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Instructions: for each of the microbes below, find the following characteristics:
Domain, Phylum, prokaryote/eukaryote, shape, Gram stain, how it gets carbon (heterotroph, autotroph), how it gets energy (phototroph, chemotroph, lithotroph), and 2-4 sentences on why this organism is significant (medical, environmental, etc.)
I’ve started by including an example below. This handout is available as a Word document on UCMCROPS if you prefer to type in your answers. If you work with a group make sure your 2-4 sentences are unique. Due: At the start of you discussion on Thursday, September 2, 2010.
Escherichia coli: Domain Bacteria, Phylum Proteobacteria, prokaryote, rod shaped, Gram negative,
gets its carbon by heterotrophy, gets its energy via chemotrophy. E. coli is a key member of the human intestinal flora, typically showing up in an infant's digestive system within 1-2 days of birth and staying for life. Though not usually harmful, some rare strains of E. coli (such as E. coli O157:H7) can cause serious gastrointestinal illness and even death.
Prochlorococcus sp.: Domain Bacteria, phylum Cyanobacteria, prokaryote, spherical (or ovoid)
shape, Gram negative, oligotroph and photoheterotroph. This single-celled organism plays a major role in the global carbon cycle and planetary climate. Prochlorococcus glow bright orange and some strains have adapted to low-light and low-oxygen conditions in deeper parts of the ocean.
Giardia lamblia: This microsocopic eukaryote belongs to the phylum metamonada, or flagellated
protozoans, and it is a pear-shaped, anaerobic heterotroph. G. lamblia doesn’t respond to gram staining because it is not a bacterium. A common cause of malabsorption and diarrheal illness, G. lamblia is ingested usually through water but also sometimes in food and lives in the intestine, although it can live outside the body for long time period because it’s protected by an external shell. This microorganism has two nuclei and some pictures of it look like a smiley face.
Yersinia pestis: Member of the bacterial domain (enteric group) and proteobacteria phylum, this
prokaryotic rod- or spherical-shaped, gram-negative species poses a major threat to human health. Y. pestis is a chemoheterotroph and facultative anaerobe, using fermentation or aerobic respiration to get its energy from hydrogen gas. This microbe caused catastrophic outbreaks of the plague using flea-infected rodents to transmit infection to humans. Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague when its cells are directly introduced to the respiratory or circulatory systems and septicemic plague when it spreads within the bloodstream.
Nanoarchaeum equitans: This microbe is a parasitic hyperthermophilic archaeon engaged in an
obligate symbiotic or parasitic relationship with its host Ignicoccus in hydrothermal vents. Belonging to its own unique Nanoarchaeota phylum, it is a sphere-shaped microbe that depends on contact with its thermophilic, autotrophic host’s ability to reduce sulfer for energy. N. equitans was discovered in Iceland in 2002 and is one of the smallest known living organisms. Studying its unique but sparse genome can provide evolutionary and genomic insights as it lacks common metabolic pathways such as those for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids but is capable of independent DNA replication, transcription, and translation which differentiates it from other parasitic microbes.
An acid-fast staining procedure must be used in diagnosing M. aquaticus is capable of withstanding other extreme environments and has a biotechnological function as the heat-resistant Taq DNA Polymerase in PCR reactions. Infections from this microbe spread quickly in public areas with shared equipment such as hospitals and gyms. aquaticus and is tolerant of drought. that does not cause human disesase. radiodurans gram stains positive and is an obligate aerobic chemoorganoheterotroph. pickled vegetables. Its cells have a thick or waxy lipid coating. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A prokaryotic. radation. A heterotroph. Staphylococcus aureus MRSA: Belonging to the Firmicutes phylum within the bacteria domain. although it is often misdiagnosed as infection with the E. aureus is a prokaryotic. which resists gram staining. or through the skin. dispar microorganism. it generally gets its energy through anaerobic respiration. Entamoeba histolytica: Like G. hetertrophically obtains energy. It stains as gram-negative. It has two stages. ingestion. a dangerous disease with a high infection rate of one-third of humans. Bacteriophage infections in L. but can utilize aerobic respiration. tuberculosis infection. and gets carbon from chemicals as a chemotroph. this microbe causes fatal anthrax disease in humans. lamblia. T. Deinococcus radiodurans: Another prokaryotic bacterium within the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum. This bacterium can withstand environments even more extreme than T. it causes amoebic dysentery or amoebic liver abscess and infects much of the world’s population. spiral-shaped heterotroph that gets its carbon from chemical compounds and gram stains positive. lactis is a grampositive bacterium (its domain) classified within the Firmicutes phylum. Its ability to repair single and double stranded DNA is being utilized to add synthetic DNA into chromosomes in the goal of making a laboratory-derived organism. aerobic bacterium. Bacillus anthracis: A bacterium within the Firmicutes phylum. obtaining energy as a heterotroph and organic carbon as a chemotroph. getting energy from oxygen. aureus evolution towards methicillin or multi drug resistance strains. which pose a severe threat of infection. This microbe has agricultural significance and is used on dairy farms that make cheese. the hardier trophozite active stage and the cyst inactive stage. The widespread use of antibotics and immune system adaptations influenced S. among other things. this microbe is a Eukaryote. Extremophilic D. As a parasitic human pathogen. this microbe is a rod-shaped chemoheterotroph that gram-stains positive.Lactococcus lactis: Inhabiting dairy products and plant forms. It is a spherical-shaped chemoheterotroph that is classified within the phylum Amoebozoa/Protozoa. Thermus aquaticus: This thermophilic bacterium is a rod-shaped prokaryote in the DeinococcusThermus phylum. classified in the Actinobacteria phylum and possessing a rod shape. . spherical-shaped L. This pathogen has been used as a biological weapon as it can cause infection through inhalation. lactic can be detrimental to the dairy industry. with the latter being the easiest to treat but also the form that transmits disease. Forming tough spores. Besides its tolerance of extreme temperatures. and its fermentation metabolism produces lactic acid. and hydrogen peroxide. and beer. S.
H. C: Analysis of Nanoarchaeum equitans genome and proteome composition: indications for hyperthermophilic and parasitic adaptation.html http://www. July 2001.htm .htm http://www. http://www. S.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/ http://www.1186/1471-2164-7-186.asm.14.org/cgi/content/full/14/3/447 http://www.edu/ http://en.ncbi. Nature.nlm. R: Clinical Microbiology Reviews. BMC Genomics 2006. No. S.3.org/ Adam.biomedcentral. et al: A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont.00+0 DOI: 10.com/1471-2164/7/186 Huber.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/giardiasis/factsht_giardia. Vol.gov/pubmed/11986665?dopt=Abstract http://www. S. http://cmr.447-475.1128/CMR.com/video/Mtuberculosis. 3 0893-8512/01/$04.kenyon. http://www.usuhs. Paul. 2002 May 2. Bag.cdc. 447-475.microbiologybytes.discoverlife.wikipedia.cdc. p.417(6884):63-7.nih. doi:10.org/mp/20q?search=Yersinia+pestis Das.mil/pat/deinococcus/index_20. 14. Dutta.Sources http://microbewiki.2001.
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