CIVILIZATIA la Limba Engleza | Undergraduate Education | Bachelor's Degree

In acest capital sunt redate 40 de teme privind civilizatia spatiului cultural al limbii engleze.


1. United Kingdom
The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of northwestern Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland - the home of the deer and the eagle. The Pennine Range in northern England and the Cambrian Mountains in Wales are much lower. In the extreme south of England are the famous chalk hills, some of which form the Dover Cliffs. The southern and south-eastern parts of the island lie in varied lowlands. The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways. The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain's principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, and Glasgow. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.

2. London-capital of Great Britain
The capital of Great Britain is London. It's political, economic and commercial center of the country. Its population is about 8 million. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business center. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the city to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them in St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. Another important monument of London is The Tower of London which was used for many purposes: as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison and it is now a museum. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation. Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London. Westminster Abbey is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower, which contains the hour-bell called Big Ben, is known the world over. Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Trafalgar Square is the geographical center of London. On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - the biggest museum in London. The West End is the richest and the most beautiful part of London. Only reach people live there. But in the same time The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. This is the place of living of the working class. . 51 So after all we can say that the UK is one of the most powerful countries with great culture and it would be very exiting to visit it.

sports. There are certain kinds of behavior, manners and customs which are peculiar to England. Britain is a nation of animal lovers. In Britain pets can send Christmas cards to their friends, birthday cards. Every Englishmen spends his weekend different: those who live in cities and towns like to go out of town. They may go to stay in the country to admire the bright sun and fresh air where no crowds of people, just silence and leisure are. There are some traditions concerning food. English cooking is heavy, substantial and plain. The Englishman likes a good breakfast. To him a good breakfast means porridge with, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee. Tea is part of the prose of British life, as necessary as potatoes and bread. Seven cups of it wake you up in the morning; 9 cups will put you to sleep at night. The English have a popular specialty known as fish and chips. They are bought at special fish and chips shops.


New Year's Day in UK

3. Climate and Nature of Great Britain

The climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather." The weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favorite topic of conversation in Britain. Rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. In the mountains there is heavier rainfall then in the plains of the south and east. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 1 5 to 23 degrees above zero. During a normal summer the temperature sometimes rises above 30 degrees in the south. Winter temperatures below 1 0 degrees are rare. It seldom snows heavily in winter, the frost is rare. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes. Droughts are rare. So, we may say that the British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly. In winter the cold is humid cold, not the dry one. This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring.

The celebration of New Year's Day varies according to the district. In the south of England, the festival of Christmas, lasting 12 days from December 25th, runs on well into the New Year. The decorations of colored streamers and holly, put up round the walls, and of course the fir-tree, with its candles or lights, are not packed away until January 5th. On the evening of December 31st, people gather in one another's homes, in clubs, in pubs, in restaurants, and hotels, in dance halls and institutes, to "see the New Year in". On New Year's Day all English schoolchildren make New Year resolutions. They make up lists of shortcomings which they intend to correct. The children, their mothers and fathers, and their friends laugh and have a good time when they read them. The children promise to keep them. In the north, and in Scotland, particularly, the Year known as Hogmanay is very well kept up. The ceremonies are similar, but they have an added called "first foot". This means opening your door to anyone who knocks it after midnight, and who will then enter the house, carrying a piece of coal-or wood, or bread. The visitor is entertained with cakes and ale. Considerable quantities of good Scotch whiskey are consumed during these celebrations

6. Places of interest

There are a lot of places of interest in London. They are all worth seeing. On the north side of Trafalgar Square stands one of the world's greatest art galleries. The National Gallery represents all schools of Western painting from the Italian Primitives to the early 20th century. Portraits by Reynolds and Gainsborough can be seen here. Since the time of William the Conqueror the Tower of London has served as a fortress, a royal residence, treasury, mint and prison. Here many people were imprisoned and beheaded. Now it's a museum. St. Paul's Cathedral is the largest and the most magnificent church of the city. The High Altar forms a memorial to those who died in the two World Wars. The Victoria and Albert Museum represents the finest examples of the applied and decorative arts of all kinds. It has collections of furniture, jewellery, costumes, musical instruments and metalwork. The Barbican centre was opened by the Queen in 1982. It includes a concert hall, the home of the London Symphony Orchestra, two theatres, three cinemas and an art gallery. Piccadilly Circus is one of London's busiest roadjunctions. It's always full of cars, people as there are many theatres, shops and restaurants there. The statue of Eros is in the middle of Piccadilly. One of the beautiful things in London is Madame Tussaud's museum. It represents wax figures of the famous and infamous people of the past and present. The Chamber of Horrors is of particular interest and also Company and the Royal Ballet.


Customs and traditions in UK


Press in Britain

Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people. They are steady, easy-going and fond of

Probably in no other country are there such great differences the various national daily newspapers- in the type of news they report and the way they report it.

On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, the Financial times and the Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of political and business and with the arts and sport. On the one hand, there are the "populars" and "tabloids", so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids- the most widely read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, The Sun and the Daily Star- concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain it's rather than inform them. In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are nine national papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "color supplements"- separate color magazines which contain photographically-illustrated feature articles. The British are one of the biggest newspapers-reading nations in the world.

and manuscripts: Greek, Roman, British and Oriental antiques. It has a department of Ethnography. This collection is so vast that only a very small percentage of it is on show to the public. There's also a department of prints and drawings. There're departments devoted to maps, coins, medals and philately. Those who come to the British museum can see a fascinating array of clocks and watches. Cultural life of London would be impossible without the Royal Albert hall, the Royal Festival hall, the National theatre and a great number of museums: the Victoria and Albert museum, the Geological Museum, the Museum of Mankind, Natural history museum and others.

9. The houses of Parliament


Museums and Art Galleries of London

London is very rich in museums and art galleries. If you are fond of painting you'll go to the Tate Gallery. There are about 300 oils and 19000 watercolors and drawings. There are many works by the English painter William Turner there. There are a lot of paintings by the 16-th century English artists and paintings by foreign artists of the 19-20-th centuries, such as Pablo Picasso's paintings. There are many interesting sculptures there of Henry Moor's The British Museum is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. It comprises the national museum of archaeology and ethnography and the national library. The present building was built in 1852. It contains books

10. Political system of United Kingdom

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. It means that there is a Queen (or King) and the Parliament. The Queen has almost no power in the country. Her powers are limited by the Parliament. Laws are made by the Parliament. The Queen is only a formal ruler: she reigns but does not rule. In fact everything that she does is done on the active of her ministers, who are responsible for the royal acts. Thus, most of her functions are symbolic. The Queen's residence in London is Buckingham Palace. The British Parliament consists of two cambers: the House if Lords and the House of Commons. There are more than 1000 members in the House of Lords. Many seats are hereditary. The House of Commons has 635 members. They are elected by a general election (secret ballot). The government is headed by the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the party that has won the election. In Great Britain there are three main political parties: the Conservatives, the Labour Party and the Liberals.

The house of Parliament in London, known also as the Palace of Westminster is the place where members of Parliament (M.P.) gather to make laws. The members of each House meet in sessions which begin at the end of October and last for about one hundred and sixty days. The sittings usually begin at 10 o'clock in the morning and end in the late afternoon; but if Parliament is discussing an important question sittings may go on till late at night. All the time Parliament is in session, a flag can be seen over the building, and when the House of Commons is still sitting after dark, there is a light over the face of Big Ben. The members of the House of Commons sit on two sides of the hall. The Speaker is the chairperson at all the debates in the House of Commons, and it is duty to keep order. The Speaker is elected by all the members of the House of Commons. He belongs to one of the political parties in Parliament, but he never votes are equal he votes with the government. The chairperson of the House of Lords is Lord Chancellor. He sits on the Woolsack, a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. If shows that wool made England rich The British Museum is one of the largest museums in the world. It consists of the National Library and Museum of History, Archaeology, Art and Ethnography.

12. Some facts about London

11. Sightseeing London

The Tower of London is the most famous of all the historical buildings in London. In the past the Tower of London served both as a palace and as a state prison, but it is only a museum today. Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. On the north side is the National Gallery; in the north-east corner is the National Portrait Gallery, and in the centre is Nelson's Column with the figure of the great seamen. Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetings and demonstrations for peace and for working people's rights take place. "Big Ben" is the name of the great bell which strikes the hour. It is in the clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament. Westminster Abbey is the historic building in London to which every visitor sooner or later goes. Many of Great Britain's famous men are buried in Westminster Abbey. Piccadilly Circus is a square in the central part of London. London's best-known theatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants are on Piccadilly Circus. Hyde Park is the largest park in the West End of London. In the 19th century it became a popular place for public meetings.

London has been home of many famous Englishmen. Some were born there. Some lived there all their lives. Others lived in London only for a short time but all gave something to this great city One of the first names of importance is that of Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet. He lived most of his life in London. He knew the courts of King Richard II d King Henry IV. His most famous work, 'The Canterbury Tales", opens at the Tabard Inn, in Southward. William Shakespeare also lived in London. He lived there for more than twenty years. He acted at the Globe Theatre and wrote his plays in London. But London's famous men are not only writers. Sir Christopher Wren, the architect, spent most of his life in London. He designed many beautiful churches, including St. Paul's Cathedral. He also designed palaces and fine houses. Music is represented by a very interesting figure. This is George Frederick Handel. He came to London from Hanover in 1710After some success and some failure he at last became famous. This happened when he composed "The Messiah". "Judas Maccabeus" and 'The Music for the Royal Fireworks" Like Chaucer and many other great artists. Handel is buried in Westminster Abbey. Another famous London figure is one of England's greatest seamen. Admiral Lord Nelson. He has a very special memorial in Trafalgar Square. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. This was the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde Park Comer. It is sometimes known as Number One, London. Like


Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

13. Stratford-upon-Avon

Stratford-upon-Avon lies at the very heart of England. It attracts people not only by its history and connection with William Shakespeare, but also by its wonderful nature and typical English character. Stratford stands on the river Avon and is one of the oldest market towns. It has still preserved its own character and atmosphere, as you will not see modern buildings there. The houses are small and lots of them are very old. Some of them date back to Shakespeare's time. Here you can visit Shakespeare's birthplace (it is a museum now), Anna Hathaway's cottage the foundations of the New Place, where Shakespeare lived when he retired and died in 1616. Just round the corner there is Grammar school that Shakespeare used to attend. Here in Stratford there is Holy Trinity Church where William Shakespeare was buried. Thousands of people from all parts of England and foreign visitors come here on Shakespeare's birthday (23rd April) to pay tribute to the great poet. Among other sights connected with the name of Shakespeare there is an interesting monument with the statue of the great poet on top and with characters from his plays round it. And, of course, you should visit the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, a red-brick building standing on the banks of the Avon. The Royal Shakespeare Company, which is one of the best known and largest theatre companies in the world, regularly performs here and in the Barbican Centre in London.

3. youth organizations controlled by religious bodies. The two largest non-political youth organizations are the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14, but in 1916 Baden Powell introduced a program for younger people. He called them Wolf Cubs. They had special uniforms, badges, a special training system and the motto "Do your best!" There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force, Sea Cadet Corps, the Woodcraft Folk, the Youth Hostels Association, the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs, Greenpeace. Youth Organization Greenpeace deals with most urgent ecological problems. It protests against nuclear weapon tests, sea and soil pollution, etc. Sport clubs are characteristic youth organizations in the UK. They unite people who are interested in basebaii, football, golf, etc. Religious young organizations and groups aim at helping to elderly people or working in hospitals. Many of these organizations have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people.

15. Vegetation and wildlife

14. Youth organizations in Great Britain

Youth and youth movement have become important factors in the life of the country. There are about 60 youth organizations in Great Britain. All youth organizations can be divided into three large groups: non-political organizations; youth organizations associated with political parties; rabbits, rats and mice are numerous. Deer live in some of the forests in the Highlands of Scotland and England. Some 230 kinds of birds live in Britain, and another 200 are regular visitors, many are songbirds. The most numerous are blackbirds, sparrow and starling. Robin Redbreast is the national bird of Britain. The number of ducks, geese and other water fowl has diminished during recent years.

1. 2.

Britain was originally a land of vast forests. Mainly oak and beech in the Lowlands and pine and birch In the Highlands, with great stretches of marshland and smaller areas of moors. Extensive forests remain in eastern and northern Scotland and in south-eastern and western England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the commonest trees in England, while Scotland has much pine and birch. The fauna or animal life of Britain is much like that of north-western Europe, to which it was once joined. Many larger mammals such as bear, wolf have been hunted to extinction, others are now protected by law. There are many foxes. Otters are common along rivers and streams, and seals live along much of the coast. Hedgehogs, hares, Another best-loved holiday is St.Valentine's Day on the 14th of February - the holiday of love and affection, the day of sending and giving presents to those you love. In England, Easter is a church holiday. A custom is decorating eggs for children. Halloween is the day or evening before all Saint's Day. Children dress up in Halloween costumes and masks over their faces. According to the Act of Parliament of 1871 there are 4 bank holidays Easter Monday, whit-Monday, Des 26th -Boxing Day. Other public holiday are Good Friday, May Day, Also there is a Pancake Day, April's Fool Day, Mother's Day.

16. Holidays in Great Britain

English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them. English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. It's the season of good will. It's the most beautiful time of the year - the time of love, joy and hopes. There are some traditions on New Year's Day. One of them is the old First Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen believe that he brings luck.

17. Educational system in Great Britain

The educational system of Great Britain is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalize about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. Primary education takes place in infant schools for pupil's ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools


(from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years. Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer. At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several subjects at the Ordinary level. This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education (GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE. A GCE of Advanced ("A") level was taken two years after the Ordinary level exam. The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge

and Edinburgh Universities), in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities. Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science. Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4 years. Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years). Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence. There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions connected with medicine. 18. Buckingham Palace Buckingham palace is the official London residence of Her Majesty The Queen and as such is one of the best known and most potent symbols of the British monarchy. Yet it has been a royal residence for only just over two hundred and thirty years and a palace for much less; and its name, known the world over, is owed not to a monarch but to an English Duke. enormously. Broadcasting in Britain has traditionally been based on the

Buckingham House was built for John, first Duke of Buckingham, between 1702 and 1705. It was sold to the Crown in 1762. Although King George III modernized and enlarged the house considerable, the transformations that give the building its present palatial character were carried out for King George IY by Nash, by Edward Blore for King William IY and Queen Victoria in the end, and by James Pennethoooorne. In the reign of King Edward Yll, much of the present white and gold decoration was substituted for the richly colored 19th century schemes of Nash and Blare; and in the 1920s, Queen Mary used the firm of White Alum to redecorate a number of rooms. The rooms open to visitors are used principally for official entertainment .These include Receptions and State Banquets, and it is on such occasions, when the rooms are filled with flowers and thronged with formally dressed guests and liveried servants, that the Palace is seen at its most splendid and imposing. But of course the Palace is also far more than just the London home of the Royal Family and a place of lavish entertainment. It has become the administrative centre of the monarchy where, among a multitude of engagements, Her Majesty receives foreign Heads of State, Commonwealth leaders and representatives of the Diplomatic Corps and conducts Investitures, and where the majority of the Royal Household, consisting of six main Departments and a staff of about three hundred people, has their offices.

19. Media in Great Britain

The media play a central role in Britain's daily life, informing and educating, questioning and challenging and of course - entertaining. In recent years the availability of more radio frequencies, together with satellite, cable and microwave transmissions, has already made a greater number of local, national and international services possible. The transition from analogue to digital transmission technology is now expanding this capacity

principle that it is a public service accountable to people. While retaining the essential public service element, it now also embraces the principles of competition and choice: the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), which broadcasts television and radio programs; the ITC (Independent Television Commission), which licenses and regulates commercial television services, including cable and satellite services; the Radio Authority, which licenses and regulates commercial radio services, including cable and satellite; The three bodies work to broad requirements and objectives defined and endorsed by Parliament, but are otherwise independent in their daily conduct of business. Cable services are delivered through underground cables and are paid for subscription. Cable franchises have been granted covering areas comprising 83 per cent of all homes and nearly all urban areas in Britain. In mid 1999 there were about 12.1 million homes able to receive such services, and 3 million subscribing homes. Digital technology is being introduced which will support up to 500 television channels. Cable also has the capacity for computer - based interactive services, such as home shopping and email. Satellite television and cable services are funded mainly by subscription income. Television viewing is by far Britain's most popular leisure pastime: over 97 per cent of households have at least one TV set. British television productions are sold world - wide


20. European Union

The establishment of the EU intended to work toward common goals of European countries. The EU was established after 2nd World War. France officially undertook the establishment of the EU proposing to create "the first concrete foundation of a European


federation". On May 9, 1950 the EU was created and initially six European countries joint to the EU: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands.

Then other countries joint to the EU and today the number of the SL bring a peace and stabilization in the post Sad am country? Yes, the military operation itself was a success. Despite the military successes, this strategy did not produce desirable results. The USA cannot stabilize the situation, and the Iraqis continue to organize attacks against the US and coalition forces. It is possible that the USA will not be able to continue its unilateral policy anymore because it goes against objective processes in the world economy and international relations. The political regimes in European countries are very close to American, so any military confrontations are very unlikely at this point. But an economical competition would be intense. It could be said that the other war, between the euro and the dollar, is already on, and the dollar is loosing so far. There is another potential threat to the USA. Only a few years ago, a dollar was almost equivalent to gold. People and businesses all over the world tried to keep their savings in dollars. Now, when a dollar is getting cheaper, many try to get rid of it and buy euros. What would happen if all this dollar cash came back to the USA? India, Japan, and Russia will probably also try to make their influence on the world politics comparable with their economical potential. One thing is clear, however, the future of the country directly depends on today's policy.

member countries is 27. The requirements for the countries willing to become member of EU are the following: Member countries must be a stable democracy, respecting human rights, the rule of law, and the protection of minorities; Member countries must have a functioning market economy; The EU has such a structure that there are 5 institutions and each of them is responsible for a respective objective: European Parliament - The main functions of this institution is to exercise the issues related to the legislation, implementing foreign and security policy, monitor the budget. Council of the European Union - This is the most influential institution in decision making process. The main function of this institution is to exercise the issues related to the legislation, to suggest and monitor the international agreements, implementing foreign and security policy. European Commission - It is mainly responsible for creating the initial outline of legislation, implementing the legislation to assure that law is property applied, and representing the EU in international scope and signing trade and cooperation agreements. Court of Justice -checks whether laws are in the accordance with the justice or not Court of Auditors - Its major function is to check whether all the Union's revenues and expenditures are going in a regular manner, according to the EU budget. Today EU became driving force into the international market for member countries. Such kind of economic communities are needed to increase today's economic growth and make countries better off.

22. Geographical position of USA

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It


21. Role of the USA in the world politics

It is impossible to discuss a future role of the United States of America in the world without understanding the global processes that have been taken place in the world over the last several years. September 11, without doubt, was a break point event in these processes. First, it showed people a danger of an international terrorism. Second, the event brought about a confrontation between two different viewpoints on the development of world politics. On the one hand, politicians from many countries believe that any active actions to preserve world order must be organized only by United Nations. On the other hand, the United States is pushing forward its aggressive unilateral policy that is based only on Washington's understanding of the current international situation. This US strategy was clearly demonstrated in Iraq. Now, after two and a half years of the war, the question must be asked if this policy achieved its goals. Did it

occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea boarder with Russia. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley, which is located in Alaska. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA. The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second


producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper. The largest cities are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco and others. The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the juridical. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic

23. Scotland
Scotland is administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands, a majority of which are contained in three groups—namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland as well as a major industrial area and seaport Notable among the lakes, which are especially numerous in the central and northern regions, are Loch Lomond (the largest), Loch Ness, Loch Tay, and Loch Katrina. The longest river of Scotland is the Tay; the Clyde, however, is the principal navigational stream, site of the port of Glasgow. Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scotland is subject to the moderating influences of the surrounding seas The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and conifers—chiefly fir, pine, and larch. The only large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. Both the red deer and the roe deer are found, but the red deer, whose habitat is the Highlands, is by far the more abundant of the two species. Other indigenous mammals are the hare, rabbit, otter, ermine, pine marten, and wildcat. Game birds include grouse, blackcock, ptarmigan, and waterfowl. Both agriculture and industry are important in the economy of Scotland. The chief exports are petroleum and natural gas and manufactured goods, especially burlap, clothing, machinery, textiles, and whiskey. The chief imports are food and iron The most populous city in Scotland is Glasgow. Other important industrial cities are Dundee and Aberdeen. Scotland is governed as an integral part of Great Britain. It is represented by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scottish peers in the House of Lords. 1Q_________________________________________________________

The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship. In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later. In 1894, a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed all the sports governing bodies and pointed out the significance of sports and its educational value. Two years later the first modern Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition. In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policymaking body of the Olympic movement. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programmed of the games, the number of the participants and the city host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee. Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centers. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programmer of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.

The next summer games will be held in Beijing, Republic of China.

25. Holidays in USA
The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are closed. Memorial Day is a legal holiday, observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the United Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia. Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the Fourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence and is celebrated in all states and territories of the U.S. The Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants and public speeches. Thanksgiving Day, a legal holiday in the U.S., was first celebrated in early colonial times in New England. President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of

24. Olympic Games


thanksgiving, and since then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday. New Year's Day is the first day of the year, January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. Christmas is an annual festival, held on December 25, to celebrate the Nativity, or birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed with lights and other decorations, is derived from the so-called paradise tree, symbolizing Eden. Saint Valentine's Day, a holiday honoring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. St. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.



26. Washington
Washington is the capital city of the United States. It is located on the north bank of the Potomac River. It was called after George Washington, the first President of the USA, Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. It has little industry, and only one million people. One reason Washington looks different from other cities is that no building in the city may be more than 40 meters tall. There are no skyscrapers, because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. One can easily find a park, a square or an open area there. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. The heart of Washington is the Capitol, which is connected with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue. It dominates the city of Washington. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the Hall of Representatives, the Statuary Hall and some others. The Washington Monument, the tallest stone structure in the USA, is in the Potomac River. It was opened to the public in 1888. It is 555 feet tall, is called the "Pencil" because of its shape. It is three blocks south of the White House. There is an elevator, which will carry you to 500-foot level observation windows. The Lincoln Memorial is in the west of the Washington Monument. It is designed like a Greek temple. The dominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln seated in the centre of the open temple. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen, too. It is situated south of the Washington monument near the Potomac River. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. The Washington Cathedral is on Massachusetts Avenue, and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city limits just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year. Washington is the place where mass demonstrations take place against unemployment and racism, for democracy and civil rights.

plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places. The first theatre in England "The Backfires" build in 1576, and "The Globe" build in 1599, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention "The English National theatre", "The Royal Shakespeare Company" and "Covent Garden". The first "Covent Garden theatre" was built in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilds exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare's "Macbeth". Since the middle of the last century "Covent Garden" became exclusively devoted to opera. Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet. Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else; the chief theatres, music halls and cinemas are in the West End. If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, ballet, comedy, drama, revue, musical comedy and variety. The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course, are the most expensive. At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done of the most lavish scale.

28. Famous people of America

27. Theatres in Great Britain

One peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is a follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced (book able), and unbootable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first served. And ancient time's

There are many outstanding people in United States. America produced statesmen, thinkers, explorers, musicians, writers, scientists and other people who are well known around the world. Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is known to most people as Mark Twain. While he worked as a reporter he began to sign his articles "Mark Twain". From then on Clemens used Mark Twain as his pen-name. While he spent his summers on his farm, he wrote "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer", published in 1876. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn", "Tom Sawyer" and "Huckleberry Finn" are among the most popular books ever published in the United States. Among Mark Twain's other books are "Joan of Arc", "Life on the Mississippi".



Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States. Lincoln became president in 1860. In 1861, there was a war between the North and the South of the United States. The people in the South wanted a separate government from the United States. The North wanted the United States to stay together as one country. Lincoln was the leader of the North. The North won the Civil War. The war ended on April 9, 1865. Six days later, President Lincoln and his wife went to the theatre. Inside the theatre, a man went behind the president and shot him in the head. The man's name was John Wilkes Booth. He was a supporter of the South. Lincoln died the next morning. Ernest Hemingway is one of the greatest 20thcentury American writers. He was a brilliant writer of stories and novels. His most successful novels are the following: For Whom The Bells Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea and others He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.

29. Education in USA

The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary school, followed by a four-year high school. There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school. Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. During the fouryear high school program the student studies four or five continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.

major subjects per year, and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation. Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades. It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. A Master of Arts or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the ! Doctor of Philosophy. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree. In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a "pop" noise. That is why we call it popcorn. But in 1945 a new machine was invented that changed the history of the product. The electric machine enabled to pop corn outside the home. And soon movies started selling popcorn to make more money. The famous American habit of eating popcorn at the movies is wellknown. Many people like to put salt or melted butter in their popcorn, some peeper to have it without. Either way Americans love their popcorn Coca Cola- Coca-Cola The world famous fresh drink Coca-Cola first was an all-purpose medicine, made in 1886 by a druggist from Atlanta, who made a brown syrup by mixing coca leaves and cola nuts. The syrup

30. Fast Food of America

Have you ever enjoyed a hamburger, sitting on a lawn? May be you're against all these hot dogs and cheeseburgers, because it's a junk food. Anyway, it is always interesting to find out something about the origin and history of such trifles, which make our life more comfortable. They really make life more pleasant, especially outdoors, don't they? Pop Corn- It's impossible to imagine American takeaway food or snacks without popcorn. Clear as a day, it is made from corn. But what about the first part of the word "pop". Actually, when you put a kernel of corn on a



wasn't a success and then another druggist, Jacobs, had an idea of selling Coca-Cola as a soda fountain drink. He mixed the syrup with soda water. Soon everyone was going to soda fountains and asking for Coca-Cola. And the World War II helped to make Coca-Cola popular outside America, when the Coca-Cola Company sent bottles of the drink to US soldiers fighting in Europe. It became so popular with the soldiers that the US Army asked the company to start ten factories in Europe. It's a curious thing but of 1903 coca leaves were no longer used in the drink. The exact ingredients and the quantities are not known - the Coca-Cola Company keeps its recipe a secret

of the Senate; to minimize political influences, their appointments are for life. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between states or between citizens of different states. Every American citizen is allowed to vote from the age of 18.

32. Science in 20th century

31. Political system of USA

The nation's capital, Washington, D.C., is the capital of a federal union of 50 states. Therefore, in 1789, they adopted a new Constitution establishing a federal union under a strong central government. Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches, each chosen in a different manner, each able to check and balance the others. The Executive Branch is headed by the President, who, together with the Vice President, is chosen in nationwide elections every four years. The elective process for a U.S. President is unique. The presidential candidate needs 270 electoral votes to be elected; if no candidate has a majority, the House of Representatives make the decision. Any natural-born American who is 35 years old or older may be elected to this office. The President proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and, with the approval of the Senate makes treaties and appoints federal judges, ambassadors and other members of the Executive Departments The Vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death or disability of the President, assumes the Presidency for the balance of his term. The Legislative Branch is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state elects two members of the 100-member Senate; a Senator's term of office is six years The Judicial Branch is made up of Federal District Courts (at least one in every state), 11 Federal Courts of Appeals and, at the top, the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President with the approval

The 20th century began slowly, to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science, industry and moral philosophy, mankind's steps had at last been guided up the right path. The century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and electricity. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, only 41 years old in 1900, proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual but inevitable, determined by natural law. And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. Inventions like the railroad or the telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. No one could have guessed then that, in the century just beginning, new ideas would burst upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately march of progress into a long distance, free-for-all sprint. Thrust into this race, the children of the 20th century would witness more change in their daily existence and environment than anyone else who had ever walked the planet. Assassinations in Sarajevo in 1914 lit a spark that set off an unprecedented explosion of destruction and death. The Great War did more than devastate a generation of Europeans. It set the tone - the political, moral and intellectual temper - for much that followed. Before long the Great War received a new name World War I. The roaring 1920s and the Depression years of the 1930s proved to be merely a prelude to World War II. Largely hidden during that war was an awful truth that called into question progress and the notion of human nature itself. But civilization was not crushed by the two great wars, and the ruins provided the stimulus to build a way of life again. To a degree previously unheard of and perhaps unimaginable, the citizens of the 20th century felt free to reinvent themselves. In that task they were



assisted by two profound developments - psychoanalysis and the Bomb. 33. Sports in USA Americans pay much attention to physical fitness. Many sports and sporting activities are popular in the USA. People participate in swimming, skating, squash and badminton, tennis, marathons, track-and-field, bowing, archery, skiing, skating etc. But the five major American sports are hockey, volleyball, baseball, football and basketball. Basketball and volleyball have been invented in America. There is a large choice of sports in America. This can be explained by the size and variety of the country. Another reason of the popularity of sports is the people's love of competition of any kind. One more reason is that Americans use sports activities for teaching socials values, such as teamwork and sportsmanship. All this explains why Americans have traditionally done well in many kinds of sports. Some Americans like active games and others like quite games. I think that quite games, as golf and crocket, intend for rich elite people. Most popular games in the USA are hockey, American football, baseball, basketball. Opportunities for keeping fit and playing sports are numerous. Jogging is extremely popular, perhaps because it is the cheapest and most accessible sport. Aerobic exercise and training with weight-lifting machines are two activities which more and more men and women are pursuing. Books, videos, and fitnessconscious movie stars that play up the glamour of fitness have heightened enthusiasm for these exercises and have promoted the muscular, healthy body as the American beauty ideal American sports are becoming more competitive and more profit-oriented. As a result, playing to win is emphasized more than playing for fun. The obsession with winning causes some people to wonder whether sports in America should be such serious business

courts, courts of appeal and High Court or Supreme Court. Trial courts bear the main burden in the administration of justice. Cases begin there and most instances are finally resolved there. The trial courts in each state include: common pleas courts, which have general civil and criminal jurisdiction and smaller in importance municipal courts, country courts and mayor's courts The main job of courts of appeal is to review cases appealed from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted or applied. The Supreme Court of each state is primarily a_ court of appeal and the court of last resort. The federal court structure is similar to the structure of the state court system. The trial courts in the federal system are the United States District Courts. The United States courts of appeal are intermediate courts of appeal between the district courts and the United States Supreme Court. The USA Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation and the court of last resort. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all of whom are appointed for life by the President with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. The duty of the Supreme Court is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. The great legal issues facing the Supreme Court at present are Government involvement with religion, abortion and privacy rights, and race and sex discrimination.

35. Sports in Great Britain

34. The USA court system

The courts are the overseers of the law. They administer it, they resolve disputes under it, and they ensure that it is and remains equal to and impartial for everyone. In the United States each state is served by the separate court systems, state and federal. Both systems are organized into three basic levels of courts-trial

National sports in Great Britain... It is a very interesting question, because many kinds of sport have taken the origin in England. The Englishmen love sports, they are called sports-lovers in spite of the fact that some of them neither play games nor even watch them. They only like to speak about sports. Some kinds of sport are professional in England. Many traditional sporting contests take place in England, for example, cricket. It is played from May till September. Football, it has got a long history. Football was played by the whole village teams in the middle ages in England. Now football is the most popular game in Britain. It is a team game. There are some amateur teams but most of the teams are professional ones in England. Professional football is a big business. Football is played at schools too.



Rugby is a popular game in England. There are many amateur rugby teams in this country. It is a game that is played between two teams of players using an oval ball that can be handled or kicked. The captain of the team must be the oldest or best player. There are some tennis clubs in England, but if you play there it is necessary to pay money for it. Englishmen like playing tennis but many of them prefer to watch this game. Wimbledon it is the centre of lawn tennis. Englishmen pay much attention to swimming, rowing and walking. Usually the Oxford—Cambridge Boat Race takes place at the end of March or at the beginning of April. It is an interesting contest between the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. It is usually held on the Thames River. The first such race was held in 1820. There were a lot of people watching this race. There are some racing competitions in England. They are motor-car racing, dog-racing, donkey-racing, boat-racing, horseracing. All kinds of racings are popular in England. It is interesting to see the egg-and-spoon race. The runner, who takes part in this competition, must carry an egg in a spoon. It is not allowed to drop the egg. There are such competitions as putting the weight, tossing the caber and others. The English are great lovers of sports.

664. In the 9th century the Danes attacked England. It was Alfred who defeated the Danes making them sign a peace agreement. The last of the invaders to come to Britain were the Normans from France. The French language became the official language of the ruling class for the next three centuries. This explains the great number of French words in English. However the final unification of Scotland and England took place in 1707 when both sides agreed to form a single parliament in London for Great Britain, although Scotland continued to keep its own system of law, education and have an independent church. Ireland was England's first colony, but even now there are problems there connected with religion. Recently, there have been many waves of immigration into Britain. Now Britain is a multinational society, which benefits from the influence of different people and cultures. 37. William


36. History of Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country of great history rich in important events and entertaining legends connected with them. It's not enough to write several volumes to tell the full history of the country. That's why we'll try to answer the question where the British come from and who they are. After 800 BC the Celts arrived from Central Europe and opened up a new important page of the British history. The name «Britain» comes from the name of a Celtic tribe known as the Britons. Their influence was greatest in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, as they were driven to these parts by the invaders who followed them. That's why these parts of Britain are very different from England in language, customs and traditions. However quite soon it was attacked by Germanic tribes: People began to call the new land of the Angles and Saxons England. Wales, Cornwall, the northern part of Britain and Ireland remained unconquered and preserved Celtic culture. An important event which contributed to the unification of the country was the adoption of Christianity in England in

The last half of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries are known as the golden age of English literature. It was the time of the English Renaissance, and sometimes it is even called "the age of Shakespeare". William Shakespeare, the greatest and most famous of English writers, and probably the greatest playwright who has ever lived, was born on the 23d of April, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. In sprite of his fame we know very little about his life. At the age of six he was sent to school, but had to leave it at the age of 13. His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove-maker, and when he fell into debt, William had to help him .When Shakespeare was twenty-one, he went to London. We don't know why he left Stratford-on-Avon. There is a story that Shakespeare's first job in London was holding rich men's horses at the theatre door. But nobody can be sure that this story is true. Later, Shakespeare became an actor and a member of a very successful acting company. It's highly probable that The Comedy of Errors, Romeo and Juliet and some other plays by Shakespeare were performed for the first time on this stage. Shakespeare's experience as an actor helped him greatly in the writing of his plays. His knowledge of stage and his poetical genius made his plays the most wonderful ones ever written. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays: 10 tragedies (such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth), 17 comedies (such as As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Much



Ado About Nothing), 10 historical plays (such as Henry 4, Richard 3). He also left 7 books of poems and sonnets. Most of Shakespeare's plays were not published in his lifetime. So some of them may have been lost in the fire when the "Globe" burned down in 1613. Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died in 1616. He was buried in the church of Stratford. A monument was erected to the memory of the great playwright in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey. New York City is the capital of USA It is the most populous city in the United States. For more than a century, it has been one of the world's leading business, financial and cultural centers and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, sports, media, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the major global cities. As the home of the United Nations, the city is a hub for international diplomacy. Residents of the city are known as New Yorkers. New York has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island and the Bronx. The Bronx is famous for a zoo, which is situated there. Manhattan is the center of New York City. Near 1 million people live here, but over than 5 million come here to work from all parts of the city every day. The main street, Broadway, is also here. And there are a lot of other famous streets which known nationwide. Wall Street is famous for finance. Madison Avenue means advertising, and Fifth Avenue is famous for world-class shopping. There is a famous crossing Times Square. It famous for Theatre district, there are more than thirty theaters there, and every evening they play their plays. Most of New York's skyscrapers are located on the island of Manhattan. There are such buildings as Art Deco Chrysler Building and there were twin towers of the World Trade Center. One of the famous building in the world is the Statue of Liberty. It was built in 1886. It was a present from the people of France. It represents America's symbol of freedom! In 2005, nearly 170 languages were spoken in the city and 36 percent of its population was born outside the United States. New York is also known as "The City that Never Sleeps," not least because its subway system operates around the clock and because many

neighborhoods in Manhattan, such as Times Square, are busy at all hours.

39. Australian culture.
Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic, although distinctive Australian features had been evolving from the environment and indigenous culture. Over the past 50 years, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture (particularly television and cinema), large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries, and Australia's Asian neighbors. The vigor and originality of the arts in Australia — literature, cinema, opera, music, painting, theatre, dance, and crafts — have achieved international recognition. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this; he is recognized as one of the great English-language writers of the 20th century. Australian English is a major variety of the language; its grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English, overlaid with a rich vernacular of unique lexical items and phrases, some of which have found their way into standard English. Sport plays an important part in Australian culture, assisted by a climate that favors outdoor activities; 23.5% Australians over the age of 1 5 regularly participate in organized sporting activities. At an international level, Australia has particularly strong teams in cricket, hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union, and performs well in cycling, rowing and swimming. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, football (soccer) and motor .acing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top five medal-takers since 2000Televised sport is popular; some of the highest rating television programs include the summer Olympic Games and the grand finals of local and international football (various codes) competitions

38. New York

40. Edinburgh

Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. It has been the capital of Scotland



since 1437 and is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. It lies on seven hills and goes down on those hills to the sea. The highest hill is three hundred meters above the sea. From the street in the centre of the city you can see ships coming to Edinburgh from different countries of the world. Many great men have lived and worked in this beautiful city. Robert Burns, the great Scottish poet published his first book of poems in Edinburgh. There is a monument to him in the city. Walter Scott, the father of the historical novel in the world literature, was borne in Edinburgh. The monument to Walter Scott is in the main street of the city. Robert Louis Stevenson, a famous English writer, was born and lived in Edinburgh. He loved the city and wrote about it his best novels. Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival, is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Film Festival. In fact the city is one of the most vibrant, cosmopolitan cities in Europe and is regularly voted as one of the most desirable places to live in the world.This is a city that knows how to be both ancient and modern. And a fantastic place to live.

they do want to have them. The young want to live their own life. They want to overcome their own difficulties without turning back. Unfortunately the life of the young is frequently determined by the adults. The adults start the war but the young die in it. And the solution to this problem is that both the young and adults should be tolerant and patient to each other. Another problem of the youth is the relationship of the young people with their friends and beloved. The problem of love is very important for the young. It is regrettable, but the young are not always ready to have stable relations. For a happy family life two people must understand and respect each other. It should be said that the young have other problems as well. They are concerned with education, money, employment, hobby, spending their free time, communication, and the like. And of course one of the most urgent problems is the accommodations problem. Few young people in our country have their own apartments. In the main they share the apartments with their parents even after getting married. In general all the problems of the youth are linked with the present rather then with the past or future.

2. City disadvantages cities

life-advantages of living

and in


Acest capitol contine 40 de teme libere inspirate de realitatea inconjuratoare, din viata de fiecare zi.

1. Problems of the youth
Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the world One of the problems is a generation gap. Every generation is unique in its experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every aspect of human life. Adults always complain that the young are not what they were. These words are repeated from generation to generation. The young know what they want. They prefer to make their own mistakes rather than to listen to the warnings of the adults. The past exists to help the young to avoid unnecessary blurs. But

Every now and then we ask ourselves whether it's better to live in a city our in a countryside. City life has its advantages and disadvantages. First of all, it is easier to find work in the city than in the country, besides, salaries are much higher and one has a larger variety of jobs to pick from. Moreover, cities are the centers of culture and social life. Living in a city one has all sorts of museums, theatres, exhibitions, movie theatres, pubs, restaurants at their command. Therefore there are a lot more free time facilities than in rural areas. Cities are also centers of education. Many young people move to cities because there are more opportunities for continuing their education there. Usually country's largest and best universities are located in big cities. Another advantage it better living conditions. In the city people live in more modern houses which need less work doing to them. That saves a great part of their time and effort. Among the disadvantages there are crime, pollution, high prices, enormous traffic jams and



overcrowded streets and subway and of course the threat of the present - terrorism. From the point of view of ecology cities are not the best place to live in. Garbage and sewage are two major problems of cities as well as air and water pollution. Besides it's not safe in terms of crime. For example, it is dangerous in big cities to walk back home late in the evening. One can either get robbed of their purse, jewelry or mobile phone or even get attacked, for example. One has to watch out for pickpockets even in the daylight. Of course city life has a lot of advantages and disadvantages, but if you get tired of social life, it is always a great pleasure to go to a country side with a beautiful and green view The atmosphere of rural life is also great as when you get there it seems that time goes by slowly and there is no need to hurry.

-fashion fans, who enjoy wearing modern clothes but not obsessed by them; -people that just do not care the way they look;

Of course there are big companies tha< do not allow people to come at work in what they want, they have to respect the dress code, registered in the policy of each big company. According to the dress code, an employee is not allowed to wear certain items of clothing to work. For example, men are supposed to wear ties and business suits, and nobody is allowed to wear jeans, except on Fridays. Women's clothes are not supposed to be skintight, too short and too open. All of the shirts are supposed to have collars. Clothes also can't be too bright, the colors should correspond to the corporate colors - dark blue and white.


A question of taste. Fashion

4. Love means different things to different people

Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people, who say they don't care what they wear, choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day. However, we definitely get fashion ideas from music clips, videos, books and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. For example it is known that more sunglasses were sold in America after the movie Man in Black. Depending on their attitude towards clothes and fashion, people can be divided in three groups: fashion slaves, spending all their money on the latest clothes even if they don't look good in them; J2Q________________________________________________________


The subject of love is one that has inspired poets, writers, those lucky in love and those who have been passed over by Cupid...Love has been defined as wise, silly, profound, bitter, funny...It seems as if each and one of us has a different understanding of love, or at least the attitude to love varies greatly from person to person.. It may be a surprising revelation to some of us, because love has traditionally been considered to be something that unites people( at least that's what I've been taught).And yet, there's no use denying the fact that love has as many definitions as there are human beings on this planet. And it doesn't Love is a feeling that makes you stronger and helps you get through a crisis. It's something I can't imagine my life without.

necessarily mean that love no longer unites people. It just means that love has different dimensions, different sides that reflect our understanding of life. But personally, I can't let myself be cynical about love. Maybe I'm too young and inexperienced, but I believe it's a great feeling. Some say that love is the true meaning of our life, that love is all it's cracked up to be. They also say that "love is the master key that opens the gates of happiness". I can't but agree. Love is something that makes us tender, and affectionate, and caring...It's when another person's needs become more important than yours and you don't see it as a burden. It's when you do your best to make each other's lives somewhat easier in this troublesome world...

5. Books in our lives

Despite the increase in TV watching and the developing of World Wide Web, reading is still very important. So I don't think books need to be rescued. Reading both entertains and educates people. Books help us to discover new things and explore new ideas. The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It gives us an insight not only into the past, but also into the future. The book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. Reading is the perfect way to relax and spend your free time. Books portray life in its richness, so they develop reader's imagination and arouse curiosity, admiration.



Sometimes they even can help to solve difficult problems of life. I become very keen on literature early in life. This probably happened because we had a very good and widely read library in home. Books stirred my imagination, expanded the boundaries of the familiar world and filled my life with great expectations of joy and happiness I'm fond of reading and I've read a lot of books of different genres. And certainly I have my favorite book. It is

exercises at home every morning and on the other hand it is not comfortable to do exercises in our school clothes. I think too many pupils study in every class. Most of them sit far from the blackboard. And sometimes they can't Keep your wrists in a natural, unforced, straight position

11. A Child

the story by Agatha Christie - "The murder of Roger Ackroyd". Some critics say that Agatha Christie introduced a novelty in this work, because the murder is a storyteller. In the "The murder of Roger Ackroyd" the main characters and environment are typical for 1920th in England. The action takes place in a country house. The author shows us its owner with his habits, relatives and neighbors. All this is presented vividly and brightly. One of the main heroes of the book Hercules Poirot gets over a lot of problems before catching a murder. Excitement, suspense, horror, revenge, and extraordinary talent, astounding calmness of Hercules Poirot fill this book. "The murder of Roger Ackroyd" has made a great impression on me. And nowadays it makes really unforgettable impressive reading.

6. Things I dislike in my school

I like my school very much because I have spent the best years of my short life there. But in spite of it I

dislike the whole system of education. What concerns my school the pupils are not free in their choice of the subjects. And they are
forced to study the subjects they are not interested in and it takes them too much time to learn the subjects unnecessary for their future life. They could spend this time working on the subjects which will be needed for their future profession. Besides, every day we have two breaks of 1 0 minutes and two breaks of 1 5 minutes at school. But 1 5 minutes is not enough to have a lunch for the pupils. They are always in a hurry eating their lunch. It causes diseases connected with stomach. It should be mention that our lessons start at 8 o'clock. But the pupils have to

A child is the charming, creature. He is the sense, of QUI life. We cannot imagine our being without him and therefore we guard him by day and by night. But who knows what vices can be grown up in this innocent soul. It's possible him to be a great misfortune or even a disaster. There a lot of such experience No, I'm not talking about the children becoming criminals but about the "normal" children making life with them completely intolerable. They bother, disturb, shout, cry, run around you don't giving even a minute for rest. Their curiosity and plays could cause the terrible consequences. The electricity often attracts children. They like to shove fingers into the socket, to cut the wires, to shake the lustres, to twist the electrical lamps, etc. "Daddy, Show me how computer works", - said the son shoving by screwdriver into the system block. "What have you done? It costs a small fortune", - cried poor daddy looking at the black clouds of smoke rising above the system block. "He is just a child", -explains mother her son's behavior. Everything starting by deodorants and finishing by the video's remote control presents a danger in children's hands. It seems for them that everything what they see is the toys and of course want to play. But the "toys" sometimes could be by no means harmless. For example, mentioned above deodorant can explode in the fire or just in the strong sun and cause the severe injures. By paper, by simple paper a child can cut his soft flesh and cause the hemorrhage. Because of that we have to protect them from theirs own curiosity. Prevent a misfortune! That should be our device. After all a Woman and a Child are only for which is worthy to live

12. Role of woman in society

come to school ten minutes to 8 to do morning exercises. I think there is not necessary to
do them because on the one hand some pupils do such

The ongoing changes in social, political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women's role in society, in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex



that had been shaping through decades. Free economic relations and temcsatvrato. of. aU. sj^xejcea. at Ivte, cw&te $ft basis, eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of six-foot both of men and women. 'From a tegar potnr of view, a man ancf a woman r'n our country are equal. However, in practice, there are no real mechanisms of women's rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life. Housework, chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman's domain. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling, children are obstacles in the labor market. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. Along with that, there is a lack of knowledge about modem contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions. However, the number of women taking part in the country's political, economic and civic life shows that women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government. Women's salaries are on average lower than men's, and women are likewise far more likely to fall victim to violence and unemployment So, the main goals are protection of women's rights and elimination of discrimination in society; widening women's participation in policy decision-making processes on the local, regional and national levels; support for cooperation between women's organizations on the national and international arenas; widening access to international resources and experience of women's organizations on an international level.

13. It is science that does us good or does it bring disaster?

To answer the question whether science does us good or does it bring disaster isn't a simple task. We should take into consideration many facts. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. Thanks to Recent evidence has shown that heavy and even moderate drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation, or both; a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as fetal alcohol syndrome

Homelessness is a huge problem in the whole world. In poor countries, so called "third world countries" you can meet homeless people on every corner. That's why government of "third world counties" tries to solve this problem by building more homes and shelters. Ministry of Health encountered with many strange diseases caused by unsanitary conditions of living. Homeless people eat from dirty waste, drink from not clean creeks or even puddles. Huge wave of sickness grabbed streets of India, Nigeria, Nepal, Somali and many, many other "third world countries" Unfortunately diseases and viruses is not only problem caused by homelessness. Statistic shows that level of crimes is much higher in those countries and cities where the major issue is homelessness. So homeless people don't have places to work, government pays not enough money for living. Charities and donations also to not enough to live a good life, that's why homeless people go the wrong way to get some money for living. People steel money from those who's richer than they are. Sometimes robberies end up with serious injuries or even homicide. Crime is another problem caused by homelessness and homeless people. Government has all power to help homeless people and solve the problem with homelessness. Government doesn't have to make more charities for homeless people, but it should make more activities, which involves homeless people themselves. Build more houses and shelters or even temporary places of living, it'll help to solve the issue with living place. It is for sure that civil volunteers will help with money and many other activities. I don't know. But problem of homelessness must be solved! People must not loose their conscience and help their brothers and sisters on the streets.

10. Computers and Health

9. Homeiessness

Within the past two years, substantial media attention has been directed at potential adverse health effects of long-term computer use. People that spend most of the time working at computers should pay attention at the following factors: Light and glare- Eyestrain, headaches, and impaired vision are often a product of improper illumination resulting in glare, which is light within the field of vision that is brighter than other objects to which the eyes are adapted.



A NIOSH study recommends 200-500 lux for general office work; other sources suggest 500-700 lux for light characters on dark monitors and somewhat more for darkon-light. If documents are not sufficiently illuminated, desk lights are recommended in preference to ceiling lights, which increase reflections from video screens Breaks and exercises- Working in the same position for too long causes tension buildup and is thought to increase the risk of repetitive motion injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Remedies include changing postures frequently, performing other work interspersed with computing (some studies recommend a 1 0 - 1 5 minute break from the keyboard every hour), and doing Keep your wrists in a natural, unforced, straight position

exercises such as tightening and releasing fists and rotating arms and hands to increase circulation. In summary we may say that we hear a lot about hazards associated with working with computers, and learn from experience that long hours at the keyboard can bring on eyestrain and various aches and pains. Fortunately, there are measures that really do work: Use the minimum force necessary to press the keys. Vary your tasks during the day to avoid sitting in one position for several hours or performing the same hand motions without interruption. Take periodic breaks. Prevent a misfortune! That should be our device. After all a Woman and a Child are only for which is worthy to live

11. A Child

A child is the charming creature. He is the sense of our life. We cannot imagine our being without him and therefore we guard him by day and by night. But who knows what vices can be grown up in this innocent soul. It's possible him to be a great misfortune or even a disaster. There a lot of such experience No, I'm not talking about the children becoming criminals but about the "normal" children making life with them completely intolerable. They bother, disturb, shout, cry, run around you don't giving even a minute for rest. Their curiosity and plays could cause the terrible consequences. The electricity often attracts children. They like to shove fingers into the socket, to cut the wires, to shake the lustres, to twist the electrical lamps, etc. "Daddy, Show me how computer works", - said the son shoving by screwdriver into the system block. "What have you done? It costs a small fortune", - cried poor daddy looking at the black clouds of smoke rising above the system block. "He is just a child", -explains mother her son's behavior. Everything starting by deodorants and finishing by the video's remote control presents a danger in children's hands. It seems for them that everything what they see is the toys and of course want to play. But the "toys" sometimes could be by no means harmless. For example, mentioned above deodorant can explode in the fire or just in the strong sun and cause the severe injures. By paper, by simple paper a child can cut his soft flesh and cause the hemorrhage. Because of that we have to protect them from theirs own curiosity.

12. Role of woman in society

The ongoing changes in social, political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women's role in society, in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. Free economic relations and democratization of all spheres of life create the basis for eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of six-foot both of men and women. 'From a legal point of view, a man and a woman in our country are equal. However, in practice, there are no real mechanisms of women's rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life. Housework, chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman's domain. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling, children are obstacles in the labor market. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. Along with that, there is a lack of knowledge about modern contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions. However, the number of women taking part in the country's political, economic and civic life shows that women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government. Women's salaries are on average lower than men's, and women are likewise far more likely to fall victim to violence and unemployment So, the main goals are protection of women's rights and elimination of discrimination in society; widening women's participation in policy decision-making



processes on the local, regional and national levels; support for cooperation between women's organizations on the national and international arenas; widening access to international resources and experience of women's organizations on an international level.

14. Global Warming
"Global warming" has been introduced by the scientific community and the media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects. In general, Global warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature. An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth nas warmed an average of 0.5°C over the past 100 years. For the past 1 5 0 years, though, the atmospheric concentrations of these gases, particularly carbon dioxide, nave been rising. As a result, more heat is being trapped than previously, which in turn is causing the global temperature to rise. Climate scientists have linked the ncreased levels of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere to luman activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas for heating and electricity; gasoline for transportation), deforestation, cattle ranching, and rice "'arming. As the Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex nteractions, scientists still cannot predict the exact impact on the earth's climate of these rising levels of heat-trapping gases over the next century. The current best estimate is that f carbon dioxide concentrations double over preindustrial levels, according to the scientific possible scenarios, an atmospheric doubling of carbon dioxide could occur as early as 2050.

13. It is science that does us good or does it bring disaster?
To answer the question whether science does us good or does it bring disaster isn't a simple task. We should take into consideration many facts. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. Thanks to discovery of electricity we can listen to the radio, watch TV, see films, people learned how to produce steel and metal alloys -now we use railways and airplanes. Development of chemistry led to new synthetic fibers and people got more clothing and food. People learned to use scientific achievements in curing incurable earlier diseases. But on the other hand such outstanding discoveries of the 20th century as atom fission led to creation of the weapons of mass destruction. We should say that science has a potential for both good and evil. Alfred Nobel invented a new explosive (dynamite) to improve the peacetime industries of road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause, until his death in 1896. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding discoveries in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals. Medical men use laser to cure and investigate diseases and the same time laser can be used for destruction. Achievements of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to people. All this shows that science can take good forms and evil forms. What form does it take depends on the way people work with science. It is impossible to stop progress, to stop people to investigate and explore the world. But people should care it wouldn't be led in wrong direction.

15. Advantages and disadvantages of TV and Advertisements

We talk to various people from different countries about their attitudes about TV and advertisement. Does TV educate or stimulate? Or it is a drug or tranquilizer used to control the population. TV is a very expensive medium and many countries don't have the technology and the money to make their own television programs. The result is that most countries are dependent on TV of Britain and America. How do people usually answer the question: "What are you going to do tonight?" or "What are you going to do at the weekend?" In other words how do people spend their free time?



Some 20 or 30 years ago the usual answers used to be "We are going to the theatre" or "We are going to the party" or "We are having some friends round". Now you are very often hearing "We are going to stay at home and watch the television".



ma. Modern TV offers viewers several programs on different channels. In addition to regular newscasts you see plays and films, operas and ballets and watch all kinds of contests, quizzes and sporting events. You can also get a lot of useful information of the educational channels. In the conclusion we may say, TV most definitely plays a very important part in people's life, but is this a good thing or a bad one? Don't we go out less often, and then we used to? Don't we read less? What are the functions of advertisements? The first one to mention is to inform. The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point of view and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously chooses the advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum, because the colorful TV commercials convince him of the best qualities of the product. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers' information we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society, and advertisements the same as TV are an essential part of our everyday life.

Another not so popular, but a very interesting group is people who prefer romantic and detective stories. And the last group is people who like to read non-fiction literature. There are many other small groups, but those three is bigger than others.

17. Smoking

Smoking is a big social issue in many countries nowadays widely discussed in newspapers, radio and TVshows. The practice of smoking tobacco originated among Native Americans in eastern North America, where tobacco is native. It was adopted by many Europeans following the colonization of

the Americas.

According to the World Health Organization, it is most common in East Asia, where as many as two-thirds of all adult males smoke tobacco. Because of concern over the health effects of tobacco smoking, the practice has rapidly declined in recent years in the United States, Canada and western Europe. However, statistics show that at least a quarter of people even in these regions continue to smoke, and there is no indication smoking will go away completely. Tobacco may be smoked in several forms, the most common being the cigarette, the cigar, and the pipe. Cigarette smoking is the most common. Pipes and cigars are

16. Books

Except for a living man there is nothing more wonderful than books. They teach us and open their hearts for us. We learn many things by reading books. They make the world much larger for us. They tell us how great and wonderful man is. Books expand the boundaries of the familiar world for us. Some books arouse our interest, delight, feelings of curiosity and admiration, some make us think which is very important and demand great erudition on the part of the readers, some entertain, amuse us giving pleasure and delight. We can hardly read some books and stories for laughing and some dramas and romances for tears. Books arouse different emotions in us; they penetrate deep into our souls and hearts. We love and suffer, feel sympathy or indignation, cry or laugh, struggle and reach success together with the characters of the books. Books have a great impact on our characters. We are influenced by good examples, they add to molding of our characters and forming our moral values. Books give food for our mind and warmth for our soul. We should love books as they are the sources of knowledge and can make us strong, intelligent, and well educated. There are different kinds of books, which appeal to different kinds of readers. They are science-fiction and fantasy stories, detective and spy stories, tales and fairytales, books about animals and nature, adventure books and Dooks about travels, humorous stories, historical dramas, Diographies and autobiographies, essays. It's so nice to read ooems which gradually are unfolding and revealing their rich inner self, as one reads them again and over again. Readers can be divided into some groups. The most popular group is people who read fantastic stories.

less common, and some stereotype these as exclusively for men. The hookah or water pipe is used in the Middle East. Medical research has found that smoking is a

major contributing factor towards many human health problems, especially lung cancer, heart attack, and other disorders. Smoking is not
supported by many people in the world, for the most part by the non-smokers. In addition, in many countries some jurisdictions impose restrictions on where smoking is allowed. Several European countries such as the

Republic of Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Spain and Scotland have legislated against smoking

in public places, often including bars and restaurants. Still, many people continue smoking. People start smoking for different reasons. Some say they smoke in order to relax, rest and distract from their daily stress. I think that most of the minors smoke in order to be like everybody else, to be cool and become a grown up. I am very tolerant towards smokers as long as they don't smoke in my presence and it's of no harm to me. Of course it's very harmful for them, but it's their own life and their own choice.

what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should wear dull grey suits and short haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters, why have the older generation so often used violence to solve their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with mean ambitious and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be right with the rat-race? Haven't the old lost touches with all that it is important in life? These are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past forty years or so hasn't been exactly spotless. Traditionally the young have turned to their elders for guidance. Today the situation might be reversed. The old- if they are prepared to admit it - could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not "sinful". Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. It is surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure; to shed restricting inhibitions. It is surely not wrong to life in the present rather than in the past or future.

18. The younger generation knows best

19. Childhood is certainly happiest time of your life



Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comment is made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer that it is today. The young are better educated. They have more money to spend and enjoy their freedom. They grow up more quickly. The old always assume that they know best from the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. They don't like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this is precisely that the young are doing. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Would not people work better if they were given complete freedom and responsibility? And unflattering conclusions about your character. Think of the curfews, the martial law, the times you had to go early to bed, do as you were told, and eat disgusting stuff that was supposed to be good for you. Remember how "gentle" pressure was applied with remarks like "if you don't do as I say, I will..." and a dire warning would follow.

It's about time somebody exploded that hoary old might about childhood being the happiest period of your life. Childhood might certainly be fairly happy, but its greatest moments can't compare with the sheer joy of being an adult. Who ever asked a six- year old for an opinion? Children don't have opinions, or if they do nobody notice. Adults choose the clothes their children will wear, the books they will read and the friends they will play with. Mother and father are kindly but absolute dictators. For all the nostalgic remarks you hear, which adult would honestly change places with a child? Think of the years at school: the years living in constant fear of examinations and school report. Every movement you make, every thought you think is observed by some critical adult who may draw What a relief it is to grow up. Suddenly you regain your balance; the worlds open up before you. You are free to choose; you have your own place to live in and your own money to spend. You do not have to seek constant approval for everything you do. You are no longer teased, punished or ridiculed by heartless adults because you failed to come to some theoretical kind of standard.

And if on occasion you are teased, you know how to deal with it. You can simply tell other adults to go to hell: you are on yourself.

20. TV in my life

TV is very important thing in our life. We can say that TV is our eyes because TV helps us to know more about the world, about the others counties, about the events that happened in the world. TV even helps you to know more about yourself. I like to watch TV very much. I can do that all day, that's why sometimes my mother makes me turn off TV. We have a lot of TV channels, they are: NTV, MTV, ORT, TVR1, TVM, PROTV and others. I also have few KOSMOS TV's channels, for example: Cartoon network, Discovery channel, TVE, and BBC. I like some of them and hate others. So here are some words about the channels that I like. So, my favorite channel is MTV. MTV is a music channel. 24 hours a day of music, can you believe it? I like to listen music very much, and sometimes I even make myself the music, that is why I enjoy watching MTV. I also like NTV. I also like several foreigner channels, especially Euro sport. And you know why! Cartoon network is not bad, but I think that it's better for children - not for me. I think that all teenagers of my age like to watch MTV or other entertainment channels. But I have to say that I like also the channels that show news, I watch also in order to get informed with all that is happening in my country but also abroad. I think that adults usually like to watch more informational channels rather than channels with cartoons or music... Usually adults like Euro news or BBC channels, which is one of the best information's channels in the whole world. The Bush house is a headquarters of the BBC World Service. Form this building the BBC broadcasts radio programmers to the whole world. All news in the BBC are checked at least twice before it is broadcasting. That's why the World Service is not always popular with governments. Cause of our different tastes, sometimes my family has a problem with choosing channels. Somebody thinks that TV is bad, but I don't think so. I believe that in the future TV will be better and everyone will like it.

early exercises you feel refreshed you have a good posture and that makes you felled so pay attentions to the way you stand waken sit. Here some rules for good health. Take long walks in the open air as often as you can. Keep your body clean. Keep your teeth clean. Wear clean clothes. Sleep with your window open. There is nothing more unpleasant than being taking ill. If you are running a temperature, have a splitting headache feel dizzy or cough you go and see a doctor or send for him at once. Certainly, he or she will prescribe some medicine which you can get made up at chemists [drug-store] At chemist's shop you can get different kinds of medicines: pulls, tablets, ointments and many other things. I remember one of my most serious illnesses. It was four years ago.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


Illness started unexpectedly. Early in the morning I woke up and felt dizzy and feverish. I had a splitting headache and terrible cough. My nose was running. I was sneezing all the time. I could hardly recognize my own voice. Besides I was running a high temperature. The doctor asked me to strip to the waist, then sounded my lungs, felt my pulse, examined the throat. I had phenomena and I was to be taken to the hospital. I had to stay for a month there and obliged to get a lot of penicillin injections. In the long run I recovered of course. But most of all I'm afraid of visiting a dentist. Toothache can't be compared with anything else. Extracting a tooth or having a tooth field is quite common things but now painful.

22. Nature protection

21. Medicines and health.

You have a sound mind in a solid body, as an Old Latin saying goes. The English proverb "Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind, expresses the similar idea, but from the different point of view. Physical exercises are good pastime. That is true that good health is better than the best medicine. If you do

Computers project that between now and the year of 2030 we are going to have increase of the average temperature between 1,5—4,5 Degrees C. Sea levels would rise by several meters, flooding coastal areas and ruining vast tracts of farmland. Water contamination could lead to shortages of safe drinking water. It looks like the end of civilization on the Earth. For hundreds of thousands of years the human race has thriven in Earth's environment. But now, at the end of the 20th century, we are at a crucial turning point. We have upset nature's sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful substances into the air, polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and tearing up the countryside to accommodate our rubbish. These are the consequences of the

development of civilization. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) concentrates its activities on these issues. Acid Measures are to be taken. We have only a few years to attempt to turn things around. We must review our wasteful, careless ways, we must consume less, recycle more, conserve wildlife and nature, act according to the dictum «think locally, think globally, act locally». To my mind, we are obliged to remove factories and plants from cities, use modern technologies, redesign and modify purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances, protect and increase the greenery and broaden 10 7 ecological education. These are the main practical measures, which must he taken in order to improve the ecological situation. Some progress has been already made in this direction. 159 countries-members of the UNO have set up environmental protection agencies. They hold conferences discussing ecological problems, set up environmental research centers and take practical urgent measures to avoid ecological catastrophe. There are numerous public organizations such as Greenpeace that are doing much to preserve environment. The 5th of June is proclaimed the World Environmental Day by the UNO and is celebrated every year.

I enjoy staying at a hotel. It is more comfortable to stay there. You can enjoy being alone, to take a hot shower, to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. Some people enjoy camping in tents. Of course, the weather must be good for that. There is nothing worse than camping in rain. If you want to travel, first, you must look through some advertisement. Some people like to go on one place and

spend their holidays there. The place may be an interesting city, a picturesque village or some other attractive place. Others believe in seeing as much as possible in the time they have. I think that our education becomes richer when you travel, meet new people, because you can see new things which you never seen in your life before and besides by traveling and sightseeing we can get to know the world around us.

24. My favorite holiday

23. Traveling.

Modern life is impossible without traveling. Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. Such people are very fond of traveling and have the sense of adventure. They travel to see other continents and countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. They travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try to different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. People travel by boat, by train, by plane or on foot. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. If we are fond of traveling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, or on TV. Traveling by air is more popular in our days than other ways of traveling. You can see many continents and oceans, countries and rivers, cities and lakes.

Every nation has its own customs and long-lived traditions. There is a great number of exciting events which are held in every country throughout the year. Such events of national importance unite people, make them feel proud of their nation. Each family is like a little country with its own traditions. So we celebrate all holidays in a very special way and it keeps our family together in spirit. Our most favorite holiday is Christmas. We celebrate it on the 25th of December. Preparation for Christmas are always pleasant: buying gifts, sending Christmas cards and decorating Christmas tree with small, bright-colored lights and small colored glass ornaments. The cookies and cakes are very special not only because of the cream but also because of their form and color. For example, they look like Christmas-trees, funny smiling faces, or teddy-bears. When the meal is ready the real Christmas comes with the big family dinner, gifts, candles, sweets and illumination. In our family this dinner is very important, all the members should be present. I believe that on this day if you make a wish staying next to the Christmas tree it will undoubtedly come true, just because it is Christmas. Usually we celebrate this holiday in a family circle but sometimes we invite our relatives and close friends to the party. Next morning after Christmas we all are looking for the sweets which the Santa puts into the Christmas stoking. I don't really believe in Santa but I believe that Christmas is a very unusual holiday when the wonders happen and all dreams may come true. My

family strongly believe in rules and traditions. All my life is filled with
_________________________________________________________________ ma.

traditions which have been set by my grand-grand parents long ago. We have traditions in fashion, in food, in behavior and in all other aspects of life

25. Ecological problems

The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life. If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful our planet is. You will see blue seas and oceans, rivers and lakes, high snowcapped mountains, green forests and fields. But now the situation changed.. One of the most important pollution problems is the oceans. Many ships sail in the ocean water- fishing ships, some ships carrying people, some carrying oil. If a ship loses some of the oil in the water, or waste from the ships in put into the ocean, the water becomes dirty. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. Many fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which

may be sold in markets, and people may get sick from eating them. Another important problem is air pollution. Cars and factories pollute the air we use. Their fume also destroys the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. The other problem is that our forests are dying from acid rains. Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the balance of nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate and ecosystem in the world. What can be done to protect nature? I believe that environment disasters can be avoided if people broaden ecological education and every person understands that the beauty of nature is extremely fragile and people must obey the unwritten laws of nature. Governments must be prepared to take action against pollution. Air pollution could be reduced if plants and factories were made to fit effective filters on chimneys and car exhausts.

26. Hippie fashion

Today, the fashion world has once again discovered the wonderful styles from the '60s. We've come full circle and clothes are not the only part of hippie Dom to resurface for m buses were converted into living space for one to a dozen people. These were often painted .Food is an important part of every culture. Hippies developed their own cuisine, a mishmash of Indian, American, Middle Eastern, Mexican, Italian and Asian with an emphasis on vegetarian. Hippies influenced not only clothes but a wide range of ideas and attitudes thus changing society in the process.

the new millennium. It's a symbol of the resurgence of hippie values in their culture. In the '60s, without warning, hippies turned fashion upside down and inside out. They brought a tsunami of new styles and colors into fashion like never before. From the Haight-Ashbury to London to Katmandu, the hippies took fashion on an eye-popping psychedelic journey. Many new fashions emanated from San Francisco and London to some extent. The fashion leaders were the icons of our day. Rock 'n roll stars like Jimmy Hendrix and The Beatles appeared in public and on record albums in all sorts of colorful costumes. The elements that went into the hippy wardrobe were only limited by their psychedelic imaginations. Bellbottoms ruled the day, from striped, to blue jeans to patchwork, to hip huggers, even leather pants were popular. Women wore saris from India and sarongs from Bali and Java. Velvet, leather, batik, denim, Indian cotton and silk were all popular fabrics. Accessories included love beads, bandannas, leather vests, jackets with frills, and granny glasses. Jewelry, especially if made of silver from Mexico, India or Morocco was essential. The typical hippy vehicle was a VW bus or van or bug. Small campers and even school

27. The philosophy should meet challenge of the new millennium.


Everyone lives his own life relying on some ideas, thoughts and some beliefs. Some people call such ideas "philosophy" of life. Even if a person says that he doesn't live according to some rules or ideas, he defines himself as a follower of such "never-care" philosophy. Throughout the history people have got to know famous people, called philosophers, who "taught" people how to live. The main thing for people became choosing which "philosophy" to follow. They missed one thing: the main thing was to choose which philosophy was RIGHT. Today we see many different people who live in different places, in different cultures, belonging to

different groups following different teachings. Each of such people believes that he follows the right philosophy and those who live differently are wrong. Very few of them try to understand others' philosophy of life. Most of them try to criticize others' ideas, claiming that only theirs are true. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium... The new millennium is not so much different from the old one. People are still quarrelling, killing, lying and dying. People are still in need of the most essential thing to rely on: they are in need of LOVE, the only thing that will save the world. The philosophy must teach people to love each other. Not that love that Sigmund Freud told us about, I'm talking about REAL LOVE, when people don't even think about quarrelling, deceiving, killing and envying just because they love each other. People today are not aware of that enormous lack of love in their hearts - they are too busy living their life full of hatred and rudeness. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium... There should be at least one person to start living according to "new" philosophy, one day he will be noticed and taken for example. Who is that person?

You could acquire a new identity, or perhaps carry on without one. Person hood- What is it to be a person? What is necessary, and what is sufficient, for something to count as a person, as opposed to a non-person? What would it take for a chimpanzee or a Martian or an electronic computer to be a person, if they could ever be? What matters- What is the practical importance of facts about our identity and persistence? Imagine that surgeons are going to put your brain into my head, and that neither of us has any choice about this. Will the resulting person (who will think he is you) be responsible for my actions, or for yours? Or both? Or neither? That completes our survey. Though these questions are related, they are different, and it is important not to run them together. What they have in common that makes them all questions about personal identity is difficult to say.

29. Tastes differ

28. Identity. I am who I am.

Personal identity-it deals with questions about ourselves qua people (or persons). The most common question is what it takes for us to persist from one time to another. What is necessary, and what is sufficient, for some past or future being to be you? But there are other questions of equal interest and importance. Many are familiar thoughts that occur to everyone at some time: What am I? When did I begin? What will happen to me when I die? Philosophical discussions of personal identity go right back to the origin of 112_______________________________________________________ the discipline, and most major figures have had something to say about it. There is no one problem of personal identity, but a range of loosely related problems. Discussions that go by the name of personal identity are most often about questions like these: Who am I? - We often speak of one's "personal identity" as what makes one the person one is. Your identity in this sense consists roughly of those attributes that make you unique as an individual and different from others. Or it is the way you see or define yourself. Your individual psychological identity is a property that you might have for a while and then lose.

The word "taste" has several meanings. One of them is a physical sense of perception, as, for example, in "It tastes so sweet, try it!" Taste may also be defined as aesthetic feeling towards something or understanding, for example "she developed a taste for music" - which means that she became fond of music. We often hear people say "this thing is tasteful or tasteless" or "this person has good taste" or "his taste is bad". ________________________________________________________ 111 This means that all of us have some kind of a taste, which is determined by the way we were brought up, by the time when we were growing. It also depends on the culture we are living in, on our age and on the people we are surrounded by. Moreover, it depends on the social class we belong to and even on our profession. People are so different and what we suppose is good for us, what seems beautiful and tasteful to us, may be just the contrary for other people. Therefore it is said "Tastes differ". Tastes differ even within one country. Each of us perhaps remembers quarreling with one of our friends over what tastes better: fried potatoes or macaroni with meat, chocolate or ice-cream, porridge or omelet Tastes differ even among people belonging to different sex. Recently American medical journal Psychology and Behaviour published the results of a very

interesting research. They used the Web to survey 277 male and female participants in order to find out what kind of food they prefer. They found that women are more prone to eat comfort foods high in fat and sugar, such as cakes and ice-cream. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to turn to soups, pasta and steaks. It is obvious that every country and nation has its own taste and way of thinking but to my opinion that makes each nation special and interesting in the meantime!

30. Learning foreign languages

It is necessary to learn foreign languages. That's why pupils have got such subject as a foreign language at school. Everybody knows his own language, but it is useful to know foreign languages somebody said: "English is a language that came from nowhere to conquer the world..." These words are really true! The most important contribution was made by William Shakespeare. Shakespeare's influence on everyday English speech is great, people all over the world quote Shakespeare. The English language arrived in Britain on the point of a sword. That is why there are so many loans in English language. Now I would like to tell you about Standard English and Regional accents. Received



pronunciation is the form of British English pronunciation used by many educated people in every part of Britain. It is thought of a standard form and is often used by the BBC. It is also used in teaching English in many parts of the world. Accent is the sound of a person's pronunciation of the language. It shows where a person comes from and what class he or she belongs to. Cockney is the way of speaking English and it is known as the London dialect. Rhyming slang is a way of speaking, ordinarily popular among cockneys in which a rhyming phrase, or a part of it, is substituted for a standard word. There is a standard form of the language and some dialects in our country too. To my mind, every country needs a standard form of the language because of the contact between people of this country. But there are a lot of loanwords in every language nowadays. Every day for example in advertisements we can hear and see new, incomprehensible, bad words, and they become widespread among the population. In conclusion I would like to say that now there are more than 60 countries that speak English as the dominant or official language. My purpose is to show you why the English is a world language. The present day world status of English is the result of two factors: the expansion of British colonial power, which peaked towards the end of the 19th century, and the emergence of the US as the leading economic power of the 20th century. English is the chief language of international business and academic conferences, and the leading language of international tourism. English is the main language of popular music, advertising, home computers and video games. Most of the scientific, technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English.

job is very hard most of theme are very disappointed and prefer to go abroad and work instead staying here. The Federal Government should do something about this problem. Creating those places for young people is the burning question now. There must be a lot of new plants, factories, hospitals and other enterprises to give jobs to all the graduates. But there is one more problem when people who leave one or institutions are not satisfied with the working conditions and work as other specialists. As a result they have only their diplomas but they do not work according to their professions. And it is also very bad. But these students are glad to find a job and work even if it has nothing to do with the specialty they learn five years for in our country young people are still a little suppressed, they have complexes but abroad the life is quite different. Young people begin to work very early from the point of view of age, get more and more experience out of their work and have more possibilities to realize themselves. I think that our state has to give more attention to educational system and the employment system if we want to achieve better results and get to be seen at international level. All this can be achieved only with good specialists and professionals

32. World of jobs

31. Problems of unemployment

I think that the problem of youth employment is very actual and must be solved as quickly as possible. They all go to institutes or universities and even academies, in order to get a degree and serve to the society. The most serious problem is that of finding working places for such a great number of specialists. Every year thousands of students graduate the high schools but uncertain of their future, as very few of theme do find a good paid job with good conditions .When students enter the high schools they all want for sure to become good specialist and all want to work and give the best from theme in order to help the society to become richer, better and that people be grateful to theme. But after graduating and finding a

It is certain the fact that every person since child dream to continue the studies and enter a good University, to graduate it and apply the knowledge accumulated. We spend great part of our lives at our jobs, so choosing a right career is one of the most important decisions you will make in your life. Many students finish high school and begin college without a clear idea of what they want to do in future. Part of the problem is the size of the job market itself. With so many kinds of jobs (2000) how can you tell which will interest you? Some of occupations are already overcrowded. In old industries there may be little need for new workers, while new and growing industries will offer jobs now and in the future. Therefore, it is extremely important to explore your choice of occupations from every angle, collect as much information as you can. But above all you must evaluate yourself. Find out where your interests and talents lie. First start with you, make a list of your interests, talents and abilities. Most people have a lot of these, but at the beginning they are undeveloped and may not seem outstanding. By concentrating on a few, or



on one you may surprise yourself at how good you can get. Unemployment especially hits poor and working class families the hardest, not because this people are more likely to be unemployed, but because they don't have financial resource to fall back on. Unemployment exists primarily for two reasons: first - the existence of millions of unemployed people tends to present most of those working from asking for higher wages since they can be replaced easily, second -in their search for profits, corporations are interested in finding the cheapest labor. The problem of unemployment is also connected with the economic crisis in our country. And I think when this crisis comes to an end the problem of unemployment will not be so urgent. But on the other hand if you studied a lot during school and high school years then you will find a good, well paid job for sure as society need and will need always good specialists in every sphere of activity.

widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "global language", the lingua franca of the modern era. While English is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a second" language around the world. Among non-English speaking countries, a large percentage of the population claimed to be able to converse in English in the Netherlands , Sweden ,

Denmark Luxembourg, Finland , Slovenia , Austria , Belgium , and Germany Norway and Iceland also have a large majority of competent
English-speakers. Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world.

34. Highway to happiness
Most of us want to be happy. But what is happiness? Is it something that you feel at a fleeting moment or does it has to last a certain amount of time before it can officially be called "happiness"? While the thought of blazing through the sky after jumping out of a plane may spell utter bliss for some, others may shiver at the mere mention of it. What one person defines as something that keeps them smiling may be just the thing that makes another person miserable. Experts say that happiness is an emotion, and just like any emotion, it comes and goes. Also like any emotion, some people simply seem to experience it more than others. It is even believed by some that everyone has a "happiness baseline." If this is true, then no matter what happens in our life, we will always return to our original level of happiness after a certain amount of time. Of course, there are many other things that can contribute to our happiness other than those listed above. Although this may come as a surprise to many, money does not account for much when it comes to happiness. Once people accumulate wealth, they are not any more satisfied with their life than those who can only afford to meet their most basic needs. In the search for happiness, we often look to others to make us happy. Then when we find ourselves anything less than pleased, we play the blame game and hold them responsible for the cause of our feelings. However, only we can be held accountable for our own happiness because only we have the power to change the situation we are in.

33. The importance of English language. English is a West Germanic language originating in England, and the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (also commonly known as the Anglosphere. Modern English is sometimes described as the global lingua franca. English is the dominant international language in communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy.
English is one of six official languages of the Nations. Over 309 million people speak English as their first language, as of 2005. English today is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. The countries with the highest populations of native English speakers are, in descending order: United States , United Kingdom, Canada, Australia , Ireland, South Africa ,and New Zealand Countries such as Jamaica and Nigeria also have millions of native speakers of dialect continuums ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English. Of those nations where English is spoken as a second language, India has the most such speaker's .Following India is the People's Republic of China. Because English is so



When it comes to achieving happiness, it's important not to forget the small stuff. By concentrating too much on being happy, you may be missing out on the "little things" that are right in front of you every day that can cause enjoyment. Simply appreciating the little things in life and learning to love, forgive, laugh, and live can lead to lifelong satisfaction. Now that we're armed with the map to happiness, we may be wondering where to start. As with anything, happiness does not magically appear overnight.

35. Importance of money in modern society.
ONE: 'You shall have no other gods before Me.' This is the first commandment of God's 1 0 Commandments. In my opinion this would be the hardest commandment to follow in a modern society that is so enamored with money. The power of a dollar is a leading concept in a modern society. Many organizations and businesses in modern society revolve around money. It's almost to the point where money can be seen as its own entity which would place itself above God in many cases. Money is something that everyone, atheists and religious leaders included, are able to see eye to eye on. The importance of money in today's society is rather large. Money finds itself everyone across society. I've personally seen many relationships go sour over disputes involving money. Cash has the ability the transform even the best people into greedy savages. Modernity is a society that lusts Women constitute half of the society and in some societies the proportion exceeds that percentage, as is the case in our Yemeni society. Nevertheless, it is found even among the intellectuals that some of them do not recognize her importance other than a housewife raising children and taking care of them and the entire household. The family as the most important component of the society, and the most significant establishment in it, the major role in running it is upon the shoulders of the woman. And the man is incapable to have the same patience and endurance the woman entertains in running the affairs of the family. In addition to that sacred role the woman also plays a recognized role outside the family sphere as she proved to be successful teachers, doctors, engineers and in other areas of social development activities. She is the mother of the society and does more than one role; her job as a housewife and

money. Money determines many things in society. People got through many years of schooling with the hope that they will graduate making six figures. Money determines ones social position in society. The more money you have the easier life is for you. Those born in money seem to have to work less than those bom without it. We turn on the television and wonder what celebrities like Paris Hilton, and Nicole Ritchie do for a living. And the answer is nothing. They don't have to work because they were lucky enough to be born with money. The thought of the "easy life" ties hand in hand with the power of a dollar and people in a modern society fight for that life. So it is very difficult to live out the first commandment in a modern society. Money is too powerful of a tool for it not to diminish the morals and values of many Americans. It is held too high in society. In a modern society, money is the equivalent to the air we breathe. Everything depends on money. It's the one thing the majority of society will agree they couldn't live without. Money is the god that many place above God.

36. Man and Woman in the society
The relationship between man and woman in the society has always been subject to a longstanding controversy, particularly in the society. It is the majority of the ordinary people that hold wrong ideas about the role of both man and woman in the society and those ideas are the cause of the imbalanced relationship between man and woman in the society. her role in the development of the society whereas man's role is mainly outside the family sphere. Moreover ever the successes scored by man are imprints of women who help in their ideas and encourage them in the accomplishment of those successes. And thus in many cases she is behind his success. Her great responsibility in providing stable and happy life inside the family is in itself an effective factor in man's success. She is an indispensable energy possessing an indispensable role. Our glorious history has abundance of examples of great women successful in various aspects of life; in politics, religion, education and fighting beside their brother's men. The intelligentsia and sociologists have to do their hardest job in enlightening the society about the mutual role played by both men and women in building an



advanced society where both men and women are equal in importance and roles played in life.

37. The impact of migration on the society
Immigration is a highly sensitive political issue in all the Member States of the European Union. Politicians and society in general need to accept the fact that the majority of EU Member States have become immigration destinations. Large-scale migration will continue to have profound economic, political, social and cultural consequences within the EU. Migration has a profound impact on people's everyday life, but also strongly influences the economical and political arena more than ever before in the modern era. Immigration will not only continue, but will also increase inside the Union. Multidimensional consequences in the social economic, political and cultural area of receiving societies maximize the demand for effective and comprehensive policies on immigration and integration of migrants. The progressive establishment of a common EU framework for the integration of migrants has therefore become a top priority. At official level, the successful integration of legally residing third-country nationals, and their descendants, is seen as a paramount goal for the benefit of EU social cohesion and economic welfare, as well as the Lisbon Strategy. At present, the nature of integration programs and the type of integration measures that should be provided are heavily being debated. Another key issue is whether such measures should be mandatory or not, and if non-compliance might lead to legal and financial consequences, including a possible impact on the migrant's residential status. Migration is a sensitive subject among populations in general. Politicians should be very clear in explaining their ideas to the wider public and the beneficial effects that immigration brings to our societies. Migration has always remained a delicate topic. Especially in periods of economic recession migrants are an easy scapegoat. They are often seen as 'those others invading our economies, looking for our jobs'. In the past, most migrants were unskilled workers who took up rough poorly paid jobs which local workers refused to do. But this situation has been complicated further by the increasing immigration of high-qualified people. People might see this as a threat to their own situation and safety.

38. Curriculum Vitae IAVORSCHI ARINA 21.10.1990______ Ismail street 16/3 fl.14 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova Tel: (373) 069112222, (373 22) 127911 E-mail: STUDIES 1996 Theoretical Lyceum " Dante Alighieri",
Chisinau, Moldova

Languages: Romanian (native), Russian English (fluently), French (medium). (fluently),

Utilisation PC: MS Office, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Excel. Personal experience:

200120022003Preferences: Hobby:

Olympiad at Mathematics English Language debates Olympiad at English Language

Dancing, painting, canto Jogging, reading, swimming.

Future plans: Studying in an USA high school Society problem: One of the most ardent problems of the society is unemployment. Most of the young people that graduate high schools cannot apply the knowledge as the government cannot assure a stable place of work. When the government will solve this problem, our society will stop fighting against such problems as migration, poverty, corruption. Ideal lyceum: Ideal place of study is the place where pupils go with pleasure, where the labs are provided with the necessary tools. The teachers are pleasant and ready to give the best from their knowledge to the young generation. And of course where pupils do all possible to



study and become good citizens ready to serve to the society.

39. Violence is a part of every child

Violence is a part of every child's life. Violence originates in many places-self, family, peers, the community and the media-and violence affects children and youth at every age, even newborn. Children and youth are witnesses and victims, and some become perpetrators. All are affected, though not all are affected equally. Media Violence Most children are exposed to media violence at some level on a daily basis through television, video games, or music Children in middle childhood watch more television and are therefore, presumably, more exposed to television violence than children who are younger or older.47 Rates of reported physical abuse are about the same for children in middle childhood as for younger children. Domestic violence Many children who live in household are often exposed to domestic violence. Compared with children in other households, children who have been exposed to domestic violence often suffer from insomnia and have trouble with bed-wetting. They also are more likely to experience difficulties in school and to score lower on assessments of verbal, motor, and cognitive skills. Also, they are more likely than other children to exhibit aggressive and antisocial behaviour, to be depressed and anxious, and to have slower cognitive development. Violence at teenagers. Many people believe that violence towards children reaches its peak in the lives of teenagers. While this is true for some of the more extreme forms of violence, other types of violence actually begin to recede during the teenage years. The risk of being a victim of sexual assault, aggravated assault, and robbery also increases as teens get older. In conclusion it can be said that most of the policy and data collection related to violence in children's lives tends to focus on a single type of violence (such as child abuse or media violence), a particular social context (such as the family, school, or neighbourhood), or a particular group (such as teens or inner-city children).

But the main responsibility it lies of course on parents, the ones that are the most indicated to take care and protect their children and assure all good conditions in order to grow up good and elevated citizens.

40. Health care in Republic of Moldova

According to the latest researches estimates, a person born in the Republic of Moldova in 2003 can expect to live 67 years on average: 71 years if female and 63 years if male. Life expectancy in the country is about 1 1 years lower than the Europa average of 79 years. However, despite being the second poorest county in the European Region, the life expectancy estimate is 2-5 years higher than similar estimates for a number of considerably richer regional countries. As the length of life increases, older people can respond with lifestyle changes that can increase healthy years of life. Correspondingly, health care systems need to shift towards more geriatric care, the prevention and management of chronic diseases and more formal longterm care. Since people are living longer, measures to improve health and prevent disease need to focus on people of working age. Health outcomes of Republic of Moldova are influenced by various factors that operate at individual, household and community levels. Obvious factors are, for example, diet, health behavior, access to clean water, sanitation and health services. Education tends to enhance an individual's job opportunities. In so doing, it can improve income, which in turn affects health positively. Education can also give more access to knowledge about healthy behavior and increase the tendency to seek treatment when needed. A lower level of education - independent of individual income - is correlated with the inability to cope with stress, with depression and hostility and with adverse effects on health. There is an income gradient affecting health: the poor generally suffer worse health and die younger than people with higher incomes. For instance, the latter are better able to afford the goods and services that contribute to health, for example, better food and living conditions.

People are considered to be in absolute poverty if their incomes are not sufficient to purchase very minimal goods and services.



In these conditions the migration increases and a lot of people go abroad to earn money in order to assure the normal level of life. And it is the Government's task to ensure good life and health

conditions to the citizens. As long as we will be confronted with these problems, we will have to fight against poverty, diseases and migration.

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