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# INTRODUCTION: TRANSISTOR MODELING

## • To begin analyze of small-signal AC response of BJT

amplifier the knowledge of modeling the transistor is
important.
• The input signal will determine whether it’s a small
signal (AC) or large signal (DC) analysis.
• The goal when modeling small-signal behavior is to
make of a transistor that work for small-signal enough to
“keep things linear” (i.e.: not distort too much) [3]
• There are two models commonly used in the small signal
analysis:
a) re model
b) hybrid equivalent model
How does the amplification be
done?
• Conservation; output power of a system cannot be large
than its input and the efficiency cannot be greater than
1.

## • The input dc plays the important role for the

amplification to contribute its level to the ac domain
where the conversion will become as η=Po(ac)/Pi(dc)
• Re model
– Fails to account the output impedance level of
device and feedback effect from output to
input
• Hybrid equivalent model
– Limited to specified operating condition in
order to obtain accurate result
VCC

## DC supply  • O/p coupling

“0” potential R1 RC capacitor  s/c
• Large values
•I/p coupling
C1
C2 +
• Block DC and
capacitor  s/c pass AC signal
RS + Vo
• Large values Vi R2 RE C3
• Block DC and VS -
-
pass AC signal • Bypass
capacitor  s/c
Voltage-divider configuration
•Large values
under AC analysis

R1 RC

## Redraw the voltage-divider

+ configuration after removing dc
RS + Vo supply and insert s/c for the
Vi R2
capacitors
VS -
-
Modeling of
BJT begin
HERE!

Ii Transistor small- Io
B signal ac C
R1 RC + equivalent cct
Zi +
E
RS Rc
+ Vi R1 R2
Zo Vo
RS + Vo
Vi R2
VS
- - -
VS
-

## Redrawn for small-signal AC analysis

AC bias analysis :

## 2) Coupling and Bypass capacitors are short cct.

The effect of these capacitors is to set a lower cut-off
frequency for the cct.

## 3) Inspect the cct (replace BJTs with its small signal

model:re or hybrid).

## 4) Solve for voltage and current transfer function,

i/o and o/p impedances.
IMPORTANT PARAMETERS

• Input impedance, Zi
• Output impedance, Zo
• Voltage gain, Av
• Current gain, Ai

## Input Impedance, Zi(few ohms  MΩ)

The input impedance of an amplifier is the value as a
load when connecting a single source to the I/p of
terminal of the amplifier.
Two port system
-determining input impedance Zi
Rsense
Vi
+
Ii
+ Zi =
VS Zi Vi Two-port Ii
- system
- Vs − Vi
Ii =
R sense
Determining Zi

## • The input impedance of transistor can be

approximately determined using dc biasing
because it doesn’t simply change when the
magnitude of applied ac signal is change.
Output Impedance, Zo (few ohms  2MΩ)
The output impedance of an amplifier is determined at
the output terminals looking back into the system with
the applied signal set to zero.

Rsense
Rsource
V − Vo
+
Io +
Io =
Vo V
R sense
Vs=0V Two-port Zo
system -
-
Vo
Zo =
Determining Zo
Io
I a m p lifie r
IL

IR o For Ro ≥ RL
Zo ≥ RL ⇒ Zo become open cct
Z o= R o
RL
IL ≥ IRo
Voltage Gain, AV

## • DC biasing operate the transistor as an amplifier.

Amplifier is a system that having the gain behavior.
• The amplifier can amplify current, voltage and power.
• It’s the ratio of circuit’s output to circuit’s input.
• The small-signal AC voltage gain can be determined
by:

Vo
Av =
Vi
By referring the network below the analysis are:

Rsource
Vo
+ + + A vNL = R L = ∞ Ω (open cct)
VS Zi
AvNL Vo
Vi
Vi
-
- -

## with source resistance :

Determining the no load voltage gain
Vo Zi
A vs = = A vNL
Vs Zi + R s
Current Gain, Ai

## • This characteristic can be determined by:

Io
Ii
+
+
BJT Vo
Io = −
Zi
amplifier RL Vo
Vi

-
-
RL

Io Vo / RL VoZi Zi
Ai = =− =− Ai = −Av
Ii Vi / Zi ViRL RL
re TRANSISTOR MODEL

## • employs a diode and controlled current source to

duplicate the behavior of a transistor.
• BJT amplifiers are referred to as current-controlled
devices.

Common-Base Configuration

## Common-base BJT transistor

re model
re equivalent cct.
Hybrid Equivalent Model
• re model is sensitive to the dc level of operation
that result input resistance vary with the dc
operating point
• Hybrid model parameter are defined at an
operating point that may or may not reflect the
actual operating point of the amplifier
Hybrid Equivalent Model

The hybrid parameters: hie, hre, hfe, hoe are developed and used to model the transistor.
These parameters can be found in a specification sheet for a transistor.
Determination of parameter
Vi = h11Ii + h12 Vo
Vi
h11 =
Ii Vo = 0V

Vi
h12 =
Vo Vo = 0V

IO = h21Ii + h22 Vo
Solving Vo = 0V ,
Ii
h21 =
Io Vo = 0V

Io
h22 =
Vo Io = 0A

H22 is a conductance!
General h-Parameters for any
Transistor Configuration

hi = input resistance
hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio (Vi/Vo)
hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii)
ho = output conductance
Common emitter hybrid
equivalent circuit
Common base hybrid equivalent
circuit
Simplified General h-Parameter Model
The model can be simplified based on these approximations:

## hr ≅ 0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho ≅ ∞ (high resistance on the output)

Simplified
Common-Emitter re vs. h-Parameter Model

hie = βre
hfe = β
hoe = 1/ro