Pharmaceutical Aerosols


(Pharmaceutical Aerosols)

Muhammad Kafeel Roll No. 107 (Batch II) Pharmaceutics Sir. Shoaib Hakeem

M.Kafeel Roll No. 107 |

Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 2 Pharmaceutical Aerosols Aerosol is pressurized dosage form in which therapeutically active drug is dissolved or dispersed or suspended in compressed or liquefied gas to expel the content from the container in the form of spray.g. M Ka   ¡ l oll o £ ¢ ¤ | ¥ ¦ ¢   § . It contains 30 70% propellant operates between 22 55 psig at 700F. Room sprays. oral or nasal administration in the form fine particles or mist or fog. E. Space sprays. Foam spray.g. 1. In mid 1950 the pharmaceutical aerosol introduced in market. Aerosols are used for topical. Aerosol mainly used for the treatment of Asthma and COPD disease etc. It contains not more than 50 m of particle. 2. Topical Aerosol. Types of Aerosols There are three types of aerosol spray. Space Spray: These products are delivered as a fine mist is called space spray . Surface coating spray. So it can be retain in air. E. Surface Sprays: Aerosols intended for carrying active ingredients to surface are termed as surface sprays or surface coating spray.It contains 85% propellant and it is pressurized at 700 F with 30-40 psig.

Kafeel Roll No.  4. No corrosion problems. Can have various shape because of molding . 107 | . Compatible with many additives . Aluminum containers: Greater resistance to corrosion . Extremely strong and resistant to most materials. inch gauge) at 1300 F.Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 3 3. Not for light sensitive drugs . Foam Spray: Fo ae osols (e  lsion) usually ope ate between 35 an 55 psig at 21°c an contains only 6 -10 p opellant. Stain Less Steel Containers: Limited for smaller si e. Light weight.   M. They are of following types. Tin plate containers: They consist of sheet of steel plate that has been electroplate on both sides with tin. Glass Containers: Available with plastic or without plastic coating .  2. Pressure stand.   1. not fragile .      ¨ © © Design of eroso Containers They must be stan at p essure as high as 140 to 180 psig (poun s per sq. Good for light sensitive drugs . 3.

107 | . Spray Actuators Foam Actuators Solid Stream Actuators Special Actuators M.Kafeel Roll No.Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 4 Component of Aerosols Actuator Ferrule or mount cup Valve body or housing Stem valve Gas et Spring Dip tube  Actuators: These are specially designed button placed on the valve system which helps in easy opening and closing of the valve. There are different type of actuator s are used. It helps in deliver the product in the desired form.

Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 5 Ferrule or Mount Cup: It is used to attach the valve in proper position in container. 107 | .013 to 0. Gasket: It is made of Buna N.080 inch) .  M. It is necessary coated with epoxy resin. Valve: Regulate the flow of product and discharge the content . reduce chilling effect of the s in . Spring: It is used to hold the gas et in a place and when actuator is depressed it returns the valve in closed position .030) .   Stem: It is made of nylon /delrin or stainless steel.013 to 0. It is made of stainless steel.Kafeel Roll No. It contains one or more orifice (0. Neoprene rubber . Valve is associated with the help of actuator (if the foam present in the container) to emitted the product as wet or spray . Valve body or Housing: It is made of nylon/delrin and contains at the opening point of dip tube (0. It prevents clogging of particle si e.

Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 6 Dip Tube: It is made up of poly propylene material / poly ethylene . Additives like suspending agent . Inside diameter (0.125). aqueous and non aqueous . -solvent etc. emulsifying agent . Compressed gas system ( M Ka  l oll o " ! # | $ % !  & . P opell nt: It is responsible for developing the vapor pressure with in the container and also expel the product when the valve is opened and in the atomization or foam production of the product. It is l ssified in to ' ( inly two types ) 1. Liquefied gas system 2. Formula on of Aerosols Aerosols consist of Product concentrate Propellant 1.120 0. antioxidant. P odu t Con ent te: Product concentrate consist of API.

When it is placed into sealed container it immediately separates into a liquid and a vapor phase.Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 7 a. Hyd o bons: These include Butane. The use of gasses that are insoluble in the product concentrate. These compounds are chosen generally have boiling point below 700F and vapor pressure between 14 and 85 psia at 700 F . Liqu fi d Gas Sys 8 8 : 9 8 These compounds are gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure . Di-chloro-di-fluoro-methane.However they can be liquefied easily by lowering the temperature (below the boiling point or by increasing pressure) . Hydro-fluro-carbon. Compressed Gas Sys em: Compressed rather than liquefied gasses may be used to prepare aerosols. Examples are. The pressure of the compress gas in the head space of the aerosol container forces the product concentrate up the dip tube and out of the valve. Di-fluro-ethane. and Propane. These are mainly used for the preparation of topical preparation. Fluo in ted Hyd o bons: These include tri-chloro-mono-flouro-methane. G D @ Types of Aerosol System There are five types of aerosol system. A B A C B D E F A b. Isobutane. These are used for oral and inhalation aerosol preparation. Solution system / Two phase system Water based system / Three phase system Suspension or Dispersion system Intranasal foam M Ka 0 1 l oll o 3 2 4 | 5 6 2 0 7 . CHLORO FLURO CARBON (CFC): These include Hydro-chloro-carbon. as is nitrogen will result in emission of product in es sentially the same form as it was place in the container. hydro-chloro-fluro-carbon.

V V V X Y V V W W M Ka H I l oll o Q P R | S T P H U . 2. Aqueous st ble fo : Ingredients are oil waxes.g. isopropyl myristae. 3. Qui k b e king fo : The product is dispensed a s foam which then collapsed in to liquid . Suspension System: It is prepared by dispersion active ingredients in mixture propellant and by using suspending agent . Foam System: V V W They contain Dispersion of Vehicle. Propellant has high pressure hence propellant 114 is added to reduce its vapor pressure. Ethanol is used as a co-solvent to solubilize the propellant in water. Propellant content varies from 25 -60%. Solution System: This consists of two phases: a vapor phase and a liquid phase.g. propellant and water. Non queous st ble fo : These are prepared by using Glycols. E. The physical stability of suspension can be increased by use minimum solubility of API. Water Based System: It is three phase system containing vapors phase.sorbitan monooleate sorbitan trioleate. O/W surfactant. 4. Liquefied propellant used as internal phase .Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 8 1. By Use of surfactant to reduce the agglomeration E. Ephedrine bi-tartarate is less soluble than Hcl. Useful for topical medication. Emulsifying agent used this type PEG Esters. surfactant and propellant . water and hydrocarbon. Sorbitan monolaurate .

The drug is either pre loaded in the inhaled device or filled in hard gelatin capsule. Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). 3. No additive except carrier like lactose. In DPI the drug is inhaled as a cloud of fine particle. Ultrasonic Nebuli er. Meter dose nhaler (MD ): It pressuri ed. DPI is propellant free. hand-held devices that use propellants to deliver doses of medication to the lungs of a patient Propellant driven aqueous pump sprays. Nebulizers: It is a device used to converting a liq uid drug (Solution /suspension) into a fine mist which can then be inhaled easily . introduced in the mid 1950.Kafeel Roll No.Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 9 Types of Aerosols D elivery 1. A Predetermined dose is release when up on actuation. Jet Nebuli er (air jet /air blast) . including surfactants and presented in a pressuri ed canister fitted with a metering valve. Dry po der inhaler (DP ): It delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. drug is either dissolved or suspended in a liquid propellant mixture together with other excipients. It can deliver large dose than MDI ` M. 107 | . In MDIs.g. E. It used to administer medication to people in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs. ` ` ` 2.

It can be maintain sterility & easy to portable. It can avoid the hepatic metabolism of drugs. It is a Costly Preparation. The propellant may cause chillness to the skin.Assignment Pharmaceutical Aerosols 10 Advantages of Aerosols It produces Rapid action. It Prevents to Oxidation of drugs. It is suitable for when the degrade in GI tract. M Ka a b l oll o d c e | f g c a h . It directly applied to the affected area. It is a chance for continuous deposition of particle in upper respiratory tract. Disadvantages of Aerosols Limited safety hazard (Flammable Nature). It produces local & systemic effect (due to large surface area of lung and blood capillary).

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