of strategy.In adopting a narrow focus. the company ideally focuses on a few target markets (niche strategy). this takes a limited industrial view of strategy. In your opinion. It is most suitable for relatively small firms but can be used by any company. were able to achieve market share growth by offering cheap. and Family Dollar. Innovation of products or processes may also enable a startup or small company to offer a cheaper product or service where incumbents' costs and prices have become too high. An example is the success of low-cost budget airlines who despite having fewer planes than the major airlines. no-frills services at prices much cheaper than those of the larger incumbents. For example.

Google. II. HR activities can ensure that the strategies employed are successful in following ways: I. III.Soft Culture can be core competency. being realistic about the difficulty and the time scales in achieving the change in the culture because the process of changing the culture is a long process by itself and finally being able to change the management style with the magnitude of change and as well as with the organizational context. This hard side of HR management is concerned with the issues related to performance management. . It is important to link the HR strategies with the organizations strategy People ± hard and behaviour. And for the human resources it is particularly important that a climate is created wherein the people strive towards achieving success.1) People as resources 2) People and behaviour 3) Need to organize people People as resource Use full knowledge of employees Right person at right place It is important to note that the ownership of resources whether human resource or any other kind of resource does not ensures the strategic capability rather the strategic capability is concerned with the deployment. The softer changes may include the understanding of the way the idea or the paradigm of the organization needs to change in case of rapidly changing business environment. This is the soft side of HR which is concerned with the behaviour of the people both individually and collectively. management and the control of these resources. Recruitment and retention are the means of improving the strategic capability and also succession planning is also to be considered properly so as to ensure that sufficient numbers of talented people are there in the organization to meet the future leadership requirements. Audit to assess HR requirements to support strategies Goal setting and performance assessment of the individuals working in the organization. Infosys People in the organization influence strategy through their competence and their collective behaviour which forms the culture. understanding the relationship between the culture and the strategic choices as sometimes the culture of the organization can itself be the core competency.

There must be activities to ensure the maintenance of competitiveness like objective setting and performance appraisal.Need to organizing people An organization can ensure the successful business strategies with the help of HR functions. III. For example leadership. Driver conferenceStructures and processes Strategic success may be hampered if the traditional structures and roles do not match with the future strategies. The above mentioned points should be linked so as to ensure that the long term goals do not get overshadowed by the short term goals. For example using the short term success incentives like bonuses may compromise the ability to take strategic interventions such as creating new roles and responsibilities. . As a change agent As an advisor on issues of the HR strategy to the line managers. II. As a regulator setting the rules within which the line managers operate. Furthermore the structures and processes have to be changed with the changing circumstances. II. It is crucial to recognise the crucial influence of middle managers on the day to day performance and behaviour of people in the organization. competencies and culture. This implies that it is necessary for the top managers to include the line managers in the strategy development process otherwise the strategy may not be successfully stick with the people in the organization. Line managers and through its own structures and processes. Another challenge is that whether the HR issues should be kept within the organization or should be out sourced to the external consultants. For the HR function to contribute towards the successful strategy it is imperative that the HR managers are clear about the strategy of the organization and once that is done the HR functions can help in achieving the strategic success in following ways: I. The advantage of outsourcing is that wide expertise is available but the disadvantage is that the external consultant may not be familiar with the circumstances of the organization. The various points about the relationships between the business strategies and people can be summarised as: I. III. There must be activities to provide a platform on which new strategies can be built in long term. IV. As a service provider by recruiting and arranging training sessions.

Incrementalism in the study of rationality it can be seen as a stealthy way to bring about radical changes that were not initially wanted. Rather. y Generalised views of strategy: Managers have a generalised rather than specific view of where they want the organization to be in the future and try to move towards this position incrementally. hence. OR Logical Incrementalism is a philosophy of achieving broad organizational goals by making strategic decisions in small steps. Logical incrementalism is widely used by organizations to develop its strategy. they try to be sensitive to environmental signals by encouraging constant environmental scanning through the organization. The small steps to resolve conflicting views of participants and reduce risk by capitalizing on knowledge that is gained during the process. Explain the term ³logical incrementalism´ and describe the major steps (or characteristics) involved when it is used for strategy development.The organizations that are able to manage these processes are most likely to gain competitive advantage whereas others face the risk of failure because the HR strategies are not in line with the organizational strategies or the people competencies and culture are out of line either with the HR or the organizational strategies or because of the fact that business strategies fail to build on the organizational capabilities. Commitment to strategic options may therefore be tentative to the early stages of strategy development. Such experiments are not the sole responsibility of top management. but flexible core business. It can be also said that it is a situation where the management of a firm has little information about its external environment that is in a state of flux and. largely unpredictably. but is likely to be time-consuming and inefficient. Give an example to illustrate your understanding. Logical Incrementalism benefits from flexibility. 6. Logical Incrementalism is the development of strategy by experimentation and µlearning from partial commitments rather than through global formulations of total strategies¶. They will then build on the experience gained in that business to inform decisions both about its development and experimentation with µside-bet¶ bet ventures. Objectives may therefore be general in nature. . There is also a reluctance to specify precise objectives too early as this migh stifle ideas and t prevent innovation and experimentation. y Experimentation: Managers may seek to develop strong secure. 4 Characteristics of Logical Incrementalism y Environmental uncertainty: The Managers realise that they cannot do away with the uncertainty of their environment by relying on analysis of historical data or predicting how it will change.

because that was part of building better test and measurement organizations. Because of this ³short-term scepticism.´ whenever the company stumbled across an obstacle.y Coordinating emergent strategies: Top managers may then utilise a mix of formal and informal social and political process to draw together an emerging pattern of strategies from these subsystems. A core technology in test and measurement lead them to improve things for the customer that led them to begin to develop computer capabilities. And then they began to apply those same ideas in other ways into the computer business. it could quickly turn the obstacle into an opportunity. IKEA¶s founder. IKEA¶s approach is incredibly refreshing. which was an offshoot of that whole approach. Ingvar Kamprad. IKEA¶s strategy gradually took shape as Kamprad both proactively took action and reactively adapted to the situation as it extended. Even the decision to sell furniture was an adaptation to the market. IKEA using Logical Incrementalism IKEA has been using logical incrementalism since its very first store opened for business. Pros and Cons of Logical Incrementalism The advantages of incrementalism over other formal systems is that no time is wasted planning for outcomes which may not occur. From that. 7. HP using Logical Incrementalism Hewlett Packard is another company which follows Logical Incrementalism. not a deliberate strategy. Disadvantages are that time may be wasted dealing with the immediate problems and no overall strategy is developed. (Page 357 ± 365) Strategic Alliances: . Compare and contrast the motives of these two development methods. information processing capabilities. Its strategy stated that business could succeed without predicting the future and wasting time writing strategy roadmaps that are obsolete. Discuss factors that can influence the success of strategic alliances/acquisition. had a strong but very general vision. the server business and the printing business. Strategic alliance and acquisitions are two different methods of strategic development. These may then be formed into coherent statements of strategy for stakeholders that need to understand the organisation¶s strategy.

when they operate together. they will learn technical knowledge from each other. This is mainly undertaken to support one another in terms of: y y y y Material skills Innovation Finance Access to different markets. (social capitals). . Motives: y Take advantage of partner¶s local market knowledge and working relationships with key government officials in host country. they can use the same machine or equipment to produce products and use the same marketing channel for both products. y Fill gaps in technical expertise or knowledge of local market. It is very important to get working relationship with local government officials.The company goes for strategic alliances in order to reach its goals in more efficient way. where they can share their resources to be more competent in producing a product and engage in business activities for mutual economic gain. y Capture economies of scale in production and/or marketing.

the IBM-Groupe Bull alliance was approved by the French government.y Share distribution facilities and dealer networks. For example. y y Direct combined competitive energies toward defeating mutual rivals Can reduce the cost and more efficient to penetrate the market by doing the followings 1) Joint research efforts 2) Technology-sharing 3) Joint use of production and distribution facilities 4) Marketing/promoting one another¶s products. The differences in pay for individuals in the same position may lead to an . and operating procedures [15]. Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices Staffing and selection of key personnel for the alliance. Alliances that have the support of governments in such environments may actually perform better because access may be opened to resources that are otherwise highly controlled and centralized. criticality of events. maintaining continuity of key personnel. In countries where economic nationalism is high. performance appraisal. and reward and compensation systems have been recognized as important HRM issues for strategic alliances. An alliance between IBM and Motorola was almost dissolv because of ed disagreements on security inspection procedures. Organizational Issues Organizations may not have shared mental maps on business assumptions. they can use the same agent or retailers to reduce the logistic cost and penetrate the market more easily. alliances often have to be approved at the governmental level. so the direction of the alliance may be rather fuzzy. Government policies: Governmental policies may create structural impediments or facilitate the operation of cooperative arrangements. CRITICAL FACTORS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES Partner Congruity Difficulties may arise because partners are not in complete agreement about the purpose of an alliance and the process by which its goals can be achieved. It is also possible that the short and long-term objectives of partners are misunderstood. they can use the put-together technical and financial resources to attack the rivals.

Formed through combination of unrelated business. Here in case of both managers of one organization exert strategic influence over other. Eg. Acquisition can be  Horizontal.Takes place between firms in same line of business.  Vertical -A merger between two companies producing different goods or services for one specific finished product.  Plugging a gap in the market . It helps them to expand marketing and distribution channels.problem.  Improved market reach and Industry visibility ± Company buys companies in order to have a access over the new markets and increase its revenue and earnings through reaching more markets. It may be the case that a firm has a seasonal sales trend.A car manufacturer purchasing a tire company.  Accessing technology or skills A firm may be targeted for acquisition because it has specific skills within its staff or has a particular technology that would be useful to another business.  Taxes ± In order to have tax advantage benefit the giant company may acquire small so that tax can be set off against the losses of the acquiring company. Buying a business that has its predominant sales in a different season of the year will also be an example of how the firm's product portfolio might be enhanced through a merger and acquisition.  Conglomerate.Business may feel that its product portfolio is not sufficient to cater for different customer needs in its market. Mergers and Acquisitions: An Acquisition is where organization takes ownership of another organization and Merger Implies Mutually agreed decisions for joint ownership between organizations. A recent alliance between HP and a computer firm in India almost got derailed due to compensation-related issues. Acquiring another firm that is already in that market enables it to plug that gap. Motives  Economies of Scale ±This generally refers to a method in which average cost per unit is decreased through increased production since fixed cost is shared over an increased number of goods.  Increased market share/ Increase revenue ± This motives assumes that the company will be absorbing the major competitor and thus increase its power (by capturing increased market share) to set prices. The example of Fuller's and Gales is an excellent example of this. giving them new sales opportunities. Businesses that are relatively .

In this style. Strategic planning: It refers to the particular style of relationship between the centre and business units. Discuss these three ways and contrast them. and strategic planning are three ways of dividing responsibilities between corporate centre and its business units.  Inadequate capital  Lack of brand Images  To survive in the market  To expand market share  To achieve economies of scale. appraising performance and dominant to avoid or correct poor performance. Financial control: It is the most extreme form of decentralization. the role of the centre is limited to setting financial targets. whose roe is basically limited to the operational delivery of the plan. allocating resources. The relationship between the centre and the business units is one of a parent who behaves as a strategic shaper. financial control. The responsibilities for strategic decision making between business units and corporate centre are divided in the following three ways. the dominant processes are performance targets and business unit managers are held strictly responsible for meeting these targets. These involvements would usually be replacing business unit managers rather than dictating changes in strategies. dissolving the organisation into highly independent business units.new and might have hit upon a new idea or who have developed specific skills in a certain area might be ripe targets for acquisition.  Value Maximization. Contrast . Therefore. Strategic control: This style is mostly operates in the organisations. influencing the behaviour in business units and forming the context within which manages are operating. coordinates and controls all of business unit activities through the extensive use of the formal planning and control system. Strategic control. The centre is the master planner recommending detailed roles for departments and business units. Critical factors drive for mergers and Acquisitions. The centre orchestrates. 8. The centre also directly manages the infrastructure and provides many corporate services. This is the most centralised form in among all the three styles. It lies between the two extremes of the strategic planning and financial control styles.

y Strategic planning is more suitable where business unit strategies are of a size or sensitivity that can have major implication for the whole corporate whereas financial control is only a short time lag between management decisions and the financial consequences. 9. the business units are focussed on meeting tough short term target set by a centre that does not have the resources or the competences to manage the knowledge creations and integration process.such as customers (in general). . Similarly Strategic control is more suitable where the centre has little knowledge about business unit strategies and operations. For exampleContractual stakeholders. In strategic control the biggest risk would be the centre which tries to shape strategies without being clear about the corporate logic or having the competences essentially to add value in these ways.´ It is concerned with the ways in which an organization exceeds its minimum obligation to its stakeholders specified through regulation. suppliers or employees. the European Commission presented CSR as: ³a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. It is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated in the business model of the company which is used as the framework for measuring an organization¶s performance against economic. Community stakeholders-such as local communities. CSR-focused businesses would proactively promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development. consumers (in general) and pressure groups that do not have protection for the law Different organizations take different stances on social responsibility. y In strategic planning. Furthermore.have legal relationship with an organization. However the legal regulatory frameworks under which business operate pay uneven attention to the rights of different stakeholders. Similarly strategic control is built through the processes of supportive strategies with business units but within central boundaries and guidelines.y Strategic planning is more appropriate where corporate managers have a detailed working knowledge of each business units whereas financial control is more appropriate to organisations operating in stable markets with mature technologies. Explain the rationale under each stance and the leadership and stakeholder relationship required for each of these four stances. Describe the concept of corporate social responsibility and four possible corporate stances on social responsibility. Corporate social responsibility (CSR). social and environmental parameters. These different stances will also be reflected I how they manage their responsibilities. there are bureaucratic costs of centralisation and de-motivating effects on business unit manager who may feel little commitment to strategies handed down from the centres but in financial control.

In Flower Valley they set up an Early Learning Centre to help educate the community's children as well as develop new skills for the adults.  Leadership: leadership under this stance is peripheral. Profit. They mainly focus towards maximization of profit because in they not only serve the society but also help in the economic development of the country. Below are the examples of some organizations which are following CSR: y Shell Foundation's involvement in the Flower Valley. Stances of Corporate Social Responsibilities: y The Laissez-faire view:  Rationale: It represents an extreme stance where organizations take the view that the only responsibility of the business is short term interest of shareholders and to make profit. of course that this may not be how society expects organization to act.  Stakeholder Relationship: relationships with stakeholders are likely to be largely unilateral. regardless of legality.  Leadership: leadership in this case is supportive because an organization¶s reputation is important to its long term financials success and there is a business case to be made more proactive stance on social issues in order to recruit or retain staff. pay taxes and provide jobs. The danger here is.and voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere. Insofar as social good is persuade. and the honoring of a triple bottom line: People. The majority of these CSR projects are established in Africa.guaranteeing regular fair trade purchases. Often activities companies participate in are establishing education facilities for adults and HIV/AIDS education programmes. South Africa. This stance is taken by the executives who are persuaded of it ideologically or by smaller businesses that do not have resources other than minimally comply with the regulations. y Marks and Spencer is also active in this community through the building of a trade network with the community . The justification for social action is that it makes good business sense. JIDF For You is an attempt to promote these activities in India. y Enlightened self-interest:  Rationale: It is tempered with the recognition of the long term benefit to the shareholders of well managed relationship with other stakeholders. Planet. Essentially. And one way rather than interactive. . CSR is the deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision-making. this is justified in terms of improving profitability.

as in the case of body shop.  Stakeholder relationship: in this stance organization have multi-organization alliances. y Forum for stakeholders interactions:  Rationale: it explicitly incorporates multiple stakeholders¶ interests and expectations rather than just shareholders as influences on organizational purpose and strategy. y Shapers of Society:  Rationale: regard financial considerations as of secondary importance or a constraint.  Leadership: the leadership in this stance is visionary. It emphasize that the performance of organization should be measured in pluralistic way rather than just through financial bottom line. perspectives. When a firm sustains profits that exceed the average for its industry. There are two basic types of competitive advantage: Compare and contrast these two . The goal of business strategy is to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore the leadership in this stance is champion. 10. It is fundamental to their existence that organizations have zeal to improve the interest of the society but they also need to remain financially viable which can lead to them being seen as over -commercial and spending too much on administration or promotional activities.  Leadership: companies in this category might retain uneconomic units to preserve jobs. The competitive (positioning) and competence (resource-based) views are two dominant theoretical perspectives in strategic management. The firm may have been founded for this purpose. Give examples to support your arguments. Stakeholder relationship: managers here would take the view that organizations not only have responsibility to their shareholders but also a responsibility or relationship with stakeholders likely to be more interactive. seeking to change society and social norms. These are activists.  Stakeholder relationship: organization in this category inevitably take longer over the development of new strategies as they are committed to wide consultation with stakeholders and with managing the difficult political trade-offs between conflicting stakeholder¶s expectation. the firm is said to possess a competitive advantage over its rivals. avoid manufacturing or selling µanti-social¶ products and prepared to bear reductions in the profitability for social good. They may see their strategic purpose as ³changing rules of the game´ through which they may benefit but by which they wish to assure that society benefit.

Capabilities are not documented. Rare. an organisation can position itself in the market on the basis of cost or differentiation strategy. Further. the ability of the organisation is to bring a product to the market faster than the competitors. In absence of any one of them the competitors can replicate and any prevailing advantage would disappear. Strategy of an enterprise is defined by answers of two questions: a) Where does the firm compete (Domain selection) b) How does it compete (Domain navigation) Explain this statement from perspective of corporate level and business level strategy with examples? Answer: . This is due to the fact that a competitive positioning of an organisation is completely dependent on the resource based competence possessed by the firm. where the product is differentiated by a competitors product on certain features which are not easily replicable. Hard to Imitate and Non Substitutable. whereas capabilities are the firms ability to utilize the available resources in an effective manner. Differentiation advantage A resource based view emphasizes that a firm utilizes its resources and capabilities to create a competitive advantage that ultimately results in superior value creation. A cost advantage can be created by the effective use of available resources in order to reduce the cost of the product so as to compete in the market with the products of the competitors on the basis of low cost. indeed they are embedded in the routine process of the organisation which makes it difficult for the competitors to replicate. Cost advantage 2. the competitive edge can also be achieved by differentiation strategy.g. 11. A firm is said to be in a competitive position when it implements a value creating strategy which is simultaneously not being implemented by its competitors and also is Valuable. A competitive edge or a competence cannot add value to an organisation alone.1. The competitive advantage usually is a fall out of the resource based competencies held by the organisation. E. Whereas. Resources can be described as the firm¶s specific assets which are useful for creating a cost or differentiation advantage which only few competitors can acquire. In order to develop distinctive capabilities a firm should have both resources and capabilities.

Frequently. This is under diversification. Strategy should be according to mission statement and it has to according to fulfilment of mission of organization.1) Domain Selection: a) Mission: Mission statement aims to provide employees and stakeholders with clarity about overall purpose. was For diversifications are: first a) Related diversification means example. Example Market Development Diversification If a company is going with existing If a company choose to go with new product in new market. This means McDonald's is always within the fastincreasing promoting our the revenue by food industry. Lucozade . other promotions. Two types of for existing customers. it will come called market development. this option product in new market. but frequently markets product. Existing Existing Products New New Market Penetration Existing Product Development An organization can choose market An organization will come under penetration if it wants to go with its product development segment if it will existing products in existing choose to go with new product in market. and so on. Market penetration is the least risky way for a company to grow. new burgers. b) Deliberate Chosen Direction I would like to explain different directions that can an organization choose through Ansoff Matrix. For example. Vision: to set out a view for future Objectives: a quantified term which explain how an organization will achieve its vision. Hence.customers for these products. market. when a firm repositioning the brand. This can be done due to existing Markets achieve market share. users of your product or convincing new product development can be a New current clients to use more of your crucial business development strategy product/service. it can gain new Other ways include attracting non. with advertising or for firms to stay competitive. creates new products.

This resulted in the company entering new markets where it had no presence before. Megastores. For example. While preparing this strategy organization has to keep in mind that it will not affect even its single SBU. Corporate Level Strategy: It is strategy which will be made according to whole organization. y Competitive Contact ± defining where in your corporation competition is to be localized. the food industry). For example a soup manufacturer invests in the rail business. Again. . It also concerned with shareholders and can affect stock market of that company. Virgin Virgin Cola. This is a good example of developing a new market for an existing product. For instance Yahoo can sell its SBU Yahoo Music if it wants. and goals of the corporation. and the way in which businesses will be integrated and managed. the market need not be new in itself. that we remain in a market or industry with which we are familiar. the point is that the market is new to the company. diversity of products/services or business units. mission. Virgin Telecommunications are examples of new products created by the Virgin Group of UK. to leverage the Virgin brand. So on basis of whole organization which strategy will be made that will be corporate level strategy. Virgin Airlines. a soup manufacturer diversifies into cake manufacture (i. Corporate level strategy is concerned with: y Reach ± Defining the issues that are corporate responsibilities. the type of business your corporation should be involved. These might include identifying the overall vision.marketed for sick children and then rebranded to target athletes. b) Unrelated where we diversification have is neither Example: previous industry nor market experience.e. This strategy could include geographical expansion.

SBU¶ business level strategy should not affect the other SBU¶s of same organization and corporate level strategy should be according to SBU¶s. How SBU¶s can provide best services is a decision under business level strategy. y Management Practices ± corporations decide how business units are to be governed: through direct corporate intervention (centralization) or through autonomous government (decentralization). To survive in this environment the firm needs to create greater value for the customers at a higher cost or create reasonable value at a lower cost. This is called competitive strategy also. and using business units to complement other corporate business activities.y Managing Activities and Business Interrelationships ± corporate strategy seeks to develop synergies by sharing and coordinating staff and other resources across business units. investing financial resources across business units. SBU will make strategy according to its internal and external environment. Domain Navigation: BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGY: This strategy is made by SBU¶s of an organization for themselves individually. Porter generic strategies OR 1) RED OCEAN STRATEGY In red ocean strategy a firm compete in existing market space with the exiting competitors and focus on the existing customers and the firm is catering to the same demand and does not create new demand. y y y y y Compete in existing market space Beat the competition Focus on existing customers Exploit existing demand Make the value-cost trade off Align the whole system of a firm¶s activities with its strategic choice of differentiation or low cost Tata Doccomo 2) BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY .

B si ess level Strategy:     . Sun DTH. This is to create and develop new demand for its products and services. It is putting itself different from competitors by giving quality and with low prices. where there is no competitor. It is working on strategy of combination of differential products at fewer prices.In blue ocean strategy a firm compete in new market by offering a product/service that is uni ue in market. In this strategy it is providing quality products at fewer prices. y y y y y Create uncontested market space Make the competition irrelevant Focus on non-customers Create and capture new demand Break the value-cost trade off (Seek greater value to customers and low cost simultaneously) Align the whole system of a firm¶s activities in pursuit of differentiation and low cost. Like CD¶s. Air Deccan Example: Mose B e corporate level Strate y ¡ ¢ Moser Baer bus ess Level strate y for photovoltaic ¢ ¤£ Corporate Level strategy: Moser Baer is working on strategy of hybrid for corporate level. Airtel. DVD¶s. thus making competition irrelevant.

who are intervention managers. So this is business level strategy to centre on quality. Due to its quality it has got a contract from BSNL worth Rs. as he may need to rely on others to take a lead in affecting changes to strategy. 111.It is working on differentiation strategy for its SBU Moser Baer Photovoltaic. While it increases responsibility amongst the employees. Furthermore. given the strategic objectives of the organization.9 millions on 23-2 2010. Leadership is the process of influencing the organization and it is not necessary that top management are the leaders in an organization. The creator of the strategy may not be the change agent.  Intervention ± It involves the change manager retaining the authority of change while delegating the elements of change to different teams.´ A change agent is the individual or the group that helps affect strategic change in the organization. while delegation of work will ensure speedy process of implementation. are a part of the organization and will warrant higher level of commitment from them. It is working for quality and for increasing efficiency. group briefings are conducted to provide detailed information on the strategic objectives of the organization. . Under this process. These teams are not responsible for the overall change. it is a time consuming process. there are chances of manipulation taking place. While it does provide clarity. It is providing quality products to its customers. The direction is provided to the subordinates with regards to achievement of their objectives. The different styles of management are as follows:  Education ± It involves the explanation of the reasons for and means of strategic change.  Collaboration /participative± It is the involvement of those who will be affected by the strategic change in the organization. Explain the following statement: ³The styles of management in managing change need to match to the scale of change and the organisational context. it is a time consuming process. However. This type of change management is usually adopted when there is a clear lack of misunderstanding or lack of communication of the objectives amongst the subordinates. The people. These people affected will be invited to form focus groups and ask to provide solutions to the extent of avoiding negative effects of such change. The top management has a clear vision or strategic intent and may also be accompanied by similar clarity about critical success factors and priorities. the leadership style will affect the outcome.  Direction ± it involves the use of personal managerial authority to establish a clear strategy and how change will occur. 12. but they are responsible to the extent of their role in the change process.

Related diversification -when a business expands or adds its existing product lines or markets. Diversification can be segmented into related diversification and unrelated diversification. layoffs and terminations. Can more than one rationale co-exist in a particular corporation? Why? Diversification is a strategy that takes the organizations into the new markets. products or services it offers. a directive power may be common but in a flatter organization. which include:  Different stages of the organization growth ± Here. in the introduction stage. For instance. . However numbers of related acquisitions fail to provide the benefits or the returns that are originally predicted. Eg ± Air India and Indian Airlines Merger.  Power ± In organizations with hierarchical power structures. This is an explicit use of power and may be necessary if the organization is facing a crisis. integration of the two cultures. The reason for this is that the diversification analysis underestimates the cost of some of the softer issues like the change management. On the other hand the diversification analysis might over estimates the benefits to be gained in synergies. handling of the employees. direction style is more appropriate style of change management because there is a requirement for transformational change. An example to this would be a phone company which adds or expands its wireless products and services by purchasing another wireless company is engaging is called as related diversification. direction style or education style is followed. promotions and even recruitment. collaboration and education styles of change management are more desirable. Explain the three corporate rationales and discuss their logic. The main need of a diversification analysis is to demonstrate that the business will be able to achieve a return on the investment that more than compensates for the risk. The advantage of going in for a related diversification is that the understanding of the business and knowing the industry opportunities and the threats. The management style adopted depends on a number of factors. strategic requirements and organisational requirements. 13. the management style will vary according to the stage of growth in the organization. Coercion ± It is the imposition of change or the issuing of edicts about change. A business owner needs to consider efficient diversification strategies to build competitive advantage in order to achieve economies of scale and to take advantage of the financial opportunities that align with the business s strategic plan.  Time and Scope ± under the incremental stage.

and maps. For example the same company can go into the business of television business. In improving productivity and/or workflow. By addressing safety and/or environmental issues and more. Horizontal integration is the development into activities which are complementary or adjacent to the present activities. For example the internet search company Google has spread horizontally into news. In labor saving costs. It is important to recognise the capabilities and value links are distinct. but consider these opportunities in the context of integrating benefits into a much stronger overall unique value proposition. Does adding the new products or services provide you with a leveraged opportunity? . For example the acquisitions by the car manufacture of component suppliers would be related diversification through backward integration. A link though a value network does not necessarily imply the existence of capabilities. This is unrelated diversification since there is no direct fit with the existing business. Forward integration refers to development into activities which are concerned with a company¶s output. The companies go in for an unrelated diversification as there can be cost efficiencies.Vertical integration is describing either backward or forward integration into adjacent activities in the value network. images. In diversifying by adding new products and services and/or new markets. repair and servicing. For example car manufacturer acquire distribution. Backward integration refers to development into activities concerned with inputs into company¶s current business. The main driver for this type of acquisition decisions is profit which needs to be a low risk investment with a high potential of returns. Unrelated Diversification When a business adds new or unrelated product lines or markets it is called as unrelated diversification. Efficient Diversification: Ensure that you review the costs and benefits of investment In new equipment. Does your capital investment plan leverage diversification? Assess the Opportunity for a Good Return: New markets and new products or services are usually good diversification opportunities. In serving existing customers better and more profitably. Another reason can be that it can provide an offsetting cash flow during a seasonal full.

if you are a commercial printer and you add basic graphic design services and packaging services to your product line. set up reporting (even if it's a manual process). Why? Because your print services can be combined with graphic design services upstream (same end client) and be combined with packaging services downstream (same end client and/or same destination). Diversification is usually undertaken by large corporations in order to spread the risk through a portfolio in order to preserve the image of the growth of the company. . Ensure that you build those business measures.For example.this tells us that diversification is good but to a certain extent. You will have saved your client time and money by enabling the client to 'shop' in one-stop (providing you can excel at delivering those services). make sure that you develop business performance measures to track the costs and the benefits expected? You need to ensure that the advantages of diversification and the expected benefits from investment are met as you planned. Understanding the advanta ges and disadvantages of unrelated or related diversification strategies is important to the growth of your business Diversification and performance Today many corporations have been diversified where it acts in the managements self interest in order to gain advantage than the undiversified companies. you will have a leveraged diversification opportunit` y. If you are prepared (and able) to invest in your business during either good or challenging times. The diversification tends to follow an inverted (upside down) U shape . and make sure that someone is accountable for the planned results.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful