Total Quality Management

Presented By: Suman Lecturer (ECE Deptt.)

 Quality

Chapter 1

What is Quality

What is excellence?

Factors of Excellence
   

  

Strategy and Excellence Creative insight, innovation Adaptive to changes Customer orientation, employees participation, and their recognition Team work Continuous improvement, prevention oriented TQM Oriented

main characteristics of the product/service Aesthetics . well product/service conforms to customer’s expectations Safety .extra characteristics Conformance .Dimensions of Quality  Performance . feel. taste Special features .appearance.Risk of injury Reliability .consistency of performance      .

Dimensions of Quality (Contd)  Durability .handling of customer complaints or checking on customer satisfaction . reputation)  Service after sale .useful life of the product/service Quality .g.indirect evaluation of  Perceived quality (e.

Computerization and automation increases standardization and quality levels. it is merely an order qualifier. it is all the things you do because you do not have quality in the first place. High technology and complicated products make quality a necessity. it makes necessary tomorrow. • “What technology makes possible today.Why do we need quality?  Quality makes customer happy Poor Quality reduces productivity and increases costs.” [Kolesar 1991] . • • Companies exist to “delight the customer” “It is not quality that costs.” [Crosby 1979]    Quality is no longer an order winner.

Customer complaints rarely reach to the upper management. More input but does not increase the output. High costs    . conformance. service) Low productivity: Rework or scrap. ease of use.The Consequences of Poor Quality  Loss of business: Customer quietly stops buying. Liability: Due to damages or injuries resulting from poor quality (design.

. • Internal Failure Costs • Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer. • External Failure Costs • All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer.costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services.Costs of Quality  Failure Costs .

planning.Costs of Quality (continued)  Appraisal Costs • Product and/or service inspection costs. and quality improvement costs to prevent defects from occurring EX: Instructor training for better course presentation  Prevention Costs . • process control. customer assessment. • EX: Time and effort spent for course evaluations • Quality training.

customer wishes  Customer service.Responsibility for Quality  Top management. damaged in transit  Marketing and sales. quality feedback . processes conform to standards  Quality assurance  Packaging and shipping. past vs. current  Design teams  Procurement departments. standard input  Production/operations.

Chapter 2 TQM .

Evolution of Quality Management  1924 .Tables for acceptance sampling  1940’s .Statistical process control charts  1930 .Quality assurance/TQC  1960’s .Quality assurance in services .Zero defects  1970’s .Statistical sampling techniques  1950’s .

Lead. Organize. Control.      . Definition TQM is composed of three paradigms: Total : Organization wide Quality: With its usual Definitions. Staff. etc.TQM Definition  Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. with all its complexities (External Definition) Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan.

products and services through universal participation that results in increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty and improved business results.Total Quality Control (TQC)  “ An effort of continuous quality improvement of all processess.” .

Basic Approach of TQM    A committed and involved management to provide long-term top . both internally and bottom organizational support. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force. Treating supplier as partners. An unwavering focus on the customer. .    Continuous improvement of the business and production process. Establish performance measures for the processes.

Elements of TQM          Continual improvement: Kaizen Competitive benchmarking Employee empowerment Team approach Decisions based on facts Knowledge of tools Supplier quality Champion Quality at the source: The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work.  Suppliers .

Management and employees work together to create an empowered environment where people are valued. . Developing an intimate understanding of customer needs allows TQM organizations to predict future customer behavior. The final element of the TQM model is total participation.TQM Model   The model begins with understanding customer needs. In TQM organizations. and refining all TQM activities. nurturing. top management takes personal responsibility for implementing.

Oakland Model .

 .Total Quality Management and Continuous Improvement TQM is the management process used to make continuous improvements to all functions.  The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports meeting customer requirements through continuous improvement.  TQM represents an ongoing. continuous commitment to improvement.

Obstacles to Implementing TQM  Lack of: • Company-wide definition of quality • Strategic plan for change • Customer focus • Real employee empowerment • Strong motivation • Time to devote to quality initiatives • Leadership • Red tape • Resistance to a change .

team work and involvement in decisions of TQM Lower costs – Decrease waste as fewer defective products and no need for separate Quality Control inspectors Disadvantages: Initial introduction costs.Advantages and Disadvantages of TQM          Advantages: Improves workers and disrupting current production whilst being implemented Benefits may not be seen for several years Workers may be resistant to change – may feel less secure in jobs .faults and problems are spotted and sorted quicker (zero defects) Higher employee morale– workers motivated by extra responsibility.

Chapter 3 JIT .

Just-In-Time (JIT) JIT is an integrated set of activities designed to achieve high-volume production using minimal inventories of raw materials. finished goods & work in process.  Encompasses the successful execution of all production activities required from design to delivery of products.  Management philosophy…Nothing produce until needed. .

material & errors Minimize waste…in both factories: Manufacturing product & “Hidden” Attack/eliminate waste Value added to the final product philosophy … from customer’s point of view Expose problems Continuous improvement/change Enforced problem solving approach . energy.Just-In-Time (JIT) Benefits        Minimize waste of time.

 Quality can be guaranteed through either a cost penalty for defects or good working practices. .  The workforce producing the product is a disciplined one.When is JIT a suitable system to use? JIT is a suitable production system when:  The engineering manufacturer has a standard product that is steadily produced in practical amounts.  The product is of high value.  Flexible working practices are maintained.  Machinery does not demand lengthy set up times.

Less waste and. less rework. Overall savings. Relations with suppliers are enhanced.Advantages JIT system?          Products are of a better standard. Less stock. Set up times are reduced. Efficiency is increased. Plus many more… . Production flow is improved. in turn.

Minimise storage in the production area. Workstations only produce/deliver components when called (they receive card + empty container). Server only delivers components to client work station as & when needed (called/pulled). .What is kanban?          Developed at Toyota 1950s to manage line material flows. Ban= signal ) simple movement system • “cards” to signal & communicate reorder information • boxes/containers to take “lots” of parts from one work station to another (client-server). The work-station produces enough to fill the container Kanban = an authorization to produce more inventory We thus limit the amount of inventory in process. Kanban ( Kan=card.

Minimizing Waste: Kanban Control System withdrawal kanban Machine Center Bin Part A Bin Part A Assembly Line production kanban Material Flow Card (signal) Flow .

Kanban Limitations     Repetition of demand is required Why? Demand must be (relatively) smooth Especially in terms of overall volume Some change in mix OK if setups are quick Direct Kanban links and smooth demand Collaborating customers (customer development) Otherwise an assembly schedule is usedthe MPS/assembly schedule uses levelled scheduling to minimise variability may require customer-facing stock to damp fluctuation. .

Wastes Waste in operations from overproduction waiting time transportation inventory waste processing motion/movement product defects .

 Get rid of obsolete materials.  Training of employees  Improving the design and processes.  Better maintenance of machinery.Waste Elimination  Production should be done in small batches. .

Chapter 4 Customer .

. So delight the customers.Customer Satisfaction  TQM purpose is customer satisfaction to a degree that his/her expectations are to be not only met but also exceeded.  As business cannot survive without satisfied customers.

Customer Satisfaction Surveys  Post Purchase Survey: through response cards Post Installation telephone method Survey: through mail. .   Customer Satisfaction Survey: done by specialist agencies who conduct third party survey.

Kano’s Model of Customer Satisfaction Satisfaction Satisfier One Dimensional Desired Quality Delighters Attractive Excited Quality Service Performance Dissatisfier Must Be Expected Quality Service Performance Dissatisfaction .

Chapter 5 Planning Process .

What is planning .

.  Dates for series of review meetings.Outcomes of Planning  Basic understanding of TQM to management team  An agreed company mission statement  Allocation of roles and responsibilities  Implementation of TQM plan together with the work force.

The Term Hoshin Planning (Kanri)  The word Hoshin results from the combination of two Japanese words: • Ho • Shin • Hoshin means course or direction means needle means direction needle (or compass) .

The Term Hoshin Planning (Kanri)  The word Kanri results from the combination of two Japanese words • •  Kan Ri means control means reason or logic The process of Hoshin Kanri can be understood as an effort to manage or control change in order to facilitate organizational effectiveness .

’ . Hoshin Planning draws on systems thinking. and a series of creative and logical tools designed to accelerate the achievement of the ‘Hoshin’ objectives. the PDCA cycle. teamwork.Hoshin Planning Definition ‘Hoshin Planning is an approach to planning for breakthrough improvements towards an organization’s vision.

The Hoshin Kanri Process .


the state or federal government. Parents. The board is not alone in identifying policy needs.Steps of policy Development           Step One: Define the Issue or Problem The process of policy development begins with recognizing the need for written policy. students. teachers. local taxpayers. the superintendent. and pressure groups are all sources of policy issues and problems. Step Two: Gather Necessary Information on the Issue Sample policy language and analysis from your state association and NSBA Experience from other districts Education research Local input State association seminars State or federal laws and regulations .

S. and federal law? The U.Steps of policy Development (Contd…)            Step Three: Secure Recommendations from Superintendent Once facts are available. Step Four: Discuss and Debate at the Board Level (include input of affected parties) Is the content within the scope of the board’s authority? Is it consistent with local. and the state’s constitution? Does it support the school district’s goals or objectives? Is it good educational (personnel. business) practice? Does it adequately cover the subject? Is it limited to one policy topic? Is it consistent with board’s existing policies? Can it be administered? Is it practical? How much will it cost? . state. the board listens to recommendations for handling the policy issue.

Step Eight: Hold Second Reading The period between the first and second reading allows time for all concerned persons to ask questions. directly. giving notice to everyone interested that the board has a specific policy under consideration. comments and suggestions obtained after the first reading. .Steps of policy Development (Contd…)         Step Five: Draft Policy After the board has reached consensus on policy content. Step Six: Hold First Reading Once in writing. make comments. Policy must be broadly stated with room for adjustment to fit special circumstances. the policy draft is placed on the board’s agenda for a first reading. and offer suggestions for changes and improvements. This person must be able to write clearly. the board’s policy writer goes to work. and succinctly. Step Seven: Make Revisions Revise the policy based on the information gained form the questions.

They can become out of date. The policy amendment process is the same as the policy adoption process.Steps of policy Development (Contd…)     Step Nine: Adopt the Policy Step Ten: Distribute to the Public Seeing the policies are distributed as widely as possible is one way to ensure implementation. . Step Twelve: Policy Evaluation and Revision or Modification Policies should be reviewed on a regular basis as a part of the board’s standard operating principles. When any of this occurs the policy needs modification or elimination. Policy oversight can provide guidance on whether to continue or modify the policy and to determine future courses of action. Oversight is intended to make sure that the policy accomplishes its goal. unclear. or even contrary to the way in which the school district is operating. Step Eleven: Oversee Policy Implementation Policy oversight is a dynamic process that includes an evaluative component.

Chapter 6 Process Management

What is a Process?

A process is a set of successive operations targeting a specific result. It involves input (data, materials, products in various stages of completion) from suppliers or previous processes, which it transforms and transmits either to a process downstream, or to a customer. In other words, a process is a series of tasks performed with specific resources.

Process Improvement and Tools
 Process

 Tools

• Process mapping, flowchart • Analyze the process, too few steps, too many steps • Redesign the process

improvement - a systematic approach

number • There are a process of tools that can be used for problem solving and improvement in • Tools aid fordata collection and interpretation, and provide the basis decision making

The Process Improvement Cycle Select a process Document Study/document Evaluate Seek ways to Improve it Implement the Improved process Design an Improved process .

The new concept of quality focuses on identifying quality problems at the source and correcting them. All this cost the company money.Process Management       According to TQM a quality product comes from a quality process. the defective products were either discarded or sent back for reworking. and these costs were passed on to the customer. If the source of the problem is not corrected. . the problem will continue. The old concept focused on inspecting goods after they were produced or after a particular stage of production. Quality at the source is the belief that it is far better to uncover the source of quality problems and correct it than to discard defective items after production. If an inspection revealed defects. This means that quality should be built into the process.

Process Management Roles & Responsibilities        Process Champion: ensures process efforts are linked with overall business strategies and goals and advocates process breakthrough initiatives for at least one QMS process. PMT Member: analyzes and recommends improvements to the process. establishes processspecific goals. . Process Leader: manages process on a daily basis. Support Manager: manages the execution of current process and implements process improvement to achieve process results. PMT Leader: leads effort to develop and implement initiatives to improve process capability and achieve process results. charts PMT activity. commits to customers’ primary requirements and is ultimately accountable for results of at least one QMS process. manages funding process and interfaces with customers and suppliers. Process Associate: executes current process and implements process improvements to achieve process results. Process Owner: provides process vision.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)    To produce a product that customers want. An example is an automobile manufacturer evaluating how changes in materials affect customer safety requirements. Quality function deployment is also useful in enhancing communication between different functions. by running tests to see how changes in certain technical requirements of the product affect customer requirements. such as marketing. . this can often be difficult. This can help us analyze the big picture —for example. However. QFD enables us to view the relationships among the variables involved in the design of a product. and engineering. we need to translate customers’ everyday language into specific technical requirements. operations. such as technical versus customer requirements. A useful tool for translating the voice of the customer into specific technical requirements is quality function deployment (QFD).

These requirements are numerically scored based on their importance.)   QFD begins by identifying important customer requirements.Quality Function Deployment (Contd. The resulting matrix looks like a picture of a house and is often called the house of quality. which typically come from the marketing department. Finally. specific goals are set to address the identified problems.. and scores are translated into specific product characteristics. . Evaluations are then made of how the product compares with its main competitors relative to the identified characteristics.

It is the totality of the arrangements made with the object of ensuring that pharmaceutical products are of the quality required for their intended use. QA is the heart and soul of quality control QA = QC + GMP .Quality Assurance Quality assurance is a wide ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of a product.

equipments. process. products and cleaning as per master plan  .Quality Assurance-Highlights  Quality assurance manufacturing is independence of  In process quality is checked during manufacturing Validation of facilities.

Quality Assurance-Highlights  Complaint handling Storage of quality record and control samples Stability studies Registration of documents    .

Chapter 7 Total Employees Empowerment .

Involving and Empowering People  Employees are a company’s most precious resource and the only one which can take control of processes and identify and reduce anything which does not meet the “lean” or “just enough” standard. people must be involved and empowered and their value recognized. Human resource development involves acquisition of experience linked with a training component. which must focus on the importance of cooperation and team work as incentives for better quality.    . Initiative and creativity must be developed in order to encourage problem-solving. Fort that reason. productivity and safety.

and their suggestions are implemented. Often poor quality was passed on to someone else. . TQM. Employees are rewarded for uncovering quality problems. They are considered a vital element of the effort to achieve high quality. In order to perform this function. Workers are empowered to make decisions relative to quality in the production process. provides incentives for employees to identify quality problems. not punished.” The new concept of quality. employees were afraid to identify problems for fear that they would be reprimanded. employees are given continual and extensive training in quality measurement tools.Employee Empowerment     Part of the TQM philosophy is to empower all employees to seek out quality problems and correct them. in order to make it “someone else’s problem. Their contributions are highly valued. With the old concept of quality.

. Just as a defective item would not be passed to an external customer. a defective item should not be passed to an internal customer. the packaging department of an organization is an internal customer of the assembly department..Employee Empowerment (Contd. For example.)     To further stress the role of employees in quality. Internal customers are employees of the organization who receive goods or services from others in the company. TQM differentiates between external and internal customers. External customers are those that purchase the company’s goods and services.

To facilitate the solving of quality problems.Team Approach   TQM stresses that quality is an organizational effort. Teams vary in their degree of structure and formality. . The contributions of teams are considered vital to the success of the company. and different types of teams solve different types of problems. and quality control tools. it places great emphasis on teamwork. discussion. teams work regularly to correct problems. Using techniques such as brainstorming.

and criticism is not allowed. they do important work for the company and have been very successful in many firms. Quality circles are not mere “gab sessions. Although the functioning of quality circles is friendly and casual. The circle is usually composed of eight to ten members.Quality Circles (QC)    One of the most common types of teams is the quality circle. The teams usually meet weekly during work hours in a place designated for this purpose. and decisions are made through group consensus.” Rather. They follow a preset process for analyzing and solving quality problems. Open discussion is promoted. . a team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors whose purpose is to solve quality problems. it is serious business.

Quality Circles  Team approach • List reduction • Balance sheet • Choosing a movie with friends on a Friday night • Choosing an apartment to stay. • Transitivity relation assumed among pairs • Can Portland beat Lakers? • Paired comparisons . pros and cons of each option • Eliminate alternatives by comparison • Portland beats Nicks. Nicks beat Lakers.

Chapter 8 Problem Solving .

Basic Steps in Problem Solving        Define the problem and establish an improvement goal Collect data Analyze the problem Generate potential solutions Choose a solution Implement the solution Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal • Problem: How to improve free-throw percentage? .

revise unsuccessful plan Do Implement plan Using data to check: results match the goal? Study Collect data for evaluation .The PDSA / PDCA Cycle Plan Act Document process Collect and analyze data Develop a plan Standardize successful method.

Basic Quality Control Tools         Flowcharts Check sheets Histograms Pareto Charts Scatter diagrams Control charts Cause-and-effect diagrams Run charts .

Check Sheet Billing Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount Monday A/R Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount .

Histograms A bar chart of the frequency of outcomes .

Pareto Analysis Example: Problems with printing name tags  Pareto Analysis Example: Problems with printing name tags Number of defects Off center Smeared print Missing label Loose Other .

Pareto Diagram .

A Scatter Diagram 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 Sales in East Sales in West .

Scatter diagram Determine the correlation between quality and operations factors .

Control Chart 1020 1010 1000 990 980 970 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Help detect the correctable causes of variations LCL UCL .

Cause-and-Effect Diagram or Fishbone diagram Methods Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Materials Cause Cause Cause Environment Effect People Equipment .

58 0.52 0.56 0.44 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 T im e (Ho urs ) Diameter Time (Hours) .54 0.Run Chart 0.48 0.46 0.5 0.

Chapter 9 Benchmarking .

Bench Marking (BM) Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organization can measure themselves against the best industry practices. Essence of BM is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. .

. Continuous Improvement & New Development.Reasons for Bench Marking     To achieve Business & Competitive Objectives. Goals & Objectives Based on External Environment. Cost Efficient.

Benchmarking Processes   Identify a critical process that needs improving Identify an organization that excels in this process •  Not necessarily from the same industry Confidentiality is important Contact that organization •  Analyze the data  Improve the critical process Benchmarking numbers is benchmarking processes much more common than .

no 1 2 3 Determine the data collection method and start collecting data Analysis 4 Determine the current performance GAP Steps Earmark what is to be Bench Marked ? Identify the best competitor 5 Project future performance levels .Bench Marking Process Phases Planning S.

Bench Marking Process Phases Integration 6 7 Steps Communicate bench mark findings and gain acceptance Establish Functional Goals Action 8 9 Develop Action Plans Implement specific actions and monitor Progress .

Bench Marking Process Phases Maturity 10 Steps Recalibrate Benchmarks 11 Attain the Leadership position 12 Integrate Practice into the Process .

9.Generation of Benchmark 10. 4. 7. 3. Self Bench Marking Values Bench Marking Quality of Life Bench Mark Seventh Generation ERP Bench Marking Intrapreneual Bench Marking Global Bench Marking Strategic Bench Marking Process Bench Marking Competitive Bench Marking Sixth Generation Fifth Generation Fourth Generation Third Generation Second Generation First Generation Reverse Bench Marking( product) . 1. 5. 2. 6. 8.

Reasons For Bench Mark      Defining Customer Requirements Establish Goals and Objectives Measures of Productivity Becoming Competitive Industry best practices to be achieved .

regardless of industries .g.  . Eicher Tractor Comparison Between Units  Competitive B M Direct Product Competitors  Functional B M E. Best Logistics from same industries (or) Any industries  Generic B M Same process or functions like Customer service.g.Types of Bench Mark Internal B M E. order entry.

Benefits of BM • • • • • • Best Practices incorporated into the process Motivation for creativity & innovation Technological Breakthrough in one’s industry Better professional growth Meet effectively customer requirements Assist in attaining competitive position .

Chapter 10 Quality systems .

their companies must become truly world-class. Quality in your products and services. Quality in your practices and procedures. And that means quality. Quality you maintain and you can prove . in the new global economy. .Introduction (ISO)   Today. or even survive. more and more business and industry leaders realize that in order to thrive.because it is documented.

the idea that they develop standards to place organizations on an equal footing. but it isn't. You would reasonably assume that it ought to be IOS.What does the term "ISO" stand for?  The term ISO stands for the International Organization for Standardization. because iso in Greek means equal. Apparently. and ISO wanted to convey the idea of equality . the term ISO was chosen (instead of IOS). .

It is composed of the national standards institutes and organizations of 97 countries worldwide. .History of ISO   The International Standards Organization (ISO). trade and communications. in Geneva. including the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Switzerland. was founded in 1946 to develop a common set of standards in manufacturing.

In addition. . but the ISO 9000 series is having a major impact on international trade. the standards have been rapidly adopted by organizations in Europe.History of ISO (Contd…)   The ISO publishes thousands of standards. First published in 1987. And that trend is growing. Asia and North America. there is a movement by several industries in the EEC where ISO certification is now a prerequisite to product certification.

.. and by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee.History of ISO (Contd…)   The standards have been endorsed by the American Society of Quality Control. In the U. which is accountable to ISO when it comes to certification. The RAB has recognized over 40 certification bodies that have trained certified auditors.S. the American Society for Quality Control runs the Registrar Accreditation Board (RAB). the European Standards Institutes.

materials and systems.ISO Standards ISO standards specify the requirements  for state-of-the-art products. services.  processes.  managerial and organizational practice .  and for good conformity assessment.

Do what you say.“ ISO 9000 is a set of international standards for both quality management and quality assurance that has been adopted by over 90 countries worldwide. and in many industries. large and small.What exactly is ISO 9000?     Documentation is at the core of ISO 9000 conformance. In fact. the standards have been described as this: "Say what you do. Write it down. . The ISO 9000 standards apply to all types of organizations.

A system to track and manage evidence that these practices are instituted throughout the organization. A third-party auditing model to review.What exactly is ISO 9000?  • • • The standards require: A standard language for documenting quality practices. . certify and maintain certification of organizations.

. production. ISO 9001 .Guidelines for the applications of standards in quality management and quality systems. development. processed materials and services. ISO 9004 . installation and servicing. ISO 9000 .What exactly is ISO 9000?  • • • The ISO 9000 series classifies products into generic product categories: hardware.Explains fundamental quality concepts and provides guidelines for the selection and application of each standard. software.Model for quality assurance in design.

Model for quality assurance in design. processed materials and services. production. ISO 9000 .What exactly is ISO 9000?  • • • The ISO 9000 series classifies products into generic product categories: hardware. development. software. ISO 9001 . ISO 9004 .Guidelines for the applications of standards in quality management and quality systems. .Explains fundamental quality concepts and provides guidelines for the selection and application of each standard. installation and servicing.

the ISO 9000 standards define "quality" in ways that have been recognized and accepted worldwide. The goal is to increase customer confidence in the quality system used by their suppliers.Basic functions of the ISO 9000 standards   • • • Simply stated. The standards are designed to: Establish consistent language and terminology Provide baseline quality practices that are accepted internationally Reduce the need for costly on-site supplier assessments .

The purpose of ISO 9001 is to assure customers that suppliers can provide quality products and services. You need to control the quality of your products and services. Your competitors are already certified .Purpose        ISO's purpose is to facilitate international trade by providing a single set of standards that people everywhere would recognize and respect. You need to reduce the costs associated with poor quality. Your customers want you to become certified. Your markets expect you to be certified.

ISO 9000 Quality Management Principles A systems approach to management  Continual improvement  Factual approach to decision making  Mutually beneficial supplier relationships  Customer focus  Leadership  People involvement  Process approach .

ISO is also important because of its systemic orientation.Why is ISO 9000 Important?    ISO 9000 is important because of its orientation. . . ISO 9000 is important because of its international orientation.

ISO 9000 certification is a uniform standard. ISO 9000 can improve overall business efficiency . you begin to accrue benefits even before you achieve ISO 9000 certification." which can be expensive and time-consuming.Need of ISO       Many manufacturers even have to undergo customer-driven "quality audits. So you save money. ISO 9000 practically eliminates the need for many customerdriven quality programs. The preparation for ISO 9000 registration involves a close analysis of your existing quality systems. accepted and recognized internationally.

accurate. accessible information ISO 9000 can help you develop "best practices" and eliminate costly surprises ISO 9000 improves the quality of your information .Need of ISO (Contd…)    ISO 9000 can ensure timely.

inspection.ISO Series ISO 9001 Design Control and Service ISO 9002 Purchasing. testing ISO 14000 Environmental issues .Contracting Process control ISO 9003 Production.

Chapter 11 Advanced Techniques of TQM .

INTRODUCTION  Taguchi Methods is a statistical methods developed largely by GENICHI TAGUCHI to improve quality of manufactured goods. in the design of experiments.  The  Innovations . philosophy of off-line quality control.

Taguchi Loss Function Definition  Taguchi defines Quality as “the loss imparted by the product to society from the time the product is shipped.  Product to be produced “being within specification” .”  LOSS = Cost to operate. maintenance and repair cost. poor design. Failure to function. customer satisfaction.

Taguchi’s Vs Traditional Approach Taguch’s Traditional When a product moves There is Good or Bad from its Target will cause Products only as per Limits the loss even if the product lies or not within Limits .

then Loss increases.  Deviation Grows.  Taguchi’s U-shaped loss Function Curve. .Taguchi’s Quadratic Quality Loss Function  Quality Loss Occurs when a product’s deviates from target or nominal value.

Taguchi’s U-shaped loss Function Curve. Loss LTL Nominal UTL Measured characteristic . Taguchi loss Fn Scrap or Rework Cost.

N = Nominal Value of the product and (x-N) = Tolerance  . k = C/d² = Constant of proportionality. where C – Loss associated with sp limit d .Deviation of specification from target value x = Quality Features of selected product.Formula to find Taguchi’s Loss Fn Taguchi uses Quadratic Equation to determine loss Curve  L (x) = k (x-N)² Where L (x) = Loss Function.

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