Introduction...............................................................................2 AC.Motors.................................................................................4 Force.and.Motion......................................................................6 AC.Motor.Construction............................................................ 2 Magnetism.............................................................................. 7 Electromagnetism................................................................... 9 Developing.a.Rotating.Magnetic.Field.....................................24 . Rotor.Rotation.........................................................................29 . Motor.Specifications. ..............................................................34 . NEMA.Motor.Characteristics. .................................................37 Derating.Factors......................................................................43 . AC.Motors.and.AC.Drives. ......................................................45 Matching.Motors.to.the.Load..................................................49 Motor.Enclosures....................................................................53 Mounting.................................................................................56 . Siemens.AC.Induction.Motors. ...............................................6 Review.Answers......................................................................72 Final.Exam............................................................................... 74 

Introduction

Welcome.to.another.course.in.the.STEP.series,.Siemens. Technical.Education.Program,.designed.to.prepare.our. distributors.to.sell.Siemens.Industry,.Inc..products.more. effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of AC Motors.and.related. products.. Upon.completion.of.Basics of AC Motors.you.should.be.able. to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Explain.the.concepts.of.force,.inertia,.speed,.and.torque Explain.the.difference.between.work.and.power Describe.the.construction.of.a.squirrel.cage.AC.motor Describe.the.operation.of.a.rotating.magnetic.field Calculate.synchronous.speed,.slip,.and.rotor.speed Plot.starting.torque,.accelerating.torque,.breakdown. torque,.and.full-load.torque.on.a.NEMA.torque.curve Apply.derating.factors.as.required.by.an.application Describe.the.relationship.between.V/Hz,.torque,.and. horsepower Match.an.AC.motor.to.an.application.and.its.load Identify.NEMA.enclosures.and.mounting.configurations Describe.Siemens.NEMA,.IEC,.and.above.NEMA.motors

This.knowledge.will.help.you.better.understand.customer. applications..In.addition,.you.will.be.better.able.to.describe. products.to.customers.and.determine.important.differences. between.products..You.should.complete.Basics of Electricity before.attempting.Basics of AC Motors..An.understanding. of.many.of.the.concepts.covered.in.Basics of Electricity.is. required.for.this.course.. After.you.have.completed.this.course,.if.you.wish.to.determine. how.well.you.have.retained.the.information.covered,.you.can. complete.a.final.exam.online.as.described.later.in.this.course..If. you.pass.the.exam,.you.will.be.given.the.opportunity.to.print.a. certificate.of.completion.

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Siemens.AC.AC Motors AC motors.mechanical.AC.type.of.AC.of. many.form.basic. overview.the.may.or.motors..of.part.are..applications.wide.AC.includes.this.There.or.into.threephase AC induction motors.some.on..types.information...industrial.other.a. variety.many. about.providing. used.an.motor.In.addition.applications.of. connected.a. Winder Pump Conveyor 4 .focuses.of..such.general.in.manufactures.in.motors.winder.fan.energy.in. as.motors.are.electrical..common..conveyor.to.motors.AC.also.type.be.energy.course.mixer.of.this.used.but.motor.to.course. transform.this..equipment. An.or.most.pump.mechanical.of.to.Siemens.worldwide.a.

electrical.Publication.motors.as.motors. Above NEMA Motors.to.size.the. organization.as above NEMA motors. IEC Motors.standards.frame.many.respects.is.export..build.NEMA.many. that..motors.products.also.addition.although.NEMA.sometimes.companies.the..more.common. size.motors.standards..differ.motors.electrical.IEC.standards.wide. perform. countries. United.States..and..International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).the..with.in.covers. requirements..IEC.commonly.AC.standards...larger.range. In.built..to.. is.than.that.to.to.NEMA Motors.NEMA.function.AC.For.example.commonly.a.reference.IEC.the. Siemens.used.manufacturing.to.S.referred.this.-based...is.manufactures...follow.NEMA.countries.NEMA.mind. MG..are. NEMA. to. in.Standard.another.motors.NEMA.for.of.frame.are.In.also.to.commonly.equipment.Keep.same.many.NEMA.as. including.motors.standards..are. manufactures.but. Throughout.motors.course..are.standards.These.products.made.largest.meet.IEC.Siemens.U.to.IEC.standards.for. 5 .application..designed.motors..electrical.National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).In.for.comply. develops.however.specific.responsible.referred.

the.object.move.the.direction.the.see.is. same.net.pull.of.same.understand.or.and.opposite.of.means.the.would.5.of.0..a.push.terms.some.or.added.and..two.a.be. including. Force..direction.AC.in.applied.familiar.is.sum.pounds.direction..is.they.gravity.Force and Motion Before.in. physical. forces.terminology.the.in.applied.forces.it.pounds.the.net..gravity.that.vector.are.us.pounds. 20. some.the. Later..these.applied. In.. Net Force.how.of.a.to.0..For.one. 10 LB 5 LB = 5 LB 6 ..electromagnetism.motor.is..we.will.in.AC.with.be. caused.terms.simple.the.on.to.direction.all. 10 LB 10 LB = 20 LB If. of.force.are.associated.applied..pound.and.would.5.is. motors.force.may.pounds.in..are.act.of. be.. Net force.force.necessary.in.motors.in.example.by.other.Force.to.When.discussing.course.context.friction.of.a. Many.force.apply.would.terms.the. greater.an.are.direction.if.these.the.forces.basic.force.the.operation.object.combination.force.

force.x.if.Force.radius. 0.force.system..a...is.feet.effect.is.results.turning.in..is.the.the. Torque.object.lb-ft.of.20..of.lever. τ.0.would.force.to.example.force.the.or.measured.pivot.a.(τ).For.applied.end.and.example.or.force.causes.equally.of.foot.or.corresponding.at. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 20 lb-ft 2 feet 7 .a.be.causes.in.twisting.a.force.lb-ft.zero.results.torque.is. a.pounds.the.For. of.Radius In.applied.Increasing. rotate.lever...is. 10 LB 10 LB = 0 Torque.resulting.an.directions.in.(lever..of.in.in.the.radius.(lb-ft).applied.move.and.to..for.object.would.measurements.point.in.0.or...that.=.lbs..a. example.two.to.not.torque.torque.product.the. increase.increase.is.turning.distance).(lb-in). pound-feet.to.force.torque.pound-inches. Torque..English.the.torque.If. net. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 10 lb-ft 1 foot An.radius.long.the.both.of.

A.takes.2.in..For.upon..from..a.change.Therefore.a.units.per.of.is.to. accelerate.it.makes.the. acceleration. Angular.a...in.from.that.has. RPM.is.change.an.RPM.distance.take..deceleration.example.the.to.. 10 RPM Acceleration 20 RPM 20 RPM Deceleration 10 RPM  .the.for.an.of.travels.RPM.20.known. the.speed.can.the. (RPM).rotating..divided.An. Direction of Rotation Rotional Motion Axis of Rotation Acceleration.acceleration).acting.travel.speed. An.to.specified.0.increase.the.motion. it.per.object.time. Linear speed..distance.expressed.an.called.time.if.determines.. (negative..ratio.is.object. the.20.. distance.any.is.meters.of.is...in.ten.miles.(m/s).Speed.Linear.is..speed.at. from.per.angular.takes.it.Speed.decelerate.a.RPM.in.a.is.for.Acceleration.40.when.to.often.for.also.expressed.rotate. Linear Speed.rate.and.long.object. An.object.occurs.speed.can.which.there. second.example. in. The.or.RPM.to.time.example.minute.seconds.travel.only.of.object.0.object. Linear Motion Angular (Rotational) Speed.speed.object.in.m/s.This.units..or.is.minute.force..change.rotating.takes. by..revolutions.An.distance.angular speed.speed.as.. revolutions.meters.to.speed.one.0.can.how.of.specified.higher.lower.distance.a.20.complete.object.hour.travel.a..to.traveled.distance. the.object.

a.an.causes.=..to.inertia..causes..is.is. distance.stop.example. This.moving.For.the.of.inertia.external.equals.the.expressed.objects. state.for.distance.in..to.subject.of.of.is. Mechanical..force...that.English. system..roll.one.force. machine.unit.of.joule.apply.a.in.The.work.expressed.of.the.the.takes.when.losses.squared.. system.friction.will.in.in.multiplying.the.system.pound-feet.for.valid.force.is.acceleration/deceleration. added.as.times.force..another..newton-meter.Force.ft-lb.remain.that.system.we.a.motion. Since.contact.object.one.the.overcome. Friction.Once.expressed.loss.joules.the.of..calculated.to.is.systems.to.energy. Friction.English..inertia..by..x.of.product.compensate.it..unwinds.(ft-lb).of.work.motion.in. can. know.foot..all.has.commonly.because.the.be.physics.a. in.surface.upon.for..If.the.object.of.of.not.example.however.object.energy.any.be.motion.motion. of.it.rest.to.in.to.compound.one.in. work. 9 .the..resistance.unless.times.times.(lb-ft ). newton.Distance Work..by.inertia.start.occurs.that..force.law.force.must.causes.acted.if.states.to.. in.move. For...is.that.try.the. Friction.its.a...the..is.roll.most.force.As.Work.is. measurements.direction.is.takes.applied. inertia.Inertia.unit.moment.law of inertia.the.the. Any.drain.to. Whenever.the.energy.force.losses.increases.. the. of. where.is.moving.consider.system.significant.of.another.from..The.remain.property.tend..an.when.machine.to.the.. 2 measurement.a.often.a.times.the.or. referred.applied.the.accomplished.force.large.meter.we.simply.work. Work..of.law.in.and.motion.is.work..still.roll.a.distance.current.The.a.bring.equal..will.system.to.speed.is.In.can..force.distance.pound.reverse.roll.across.constant.the.motion.we.are.foot-pounds.of. paper.at.to.

is. Another.work.horses.torque.in.expressed.Note.in.replace.expressed.a.that.a.sold.in.second.the.was.often.how.the. used...engines..following.of.per.foot-pounds.walk.a. amount.but.average.to.of.many.weight.horsepower.defined.unit.Power.and.the.per. often.lift..RPM.an..550.33.000.about. doing.both.James.When. useful.that..would.wheel.second.around.of. foot-pounds.power..He.for.in.the.is.lb-ft.speed.of.time.work.increase.expressed.per.period.speed.in.rate.quantity. Power.amount.horse.torque. found..in.is.speed.or..expressed.horsepower.it..Watt.of.that.to..amount.is.of.and.horses.used.is.be..to.formula.the.can. had.by.steam.Power. torque. When.horsepower.calculate.the.horsepower.horsepower.would.is. work.Therefore.would.concept.second.or..given.was.per.This.determine. Horsepower.of.one.century.be.steam.550. th.engine..is.or.minute.foot-pounds.one.can.Watt. and.a.to.a.foot-pounds.applying.done.(HP).horsepower.He.in..motors. asked.equal. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 0 .increases.

is.but. ________.the.time.force.an.direction.x.converted.is.a..of.rated.applied..in.or.applied.HP.and.pounds. 6.the.motors.state.rated.lever. net.between.Horsepower and Kilowatts.an.HP.a.0.a.kW Review 1 .in.states.is.States.many. 7 .of.in.for. to.65.power.motors. the.is.___.units.speed.force.is.of.25.opposite.an. The...at.upon.is.in. The.(kW).object.___.object.long.torque.HP. acted.its.in.is.convert.object’s.=.rotating..that.horsepower.manufactured.the.these.unless..the.to.distance. formula.kW Kilowatts. ________..in. 5.pounds..current.are. If.in.in.force.HP For.to.with.lb-ft.traveled. AC.be.of. 3..equal.Fortunately. pounds.of.expressed..is..United.feet. 2.in.law.kilowatts.. 0.is.________.or.generally.746.a.manufactured.in.will.=. power.following.horsepower.equivalent.are.speed.. If.turning.called.often.is.divided. countries.force.=.power.it.elapsed.for.external. An.force.tend.in.in.is.to.direction.a. 4.motor.5.the.20. ________.force.motor.25.the.to.34.increase.  .rest. rated.pounds. motor.the.twisting...x.can.by.in.example.by.40.a.kW.other.motion.applied.one.746.rated. power.of.x.kW.end.of.65. 2. easy.generally.remain.________.

industrial. and.applications..Laminations.main.the.energy.This.made.many..used.core..sheets.of.up.solid. Stator Lamination 2 .of.are.motor’s.The.if.part.were.rotor.parts.stator..and..of.would.motor.the.thin.the.reduce.to.type.stator.core. rotor.metal.and.stationary.used.that.The.has.three.protects.do.enclosure.used.AC Motor Construction Three-phase AC induction motors.commonly.laminations..stator.a. circuit.electromagnetic.stator.stator.and..is..rotor.are.the. loses.the.result. called.is.in. Enclosure Stator Rotor Stator Core The..enclosure.work.

is.when.stacked.basic. coils...with.wire..the.behind. electromagnet.Stator Windings.to.an.the..slots. Stator Windings Partially Completed When.the. cylinder. stator.stator.are.is.into.source.motor.connected..insulated.assembled.of.current.of.directly.hollow.principle.of.steel.together. Stator Windings Completed 3 . Stator.applied.Each.surrounds.forming.together..a. the.it..motor.grouping.are..operation.laminations.inserted.operation.power.core.Coils.becomes.in.windings.is. are.Electromagnetism.core.the.the.

then.types.motor.motor’s.motors. rotating.common. rotor.cage.shaft.is.of.are.called.in.form.and.die cast copper rotor conductors.are.the. Most.casting.three-phase.cages.conductor.core.the.motor.assembly.. electrically.of.pressed.a.discussed.The.The.rotor.squirrel cage rotor..part. Rotor Lamination Rather.in. are.also.spaced..with..cage.mechanically.conductor.is.by.connected.exceed.coils.cast.wheels. After.is..a.pet.with.to.rings.to.die.into.most.Other.of.makes.squirrel.squirrel.cylinder.the.construction.some.cylinder.in.rotor.rotor.a.later.These. onto.. laminations.aluminum.conductor bars.a.the..is. The.rotor.type.because.Siemens.evenly.conductors.reminiscent.made.course.made.rotor.as.slots.wire.exercise.the..a.form. Rotor A.of.is.steel.cage.Rotor Construction.than.using.so.end.bars.electromagnetic..thin.its.squirrel.rotor.the.rotating.by.the.die. construction.of.stacking.is.bars.used.die..NEMA Premium efficiency standards. induction. form.to.casting.The.is..around.steel. Steel Laminations Shaft Conductor Bar End Ring Cutaway View of Rotor 4 .rotors..rotor. circuit.found.

type.of.protects..from.allow.also.separating.and.stator..consists.no.The.direct.shown.rotating.a.environmental.is..the.a.the.of.Enclosure.the.enclosure.shaft.discussed.the. brackets.cool. types.mounted.parts..frame.frame.with.other.enclosure.the.one.air.on.to.later.the.and.bearing.of.physical.this.when.the.course. water.upon.(or..fits. gap.elements.is..on.shaft..between. The.The.of.stator.is. the.in.two.shaft.the. Bearings.turn.stator.a.slight.motor..the.the.and.The.motor.internal..and.fan.. End Bracket (Bearing Housing) Stator Cooling Fan Bearing Rotor End Bracket (Bearing Housing) Bearing Frame (Yoke) Cutaway View of Motor 5 ..(or. Air Gap Rotor Frame Stator Partially Assembled Motor The.the..end.in.yoke).rotor. connection.rotor.to.. protection.enclosure.support.degree.rotor.rotor.There. it.motors.mounted.use.it.. the.inside.inside.from.Some..are.depends.the.stator.like.housings). illustration.mounted.following.the.Enclosure.

.part.________. The..rotor.________.rotor.________ C. .motor’s..three-phase. The. 4.environmental.the.________.type.of.from.components.the.of. from.and. The..the.other.rotating. used.an..________ 2.is.internal.the. 6 .is.the.AC.electrical.water.the. 3.illustration: A.of. The.common.part. Identify.AC.elements.. electromagnetic. .motor..AC..________ B.parts.in. .circuit.protects.________.an.Review 2 .following.of.is. 5..stationary.the. motor.most.motors.

magnets.motor. To.the.iron.and.attract..north.an.effects..later.return.the.magnetism.steel.arrange.and.a.a.that.Although.they.be.exit.through.of.aligns.called.visible.invisible..magnetic...an.a.of.all.south. scattered.the.flux. magnetic.the.these. S N Magnetic Lines of Flux.is.Therefore.role.are..lines.lines..has.fact.with.the.characteristics.with.lines.the.must.in.needle.over.order..an.interact.is.important.the.of.of.steel..the.you.understand.in..the.paper. magnetic.are.of.can.on.objects. Iron Filings on Paper Magnet Magnetic Lines of Flux 7 . itself.through.understand.force. magnet.. pole.example.invisible.principles. This.themselves.AC.object.pole.and.and..magnets.play.magnet.placed.filings. motors.Magnetism The. operation.of.run. the.flux.continuous.iron.loosely..fields. sheet.paper. iron..For.Earth’s.when.made..They..attracts.field.magnets.have.lines of flux.begin.to.that.way.filings.by.or.field.illustrated.other. The.with..compass.two.along.

.range.of.opposite.each.are.flux.AC.is.attracting.magnets.of.example.repelling.each.Unlike Poles Attract..together.polarities.In..like poles repel.For.magnets..and.lines.use.their..brought. The.of.the.  . electromagnetism.when..other.are.the.the. magnets. magnets. However.motors.the.two.to.other.brought. Like Poles Repel.the.fields.AC. essential.summary.and..the.magnetic.of.magnets.poles.of.push.two.within.. The. flux. apart.combine.within.when.affect. range.the.of.operation.action.poles.magnetic.interaction.and.unlike poles attract.of.but..motors.lines.pull.of.fields.of.between.like.

in.the.Electromagnetism When..around.strength.the.the.field.flow.electron.left-hand rule for conductors.direction.magnetic.a.flow.If.with.flows.created.the. magnetic.the.conductor.the..between.proportional.and.amount.point.the.the relationship.electrons.lines.the.grasped.of.is.direction. Current produces a magnetic field An increased current produces a stronger magnetic field Left-Hand Rule for Conductors.field.of.The. of. 9 .current.the.flux.thumb.the.conductor.currentcarrying.of. magnetic..is.left. The.in. pointing.conductor.current.of.produces.the.hand.it. direction.the.current.a.demonstrates.through..with.of.to.this.magnetic.fingers.field.by..a.of.

.electron.more.the.applying. a.of.turns.flow. 20 ..conducts. stronger.counterclockwise.flux.iron core.a.produced.created.by. lines.can.of.the.away.by.be.flow.flow.shows.flow.the.easily.for.the.has.of.simple.the.when.of.further.flux.is.larger..by. is.an. Air Core DC Voltage Adding an Iron Core.of.number.the.the.combine.from.through.the.same.of.DC.flux.and.can. Electron Flow Away From You Causes Counterclockwise Magnetic Flux Electron Flow Towards You Causes Clockwise Magnetic Flux Electromagnet.a.strength. is.wound.the.direction.clockwise.. magnetic.the.viewer.field.a.air.When..the.the.dot)..magnetic.the.be.conductor.field. flow.the. electromagnet.coil.center.(as.flow.that..the. conductor. current.flux.core.increased.of.The.than..by.a.produce.stronger.electromagnet.magnetic.illustration.conductor.stronger.coil.made.indicated.reverses.lines. The.the.and.a.field.lines.When..the..a.field.voltage.by.This.formed. and.sign).electron.of. An.winding.core.to.an.the.of.direction.(as.viewer.an.magnetic.greater. Iron.conductor.around.increasing.in..known.is..air.around.level.the. Iron Core DC Voltage Number of Turns. number.plus.turns.for.current.in.following.The.level.electromagnet.same.current..by.magnetic. insulated. the.towards.coil.is.as.The.current.indicated.in.The.the.into.

2 .current.of.At.magnetic..the.north.peak.current. demonstrated.to.pole.and.of..on.is.field. time.flow.a.connected.flow.flowing.magnetic.time.at.value.of.is. bottom.peaked.the.DC Voltage DC Voltage 5 Turns 10 Turns Changing Polarity.as.top.positive.current.illustration.has.field.. produced. and.and.polarity.changes.is. changes.flow...At.same..in.the.an.south.electromagnet.including.an.However.on.direction.of. The.time.magnet.around. S S N 3 N 1 10 2 4 N 5 S N 6 7 N 8 N S S S At. pole. characteristics.to.electromagnet.begins.builds.the.At.AC.electromagnetic..field.an.time..the.field.This.4.decreases.natural.electromagnet.. the.Note.the.south.following.no.has. the...of.flow.electromagnet..and.through.and.in.the..electromagnet.its.2..of..is.frequency.the. source.direction.and.is..a.the.changes.polarity.pole. collapse.the.also.when.AC.the.magnetic. The.the. that.3.at.is.source..up..the..current.there.magnetic.is..current.the.positive.north.no.field.a.a.strength.

magnetic.collapses.reached.can.to.electromagnet. polarity.the.quarter.is.builds.of.from.power. circuits.a.flux.time.caused.electromagnet.the.now. ammeter.field.The.an.flux.south..the.This.field.circuits.through.changed.As.bottom.the. In.electromagnet.illustration.to.is.power.magnetic.electromagnet.induce..the.waveform.voltage.Note.increasing.previous.encounters.time.60.At.cycle.moving.For.power.and. a..process.of.above.AC.the.current.between..to.circuits.in.the.induction.through.by. Induced Voltage.flow.Hz.voltage.two.the.times. the.connected.conductor.half. direction. are.magnetic.electromagnet.circuit.The.one.supply.a.top..stationary. through.field.its.coil.in.zero..on.pole.current.coil..At.half.reverses.magnetic..north.to.placed.each.peak. cut.critical.returning.another. 22 .changing.to.electromagnet..magnetic.and. In.induced. each.negative.both.across.up.2.At.and.time.examples.field.no.a. increasing.the. has.At.the..of.9..and.is.this..As.7.no.voltage..a.the.a.the.is.circuit.there..half.in..from.magnetic.bottom.This.of.is.magnetic.up. Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 This.and.a.zero...polarity.both. conductor.a.This. AC.the.operation.in.motors.connected.across.causes.that...current.principle. the..has.in.bottom.current.no.electrical.field.effect.lines..current..and.is..it.expands.negative.6.during.when.of.is.field.AC. a....directly.At.separate..the.Another.are.a.and.The.was.current..the.merely. first.60.5. physical.previous.flow.at.following.repeats.connection.in.and.shows.electromagnetic.supply.of.the..in. AC.in. the.top..time.the. produced.source.the.to.on.around. pole. second.cycle..example.an.is.flowing.illustration.build..is..times.be.cycle.time..3.continues.second.However.voltage.across.is.its.is.it.time.the.and. same.field.

a..an..is. Original Position New Position Review 3 .If._______. Magnetic.current. B.the.electromagnet.whenever.with.in. 4.which.the.magnetic.following.however.the.flux.magnetic.the.each.move.of.following..magnetic.along.the.in. magnet.the.coil C.field.will.attract.which.top. In.built.up... the. .each. electromagnet.attract.field.the.. flux.turns.Because.the..iron.the. 23 .opposite.for.illustration.the.number.pole..poles.the. top.produced.is.electromagnets.of.the..would.Electromagnetic Attraction.opposite. Which.Increase.flowing.electromagnet? .bottom. A.the.the.. current. each..is.it.of.magnets.were. magnetic.of.and.other.field.leave.repel.the.core.the.polarity.it.bottom.will. A... Increase.enough.of. Note. All.possible. 3.through. .around.be.coil ..to..to.above .magnets.enter.strength.conductor. D.will.polarity.flow ..the.the.two.and. 2.that..was.pulled.when.electromagnet.of.the.has.electromagnet.of. Add.lines. .strong.an.other? . field.a..it._______.in.and. attract.other.a.induced.pole._______.increase.

two.magnet. way.A2.A.for.direction.stator.the.Recall.a.When.of.coils.two.north.in.the.pole.of.ends.an. each.the..material.wound.current.reverses.a.each.wire..when.phase.windings.electrical..other.around.motor. winding.such.that..a..rotation.is.one.For.configuration.stator.hollow.for.are.polarities.electromagnetism.other.for.of.is.each.AC.this.a.is.the.applied.of. pole. iron.the.the.a. Iron Core A1 B2 Motor Windings N C2 C1 S A2 B1 24 .principles.are.when. stator.a.opposite.the.phases.electromagnet.three....In..six.used.an..shows.Developing a Rotating Magnetic Field The.of.is.as.south.flowing.are.windings.coils..windings.motor. In.coils. each.core.the.one.soft.AC. cylinder.words.diagram.is. the..example.of.are.of.pole...which.the.winding.south.the. Stator Coil Arrangement. The.also.with.becomes.current.is.and.explain.reverse. and.that.following..shaft..current.of.north.of. an.in.when.operating.example.phase.insulated..inserted.windings.is.the.wound.pole.The.

A2.to.A.windings.B.B2.phase.power.connected.a.are.to..separation.supply.power.three-phase. To Phase A Phase A Phase B Phase C A1 B2 N C2 + 0 C1 S A2 B1 To Phase A As..between. this.the.and.connected.is.. completed..A.shows. apart.illustration.windings. to.and....of.AC.will.is.Stator Power Source.Note..phase. 20°.B2..This.be.phase.and. A1 B2 C2 C1 A2 B1 2-Pole Stator Winding 25 ..each.connections.be.a.connected.20°.to.A.B. electrical.that.C.20°.C2.shows.illustration.corresponds.to.phase.C2.called.poles.connected.B.source..C. following..also.the.two-pole stator.phase.winding.The.and. and.the.are.the. The.has..following.are.and.A2.Because.coils..apart.C.stator.two.each.When.will.

Phase.phase.positive.no.selected.is.positive. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 Resultant Magnetic Field C1 S B1 Magnetic Lines of Flux Current Flow in the Positive Direction C A Current Flow at Zero B Start Current Flow in the Negative Direction Time 1.flux.as.no.magnetic.that. developed.to.A.the.of.C.B. poles. Start.associated. in.AC.progress.that.is.no.magnetic. during.following.A.of.and.B2.previous.are.the.magnetic.flow.how..the.its.C.lines.and.leave..the.in.are. phase.flow.flow.north.the. negative.field.been.in.flux.pole.south.developed.has.advanced.the.the.current.poles.in.the.positive.of.has.has.results.Phase.direction.developed.C2. In.B.or.C.to.is.time.lines.depends..Note.applied.and. indicated.current.When.has. windings.which.flow. The.a....C.illustration.chart.coils.by.a.in.the.also. direction.chart.start.direction.negative.B.current.magnetic.the.and.current.vector.read.magnetic.phase.the.you..at.a.fields.B.60°.has.pole.C.the.current.shows.B.each.assumes.Based.field.of.and.in.The.a.magnetic.enter.as.following.C.flow.flow.the.C2.is.the.has.field.time...in.rotating.phase.arrow.. of.current.the.in.and.field.of. and.south. coils. explanation.pole.and.C2.direction.and.pole.set.flow...have. 26 .on.current. vector.has.of.stator.and.south. leave.nearest.north.following.B2.Magnetic. chart..pole.the.the.flow.enter.north.Refer.field.no.the.the.current.direction.sum.phase.on..a..has.north.chart. nearest. Magnetic.A.This..phase...the.voltage.

.magnetic.south. magnetic.flowing.north.phase.previous.A.60°.A2.another.clockwise.B.in.2. the.and.and.are. A1 B2 N A2 B2 N C1 S C2 S B1 A1 N S S A2 B2 S A1 N N C2 B1 C1 C1 S A2 o C2 60 B1 C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B 120 Start 1 o Current Flow at Zero Current Flow in the Negative Direction 2 27 .B.magnetic.time.field.As.phase.have.flowing.Current..positive.rotated.no.windings.flow.vector.now.resultant.in..has.no.and.windings.current.field.phase.has.is. rotated.A..the.B2.current. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 S B1 C1 B2 N C1 A1 N S S A2 C2 B1 60o C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B Start 1 Current Flow in the Negative Direction Current Flow at Zero Time 2.resultant.field.vector.negative. poles.and.direction.The.are.in.chart.direction.poles.windings.shows.The.and. B2.60°.in. the. At..has.but.direction.B..the.C.is.

operated. 2 . increases.is.full.speed.for.source.as. 60.to.a.synchronous.of.different.. times.to.as.for.example. have..numbers..number of motor poles (P). equal. The.intervals.or.second.60.The.repeats.60.synchronous.is.of.the.revolution..60.one. At. synchronous speed (NS).. Synchronous.360°.motor.pole.table.such.a.a.will.360° Rotation.for.six.process.end.magnetic. for.the.20.field.of.the. Synchronous Speed.rotating.by.RPM. The.referred..Hz..rotated.motor.the.field.poles.Synchronous.divided.time.decreases..shows.number.speed.the..times.Hz.speed.two-pole.3600.the.several.at.This.speed.at.magnetic.power.the.following.of.frequency (F).is.speed.the.the.Hz.

rotating.is.pole.of.pole.how.the. motors.attracts.magnetic.illustration. Instead.motors.field.rotor.the. The.stator.magnetic.magnetic.of.rotation.the.flowing.the.energized.rotating.as.mounted..current.current.the.a.induces.magnetic.induction motor.attracts.the.stator. and.speed.stator.synchronized. Magnetic Field of Coil A1 A1 Stator B2 C2 Rotor Rotor Conductor Bar C1 B1 A2 29 .a.As.squirrel. the.synchronous.magnetic..it.as.of.means.referred.with.motor’s.in.substituted. be.works.for.magnet.nearest..magnet.magnet. To.of.field.shows.a.south.the.are.field.on.with.field.permanent.rotors.Rotor Rotation Permanent Magnet..that.of. As.magnet..permanent.a.field.of..a.pulls.permanent. windings.rotor.and.the.rotor.across.established. a.its.rotating.see.the.created.creating. Induced Voltage.bars..speed.are.use.magnetic.field.its.squirrel.that..electromagnetic.. north.The.magnet. the.shaft.field.the.rotates.a. the.term.electromagnet.field.the.rotor.has.in.a.magnetic.that.synchronous.along..rotor.when.following.the..is.the. the.magnet.the..pole.pole.a.own.cage.same.the.When.The.north.magnet.rotor.rotating.a.. for.to.winding.interacts..the.AC.is..the.synchronous.. is.magnet.an.rotor’s.cage.south.can. Electromagnet.cuts..

with.continuously.In.A.one..induced.to.across.to.not.towards.time.becomes.shows.an.in.rotor.field. a.a.south..and.through..rotor.illustration.the.attraction.A.end.a.voltage.repulsion.ring.rotor.bars.current.at.is.source.synchronous. field.cage.field.produces.. The.. rotor. alternating.is.bar.bar.north.and.a.through.its..rotor.and.an.instant.following.in.rotor. The.flow. This..This.and.south.each.the.various.rotor.given.against.the.is.when.fields.rotate.winding.inducing..a.winding..forces.a.around..any.causes.adjacent.the.the.a.of.but.a.in.speed.such..produces. the. resultant.the.conductor.induced.magnetic.increasing.strength.expanding.rotor.in.(emf).an. Because.conductor.as..rotate.field.rotor.bars.in. and.connected. exactly.flows.magnetic.the.the.AC.voltage.motor’s.voltage.. a.flow.the.rotor.are.passes.north.causes..pole.the.exerting.squirrel.stator.point. around.current.The.cage.an. the.poles.When.. At.bar.induced.electromagnet.current.the.for.are.stator.and.causes.changes.squirrel.cuts. A1 B2 C2 C1 B1 A2 30 .conductor.motor.the.pole.windings.the.bar.bars.. windings.current.The. magnetic.to..

RPM.the.produce.in.called.rings.the..to.up.external.major.slip.speed.long.motor.four-pole.and. After.of.coils.increasing.full. that.applied.Slip.current. % Slip = NS .The.torque. field.rotor.a.load.a.bars.are. operating..the.load.squirrel. using.in.is.centered. amount.the.speed.the.been.If.speed.rotating.the..slip.motor..the.to.has..4% Wound Rotor Motor.increasing.is.is.flow. synchronous speed (NS). % Slip = 1800 ..cage.conductors.775.its.magnetic.dependent.. necessary. is.This. For. in.Slip.motor.maximum.a.three-phase.three-phase.of.NR NS x 100 For.and.faster.rotor.type. at.rotor.be.cage.causes. A.RPM.decreasing.motor.rotor.power.slip.squirrel.field.expressed.with.consist.load.example.the.Slip.is.in.wound.discussion. and.wound..is.been.slow.of. 3 .causes.the.wound.more.rotor.These.rotor.formula.speed.on.the.its.. speed.A. common..is.the.is.motor.current.as.Another.wound rotor motor.Hz.also.current..rotor.windings.rotate.magnetic.Decreasing.less.calculated.slip.much.difference.more.induced.1775 x 100 1800 % Slip = 1.brushes.in.of.rotor.rotor.rotating. slip. rotor..induces.causes.the.is.must. field..can.the.speed. resistance.a.enough..to.An.load.of.current.rotor.induce.rotor.60.connected.to.is..the.variable.point.in..to.has.than.to.difference.AC.and.of.rotor.of.rotor.induction.to. The.is. instead.to.the.running.down...percentage.causes.windings.between..to.through.in. increase.decrease.is.. resistance. between.00.full.this.flow.get.resistors.rotor speed (NR)..on.the.rotor.the.a.the.When.its.coils..decreasing..the.speed.windings.difference.rotor.following.smaller.up..then.the.this.synchronous.a.operated.to. stopped.the.motor.voltage.the..and.first..rotating.speed.the.Increasing.4%.at.of.has.at.the.load.Slip..the.large.magnetic.to.difference. induction.

rotor.connected..a.after.motor.constructed.synchronous.which.at.a.produces.constant.rotor.has.power. When.started.is.an.synchronous.cage.an.turns.addition.is..is.starts.are.is.motor. and.rotating.type.magnetic.The.a.to.of..with.the.not.of.synchronous.synchronous motor.rotor.coil.like...power.rotor. in....is.applied.step.slip. which.rotor. power. 32 .to.rotor.locks.One. type.external.The.in. also.motor.the.like.are.the.is.the. accelerated.The.speed. DC.field.this.used.AC.motor.the..applied.coil.the. squirrel.a.three-phase..motor.AC.the.and.motor.brushes.the.induction.DC. magnetic.to..In.therefore.squirrel.bars.why.somewhat.rotor..coils.windings.rings.Wound Rotor Brush Slip Ring External Variable Resistors Synchronous Motor.motor.stator.cage. Another.is.strong.supply.is.synchronous.the..motor.by.to.synchronous.windings.This.field.

speed.not.pole.is. 3.motor.A2.power.magnet.AC.to.When.following. pole.is..the.is.turning. DC.speed. as..to.the.pole.is.is.A.a. and. The.speed._______.supply. 4.type.60.referred.rotor. Review 4 .difference._______%. 33 .field.speed. The.of.Slip. .source..in.This.at.applies.winding.synchronous.south.Hz.speed.the.a.magnetize..illustration. 5.motor.rotor.four-pole..power.synchronous.of...winding.a._______.Rotor Bar Brush Coil External DC Power Supply Slip Ring As. The. _______.to.use.rotor.speed.synchronous. 2.on. The..between.a.RPM.operating.2-pole.magnetic.a.need.motor’s.Hz.called.is. three-phase.previously.a..._______.is.is.some. A. The.a.does.RPM._______..mentioned.rotating.of..60..motor.motors. permanent.rotor.motor.3450.

Motor Specifications

Nameplate.

The.nameplate.of.a.motor.provides.important.information. necessary.for.proper.application..For.example,.The.following. illustration.shows.the.nameplate.of.a.30.horsepower.(H.P .). three-phase.(3.PH).AC.motor..

1LE2321-2CB21-2AA3 SD100 30.00 35.0 1775 40oC AMB. CONT F B G 50BC03JPP3

286T 1.15 460 60 93.6 50VC03JPP3

R

US

The.following.paragraphs.explain.some.of.the.other.nameplate. information.for.this.motor. Voltage Source (VOLTS) and AC.motors.are.designed.to.operate.at.standard.voltages..This Full-load Current (AMPS).. motor.is.designed.to.be.powered.by.a.three-phase.460.V. supply..Its.rated.full-load current.is.35.0.amps. Base Speed (R.P .M.) and. Frequency (HERTZ). Base speed.is.the.speed,.given.in.RPM,.at.which.the.motor develops.rated.horsepower.at.rated.voltage.and.frequency.. Base.speed.is.an.indication.of.how.fast.the.output.shaft.will. turn.the.connected.equipment.when.fully.loaded..This.motor. has.a.base.speed.of.775.RPM.at.a.rated.frequency.of.60.Hz.. Because.the.synchronous.speed.of.a.4-pole.motor.operated.at. 60.Hz.is.00.RPM,.the.full-load.slip.in.this.case.is..4%..If.the. motor.is.operated.at.less.than.full.load,.the.output.speed.will.be. slightly.greater.than.the.base.speed.
% Slip = 1800 - 1775 x 100 1800 % Slip = 1.4%

34

Service Factor.

Service factor.is.a.number.that.is.multiplied.by.the.rated. horsepower.of.the.motor.to.determine.the.horsepower.at. which.the.motor.can.be.operated..Therefore,.a.motor.designed. to.operate.at.or.below.its.nameplate.horsepower.rating.has.a. service.factor.of..0.. Some.motors.are.designed.for.a.service.factor.higher.than..0,. so.that.they.can,.at.times,.exceed.their.rated.horsepower..For. example,.this.motor.has.a.service.factor.of..5..A..5.service. factor.motor.can.be.operated.5%.higher.than.its.nameplate. horsepower..Therefore.this.30.HP.motor.can.be.operated.at. 34.5.HP ..Keep.in.mind.that.any.motor.operating.continuously. above.its.rated.horsepower.will.have.a.reduced.service.life.

Insulation Class.

NEMA.defines.motor insulation classes.to.describe.the. ability.of.motor.insulation.to.handle.heat..The.four.insulation. classes.are.A,.B,.F ,.and.H..All.four.classes.identify.the.allowable. temperature.rise.from.an.ambient.temperature.of.40°.C. (04°.F)..Classes.B.and.F.are.the.most.commonly.used. Ambient temperature.is.the.temperature.of.the.surrounding. air..This.is.also.the.temperature.of.the.motor.windings.before. starting.the.motor,.assuming.the.motor.has.been.stopped.long. enough..Temperature.rises.in.the.motor.windings.as.soon.as.the. motor.is.started..The.combination.of.ambient.temperature.and. allowed.temperature.rise.equals.the.maximum.rated.winding. temperature..If.the.motor.is.operated.at.a.higher.winding. temperature,.service.life.will.be.reduced..A.0°.C.increase.in. the.operating.temperature.above.the.allowed.maximum.can.cut. the.motor’s.insulation.life.expectancy.in.half.. The.following.illustration.shows.the.allowable temperature rise.for.motors.operated.at.a..0.service.factor.at.altitudes.no. higher.than.3300.ft..Each.insulation.class.has.a.margin.allowed. to.compensate.for.the.motor’s.hot.spot,.a.point.at.the.center. of.the.motor’s.windings.where.the.temperature.is.higher..For. motors.with.a.service.factor.of..5,.add.0°.C.to.the.allowed. temperature.rise.for.each.motor.insulation.class.

35

The.motor.in.this.example.has.insulation.class.F.and.a.service. factor.of..5..This.means.that.its.winding.temperature.is. allowed.to.rise.to.55°.C.with.an.additional.0°.C.hot.spot. allowance.. NEMA Motor Design. NEMA.also.uses.letters.(A,.B,.C,.and.D).to.identify.motor designs.based.on.torque.characteristics..The.motor.in.this. example.is.a.design.B.motor,.the.most.common.type..Motor. design.A.is.the.least.common.type..The.characteristics.of.motor. designs.B,.C.and.D.are.discussed.in.the.next.section.of.this. course. Motor efficiency.is.a.subject.of.increasing.importance,. especially.for.AC.motors..AC.motor.efficiency.is.important. because.AC.motors.are.widely.used.and.account.for.a. significant.percentage.of.the.energy.used.in.industrial.facilities. Motor.efficiency.is.the.percentage.of.the.energy.supplied.to.the. motor.that.is.converted.into.mechanical.energy.at.the.motor’s. shaft.when.the.motor.is.continuously.operating.at.full.load. with.the.rated.voltage.applied..Because.motor.efficiencies.can. vary.among.motors.of.the.same.design,.the.NEMA nominal efficiency.percentage.on.the.nameplate.is.representative.of. the.average.efficiency.for.a.large.number.of.motors.of.the.same. type..The.motor.in.this.example.has.a.NEMA.nominal.efficiency. of.93.6%.. Both.NEMA.and.the.Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct).specify. the.same.process.for.testing.motor.efficiency..In.200,.NEMA. established.the.NEMA Premium.designation.for.three-phase. AC.motors.that.meet.even.higher.efficiency.standards.than. required.by.EPAct..More.recently,.the.Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).was.passed..EISA.requires. most.motors.manufactured.after.December.9,.200.to. meet.NEMA.Premium.efficiency.levels..This.includes.motors. previously.covered.by.EPAct.and.some.additional.categories.of. motors. Siemens NEMA Premium Efficient motors.meet.NEMA. Premium.efficiency.standards.and.Siemens Ultra Efficient motors.with.our.exclusive.die cast copper rotor technology. exceed.NEMA.Premium.efficiency.standards.

Motor Efficiency.

36

percentage.tools.starting..purpose. Speed-Torque Curve for.RPM.motors.in. machine.example.AC.torque.designs.of.for. NEMA.design.C.with.3 lb-ft 1765 Speed (in RPM) Torque (in lb-ft) = 37 .. speed-torque.the..torque.HP .formula.motor. Motors.of.design.the..varies. most.. HP = Torque (in lb-ft) x Speed (in RPM) 5252 HP x 5252 = 30 x 5252 = 89.designs.designed.as.curve.general.for.and..to.conveyors.B.is..fans..synchronous.relationship between.be.motor’s.single. characteristics.over.three-phase.of.common. a.with.applications.full-load...can.calculated.fullload. range.by.motor.have.NEMA Motor Characteristics Standard Motor Designs..B.curve.B.and.running..lightly-loaded.and.speed.motor.induction.a..speed.motor’s..B.the.with..an.the.of.speed. these.shown.The.NEMA.are. suited.the.This. Using. Because.as.different.is.full.are.pumps.a.torque.such...motors. The.NEMA.characteristics. torque.and.This.following..a.percentage.on.applications.a.motor.requirements.provides. match...as.the.as.765.30.called.speed.common.curve.motor.NEMA.its.section... horsepower.torque.speed-torque.descriptions.for.require.NEMA B motor.torque.A. standard.speed-torque.graph.for.a.four.often.shows.transposing.D.emphasis.speed.. NEMA B Motor.each.normal.shown..that.

is.to.initially.motor.than.referred. torque.the.a.voltage.34.instant. also.turns.maximum.develops.lb-ft.full-load. full-load.the.in.to.voltage.but.example.that.stator.of.motor.is.a. equal. this.at.lower.as.there.that’s.pull-up torque.motor..motor.is.before.For.The.speed. As..Starting Torque.it.point.torque.torque. increases.to. rated.50%.of.value.point.decreases.the.At.B.graph.approximately.B.this.each..HP.this.reached.value. the.torque.on..until point.NEMA.this.is.a.maximum.equal. Starting torque.has.of.up. slightly.this.torque.. Breakdown Torque Breakdown Torque.increase.7.is.. breakdown torque.motor. motor. point.765.develops.NEMA.an..torque. Starting Torque 178.frequency.at.torque.0..applied.The.When.picks.in.speed.30.from.motor’s. breakdown.greater.full-load.to.and.is.time..rotor.200%..to.starting.used.torque..a.B..3 lb-ft Pull-up Torque.torque.torque.6 lb-ft 134.0 lb-ft Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque 89.0 lb-ft 89.This.For.of.6.up.a.is. the.the.instant.3 lb-ft 3 ..C.than.RPM. As.torque.at.to.locked rotor torque.HP .started.lb-ft. 134.as.....of.approximately.torque.continues.the.is..B.to.approximately.available.example.to.referred.slightly.called.30..

a..3 lb-ft NEMA D Motor The.to.torque..3.is.NEMA..5.starting.and.of.for.is.motors.is.as.of.very.torque.motor.of.This.have.decreases.from. presses.20%. 266.This.NEMA.punch. approximately.ranges.torque.NEMA.full-load..following.a.curve..torque.D.full-load.Breakdown Torque 214.1 lb-ft Slip 8% 4 .torque.speed.of.such.speed.starting.HP.and. starting..lb-ft.for.start.motors.hard.oil.appropriate..a.approximately.well.NEMA design D motor.RPM.3 lb-ft 95. to.no. it.makes.D.a. breakdown.torque.3 lb-ft 174 lb-ft 89.D.load.develops.true.266.656.for.torque.of.full.pumps.30.reached.Slip.motor’s. 95.motor. The.the.After.fullload.lb-ft.3%. with.applications.torque.until.

of.temperature.B. A.a.30. ._______%.torque. The..factor. 42 .NEMA.NEMA.plus._______ C. 2.Review 5.F.can.be.torque.with.rise.a. The.speedtorque.motor.5.motor.value..torque. A.maximum.0.starting.Class..is.service.full-load.on.curve.of. 4.spot.insulation.B.with.and.hot.HP .a.a... operated.is.of._______.motor.at.._______.service. o _______ C.torque. o has.a. approximately.factor.HP.a.allowance.motor.called. 3.maximum.

the.voltage.startup.by.can.motor.currents.must. voltage.voltage.variation.at.This. the..an..running.below.when.chart.for...less.factors.its.following.following.discussed.from.A.startup.increases.common.0%.may.motor.0%.a.motor.have.and.the. As.it.example.motor’s.is.previously.on.voltage.the.also.connections.the. has. A.in.20%.motors.of..rated.table.prevent..torque.similar.can.motors.AC.a..may.ratings.in.for.voltage.hand.motor.reduced.the.lurch. frequency.NEMA.Some.speed.supply.and.increased. rated.have.performance.torque.20%.for..affect.and.may.This.conveyor.most..A.during.started.supply.dramatic.a. damage..considered.rise. rated.starting.be. temperature..at.Derating Factors Several. motor.shows.full-load..starting.on.performance.the.motors.for. voltage.one.other. 43 .starting.voltage. These.the..of.affect.rated.have.when..that. changes.The.cause.getting.in.causes.load.increase.AC.or.example. A.small..the. forward.applying.torque. Voltage Variation.In.voltage.voltage.keeping.more.. the.variation..motor.

many..30°C.also.for.ambient.motors.operated.reduced.primarily.torque. with. The.in.the.following.is.derating.3300.typical.motor..horsepower.variation.the.insulation. increase.and.0%. changes.to. to.designed.heat. The.derated.speed..be.be.is.as.the.still.dissipated..be.each.altitudes.torque.5%.temperature. but.to..from.40°C.A.and.not.motors.Air.a. Standard.example.50.at.motor.motor.must.rating.would.operates.considered.above.example.factors. 44 .checked..ambient.3300.a.and.providing..47.in.in.which. conditions.a.factor. HP.for.feet.quickly.frequency.5%.operate.requirement.class.below.ambient.However.have.required. Altitude.causes.derating..these. The..may.feet.at.frequency.the.in.shows. Ambient Temperature.HP .be.for.. is..feet.characteristics.6000.may.to.require.causes.chart.3300.temperature.should.in.Frequency A.motors..6600.are.derated.decrease. 40°C.at.higher.in..A.above..fullload.be.feet.increase.derating.for.motor.speed.feet.a.thinner. Most.not.on.may..

460.AC.is.applications.have. voltage.Operating. AC.motor.is.applied.common.. motor.AC.frequency.is.the.current.frequency.hertz.a.the.vary.motor.at.7 .AC. with..V/Hz.. frequency.running.the..said.nameplate.motor’s.Motors.60.motor.to.flux because..are.affect.Hz.a. 60Hz.This. An.will. The.have.line.drive. As.operate.motor...torque.the.applied.of.of.V/Hz.Hz).of.an.speed.230.torque.the.have..operating.VAC.a.volts.an. torque.with..speed.V/Hz.rating.to.use.67.the.AC.and.AC Motors and AC Drives Many.a.. to.(typically.67 a.motor.rating.Not..as. flux.produced.volts per hertz (V/Hz) ratio.voltage.constant.rated.industrial.flux.This.on.for.constant..67 60 Hz 230 V = 3.most.the.long.frequency.These.is.is.easiest.Actual..7 .motor.ratio.vary.A.AC.motor.other.provides.to.capable.and.the.rated..the.for.8 V/Hz 60 Hz Constant Torque Operation.upon. 460 V = 7 V/HZ .Hz.require. .constant.use.60.are..motors.and.an..constant.an.constant.load.way.an.ratio.is. Volts per Hertz (V/Hz).the.ratio..manufactured.applied.torque.voltage.dependent.is.constant torque range.drive..States.for.a. The.of.characteristics.for.voltage.a. in.Volt.induction.the.with.approximately.vary.than.a. motor..to.operated.both.maintained. to.constant.frequency.frequency.. 3.per.every.however.of.motors.to.a.ratio.ratio.United.has.0.of.AC. motor.example.has.constant. 45 .from.

if.maintained.mind.compensated.the.in.the. is.in.reactance.motor.. speed.decrease.Hz.and.Hz. change.in.per..a.volts.graphs.change.the.simultaneously.be.and..the.drive. voltage.motor.This.60..operated.230....require. torque. compensate.in. nameplate.because. torque.Keep.60.constant horsepower range.Otherwise.hertz.illustrate.order..with.per. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 If. Some.as.as.horsepower.corresponding.the. hertz.this.for.increase.in.decreases.motor.460.60.range.current.up.is.60.to.increases.stator. 46 ...following.any.torque. Constant Horsepower. constant. frequency.stator.the.torque..Hz.operated.per.constant.torque.a.volt.applied.torque.to.and.volts.The.rated.the. speed.not.Hz..Above.constant.base.must..to.both.voltage.hertz.operated.the.increases.must.the.increases.that.speed.exceed.applied.by.are.volt.motor.volts.opposite..ratio.torque.voltage. over.applications..above.ranges.decrease..flux.constant.referred.ratio.is. of.decreases.to.a.the..the.In..would.Because.and.constant.proportionally.

for.on.may.represent. for.too.than. 47 ..an..curve.rise.not.AC..voltage..motor.is.is.minimize.undesirable.approximately.are.require.voltage.motor.insulation.In.gradually.of.Drives.the.on. starting.speeds.motor.and.are.and.accelerates.voltage.full. increased.the.current.voltage.according.be.Reduced Voltage and. AC.run.capability.frequency..50%. application.frequencies.drives.at.the.speedtorque.have.must.use.appropriately.an.rated...for.50%.of.the.addition.dotted.frequency.when.low.components.a.damage.50%.drive.lines.more.to.to.. heating.the.the.motor.at.AC.motor.and.started.have.and.following.that.suitable.Each.torque.brought.right..designed.this.and.drive.to.Some.run.motor..than.motor.When.can.identical.speed.200%..flow.applications.started.are. Frequency Starting.drives.shifting.if.than.drive.an.it.develop.require.by.before.. smoothly.the.the.only.600%.the..motors..air.example.For.portion.up.own. the. Recall..spikes.and.the.at.selecting.drive.controlled.as. starting.curve.at..sophisticated.selfcooled. the.increased. sized.The. A.an.This.50%. are.when. but.starting.and.AC.drives.and. speed-torque.selecting.has.of.full.to..and.torque.conveyor.. As. Selecting a Motor.curve.combination.to.motor.current..for.torque.its.and.drive/motor.motor..is.torque.motor.. filters.NEMA.evaluated.the.frequency. example.the. be.The.the.sufficient..desired.start.speed.be.effect.the.of.starting. considered.may..times. can.voltage.other.This. Some.AC.drive.may.it develops.more.capability.possible.starts.by.approximately.higher.with.is.voltage.for.B.must. used.AC.to.not.is.load.drives.to.reduced. Harmonics..motor’s.higher.often.

AC. 4 .drive.can..of.higher.and.Distance Between the.The.of..have.service..All.the.conduit. on.charging.Voltage.of..AC.an..0. A.because.types.cable..with.the.. cables.drive.with.taken.AC.cables).in.is.occur.when.drives. capacitance.as. spikes.capacitance.(460..spikes.and. recommended.from. factor.caused.the.higher.efficiency.also.in.Due.high..capacitance.service.drive.is.line-to-line.greater.lengths.voltage.the. associated.Higher.the.have.shorten. Service Factor on AC Drives.cable.factor. life.by.longer..a.metal.of.motor..the.be.potentially.harmonics.cables. Drive and the Motor.to.drive.cable.line-toground.Spikes.shielded. in.into consideration.cables.an.capacitance.AC..with.5... capacitance.current.of.to.5.result.long..used.(long.motor.motor. Distance.to.VAC).greater.Some.must.the.the.reduced.cable.output.such.the.motor.heat.and.current.the..the.or.

mounted.should..or.The.type.type.when..type.the.. together. Vent 53 .positioned.affects.the.The.Motor Enclosures A.panel.may.the.and.5°.and.motor.enclosures.free.In..from.vertical.permit.cooling.addition. Open Drip Proof (ODP).motor’s.is.wall.surface.of.the.air. Open.cover.flow.cannot.motor’s.so.for.categories.the.air.is.. blades.from.vertical.at.of.is..motors..motor. ODP.to.a.vents.attached.is.enclosure.flow.enclosure.it.rotor.special. surface.open.of. contaminates.open drip proof (ODP) enclosure.rotor.containments.above.from.motor.falling.on.from.through. enter.be.the.turning. the.allow.the.also.cooling.depends.air.horizontal.the.enclosure.enclosures.the.are.mounted..degree..in.enclosure.to.used.the.This.motor.There.the. a.through..internal.when.up.on.two.that.move.as.protects. moisture. open.needed. Enclosure.a.liquids.holds.only.such. One.and.are.has.motor.interior.a.be.enclosed.not..enclosures:.Fan.When.environments.to.enclosure.the.protection.vents.angles. on..components..totally.components.of.that. solids. the.of.

used.end.the.motors.external.from..conduction.along.the.similar.the.fan.at.motor.is.an.can.has.TENV.indoors.the.a. enclosure.are. In.of.enclosure.some..through.surrounding..flow. TENV.anyone.TENV.integral.the.motor.These.an.additional.for. by.TENV.is.not. prevent.the.where.or.limits. dirty.it.into.contains corrosive.totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV).touching. quickly.used. through.heavily.Totally Enclosed .ribbed.blows.other.passes.opposite.mounted. motor.shaft.motor..applications..by.motor.However.outdoors.all.environments..help.. drive.the. exterior.is.motors.of.larger.heat. from.dissipate.horsepower.over. A.The.a (TEFC) Enclosure.applications. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled.that.motors.seal.A..be.are..to..horsepower.moist.. airtight.or.foreign.have.the.more. matter.or.and.from.used..to.a.motor.motor.but.absence.special.the. horsepower.the.enclosure.elements.the.harmful.fractional.the.cooling. Enclosure..shaft.TEFC..the.in..dissipate.TENV.motors.fan. The..to.inside.of.motor’s.is.damage.which.can.the.prevents.fan..a.air.covered. Cooling Fan 54 . Most..motor..dust.the. Non-Ventilated (TENV).However.must.air..for.but.totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motor.housing.of.The.motors.ventilating.means.entering.can.corrosive.heat.air.be.shroud.openings.that.point.the.mildly.internal parts.water.

local.flammable.hazardous.not..have.conditions.XP.standards. most.hazardous.in.to.motors.information.. waste..protection.pulp.cast. and G.it.as.class.are.present. and. This.have.TEFC.iron.to.hazardous.subject.of. 55 .the.example.This. chemical..use.motors..motor.involves.standards.500.never specify or suggest the type of hazardous location classification.hazardous.is.present.For..normally. Classes I Groups A-D Gas or Vapor Examples: Gasoline Acetone Hydrogen Class II Groups E-G Flammable Dust Examples: Coke Dust Grain Dust Class III Flammable Lint or Fibers Examples: Textiles Saw Dust Division I and II Locations. Locations.as.and..various.into.present.these.the.by.and.machines..regulatory.or.In.Division II locations.contact.gases. National Electrical Code®.and.to.enclosures.grain..Underwriters.of. Groups A through D.foundry..appearance..atmosphere.with.applicable.lints.XP.In.for.found.explosion proof (XP) motors.have.may.to..should.is. in.however.further.class. have.and. application. safety.requires. Classes and Groups. applications.the.States.. comply.in.to.such.similar.with.fibers.dust.management.to.Class I. divided.the. environment. XP100 A Premium NEM ! Warning ! ATTE NT ! WAR ION NING Hazardous (Classified).additional..have.often.of.locations.atmosphere.National Electrical Code®Article.the.all.mining..and.are.motor.define.and.in.Class III...agencies.are.Refer.the.duty.the.of.under...United. An.defined.for.industries.or.abnormal.and.paper.hazard.is...the user’s responsibility.defined.. You.coke. Groups E..in.regulatory.Class II. material.vapors.the.groups.hazardous.ignitable.strictest. Locations.commonly.is.the.to.petrochemical.Explosion Proof (XP) Hazardous.set.group.dust. Division I locations.codes.locations.by.applications.a.comply. agencies. Laboratories. F.materials.processing.life.

.dimensions.mounting.that.the.Motors.have.motor.are. the.of. 56 .frame.the.for.indicates.easier.bolt.dimensions..an.are.and..designation.dimensions.has.current.frame.Standardized.dimensions.of.replaced.were.indicates.dimensions.are.Use.reworking. center. mounting.the..to.feet.of. designation.known.the.letter.installations.the.the.fractional horsepower motors.the..and.table.integral.motor.the.frame.shaft.to. NEMA.to.divides.are.the.Dimensions.. that.56.to.horsepower.diameter.size.In.to.NEMA. 42. by.be. C.integral.in.standardized motor dimensions.to.that.the.two.in. NEMA.new.sheet.their..is.T.shaft.include.mounting.standard.to.standardized.standards.the.holes.addition.E..find..to..the.into.center. Standardized.952.existing.are.horsepower.sizes.the.design.length.data.size. represents.indicate.... the.distance.above.and.a.in.motor.hole.the.horsepower.referring.. dimension’s.in.motor..The.a..U.from.Integral horsepower motors.A.allows. frame.and.motor. common.letter. motors..motor.include.dimension.designated.frame.sizes.are.motor. NEMA.sizes.found. because.a.For.letter. by.Mounting NEMA Dimensions.frame.sizes.and.of.overall.and.most.to.shaft..height.without.place.between.43.desired. arrangement.standards. fractional.built.the.for.referencing.for.length.of.and.frame.base.letters.range.categories.the..in.4. shaft.size..the.964.example.relationship..built.

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The.drawing. when.the.dimensions.as.standards.the.drawing.are.shaft.to.the.the.and.on.in.are.also.frame.steps.the.mounting.be. following.of..and. Conduit Box Shaft F-1 Position (Standard) F-2 Position 5 .example..typical floor mounting positions.the.IEC Dimensions. IEC. location..can.F-.The..box.of. match.as.rotating.This.by.box.to.viewed.any. differ.located.the.IEC.illustrated.can.position.and.be.. sides.has..the.following.standard.mountings.of.arrangement.of.the.the.left-hand..referred.is.on.F-.the. The.90°.motor.dimensions.opening.four.An.on.standardized.to.side.F-2.either.conduit. are.but.is. mounting.from.referred.of.conduit.placed.NEMA.from.in.box.end.side.these.the. Mounting Positions The.dimensions.the.conduit.of.in..box.shown.

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determined.motor.in. two..of.flow.____.letter. solids.flange.the.enclosure.fan.a.through.the. Review 7 .of.height.frame.interior. standards.horsepower.to.above.air.a.for. mounted. A.and.5°.type.prevents.to.of.the.closed.of. The. _______.motor.to.NEMA.enclosure.and.supply.up.current.angles.motor’s..in.go.frame.the.shaft.is.by.can.uses.type.liquids. is.holes.of.and.designation.built. A.the.is.is.bolts.motor.size.from.by.enclosure.an.digits.be.the. vertical.first.referred.motor’s.threaded.inches.that._______.to.falling.entering.integral.an.at.equipment.from. indicates. The.D-flange motor.the..cooling.as.D-flange.from. 2.the. The.designation. 3.enclosure.the.holes.a.shaft.that. 60 .into..open. 4.mating.____.of. NEMA.that.in.size.a.on.dividing.

provides. is.Premium.motors. 6 .NEMA Premium Efficient.nonhazardous.cast.handling.NEMA. pump..NEMA.NEMA..reliable.above. standards.for.frames.as.of.technology.lasting.for.NEMA.efficiency.efficiency.Efficient.aluminum.include.cast.are.motors..exceed.compressor.for.Siemens.Purpose.duty.die.and.NEMA.Siemens.to.Additional.with.our..induction. frames.and. copper.totally.motors.HVAC.environments.meet.manufactures.information.Premium.light.General Purpose NEMA motors. wide.the.available. General Purpose NEMA Motors Siemens..motors. Efficient.. These.on.with.a.standards.rotor.available.Ultra Efficient.Siemens. Our..well.enclosed.are.in.two.motors.to.motors.Inc..as...of.efficiency.Ultra.web.material.as.range.Our.standards.fan.Industry.applications.a.or.products.in.This.uses.long.cooled.. (TEFC).AC.an..General.iron.IEC.these. light-weight.introduction.with.as. or.fan.rugged.Siemens AC Induction Motors Siemens.performance.manufactured.motors..motors.suitable.range.motors.wide.levels.such.section...cast.other.site.designed.exclusive.Premium. and.NEMA. applications.die.are..

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that.Siemens. Siemens.size.torque.≥ 75%.driven.be.large..of.standard.. are.either.above.on. for.60%...special.C.Torque.are. and. Locked.motor.obtained.operation.frame.from.this.easily.torque.the..types.feet.large.the.be.illustrations.a.Torque Above.develop.in.Rotor.typical. foot-mounted motors.based.For.operation. Yoke Width C N XD AB AC W N-W Keyway Length XW HT XL X AF D AA Pipetap E 2E 2F B The.in.motor.require.for.torques.at.in.specialty motors.same. similar.of.must..must.ambient.for.ambient.to.Torque..NEMA.dimensions.for.frame. flange-mounted motors.but.ambient.of.plant.factory.has.must.Full-Load.the.AC.be.line.intended.can.dimensions.curves.motors.frame.starting.Torque Pull-Up.this.Motors.minimum.certified.customer.used.with.some.and.B.provided.These.induction.Full-Load.Many.above.derated.motors.class.temperature.Ohio.above.AC. insulation.operated...be. Norwood.our.plant.of.each.Torque..following.NEMA. torque.by.adjustments.Full-Load.of..When.higher.dimensions.complete.50°.Torque Maximum.altitude.ISO-900.motors.manufactured.the. 50°..There.a.motors..for.. NEMA.class.typically. 66 .at.. speed-torque. the.3300. temperature.temperature. motor.. specified.≥ 60%.40°.as.Above. manufactures. the.able. manufacturer.full-load.modification.insulation.equipment.motors.all.or.and.also.motors.C.manufactures.The.integral.the.vertical.plant.squirrelcage.NEMA.is..modified.size.require.however.supplies.between.of.to.an.horizontal.≥.specifications.and.shows.an...NEMA.C.are.breakdown.

Above NEMA Motors Siemens.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.Horizontal. IP 24 .open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10.large.0 (1.following.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling U p to 18.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G II D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.horizontal.manufactures. weather protected I (WPI).large.0 (1.motors.a.horizontal.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures. IP W 24 .open drip proof (ODP).as:. 712.5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction. IC 01 . and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13. 714. 580.charts. 580. 800.protected against solid objects greater than 12.for.variety. IP 23 .of.and.200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1..enclosures.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10. 800. and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13.Siemens. and 716 F ram e S izes 6.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710.motors with. IC 01 .such.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical. Foot-Mounted.5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction. totally enclosed water-to-air cooled (TEWAC). IC 01 . weather protected II (WPII).. O pen D rip P roof/W eather P rotected I CG E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype D escription B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e am bient conditions.000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7.000 to 13. product.summarize.15 optional) S ervice F actor 67 . 680..totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).0 (1.foot-mounted.. totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC).200 V V oltage 1.protected against solid objects greater than 12.. W extends the rating to w eather conditions. 680.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.protected against solid objects greater than 12.The..offerings.200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1..foot-mounted.

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580.0 (1.such.. 800.000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7.flange-mounted.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers. product.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 2. IC 411 .following. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2.motors with.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction..enclosure. Flange-Mounted Above NEMA Motors Siemens.5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical.vertical.types..with. protected I (WPI).200 V V oltage 1.and.offerings. U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings. and 716 F ram e S izes 6.motors. 788. and 880 F ram e S izes 460 to 11.totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).as:. 714.a. E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected I C G V and C G G S B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e D escription am bient conditions.manufactures.200 V V oltage 1.250 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.0 (1. IC 01 .Siemens.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.15 optional) S ervice F actor Vertical.vertical..protected against solid objects greater than 12. 712.enclosures.000 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1.charts.15 optional) S ervice F actor 69 ..weather protected II (WPII). 680.large.large. 580.. 708.for.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC).lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.300 to 13. these.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 500.. IP 23 . IC 611 .E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.. IP 54 .of.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710.flange-mounted.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling U p to 18.000 to 13.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C Z and C G Z D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.0 (1. IP 54 .summarize.variety.open drip proof weather.The.

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