THE CURIOUS LORE OF

IOUS

STONSS
Being
Description of Their Sentiments and Folk Lore, Superstitions, Symbolism, Mysticism, Use in Medicine, Protection, Prevention, Religion, and Divination, Crystal Gazing, Birthstones, Lucky Stones and

A

Talismans, Astral, Zodical,

and Planetary

BY

GEORGE FREDERICK J^UNZ
A.M., PH.D., D.SC.
WITH
86

ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR, DOUBLETONE AND LINE

HALCYON HOUSE

:

NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1913, BV

J. B.

LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

First Printing,

November, 1913
April, 1917

Second Printing, May, 1915

Third Printing, Fourth Printing,
Fifth Printing, Sixth Printing,

March, 1922 December, 1926 December, 1930

HALCYON HOUSE EDITION, APRIL,
Seventh Printing, April, 1938

HALCYON HOUSE

editions are published and distributed by Blue Ribbon Books, Inc., 386 Fourth Avenue, New York City

PRINTED AND BOUND BY THE CORNWALL PRESS, INC*, FOR BLUE RIBBON BOOKS, INC., 386 FOURTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY Printed in the United States of America

HEARTFELT APPRECIATION OF THE NOBLE SPIRIT THAT CONCEIVED AND FOUNDED THE MORGAN-TIFFANY COLLECTION OF GEMS AND THE MORGAN-BEMENT COLLECTIONS OP MINERALS AND METEOR* ITES OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY, AND THE MORGAN COLLECTION OP THE MUSEB D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE OF PARIS, AND WHOSE KINDLY ADVICE AND ENCOURAGEMENT HAVE DONE SO MUCH FOR THE PRECIOUS STONE ART, THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF THE LATE
\VITH
1

J.

PIERPONT MORGAN

Ikefate
love of precious stones is deeply implanted in human heart, and the cause of this must be sought not only in their coloring and brilliancy but also in their durability. All the fair colors of flowers and foliage, and even the blue of the sky and the glory of the

the

sunset clouds, only last for a short time, and are subject to continual change, but the sheen and coloration of precious stones are the same to-day as they were thouto come.

sands of years ago and will be for thousands of years In a world of change, this permanence has a

charm of its own that was early appreciated. The object of this book is to indicate and illustrate the various ways in which precious stones have been used at different times and among different peoples, and more especially to explain some of the curious ideas and
fancies that have gathered around them.

Many

of these

may seem strange enough to us now, and yet when we analyze them we find that they have their roots either in some intrinsic quality of the stones or else in an inideas
stinctive appreciation of their symbolical significance. Through manifold transformations this symbolism has

persisted to the present day. The same thing may be said in regard to the various
superstitions connected with gems. Our scientific knowledge of cause and effect may prevent us from accepting any of the fanciful notions of the physicians and as-

trologers of the olden time; nevertheless, the possession of a necklace or a ring adorned with brilliant diamonds, fair pearls, warm, glowing rubies, or celestial-hued

sapphires will to-day

make

a

woman's heart beat

faster

vi

PREFACE

and bring a blush of pleasure to her cheek. Life will seem better worth living to her; and, indeed, this is no delusion, for life is what our thought makes it, and joy Hence nothing that conis born of gratified desire.
tributes to increasing the
;

sum

of innocent pleasures

should be disdained and surely no pleasure can be more innocent and justifiable than that inspired by the possession of beautiful natural objects.

The

author,

who

possesses what

is

believed to be the

obtained

most comprehensive private library on this subject, has many references from material which he has

been gathering during the past twenty-five years. Many of the types exist in the collection of folk-lore precious stones exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, and now in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Other types are drawn from the Morgan Collection exhibited at the Paris Expositions of 1889 and 1900, which, with additions, is now in Morgan Hall, in the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. Other prominent references are the collection of precious

stones
in

Museum,

in the California Midwinter Memorial Golden Gate Park, San Francisco; the

Tiffany collection of precious stones, exhibited at the Atlanta Exposition of 1894, now in the National Museum in Washington; the collection exhibited at the Pan-

American Exposition, and presented to the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, in Paris, by the late J. Pierpont Morgan; the collection exhibited at the exposition held in Portland, Oregon, in 1905 and the collection of gems and precious stones exhibited" at the Jamestown Ex;

position, 1907.

All of these collections, either entirely or very largely, have been formed by the author. Some references to sentiment connected with precious stones are embodied in the little work, now in its 21st

PREFACE
Natal Stones, Sentiments edition, entitled! 7 stitions Associated with Precious

vii

"

and Super-

the writer, who lections in the United States, Europe, Mexico, Canada,

Stones,' compiled by has examined nearly all the principal col-

and

Asiatic Russia.

For courtesies, information and illustrations, I am indebted to the following, to whom my thanks are due: Prof. Taw Sein Ko, Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey, of Burma; Dr. T. Wada, of Tokyo, Japan; Dr. G. 0. Clerc, President of the Societe Ouralienne des Amis des Sciences Naturelles, Ekaterinebourg, Russia;
Dr. Charles Braddock, late Medical Inspector to the King Siam ; Sir Charles Hercules Reed, Curator of Archaeology, and Dr. Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Egyptologist, British Museum, London; A. W. Feavearyear, Esq., London Dr. Salomon Reinach, Director of the Archaeological Museum of St. Germain-en-Laye, France Prof. Giuseppe Belucci, of the University of Perugia; Dr. Peter Jessen, Librarian of the Kunstgewerbe Museum, of Berlin ; Miss Belle DaCosta Green; Dr. Frederick Hirth, Chinese Professor, Columbia University, New York; Dr. Clark
of
;

;

Curator of Archaeology, Dr. L. P. Gratacap, Curator of Mineralogy, American Museum of Natural History; Dr. Berthold Laufer, Oriental Archaeologist, and Dr. Oliver C. Farrington, Curator of Geology and Mineralogy, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; Hereward Carrington, Esq., Psychist, New York; Dr. W. Hayes Ward, Archaeologist and Babylonian Scholar; Mrs. Henry Draper, New York; H. W. Kent, Esq., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City; Consul General Moser, Colombo, Ceylon; W. W. Blake, Mexico City, who has done so much to encourage Mexican archaeological
"Wissler,

investigation; the late A. Damour, of Paris, the great pioneer of mineralogical archaeology; the late Dr. A. B.

viii

PREFACE

Meyer, of Dresden, who, more than anyone else, proved that the Nephritfrage or the jade question was to be solved by chemical and mineralogical investigation; the late Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohan Tagore, of Calcutta; and Dr. A. M. Lythgoe, Egyptologist, Metropolitan

Museum

of Art.

G. F. K.
SEPTEMBER, 1913.

Contents?
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES

1

II.

ON THE USB

OF PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES AS
19
51

TALISMANS AND AMULETS
III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

ON ON ON ON

THE TALISMANIC USE OP SPECIAL STONES THE USE OF ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS AS TALISMANS

115
143

OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES
CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING

176

RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES, PAGAN, HEBREW, AND
CHRISTIAN
225

VIII.

ON THE

HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE

275

IX.

BIRTH-STONES

307
338

X.

PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES OF PRECIOUS STONES

XL ON

THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS
367

STONES

MAHARAJA RUNJIT SINGH. PERFORATED AND MOUNTED IN METAL EYE AGATE. HINDOOSTAN AGATES USED AS VOTIVE CHARMS AND SET IN RINGS 152 172 180 ROCK-CRYSTAL BALL PENETRATED BY CRYSTALS OF RUTILE GLASS BALL. PERFORATED AND MOUNTED IN METAL BALL OF JET. AND SYMBOLS OF SUN AND MOON.D.illustration* COLOR PLATES PAGB PHENOMENAL GEMS (GEMS EXHIBITING PHENOMENA) Frontispiece. ANCIENT MEXICAN NECKLACES FROM EGYPT. EGYPT TURQUOISE NECKLACE. FOURTH CENTURY 128 136 Moss AGATE MOCHA STONES. WITH PEARLS AND GEMS CARDINAL FARLEY'S RING. THIBET PHOENICIAN SCARAB. SAPPHIRE WITH DIAMONDS GEMS FROM THE MORGAN-TlFFANY COLLECTION SELF-PRINTS OF DIAMONDS. A SMALL JADE CELT ENGRAVED WITH GNOSTIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE .) 40 104 106 168 292 DOUBLETONES ROCK-CRYSTAL AMULET SET IN SILVER 16 ROCK-CRYSTAL PLACQUE. BEARING FIGURES OF THE 128 GOD NEBO AND A WORSHIPPER. WITH ENGRAVED SCORPION 112 128 ANCIENT BABYLONIAN CYLINDER IMPRESSION. FIRST CENTURY 16 22 26 MOSAICS OF TURQUOISE AND ENAMELLED CARNELIAN BEADS NECKLACES FROM EGYPT AFRICAN AGATE CHARMS 32 50 AMBER ORNAMENTS CHALCEDONY VOTIVE CHARM FROM MEXICO CURIOUS ALTAR OF POWALAWA INDIANS OF ARIZONA 54 60 60 68 92 92 92 100 KABYLE JEWELRY JASPER PENDANT PIECE OF NATURAL LOADSTONE FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES ARAGONITE PENDANT OBSIDIAN MASK. SHOWING PHOSPHORESCENCE CROSS. FROM THE FAYOUM. . DEE'S SHEW STONE xi 180 180 188 . ATTACHED AS PENDANT TO THE CROWN OF THE GOTHIC KING RECCESviNTHTrs (649-672 A. SHOWING A NUMBER OF CIRCULAR MARKINGS DB.

GRINDING AND POLISHING ROCK- CRYSTAL BALLS ROCK-CRYSTAL SPHERE WITH THREE-FIGURE MOUNTING "PHANTOM CRYSTAL" OF QUARTZ (ROCK-CRYSTAL) 218 220 228 ROCK-CRYSTAL BALLS 228 230 . AVEYRON. IN CURSIVE EGYPTIAN WRITING AN ANCIENT PRESCRIPTION NECKLACES (1) CARNELIAN BEADS." 260 264 272 OF 274 JOHANN BRAUN. AND ANCIENT PERSIAN) STATUETTE KNOWN AS THAT OF SAINTE FOY. BY SIGURD NEANDROSS JADEITE CELTS STAUROLITE CRYSTALS (FAIRY STONES) FRONTISPIECE OF THE "VESTITUS SACERDOTUM HEBILEORUM. (2) ONYX BEADS FACSIMILE PAGE OF ITALIAN VELLUM MANUSCRIPT TREATISE OF THE VIRTUES OF GEMS INITIALS FROM THE LAPIDARIO DE ALFONSO X 328 330 342 346 358 366 370 378 390 . 1680 SILVER CROSS WITH QUARTZ CAT'S~EYE 286 286 SPECIMENS OF CHIASTOLITE (LAPIS CRUCIFER) FACSIMILE OF THE BETROTHAL RING OF THE VIRGIN IN THE CATHEDRAL OF PERUGIA 312 Moss AGATES THE FIGURES OF THE PLANETS WITH THEIR SIGNIFICANT STONES THE ZODIACAL STONES WITH THEIR SIGNS NECKLACES (FIRST CENTURY. 230 AMBER HEART-SHAPED AMULET AN INSCRIBED SCARAB OF THE TYPE KNOWN AS A HEART-SCARAB BABYLONIAN AXE HEAD MANI MALA. DEPT... SUPPORTED BY BRONZE DRAGON BALLS AND OTHER HARD STONE OBJECTS METHOD OF GRINDING CRYSTAL 218 IN GERMANY AND FRANCE JAPANESE METHOD OF CHIPPING. IN THE ABBEY-CHURCH AT CONQUES.. OR CHAIN OF GEMS SCULPTURED JADE MOUNTAIN WEIGHING 640 LBS VOTIVE ADZE OF JADEITB FROM MEXICO 232 236 244 252 STATUE OF A MAORI WARRIOR. FRANCE INSCRIPTION ON A SMALL PIECE OF LIMESTONE..xii ILLUSTRATIONS 188 OBSIDIAN MIRROR. WITH NATIVE TEXTILE STRING BOCK-CRYSTAL SPHERES AND NATURAL CROSS BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS AND PERSIAN BEADS ROCK-CRYSTAL SPHERES WITH JAPANESE MOUNTINGS 196 204 212 216 CRYSTAL BALL.D. AMSTERDAM. A.

OBSIDIAN MIRROR. SPECIMEN PAGE OF ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT OF FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 1531 15 TITLE PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE GREEK TREATISE BY ST. EPHOD WITH BREASTPLATE FOLDED 281 . EPIPHANIUS ON THE GEMS OF THE BREASTPLATE. III I. CARNELIAN SEAL. Now IN TROCADERO 99 100 124 MUSEUM. AND ATTACHED. PRINTED IN FRIBURG. WORN BY NAPOLEON I. COL258 LECTED AND EDITED BY CONRAD GESNER AT ZURICH IN 1565 HIS VESTMENTS 279 THE HEBREW HIGH-PRIEST ATTIRED WITH THE BREASTPLATE UNFOLDED. NAPOLEON IMPERIAL AND THE PRINCE 64 . ANCIENT MEXICAN ENGRAVED HELIOTROPE ENGRAVED RED JASPER GNOSTIC GEMS ANTIQUE JADE CELT CONVERTED INTO A GNOSTIC TALISMAN MONOGRAM OF THE NAME OF CHRIST ENGRAVED ON AN ONYX GEM 124 127 129 136 138 Two GOLD RINGS SET WITH ENGRAVED ONYX GEMS IN THE THE "ORPHANUS JEWEL" OF GEMS GERMAN IMPERIAL CROWN 147 TITLE PAGE OF ROBERT BOYLE'S WORK ON THE ORIGIN AND VIRTUES 169 TITLE PAGE OF A GSOUP OF TREATISES BY VABIOUS AUTHORS.ILLUSTRATIONS xiii LINE CUTS IN TEXT TITLE PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE POETICAL TREATISE ON PRECIOUS STONES BY MARBODUS. PARIS ROCK-CRYSTAL SKULL. BISHOP OF RENNES. II. WITH A LATIN VERSION 16 TITLE PAGE OF ONE OF THE EARLIEST TREATISES ON PRECIOUS STONES PUBLISHED IN ENGLAND 17 PEARL DEALER 42 53 AN AIR-SHIP OF 1709 THE TREE THAT EXUDES AMBER 56 A PRACTICAL TEST OF THE VIRTUES OF THE BLOODSTONE TO PREVENT NOSE-BLEED 60 III. FROM OAXACA. 77 MEXICO.

PUBLISHED IN COLOGNE. LEO AND CAPRICORN.xiv ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE PAGE OF THE EDITION OP MARBODUS ON PRECIOUS STONES. IN THE CENTRE A SIX-RATED STAR. THE FORM OF ONE OF THESE RATS DENOTING A COMET 322 . ENGRAVED WITH THE ZODIACAL SIGNS. 1539 290 CARNELIAN. TAURUS.

and a zodiacal concordance with the seasons of the year. the seers. or of the Montezumas invested these brilliant things from Nature's jewel casket with a significance beyond the mere suggestion of their intrinsic They have been found properties. in the monuments of prehistoric and not alone the civilization of the Pharaohs. Indeed. The magi. but when the spirit of investigation was aroused in the Eenaissance period. certain affinities with the various virtues. peoples. and zodiacal gems. folklorists are wont to wonder whether the custom of wearing gems in jewelry did not originate in the talismanic idea instead of in the idea of mere additional adornment. the wise men. the astrologers of the ages gone by found much in the matter of gems that we have nearly come to forgetting. an effort was made to find a reason of some sort for the 1 . The influence exerted by precious stones was assumed in medieval times without question. that the evil in the world could be kept from contaminating a child properly protected by wearing the appropriate talismanic. "With them each gem possessed certain planetary attractions peculiar to itself.Ctmoug lore of i Sreciotttf Atones? atrt l^efr JpROM w the earliest times in man's history gems and precious stones have been held in great esteem. natal. these early sages were firm believers in the influence of gems in one's nativity. Moreover. of the Incas.

. if a child of lively imagination enters a halflighted room and sees a bundle of clothes lying in a corner. there always be a tendency to regard every singular and unaccountable happening as a miracle. the indistinct outline of this mass may be transformed to his mind into the form of a wild animal. but very different from what a crass scepticism will When the existence supposes it to be. health. the results of the investigations now pursued in relation to the group of phe- . there was little disposition to doubt that the influence existed this was taken for granted. that is to say.2 THE CUKIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES Strange as it may seem to us. susceptible indeed of explanation. but his fear has given a definite outline and character to the indefinite image printed on the retina. Above all. Still. The child does not really see an animal. and all the mental effort traditional beliefs. The writer has always sought to investigate anything strange and apparently unaccountable which has been brought to his notice. the laws of nature. for instance. some residuum of fact. when we consider the marvellous secrets that have been revealed to us by science and the yet more wonderful things that will be revealed to us in the future. expended was devoted to finding some plausible explanation as to how precious stones became endowed with their strange and mystic virtues. We even observe this tendency at work in our own time. as something that occurs outside of. As regards visual impressions. of miracles is acknowledged. but he can truly say he has never found the slightest evidence of anything transcending the acknowledged laws of nature. and how these virtues acted in modifying the character. or fortunes of the wearer. or in spite of. we are tempted to think that there may be something in the old beliefs.

but possibly due to the operation of some unknown law. does this not give a color of verity to the statements regarding the ancient magicians and their spells? Auto-suggestion. for the blood of innocent virgins was supposed to have wonderful properties. may go far to make us hesitate before condemning as utterly preposterous many of the tales of enchantment and magical influence. He will really experience the influence. In some parts of England to-day there is a superstitious belief that an article of clothing worn by a person. and the effects will manifest themselves just as powerfully as though they were caused by vibrations or emanations from the material body of the stone. serve to explain the persistence of the few hundred years ago. their claims being supported by many strange happenings. for if the wearer be firmly convinced much that the gem he is wearing produces certain results. this conviction will impress itself upon his thought and hence upon his very organism. the subconscious influence of one mind over an absent or distant mind. woman was accused of having murdered two or garian three hundred young girls. and the wireless transmission of power in wireless telegraphy and telephony. perhaps the result of coincidence. a Hunbelief in magic arts. may also afford an explanation of that is mysterious in the effects attributed to precious stones. as is confidently asserted by competent investigators in the domain of tele- pathy. and at her trial she confessed All this may A was to use the blood of her victims to renew her youth and beauty.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIE SOUECES nomena embraced under 3 the designation of telepathy. or that her object . If the unconscious will of one individual can affect the thoughts and feelings of another individual at a great distance and without the intervention of any known means many of communication.

the pins marking the name of the enemy. and then thrust pins into this figure or allowed it to melt away before a slow fire. One strange case is related where a stupefying potion. The Voodoo worshippers had carried the man after. Therefore.4 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES lie has habitually used. he was duly interred but. three women were condemned to death for murdering a white baby so as to use the heart and blood as a cure for diseases. was secretly administered to a sick man. the . it sometimes happens that a handkerchief. it is not surprising that in halfcivilized Hayti similar crimes are committed. papalois and mamalois (papa-kings and mama-queens) require from time to time a human sacrifice to appease their serpent-god. and therefore the living and breathing being felt sympathetically the effects of the ill-treatment inflicted upon its counterfeit. The persistence of the most tices of old-time cruel and unnatural prac- sorcery is illustrated by the fact that only a few years ago. In medieval and later times this was the common practice of the sorcerers. inducing a state of apparent death. although they frequently composed a wax figure rudely resembling the person against whom the spell was directed. absorbs a portion of his individuality. two days . Here the Voodoo priests and priestesses. the belief being that as anything this cloth wastes away. When the attending physician pronounced him dead. so will the body of him who had worn it. The enchantment of the sorcerer was supposed to have caused some essence of the personality to enter into the image. in the island of Cuba. for instance. grave was found open and the body had disappeared. Four other women were sentenced to from fourteen to 7 twenty years imprisonment as accomplices. When snch things happen in Cuba. will be stolen and pinned down beneath the waters of a stream on a toad.

perfect ones. regarding the 2 power inherent in certain precious stones. 87. " Gemmarum et lapidum historia. The opinion given in 1609. court physician to Rudolph II of Germany. who transforms 1 Jean de la Taille de Bondaroy. "they even take offence if an injury be done to them. What God can do by Himself. are enabled to enter precious stones and to guard men from dangers or procure some special grace for them. good and bad angels." The sickness of the pearl has been a theme for centuries. "La Marguerite des Marguerites. . 1636. or to ascribe undue powers to them. is more especially pleasing to the spirit of evil.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIB SOURCES away so as to revive 5 at their him and then sacrifice him fearful rites. 1574. and death. evil one. to repose trust in them. . 91. It is but a subterfuge or deception for a lady to remark that her pearls have sickened by referring to this sickness. 1 we read of the diamond that it caine from gold and from the sun. and become rough and pale. "Le Blason de la Marguerite/' Paris." as she was called. the . . Bat. by special grace of God and for the preservation of men. Lug. But we are told that not only are precious stones endowed with life. when in reality they may never have been so. by Jean de la Taille de Bondaroy. He could do also by means of ministers. pp. embodies the ideas on this subject held by many of the enlightened minds of that period. 25. they also are subject to disease. her friends are naturally led to believe that at one time her pearls were fine. as we may not affirm anything positive touching the presence of angels in gems. 2 Be Boot.. The supernatural and acting cause is God. In a poem addressed to Marguerite de Valois. and the evil by His permission. . and in many cases is only fancied. by Anselmus De Boot. cap. However. who." lib. old age. the good angel and the good by the will of God. i.

the hematite. However. figure him wearing this jewel. cap.. Gemmarum et lapidum historia. or pseudo-philosopher. d. We have proof of this power in the carnelian. . we must probably add. Lug. little by power that safety is not to be sought from God but from a gem* God alone. in whose virtues we may fairly doubt that he himself believed. when applied to the body." Some old spirit named portraits of the century. *Mackey. p. is so well proven by the experience of many persons. that any one who doubts this must be called over-bold. philosopher." lib. scientist. That gems or stones. exert an action upon it. but which furnished part of the para- phernalia be freely employed to gain influence over the credulous. . and the jasper. In the next chapter of his work. and works such wonders by it that some people do not place their trust in Grod but in a gem." Lonelon. insists upon the falsity of many of the superstitions 3 regarding these objects. necessary to observe that falsely ascribed to them. 144. while extolling the remedial power of a certain group of stones. all of which when applied. 103. many virtues not possessed by gems are and. the gifted and brilliant thinker. Paracelsus. teaching us. Thus it is perhaps the spirit of evil which on us through the turquoise. steals into the substance of the little gem. n. check hemorrhage. . p.6 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES himself into an angel of light. charlatan of the sixteenth whose really extraordinary mental endowment was largely wasted in the effort to impress his followers with the idea that he had a mystic control over supernatural agencies. 1636. 26. was the owner of a talismanic jewel which he asserted to be the dwelling-place of a powerful " Azoth. De Boot. it is very .. 4 8 De ef Boot. "Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions. Bat. i. and seek to obtain from it what they should ask of exercises its little.

to increase friendship. can produce none other but naturall effects. 1659. 5 who wrote in the middle of the seventeenth century. 33. to hinder fascinations and witchcrafts. from their temper. and of all the first qualities. colour. and which they koow nor can as they are materiall. is. to put courage into men. . illustrates the prevailing opinion in England at that time as to the virtues of precious stones : Perfectionem effectus contineri in causa. mixt. gemms. to hinder slothfulness. to make men wise. and all such accidents as do arise from the eommixtion of the first qualities: such as are hardnesse. the effects of which. the making of men rich and eloquent. heavineese. from plagues and move dreams.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES 7 The following passage from the " Faithful Lapidary" of Thomas Nicols. and tast. and many other strange things are affirmed of them and ascribed to them." London. In the same way 5 those Nicols. This effect may be noted in the helplessness of a bird when its gaze is fixed upon the glittering eyes of a serpent. who gaze " for a long time and without inter- Faithful Lapidary. to procure honours. and these are the known and of the operation of the first effects qualities of the union of their matter. which are contrary to the nature of gemrns. to preserve to men from thunder and lightning. by the properties and faculties of their own consti- tutions: because they being naturall causes. to foretell things to come. such as are the operations of hot and cold. one upon another. to procure sleep. and affirmed by Albertus and others concerning the ophfhalmius lapis. diseases. inanimate bodies neither effect. pp. to keep men chaste. by Lapidists are said to be. to strengthen memory. The long-continued concentration of vision on an object tends to produce a partial paralysis of certain functions of the brain. But it cannot truly be so spoken of gemms and pretious stones. as is feigned by the Poet concerning Gyges ring. form and essence. such as are all the ordinary effects of gemms: that such effects as flow from their elementary matter. or in the unwilling obedience yielded by a lion or some other wild animal when forced to look into the intent eyes of its trainer. 32. These all are the naturall faculties of thicknesse. and to make men invisible. to hinder difference and dissention.

a sapphire. Morbid imagination. on a warm summer's day. Superstitious fancies bear the same relation to truth that the shadow of a form does to the form itself.8 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES ruption on a crystal or glass ball. Reality. Sentiment may best be expressed as the feeling of one who. it is supposed in the East that a living spirit dwells within these stones. and they are believed by the Orientals to be gems of good luck. on the other . superstition highest attribute of the human mind. a moving line. The condition induced. on an opal. or simply due to the imaginative workings of the brain. however foolish a superstition in fact. in the same way we may be sure that. is rowing along a shady brook or resting in some sylvan dell. with nothing to interfere with his tranquil mood and nothing to spur him on and to action. whether it be that of semi-trance. and all that is great in art and literature owes its is has some foundation associated with the being to the transforming energy of pure imagination. The moonstone. The realities about us gain much of their charm from sentiment. attracting and fixing the beholder's gaze. or a cat's-eye. is believed to give an insight into the future. a spirit potent for good. or three crossed lines. thus he has only suggestions of hope indulges in rosy views of life. Indeed. may appear to be. a moonstone. distorts and degrades the impressions it receives and produces only unlovely or ignoble forms and ideas. it Indeed. on the other hand. imagination. and yet we know equally well that it is cast by some real body. We know that the shadow has no substantial existence. of hypnotism. may become partially hypnotized or even fall into a profound sleep. and the cat's-eye are all gems which possess a moving light. the star sapphire. This hypnotic effect is probably caused by some gleam or point of light in the stone.

porphyry. and producing a sour taste in the mouth occasionally a somnambulistic state was induced. the pleasurable sensation found expression in laughter. produced an agreeable warmth of the body. In the early part of the last century a series of very interesting experiments designed to demonstrate the effects produced upon a sensitive subject by the touch of precious stones and minerals. . relaxing the muscles. when the moon is throwing malevolent shadows which are weird and distorted. cold. misty night.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES 9 hand. to change a horrible nightmare into a pleasant dream. * Gorres." Frederike Hauffe (b. while the cold seems to seize one by the throat and arouse a passionate desire to free one's self from its grip in some way. conscious of the tingle of the cold. iii. sulphate of barium stimulated the muscles. causing diarrhoea. 190 sqq. vol. a carbonate of barium. may be likened to a crisp winter 's morning when one is filled with exhilaration. " Die chiistliehe Mystik. . pp. a woman believed to possess remarkable clairvoyant 6 powers. 1801). she was not affected in any way* The finest qualities of fluorspar. In the case of witherite. While the substances so far noted depressed the vital energy. Superstition. on the other hand. were made in the case of the "Seeress of Prevorst. When pieces of granite. or flint were placed in her hand. had a marked action. lastly. but comfortable in the knowledge of wearing a tightly-buttoned garment which will afford protection should the elements become disturbing. can be said to resemble a dark. tinued. 1840." Regensburg. This latter condition was also produced by Iceland spar and by the sapphire. and made the subject feel as though she could fly through the If the application of this material was long conair.

Ruby called forth a sensation of coldness in the tongue. this condition could only be relieved by the application of a piece of witherite. the oxide of iron in this substance inducing a kind of paralysis. was caused by glass. the rigidity produced was so great that the limbs resisted all attempts to bend them. and if placed on the pit of the stomach. for if put in the hand. Indeed.10 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES was produced water in which this this effect if an even greater degree. . even when the material. as did also heliotrope and basalt. the application was continued for some time. and rendered this member so heavy that only incoherent sounds could be emitted. in whose composition oxide of chromium enters. All colorless silicates. or by the tones emitted by a glass object when struck. wrapped up in paper. either of which caused a bitter taste in the mouth. it had the power to awaken the seeress from a somnambulistic trance. however. and even gypsum. caused the same symptoms as seemed to exert loadstone. less degree. When. even by looking at it. owing to the attractive quality of this magnetic iron. Spinel. The same effect. the muscles stiffened. except that in this case the force itself from the hand upward along the arm. it aroused the subject from a half-slumber. Octahedrons of magnetite (loadstone) caused a sensation of heaviness and convulsive movements of the limbs. while with the loadstone the action was downward along the arm to the hand. was brought near the subject. until finally an epileptic state ensued. the diamond. but in a much. while at the same time an aromatic odor was diffused around. spasms of laughter resulted. Bock-crystal also was found to possess a strongly stimulating influence. with a sensation of inner chill . had a similar effect. The most powerful action was that exerted by hematite. for mineral had been dipped were to swallowed.

for here the physical impression is heightened by the consciousness of the value and rarity of the material. and the head of another woman. by tEe belief. but there can be no doubt that the subject has not been as carefully studied as it deserves to be. the mental impression is widely different. All this. with all their sparkle and color. sometimes serves The names of precious stones and semi-precious A . concerns only the purely physical impression. but we know that very often the hypnotic state is produced by a mental impression. and the body was agitated by a violent shivering. beginning at the breast and spreading thence over the whole body.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES 11 the fingers and toes also became cold. When chrysoprase was used. but is largely owing to the consciousness that they are rare and valuable objects and are perhaps dash of envy eloquent witnesses of the power of love. that the state will supervene. or the fear. however. exercises upon the mind of a woman who sees them in their glorious radiance on the neck. We have touched upon the hypnotic influence exercised by gems. the effects of the various color-rays combine with the light effects and strengthen the impression upon the optic nerve. but to all these bad symptoms succeeded a sense of elasticity and well-being. In the case of colored precious stones. to render the emotion more complex. but quite probably a similar though not so pronounced effect results from gazing on a bright object just before the gazer's eyes. without a vague fear that the stone might cause a renewal of the physical depression. the arms. That the hypnotic state can be induced by gazing fixedly upon a bright object held just above the eyes is a wellknown fact. is not only due to the beauty of the spectacle. With precious stones as hypnotizing agents. The fascination that a fine set of jewels. not. chills and shivering resulted. however.

"pearly teeth" and "pearly skin". 7 "ruby wine/' "ruby lips. . 77 In all these cases the name of the prec- really used as a superlative of the adjective. 77 things it is said to resemble. she. The phrases "hard as adamant" and "clear as crystal" show a similar use of the name of a precious or ornamental stone to express the highest grade of a given ious mineral is quality. of precious stones. employed only in England. one of the fairies invited. A fanciful tale written not long ago treats of the practical inconveniences which would result. 77 77 type. "The Jewelled Princess/' in Canadian Magazine. made her appearance. Before the introduction of the "point 77 system in typography three of the grades of type bore the names namely.' and. in Shakespeare. and when so employed convey something more to the mind than do the may instance the corresponding adjectives of color. the neglected fairy said. However. sapphire seas and sapphire eyes . in Roman times. a friendly fairy good qualities. suggesting the choicest variety of the color or shade.12 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES " Emerald Isle" and "emfollowing expressions: the 7 " " erald meadows . "turquoise 77 skies "amethystine locks" and. nevertheless. could such 7 At metaphorical expressions find a realization in fact the birth-feast of a certain princess. "agate 77 and "emerald type 77 this latter designation is type. After the other fairies had endowed the child with many was not "I will give her and her vanity shall change her beauty to the vanity. "the 7 7 ' ' stones are frequently used as adjectives. T Virna Sheard. "diamond type. "amber hair. We 7 "coral lips" and "coral natural ruby of your cheeks' 7 ears' . . where "agate type" is called 77 Another size was denominated "pearl "ruby type. . 7 .

" result can easily be imagined. a number of superstitions current in his time. wrote of "diamond eyes. However. who saw phire ocean. but the Alexandrian literature of the second." "sapphire-tinted skies." For some reason." "an emerald sky." "the sapShelley. they did not grant the blind. ' Upon this ' ' ' ' The her teeth changed to pearls. beauty." of her "golden hair. and psychologists might a proof that red appeals less strongly to the idealist than do the other colors. at first more or less independent of each other. a many poets. ' and of her * * sapphire eyes. but combined to a greater or lesser extent by later writers. "I will give her unselfishness. The principal literary sources for the talismanic and therapeutic virtues attributed to ornamental stones may favorite stone with find in this be divided into several groups. her lips to coral. saying. her hair to spun gold. the world illumined by the rainbow hues of poetic fancy. and by it she shall turn her beauty back to what she wishes it to be. Pliny gives. those who wished to flatter her vanity spoke of her "teeth of pearl. and her eyes to two magnificent sapphires. and fourth Christian centuries provides a much richer field . so that the unhappy princess became Not long after this a revolution deprived the king and qneen of their throne and they were reduced to great daughter sacrificed her and immediately "gold-hair" the spell was dissolved and she regained all her natural straits the poverty. he does not use the ruby. In these to relieve their wants. power of sight. beautiful as these were. third.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES 13 came to the rescue." of her coral lips." "the sapphire floods of interstellar air." "the emerald heaven of trees. sometimes rather grudgingly." and "the chrysolite of sunrise. As the little princess grew up.

although dating in its present Spanish form from the thirteenth century. directly or indirectly. a work . wherein we have also much that is of Alexandrian origin." the "Cyrianides. source was drawn upon for the production of the Lapidarium of Alfonso X. for these superstitions. The influence exerted by the legends surrounding the stones of the high priest's breastplate. This indeed is easily explained by history. as shown in the Orphic poem "Lithica. no longer preserved for us in the literature of India. were led to absorb and amalgamate the date they secured. the little treatise On Bivers. was developing in the Mohamthe tradition of Pliny and Solinus was world. are reproduced in these SyrioArabic works. and sent by him to Tiberius or Nero. transmitted to the Christian world of the seventh and While this literature medan succeeding centuries by Isidorus of Seville. in the work by Damigeron. of Castile. and those chosen as foundation stones for the New Jerusalem. There can be little doubt that . for the Arabs. This Others were composed in the latter language. This compilation. is based upon a much older original in "Chaldee" (Syriac?). eighth.14 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES " Trismegistus. and last. probably in Asia Minor. through their widely extended conquests. and ninth centuries. Some of the works were originally written in Syriac and later translated into Arabic. but not least. from the East and the West. Bishop of Eennes.many Hindu superstitions." attributed to Hermes In the seventh. which purported to be written by an Arab king named Evax. a new literature on this subject made its appearance." which bore the name of Plutarch. This brings us to the remarkable poetical treatise on the virtues of precious stones by Marbodus. will be treated of elsewhere.

"" -^ -*-* /"\ ^ ^-^ _. and often quoted as that of Evax. either directly or through Isidorus. so that. in the later quently works on this subject. Hue ucnikjotmcontoKtilk Wcr : This complex origin of the traditions explains their almost contradicincomprehensible tions regarding the virtues asflip rlifFpranf cfn-n^a Uie Ulireieni/ ANNO Title page of the first edition of the poetical treatise on precious stones by SCOneS.[2? Ways . This is in part an excusable and . . already translated into Old French in the twelfth century. whatever came to hand. At the same time Marbodus drew freely upon Pliny. became known as the "Lapidario" par excellence. extracts from the Arabic sources became available. without discrimination or criticism. . J DEI GALLI POBTAE VE IWD J. For the Middle Ages this poem of Marbodus. and the aim to utilize as much of the borrowed material as possible. however. . is scarcely less a characteristic of the seventeenth and eighteenth century writers than it is of those of a later date. indeed. it becomes quite impossible to present a satisfactory view of the distinguishing qualities and virtues of the separate stones. and also the fact that the qualities of one stone are freattributed to another one. The habit of copying. A T> "D TVyf ^ ** . and the whole mass of heterogeneous material was worked over and recombined in a variety of ject. and furnished a great part of their material to medieval authors on this sub. boon. it purports to be by him and really contains a good part of the material com- posing the treatise of Damigeron or Evax.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES 15 written at the end of the eleventh century.

or divination by means of the letters of the SC.16 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES it even an unavoidable defect. were to be grouped together to form a talisman. cum Corollano Conra* diGc&crL signifying the four elements. Bishop of Tyre.8 TI GYRt Title page of the first edition of the Greek treatise by St. are given for each of the twenty-four letters of the Greek These four objects alphabet. a bird. xxviii. was asserted work of Hermes Trismegistus. "Les vol. pp.AD DIO. and a fish. *De Mely. is 1566 (1565) by Conrad Gesner. Edited and issued at Zurich in which the Another. dorutn Tyri cpi&opuni ^ DC X. Epiphanius. but should be minimized as much as possible.. 1898. a plant. with a Latin version. while a portion of the fish and of the plant was placed in the bezel of the ring in stone was to be set. as we have noted. 1-50. Here we have a specimen of s ^f it c r r the species of magic known as litteromancy. dorus.alphabet. .OPI CYPRI. and it is peculiarly valuable as the du moyen-age/ 7 ii. Epiphanius on the Gema of the Breastplate. a product of the Alexandrian school. lapidaires de Pantiquite et "Les lapidaires grecs/' Paris. 15-21) This unique production is in the form of a letter addressed to Dio* ' ' . on the twelve gems on the ment ' of the high priest (Ex. treatise The It known under the to be the title " ' 7 Cyrianides was. & crcgionc Latinos* ning with the same letter and the name given by the Greeks iolaHicrotitantino irttcrpcctc.I I. the exceedingly curious and interesting treatise by St. PATRIS PIPHANII to the Egyptian god Thoth. the bird being usually engraved on the stone. each beginj. almost contemporary work. Bishop of ConBreastplate of Judgstantia. since a stone.

.ROCK-CRYSTAL AMULET SET IN SILVER. Field Museum of Natural History. Field Museum Collection. ROCK-CRYSTAL PLACQUE. Bohemian. ANCIENT MEXICAN. tenth century. Chicago.

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T Strange to say. The TT r QS ^p p Latin text has never been printed. and who later taught theology in the University of Paris and had the great iSt Thomas Aquinas for a pupil. . was not altogether free from the superstitious notions of his time. -I -i j i The Relation of Divefs of the Moft Famous Tiwfen of . was by Albertus Magnus. most interesting medieval treatise on the virtues of precious stones forms part of the De rerum natura of A Thomas de Cantimpre (1201-1270).. . amplified by additions from other sources.-. was published under the title " Secrets des vertus des Herbes. Many years after his death some of this material was extracted from his works and.-j i . who was a pupil of Magnus and composed his work between 1230 and 1244.. Title page of one of the earli^ eat treatises on precious stones published m England - Magnus (1193-1280). . Pierres 2 . In many cases Thomas de Cantimpre merely copies the statements of older authors. traces of which appear in certain of his numerous writings. Albertus rf. the i ! ji . Attended The renOWned medieval pnilosopher and theologian. The special virtues of each stone are also given.SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIE SOURCES first 17 of a long series of attempts to elucidate the question as to the identity of the twelve stones. A! 1 O 1 \J 1\ Y ** but the book was translated into 4 T German by Konrad von Megenberg I CWClS* Albertus A v about 1350. and this treatise may be regarded as the prototype of all the Christian writings on the symbolism of stones. n 7 .. And of the EA$I the Principal Riches of and WEST. but occasionally he gives us new material. or at least a new version of his originals. j. for a short time Bishop of Eatisbon. IT i j-i began to translate the book that it j. . translator did not know the name of the writer and supposed when he .

" eventually enjoyed great popularity among the French peasants. view of the general familiarity with Latin among the better classes at that period.18 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Of this there are two versions. a literal "Speculum lapidum" of Camillo Leonardo. Indeed. printed in Venice in 1502." as though tions are these were distinct works. but even to-day cita- made from Dolce *s "Trattato delle gemme " and from Leonardo's "Speculum lapidum. and he had the courage to issue it as his own work. translation into Italian of the In che produce la natura. " These little books were often reprinted and widely circulated. and et Bestes. and the numerous fine title ' ' Trattato delle gemme ' * libraries existing in Venice at the time. it seems most extraordinary that Dolce should have been successful in palming off this work as his own. one being an epitome of the other and termed respectively "Le Grand Albert and "Le Petit Albert. under the Ludovico Dolce. even to the present day they may be met with in out-of-the-way parts of rural France. Among literary deceptions one of the boldest was that practised in the early part of the seventeenth century by still This writer made. in 1565. .

testifying to considerable thought and reflection. ferred to seek for a solution of this problem in the cus- magic efficacy of stones toms and habits of the so-called uncivilized peoples of our own time. very difficult of personal either to prove or to disprove such a theory. but we must not forget that conditions which seem to us very rudimentary are. so that will and thought are attributed to inanimate 19 . many uncivilized peoples have very complicated rules and observances. it must have required a very considerable period of time to evolve such usages and conventions as are found even among the lowest races. certain investigators have preture.II of $recfotig ana and use of precious stones in early times as amulets and talismans is shown in many ancient records. Fetichism in all its forms depends upon an imperfect conception of what constitutes life and conscious being. we must bear in mind that they do not in the least represent primitive conditions. and that many thousands of years must have elapsed before a people could attain the grade of civilization necessary for the production of even the simplest literaFor this reason. and several scholars have assumed that the belief in the gave rise to their use as objects adornment. It is. for. nevertheless. Even if this development was arrested many centuries or millenniums ago. of course. Indeed. even in the case of the oldest texts. the result of a long process of development.

The baby has no fear in regard to a small and brilliantly colored object which is shown to it. as were large stones. the wearing of stones is more likely to have been precious due to the attraction exercised by bright colors upon the eye of the beholder and to the desire to display some distinguishing mark that would command attention and of the human call body. preserving. they were not imposing by their mass. and wearing of precious stones. however. it seems probable that those supposed to be the abode of spirits. we may even say their only attraction was their color and brilliancy. Hence their chief. they can scarcely have impressed the mind of primitive with the idea that they were alive. who regard any moving object as endowed with life. This tendency runs through the higher animal kingdom. We can observe this in the case of animals and very young children. and their man crystalline form scarcely figured any known living shape. and gaze upon a bright-colored stone. What effect these qualities had upon the visual sense of primitive man may be safely inferred from the effect such objects produce upon infants. On what we admiration for the wearer. there is nothing to suggest any lurking power to harm. As the object is quite passive and easily handled. the infant undoubt- . It seems likely that we have here the true explanation of the motive for the gathering. Since these objects are motionless.20 THE CUEIOUS LOKE OF PRECIOUS STONES objects. and therefore there is nothing to interfere with the pleasurable sensation aroused in the optic nerve by the play of color. hold. good or evil. In the case of stones. were selected because their natural form suggested that of some animal or of some portion the other hand. In this naive admiration of what is brilliant and colored. and its workings have served as a foundation for the theory of natural selection. but will eagerly put out its hand to seize.

while the harder gems must have been hoarded as pretty toys long before they could be adjusted for use as ornaments. after constructing for themselves pretty arbors. In this. and stones. and were first gathered up and pretive served by primitive man for this reason alone. the hues of which are united in its sparkling light. Indeed. there was a disposition to attribute certain happenings to their influence and power. feathers. wherein holes could be easily bored by the help of the simplest tools. so arranged as to suggest a mosaic pavement. proof that bright and colored objects were attracin themselves. which have often been brought from a considerable distance. and it has required centuries of enlightenment to bring us back to this love of precious stones for their esthetic beauty alone. which some timid people still fear to wear. may be found in the fact that certain birds. and in this way there arose a belief in their efficacy. notable the Chlamy- A dera of Australia. and. related to our ravens. we can see the power of superstitious belief in the case of the opal. even to-day. this . probably came next. shells. At the entrance of the arbors are heaped up pieces of bone. finally. the softer stones. man's first and instinctive appreciation was the truest. when these objects had once been worn.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 21 edly represents for us the mental attitude of primitive man. strew the floors with variegated pebbles. the conviction that they were the abodes of powerful spirits. Unquestionably. Probably the first objects chosen for personal adornment were those easily strung or bound together. although until three or four centuries ago this stone was thought to combine all the virtues of the various colored gems. for instance. as in many other things. certain perforated shells and brilliant seeds.

Pliny's use of amuletum shows that with him the word did not always denote an object that was worn it seems probable that the name is of on the person. which is at the same time easily portable and can be handled or worn. "to remove. should be overlooked by those who are disposed to assert that all ornaments of this kind were originally selected and preserved solely or principally because of their supposed talismanic qualities.22 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES giving evidence that the birds have not selected these objects at random. but still has something to recommend it as far as the sense goes. 68. .." "to drive away." Science. Talis- The " The Swallowing Stones by Seals. The theory that colored and brilliant stones were first collected by men because of their beauty rather than because of their talismanic virtues. vol. 1 K S. 538. signifying something suspended or worn." may not be quite in accord with modern philology. in spite of the fact that no very satisfactory etymology can be given. or even to remove them. Report of Fur Seal Investigation. and observers on the fishing grounds have noted this and believe that pebbles of chalcedony and serpentine found there have been brought the statement 1 by the seals. who derived amuletum from the verb amoUri. vol. although this later became its meaning. 537. It is strange that the attraction exercised upon the sense of sight by anything brilliant and colored. No.C. Lucas.). p. The popular derivation of the word "amulet" from an Arabic word liamalat. iii. old etymology given by Varro (118-29 B. is corroborated by that seals select with considerable care the stones they swallow. 512. pp. and made Latin origin. xx. for the amulet was certainly believed to hold dangers aloof. is not accepted by the best Arabic scholars.

transparent and translucent. Necklace of antique emeralds with gold beads and amazon stones. . very pale.D. from Egypt. 2. First century.1. Necklace of rock-crystal and amethyst beads. First century A. from Egypt.

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1898. * " Giglioli. New Caledonia. For the Middle Ages and even down to the seventeenth century. In the later Stone Age. vol." Wien. the talismanic virtues of precious stones were believed in by high and low. or an incantation. p. p. undoubtedly comes from tlie Arabic tilsam. 1901. It has been remarked that in the earliest Stone Age there is no trace of either idols or images the art of this period being entirely profane. "Materiale per lo studio della 'Eta della Pietra/" Arcliivio per TAntropologia e 1'Etnologia. UrgeseMehte der bildenden Kunst. a word not used in classical times. that they might become fitting abodes for the benevolent spirits believed to animate them and render them efficacious. for a majority of the objects of plastic art so far discovered have a religious significance. still presupposes a certain degree of development. and this conception. This has evidently proceeded from the conception that every image of a living object absorbs something of the essence of the object itself. the ascendancy. which were therefore fashioned as beautifully as primitive art permitted.2 A curious idol or talisman from Houailou. This rule applies more especially to amulets. 3 was looked upon as the abode of some spirit. is in the collection of Signor Giglioli. 108. 83.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 23 man. while a primitive one. . raxi. for similar We strange natural formations have been regarded with a species of superstitious awe by peoples much more civilized than the natives of New Caledonia. used in late Greek to signify an initiation. entirely different ideas seem to have gained . Firenze. this being in turn derived from r&ea/ia. by princes and peas8 Hoernes. This is a stone bearing naturally a rude resemblance to the human can easily understand that such an object form. however. however.

" The doctrine of sympathy and antipathy found ex- pression in the belief that the very substance of certain stones was liable to modification by the condition of health or even by the thoughts of the wearer. Ked when you love. and other stones not possessing the sensitiveness of the turquoise. but popular superstition saw the same phenomena in the ruby. blue. Concerning the turquoise. and rosier red. "if you should happen to fall from a high tower whilst you were wearing a turquoise on your finger. a note of scepticism was sometimes apparent. silver. the diamond. as in the famons reply of the court jester of Emperor Charles V. And when you love not. Hence the true explanation is to be found in the prevailing idea that an occult sympathy existed between stone and wearer. the turquoise would remain unbroken. In case of sickness or approaching death the lustre of the stones else their bright colors were darkened. to the question. however. THE CUBIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES by the learned as well as by the ignorant. Here and there. precious sorrow. the prosaic explana- was dimmed. or tion can be offered that this stone is affected to a certain extent by the secretions of the skin . and unfaithfulness or perjury produced similar phenomena. ." replied he. pale and V A Persian legend of the origin of diamonds and precious stones shows that in the East these beautiful objects were looked upon as the source of much sin and "We are told that when God created the world he made no useless things.24 ants. such as gold. The sentiment un- derlying the conception is well expressed by the following lines from "The Amulet": Give Emerson in me an amulet That keeps intelligence with you. "What is the prop- erty of the turquoise?" "Why.

religious medals or pictures to which a special virtue had been given by a priestly blessing. These in after time so strongly appealed to the greed and covetousness of mankind that they have been the cause of much crime and wretchedness. but Satan. is tot no more a proof of blind superde Kennis van diamanten. it is not the object itself.. "We may be disposed to smile when we are told that many of the soldiers in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 carried amulets of some kind upon their persons. was amply provided with amulets. if people were willing to confess their real beliefs. and in this way were produced colored precious stones and diamonds. p. he therefore undertook to imitate their brightness and color out of earth. To his great satisfaction he noted that Eve passionately loved the many-colored flowers that decked the Garden of Eden. but the idea for which it stands and which it incorporates. they are half -ashamed of their fondness for such objects. 1891. back of all the and superstition that may find expression in this way. and in this sense the wearing of a talisman pose. Am- . However. that gives confidence to the wearer. there is a deeper meaning in these talismans than folly we at first perceive. In all these cases. during the Eusso-Japanese War. "Handleiding sterdam. kept a close watch to spy out the appetites and passions of the human mind. however. who is always eager to bring evil among men. Of course the Eussian army. and that the great Marshal Canrobert trusted to the protection of an amulet in the Crimean campaign. 110. and fail to see that." etc. and diamonds..4 The present age could afford us nearly as many examples of faith in talismans and amulets as any epoch in the past.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 25 stones.

inanimate objects human emotion? French writer. What super-subtle sense is women to endow their gems with and leads them partake of it that enables some to feel that these cold. but. ceptions can satisfy us they must be given some external. Catulle Mendes. palpable and visible form to exert their greater influences. nevertheless. when I forget them too long. for the idea is never lost Although it may sight of.26 THE CUKIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES than is the devotion to a flag. the symbol of the noblest ideas and feelings. while we by tlie con- well that the symbol is nothing in itself. Mme. She continues : I have a ruby -which grows dull. know quite we know just as and we can no more be indifferent to its injury or destruction than we could be indifferent to the injury or destruction of a cherished memento of one whom we have loved and lost. it is only strengthened and vivified templation of the symbol. aquamarines which look like siren's eyes filled with tears. well that it has a real power in its relation to the idea it typifies. in itself only a few square feet of silk or bunting. two turquoises which become pale as death. Hence. because her gems feel slighted when she leaves them unworn. gives expression to this when she says that she always wears as many of her rings as possible. bear a certain superficial likeness to fetichism. a certain individuality. this use of signs and symbols is something entirely and radically different. How sad I should feel if precious stones did not love to rest upon me ! A . of patriotic destition votion to one's native land and to one's fellow-countrymen. to a human neces- very rarely that purely intellectual consity. The tendency to give a substantial visible form to an abstract idea is so deeply rooted in humanity that it must be looked upon as responding It is only .

MOSAICS OF TURQUOISE AND ENAMELLED CARNELIAN BEADS. Chicago. . FROM THIBET. Field Museum.

.

know the theraand when the unin- . give a peculiar significance to these brilliant gems. many other considerations combined to . sometimes benevolent and sometimes malevolent. has rather seemed We peutic value of the ultra-violet rays. ideas. far to from doing away with these find a good reason for them. and in ancient times would have been valued at an immense sum. when scientific ideas were not yet prevalent. sign. which are rendered more striking by the splendid tails. this specimen of Nature's handiwork possesses a beauty and an interest exceeding those to be found in any work of man. we are all conscious of the aesthetic effect produced but in earlier times. even to-day there is little doubt that this strange object will be eagerly sought for by collectors. This is a reptilean the skeleton resembling a small serpent that has become Perfect in all its deopalized by natural processes. they were supposed to possess mystic and occult powers and were thought to be the abode of spirits.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 27 very beautiful and curious object was found in Australian opal-fields in 1909. Bar and costly as they were. Coupled with this was the instinctive appreciation of the essential qualities of certain rays of light. and symbol. and to all who appreciate the poetic and perhaps mystic significance of form. play of color. It is impossible to over-estimate the effect of color A in determining the supposed influence of gems upon the fortunes or health of the wearers. As an amulet it certainly is sui generis. for the figure of a serpent was a favorite symbol of medical science. but always endowed with the power to influence human destinies for weal or woe. When we gaze upon the beautiful play of light emitted by a fine ruby or sapphire. and modern all science. and will appeal more especially to all who are interested in occult science.

In heathen mythology this showed itself in the ascription of the emerald to Venus. and it was supposed that by its mere touch it could stop the most violent hemorrhages. while in the Christian conception these stones became typical of the resurrection. Here. of these primitive ideas in regard to color. and to the emerald and other green stones was ascribed great curative power in this respect. But this was not the only source ficent function. as the exponent of the reproductive energies of nature. the therapeutic effect was often sought and found in some fancied analogy between the color of the gem and the character of the malady or infirmity to be cured. however. the red stones were endowed with the power of checking the flow of blood. were naturally . yellow stones were supposed to be especially efficacious in cases of jaundice. since the red rays are heatgiving and vivifying. based on the dictum similia similibus curantur. Green was regarded as the color most beneficial for the sight. an instance of instinctive homoeopathy. Nowhere can we find a better illustration of the transforming effect of distinct and diametrically opposite concepts upon the impressions made by natural objects. of the birth into a new and purer life. it perhaps realized this health-giving and beneIn the same way the idea of passion was associated with the red and radiant ruby. especially the so-called bloodstone was prescribed for this use. Thus.28 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES stmcted mind saw therein the embodiment of purity and chastity. another concept the relative truth of which has been demonstrated by spectrum analysis. the simple influence of the color was later combined with its symbolical significance. Following out this train of thought. such as the diamond and all other white stones. The pure and colorless and yet brilliant stones.

as we read in Psalm slv. a yellow veil to show their hope of offspring and happiBecause garments of this color were a sign of grandeur and nobility. when malevolent and treacherous spirits were supposed to hold sway. Of the seven ages of man yellow typified adolescence. delle Gimma *s explanation of I. Gemme. as may be seen in the idea that associated lunacy with exposure to the bright rays of the moon at other times it was supposed to have . of course. pp. Illuminating the witching hour of the night. the symbol of the sun and of Sunday. the moon was tional brilliance and value. . who has gathered together a great quantity of material on the subject Yellow worn by a man denoted secrecy. 1730." Napoli. a golden vestment is assigned to the Queen of Heaven as a sign of her pre-eminence. the diamond. doubtless from the association of the zodiacal sign Leo with the midsummer sun. worn by a woman it indi- cated generosity." ""Delia storia natnrale 131-137. as the of the sun* sometimes regarded as baleful. Golden yellow was. because of its superior qualities and excep- was frequently looked upon All gems associated with the moon gem partook of its enigmatic character. The symbolical stones is significance of the colors of precious treated at considerable length by Giacinto 5 Gimma.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 29 brought into connection with the moon. The animal connected with the color was the lion. Vol. Roman matrons covered their heads with ness. The precious stone was the chrysolite or the yellow jacinth. and was appropriate for the silent lover. the power to conjure these evil influences and to drive off the powers of darkness. although. 9 : "Upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.

pride. in Eome. religion. it was represented by the ruby. three multiplied by itself. while throughout Italy a white band worn around. 796. and vengeance. 795. The animal having an The affinity with white was quite naturally the ermine. and purity. The IL. Why the lynx should have been selected as the animal for red is rather difficult to understand. obstinacy. indicated command. nobility. Its companions of Hector covered the urn containing the hero's ashes with soft purple (scarlet) robes. but. as Homer 6 shows when he relates that the brothers and not surprise us. say to-day. This was the color of the planet Mars and of Tuesday. lordship. on a woman. the choice of red as a type of full manhood need Bed garments on a man number was the potent nine. . and haughtiness. widows used to wear selves in white white as mourning for their husbands. White signified for men friendship. as the most vivid color. The ancients covered with a red cloth the biers of those who had died valiantly in battle. for women. ssiv. G-imma states that in his time. the head was a sign of widowhood. this as referring to the Mary is in It was associated with the moon and with Monday and was represented by the pearl. integrity. and the Greek matrons attired them- on the death of their husbands. Among the ancients white was a sign of mourning and sadness. We much the same of the English " red-coats " might perhaps. number was seven. affability. and white was the color of inmystic fancy. contemplation.30 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Virgin accord with the Catholic exegesis of his time. Plutarch asserts that the Lacedemonians clothed their soldiers in red to strike terror into the hearts of their enemies and to manifest a thirst for blood.

and the celestial-hued sapphire was represented the stone in which this color appeared in all its beauty. Friday and Venus were by blue. Isabella Gonzaga . but it is love. for it must soon pass away. for the lower part of the torches used in religious ceremonies was marked with green. jealousy in Nuovo" was bound and vigilance. in the case of those who lates that. politeness. Blue was a fit symbol of the age of childhood. and the decline of friendship. and the study of stellar influences were all typified by blue. there was found an emerald. This passed into the hands of the Marchesana di Mantova. less typical green stone is the emerald. unfounded ambition. the day of Mercury. the dearly-beloved daughter of Cicero.TALISMANS AND AMULETS Italian code of criminal laws 31 known as the "Digesto in red. the contemplation of the heavens and of the heavenly bodies. on a woman's dress. transitory hope. The significant number was six. easy to understand the choice of the goat as the animal associated with the color. youth is the age of man represented by the color. as a sign that the light of hope was spent. and Wednesday. childish delight. in the tomb of Tullia. Mercury. to signify that a bloody death awaited thieves and murderers. Natural science. Blue on a man's dress indicated wisdom and high and magnanimous thoughts. the sly fox being selected as the animal is sympathy with the wily god. for women. were both typified by green. and five the magic The In ancient times green was used died in the flower of youth. The early verdure of spring might be regarded as at once a symbol of hope and of eventual disappointment. and change. the most beautiful that had ever been seen. an emerald being sometimes placed on the index-finger of the corpse. Fulvius Pellegrinus re- number expressing it. Green signified for men joyousness.

The planet Saturn and Saturday are denoted by black. however. Black is a symbol of envy. for young women. It was the color of the planet Jupiter and of Thursday. was selected to represent this sombre hue. Violet for a man denoted sober judgment. high thoughts and religious love. all the leaders would be put to death. the diamond. The number eight. for a woman. . signifying that if the city yielded. for the thoughts which aim at another's injury cloud the soul and afflict the body. and gravity. and fortitude. was supposed to have some affinity with black. but for married women. In Italy the graves of young virgins and of children were covered with green branches. The sinister significance of black is well illustrated by what is told of When he attacked a he caused a white tent to be pitched for himself on city. As black was a mourning color. the sapphire was conceived to . the first day of the siege. constancy. the white gem par excellence.32 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES da Este. As with blue. an ominous signal that no mercy would be shown and that all the inhabitants would be the ruthless Tartar Tamerlane. as a sign that mercy would be shown to the inhabitants if they immediately surrendered on the second day a red tent was substituted. industry. the double square. on the third day. we need not be surprised that it typified decrepitude. fickleness and foolishness. it was bound in green to signify that these laws were rejuvenated. When the Codex Justinianus was rediscovered and added to the other Pandects. slaughtered. The book of laws treating of dispositions made in view of death was bound in black. Black for men means gravity. Strange to say. Perhaps to offset this the animal chosen was the hog. a black tent was raised. good sense. constant love and perseverance.

Carnelian. !. hexagonal crystals. and black and white glass beads. . blue and white.. emeralds.. sard. A necklace of onyx and gold beads with the "Lucky Eye" agates. from Egypt. from Egypt. and amazon stones. A necklace of rock crystal.

.

TALISMANS AND AMULETS

33

present violet most attractively. That the bull should be selected as the animal represented by this color probably arose from some mythological connection with Jupiter, possibly the myth of Europa and the bull. Violet was
the color of old age and was associated with the number
three.

The influence of color upon the nerves has been noted by some of the leading authorities on hypnotism. For example, Dr. Paul Ferez, finding that red light is stimulating and blue-violet calming, suggests that those who treat patients by means of hypnotism should have two rooms for their reception. In one of these rooms the curtains, wall-paper, chair-coverings, etc., would be red, while in the other they would be of a violet-blue hue. Those suffering from a lack of will-power or from lassitude and depression are to be received in the red room, and those who are a prey to over-excitability are introduced into the blue room. Moreover, according to Dr.
Ferez, the sedative qualities of the violet-blue can be utilized in inducing the hypnotic state. For this purpose he recommends a violet-blue disk, which is to be

ment serving to attract and hold immovable object would do. 7

rotated rapidly before the eyes of the patient, the movehis gaze better than any

stones such as rubies, carbuncles, and garnets, color suggested that of blood, were not only believed to confer invulnerability from wounds, but some Asiatic tribes have used garnets as bullets, upon the

Eed

whose

contrary principle that this blood-cblored stone would inflict a more deadly wound than would a leaden bullet. Such bullets were used by the rebellious Hanzas^ in
7

Paper by Dr. Paul Ferez in the Eevue de PHypnotisme,
p. 306.

Paris,

No. 10, April, 1906,
3

34

THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES

1892, during their hostilities with the British troops on the Kashmir frontier, and many of these precious missiles

were preserved as curiosities. " In his Colloquy on Pilgrimages," Erasmus makes

one of the speakers ask, "Dost thou not see how the artificer Nature delights to represent all things by colors and forms, but more especially in gems?" He then proceeds to enumerate the various images of natural objects in stones. In the ceraunia appeared the thunder-bolt;
in the pyrope, living fire; the chalazia (rock-crystal) preserved the form and coldness of the hailstone even

In the emerald were shown the deep and translucent waves of the sea the carcinia imitated the form of crabs the echites, of vipers the hieracites, of hawks; the geranites, of cranes. The setites offered the image of an eagle with a white tail the taos had the form of a peacock the chelonites, of an asp while the 8 myrmecites bore within the figure of an ant. The stones bearing this latter name were probably specimens of amber containing ants. The Gr^ek names of these stones enumerated by Erasmus signify their real or supposed resemblance to
if cast into the fire.
;

;

;

;

;

;

certain natural objects, or to something characteristic of such objects. Many of them were fossils, preserving

the

form

of

some

fabulous;

still

living organism; a few were entirely others owed their names to some legend

or myth illustrating their fancied therapeutic virtues, as in the case of the setites (eagle-stone) said to be found
in the eagle s nest. Evidently this was a quartz pebble. The oldest magic formulas that have been preserved
?

for us are those of the Sumerians, the founders of the
"Erasmi,
Pliny,
lib.

"

Colloquia," Lipsiae, 1713, pp. 597-8.

Suggested by

xxxvii, cap. 71-73.

TALISMANS AND AMULETS

35

ancient civilization of Babylonia. Some of them contain references to the use of precious stones as amulets, as appears in the following specimen:
Cords of light-colored wool, with a pure hand, ( ?)
the patient).

Offered

For jaundice of the eye, Bind on the right side (of

A

lululti ring,

with sparkling stones

Brought from his own land, For inflammation of the eye,

On
Of

the little finger 9 his left (hand), place.

curious Babylonian mythological text represents the solar diety Ninib, the son of Bel, as determining the fate of various stones by pronouncing a blessing or a curse upon them. For instance, the dolomite was blessed and declared to be fit material for the statues of kings, while a substance called the elu stone was cursed, pro-

A

claimed to be unfit for working, and doomed to disintegration. Alabaster was favored by the god, but chal10 cedony aroused his anger and was condemned. In these Sumero-Assyrian inscriptions, there is also

mention of two stones, the aban rame and the aban la rdme, the Stone of Love and the Stone of Hate (lit. 11 Evidently these stones were believed to "non-love"). excite one or other of these contradictory passions in the hearts of the wearers, and they may be compared with the stones of memory and forgetfulness in the "Gesta
< '

' '

' '

' >

Bomanorum."
In an ancient Egyptian burial-place at Shech
Giessen, 1905, p. 374.
10

Abd

elvol.

'Morris Jastrow, "Die Religion Babylonians und Assyriens,"
i,

n

Morris Jastrow, "
Delitzsch,

1.

c.,

p. 462.

Assyrisches Worterbucb," Leipzig, 1896, p. 604.

36

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

Qurna, excavated by Passalaqua, was found the mummy of a young woman. Not only was it evident from the rich ornaments adorning the body that she had been of noble birth, but it was also apparent that she must have

been exceedingly beautiful in form and feature, and must have died in the flower of her age. The hair was artistically braided and adorned with twenty bronze hairpins. About her neck was a remarkably beautiful necklace composed of four rows of beads with numerous pendants representing divinities and sacred symbols. There were also two smaller necklaces with beads of gold, lapis-lazuli, and carnelian; two large jewelled earrings hung from her ears, and on the index-finger of her right hand was a ring set with a scarab; a gold belt garnished with lapis-lazuli and carnelians was bound about her waist and a gold bracelet adorned with semiprecious stones encircled her left wrist. In the sarcophagus was a beautiful mirror of golden-yellow bronze, and three alabaster vases, one still containing some balm or perfume, and another some galena (native lead sullittle

phide) to be used as a cosmetic for the eyes, as well as a ebony pencil for its application. All these objects

are now in the Egyptian collection of the Berlin Museum, and they probably belong to the period of the XVIII

Dynasty, about 1500

B.C.

The principal necklace was undoubtedly regarded by the fair Egyptian as an amulet of great power, but it
failed to protect her from an untimely end; perhaps, however, its virtues may have aided her soul in its pas-

sage through the trials and tests imposed in the underworld. Of the numerous pendants which lent to the necklace its peculiar quality as an amulet, three, in carnelian,
figure the

god Bes; seven, also in carnelian, the hippo-

TALISMANS AND AMULETS
potamus-goddess Toeris, of

37

whom there are besides two in lapis-lazuli; then we have a heart of representations lapis-lazuli a cat of lapis-lazuli; four falcons of carnelian; one crocodile of carnelian and two of lapis-lazuli;
;

four fish of carnelian, as well as two others of a blackishwhite and of a green stone, respectively, and two scorpions of carnelian, and seven flower-forms of the same stone. The greater part of the beads in this necklace are of annular form, of gold, electrum, ivory, or lapisthere are a few larger annular or spherical beads of carnelian, chrysoprase, and malachite, and measuring 12 up to 3.5 cm. in diameter.
lazuli
;

Empire (c. 3500 B.C.), and having for its chief adornment a turquoise pendant rudely fashioned into the form of an ibex, was found by the G-erman Orient-G-esellschaft at Abusir elMeleq in 1905. This necklace, the parts of which were
found about the neck of a body, presumably that of a young man, was composed of rounded and annular beads of carnelian and shell, as well as of flat, perforated fragments of turquoise and almandine garnet and an approximately lozenge-shaped bead of amethyst 1.7 cm. long and 1.4 cm. broad. The chief ornament was the 13 This turquoise ibex 1.7 cm. in length and 0.9 cm. high. figure suggests a comparison with the animal and bird forms fashioned out of turquoise that have been found in Indian graves in Arizona and New Mexico, and it
probably had the quality of a
13

A necklace,

from the time

of the Old

fetich, or at least of

a

Aegyptische Goldsehmiedearbeit," ed. by Heinriek Schaffer, necklace figured on PL V, other objects on Berlin, 1910, pp. 25-32;
Pis.

"

V-VIL
18

Ibid., p. 14,

PL

II, figs. 3a, 3b.

38

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

talisman, intended to guard the wearer of the necklace

from harm. That there was

in

Egypt a strong

inclination to use a

certain particular stone for a given amulet, will be noted in the case of those inscribed with special chapters of

the

Book

of the Dead.

This

is also true of

amulets of

instance, the head-rest amulet is usually of hematite as is also the carpenter's square. Of the heart amulets, numbering 47 in the rich collec-

certain forms.

For

Museum, nine are of carnelian, four of two of lapis-lazuli, and two each of green hematite, porphyry and green jasper, carnelian being thus the most favored among the more precious materials. Amulets of animal form are plentifully represented in this collection, figuring a large variety of members of the animal
tions of the Cairo

kingdom such as the hippopotamus, crocodile, lion, bull, cow, hare, dog-headed ape, cat, dog (somewhat doubtful), jackal, hedgehog, frog, hawk, cobra and fishes, to which list may be added a four-headed ram and a ram-headed
sphinx.
14

of the special uses of amulets was for seafaring people, for, in ancient times especially, all who went down to the sea in ships were greatly in need of protec-

One

from the fury of the elements when they embarked in their small sailing-vessels. A fragment of a Greek
tion
15 Lapidary, probably written in the third or fourth century of our era, gives a list of seven amulets peculiarly

adapted for this purpose. The number might suggest a connection with the days of the week, and the amulets
"See Musee du
Reisner, "Catalogue generale des antiquites egyptiennes Caire: Amulets" Le Caire, 1907.

du

"Pitra, "Specilegium Solesmense," Parisiis, 1855, vol. Hi, p. 393.

TALISMANS AND AMULETS

39

were perhaps regarded as most efficacious when used on the respective days. In the first were set a carbuncle and a chalcedony; this amulet protected sailors from drowning. The second had for its gem either of two varieties of the adamas, one, the Macedonian, being likened to ice (this was probably rock-crystal), while the other, the Indian, of a silvery hue, may possibly have been our corundum; however, the Macedonian stone was regarded as the better. The third amulet bore the beryl, "transparent, brilliant, and of a
sea-green hue," evidently the aquamarine beryl; this banished fear. The fourth had for its gem the druops, " white in the centre," probably the variety of agate so much favored as a protector against the spell of the Evil

Eye.

was

in the fifth amulet, and this to be attached to the prow of the ship with strips
coral
;

A

was placed

of seal-skin

it

guarded the vessel from winds and waves

in all waters.

For the

was
it is

of a

selected, most said to have been girdled with stripes like the body snake whoever wore this had no need to fear the
;

sixth amulet the ophiokiolus stone probably a kind of banded agate, for

surging ocean. The seventh and last of these nautical amulets bore a stone called opsianos, apparently a resinous or bituminous material, possibly a kind of jet this came from Phrygia and Galatia, and the amulet wherein it was set was a great protection for all who journeyed by sea or by river. The ancient treatises on the magic art show that the nse of amulets was considered to be indispensable for those who dared to evoke the dark spirits of the netherworld, for without the protection afforded by his amulet the magician ran the risk of being attacked by these spirits. One of these texts gives directions for preparing an amulet, or phylacterion, for the ^undertaking";
;

40

THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES

for this a " sweet-smelling " loadstone should be chosen, and should be cut heart-shaped and engraved with the
16 figure of Hecate.

A costly Chinese amulet

consists of the diamond, the

ruby, and the emerald, to which are added the pearl and coral; Oriental sapphire and topaz are classed with the ruby. An amulet containing these five substances is

thought to combine the protecting influences of the different deities presiding over them, and is supposed to lengthen the wearer 's life. Sometimes these five princely gems are wrapped up in a paper bearing the names of
the respective divinities, to which is added the name of the moon, and those of the twenty-seven constellations, or houses of the moon. Such an amulet, suspended at

the entrance of a house,
to the inmates. 17

is

believed to afford protection

In the language of the ancient Mexicans blood was " water of " as called chalcMuhatl, or precious stones,
the quintessence of what were regarded as the
18

most

Although such poetic designations are costly things. in modern times mere figures of speech, among primi-

more significant, and it is highly probable that with the Aztecs, as with other peoples, the wearing of precious stones was believed to enrich the blood and thus to promote health and vigor, for "the
tive peoples they are

Jblopd

is

the life."
is

"That gems had sex
16

asserted by the earliest writers
GrypHae,

Kropatsehek,

"De

amulet orum apud antiques usu/'

1907, p. 24 (Paris papyrus, 2630).

"Surindro Mohun Tagore, "Mani Mala/' Pt.
p. 943.
18

II, Calcutta, 1881,

"
Seler,

Codex Borgia
i,

:

Eine altmexicanisehe Bilderschrift," Ber-

lin,

1904, vol.

p. 16.

H\ permission

nf

W. Griggs &

Sons, Ltd., London.

MAHARAJA
Ht> holds
:i

RTTNJIT SINGH,

RULER OF THE PUNJAB,

1791

TO

1839.

"rosary" of emeralds, stones prized in the Orient as antidotes to poison, From a portrait byJhvan Rain, taken at Rupar in 1S!)1. From the Journal of Indian Art and Industry.

clearly shows that this sexual distinction was sometimes seriously made. While this must usually be understood as a poetic way of indicating by many of those of a a difference in shade. and ingenious explanations were sometimes given of the cause of this phenomenon. Theophrastus. for he declares that. Borneo are said to preserve carefully every ninth pearl they find. bepearl-fishers The of lieving. as appears in the following account by Kueus of germinating dia- monds: 19 It has recently been related to me by a lady worthy of credence. " De gemmis. and place them in a bottle with two grains of rice for each pearl. 4. that these particular pearls have the power to engender and breed require that each man as a stopper. the darker varieties being regarded as male and the lighter ones as female. f.TALISMANS AND AMULETS as well as 41 later date. bottle shall Talismanic influences are taken into account in the others. had in her possession two diamonds which she had inherited. certain. that a noblewoman. the earliest Greek writer on precious stones. Custom and superstition have the finger of a dead "Franeisci Ruei. This strange idea was still prevalent in the sixteenth century. in spite of all evidence to the contrary. qualified by some one as "vis adamantifica" first changes the surrounding air into water. descended from the illustrious house of Luxemburg." Tiguri. 1566. and then condenses and hardens this into the diamond gem. and which produced others in such miraculous wise. . regarding such a strange matter) would seem to be that the celestial energy in the parent stones. wonderful as it might seem. that whoever examined them at stated intervals judged that they had engendered progeny like The cause of this (if it be permissible to philosophize themselves. or some similar substance. gems were capable of producing offspring.

and all who wore them . adorned with pendants of glittering stones. thus disturbing the equilibrium of the whole organism. two bracelets being frequently worn lest one member should become jealous of the other. In the case of necklaces of metal. The piercing of the ears for ear-rings has been attributed to a desire to chastise the ear for its indiscretion in hearing secrets not intended to be heard. Jean Pryss. lightning-rod verting the electric the in dis- lapidibus.D.. while costly and ornamental ear-rings are set in the ears to console those parts of our anatomy for the suffering caused by the operation of piercing. in the thirty-fourth canon. cap. At an early date the Christian Church registered its opposition to the practice of wearing amulets. it was decreed. and that they must not make "what are called amulets. the necklace. are supposed to perform a similar service to that rendered off the by di- PEARL DEALER. charge. or its ornaments. mathematicians. 1483]: De Author's library. At the Council of Laodicea. the talismanic purbrilliant . de From the "Hortus Sanitatis" of Johannia Cuba [Strassburg. pose is to attract the be- holder's gaze and thus ward and mysterious dangerous emanations set forth by the Evil Eye. that priests and clerks must be neither enchanters. held in 355 A. nor astrologers. ca.42 THE CUBIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES wearing of jewelry by Orientals." for these were fetters of the soul. Ixxviii.

20 This emphatic condemnation of the prevailing usage was not so much a protest against superstition per se as against pagan superstition. from those used by those bearing merely characters of mystic or symbolic significance.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 43 should be cast out of the church. as a father might give such an amulet to a son. medallions blessed by the priest. 1702. They describe the costume of the symbolical figure. composed in the twelfth century. They were like concealed weapons. p. n " 91. as relics of the saints. and it was said that. Rose. Das alt jiidische Zaiiberwesea/' Strassburs." Paris. "Histoire critique des pratiques superstitieuses. p. etc. In talmudic times amulets were sometimes and they were believed to have more power when concealed from view in this way. Blum. . The amulets of the Jews differed in many respects The Mosaic prohibition of representations of human or animal forms imposed great restrictions upon the employment of engraved gems. Chaucer translated this poem into English in the fourteenth century and we quote the following lines from his version. for instance. the Roman de la hidden in a hollow staff. 320. In later times the invincible tendency to wear objects of this character found expression in the use of those associated with Christian belief. for almost if not all the amulets in use in the early centuries of our era bore heathen or heretical symbols or inscriptions. par un pretre de 1'Oratoire. and the Jew was only permitted to wear or carry Christians. appear traces of the belief in the magic properties of precious stones. so God had given the Law to Israel for its protection. Eiches. 1898. 21 In the Old French didactic poem. such.

vol. of Hubert de Burgh. chief justiciar. 23 the trial. were corrupted by the sin of Adam. Therefore. Indeed. That hool a That was so f yn and vertuous. Skeat. in 1232. lose the powers inherent in them was firmly believed in medieval times. 1849. when engaged in a war with the "Welsh. who in order to restore their pristine virtue 22 23 it might become A projection serving to fasten down the belt. ed. If handled or even gazed upon by impure persons and sinners. one of the charges brought against him was that he had surreptitiously removed from the English treas- At ury an exceedingly valuable stone. Henry was That precious stones could. and mochel of might. and had given it to Llewellyn. And That stoon was greetly for to love. own sovereign. 24 This must have taken place about 1228. p. Oxford. there were those held^that precious stones. " Historia major." London. the enemy of his of England ( 1207-1272 ). in common with all created things. 139. man it coude make Of palasye and of tooth-ake. under certain circumstances.44 THE CUKIOUS LOBJB OF PRECIOUS STONES Richesse a girdle hadde upon The bokel of it was of a stoon Of Vertue greet. p. some of the virtues of the stones departed from them. The mordaunt 22 wrought in noble wyse r Was of a stoon full precious. 1684. til a riehe mannes bihove Worth al the gold in Borne and Fryse. i. possessing the virtue of rendering the wearer invincible in battle. 34 Matthaei Paris. King Henry III of Wales. . Compleat Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. 318.

The subject is sufficiently curious to warrant here the repetition of one of these forms. who lives with Thee and reigns as God for all eternity. was to pronounce the following benediction: The Lord be with us. stones. who And with thy spirit. among the sacerdotal vestments. and consecrated. and a kind of ritual serving this purpose has been preserved in several old treatises. who orderedst Moses. Thanks be to God. so that they may be sanctified. benediction. the famous city of Jerusalem.TALISMANS AND AMULETS 45 necessary to sanctify and consecrate them. in whom dwells all sanetification. Vienna. he should adorn the Rational of Judgment with twelve precious stones. and consecration. and showedst to John. Thy Father. and which the experience of the learned has shown to have been given by Thee. that. essentially constituted by the same and who hadst the power to raise up sons to Abraham from stones. so that whoever may wear them on him may feel the presence of Thy power and may be worthy to receive the gift of Thy grace and the protection of Thy power. that Thou wilt deign to bless and sanctify these stones by the sanctifieation and incarnation of Thy name. pp. Then three masses were to be said over them. to God and senseless who manifestedst thy virtue creatures. Let us pray. Thy Son. 1862. according to their Mnds. Through Jesus Christ. . The stones which required consecration were to be wrapped in a perfectly clean linen cloth and placed on the altar. Elias Almighty by certain servant. Amen. and the priest celebrated the third mass. we humbly beseech Thy majesty since Thou hast elected one of the stones to be a dwelling-place for the majesty of Thy heart." Luther tells the following humorous who was a vender of amulets : a Jew tt "Le Grand Lapidaire" of Jean de Mandeville. blessed. Konrad of Megenburg also gives this benediction in tale of Ms "Buch der Natur. and may receive from Thee the effect of the virtues Thou hast granted to them. clad in his sacred vest25 ments. 126-128. the evangelist.

*" Ethics of the Dust. if we fail. "Das jiidische Unterriehtswesen. substance between the dissolute one. but the worst of all signs of its decay and helplessness is. and thrust the fellow " The same fate would have happened to me. smaller. saw in the formation of crystals the " action of both "force of heart" and steadiness of pur- pose/' He sciously. and then growing backwards. but just as sickly. the Duke answered: "I will test that Jew. Just as the Hindu regarded an imperfectly shaped crystal as a bringer of ill luck to the owner. Yet I cannot trace the least difference in purity of first most noble stone. that half-way up. and this ignoble and The impurity of the last is in its will or want of will. But Duke Albert of Saxony acted . in thus found himself. or downwards. . hung upon thyself. has rooted itself in the side of the larger one. a parasite crystal.46 THE CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES There is we succeed." said through the body. M " as the Duke. and shots. inscribed with curious shrewdly." Wien. p. rough-surfaced. . and asserted that this button gave protection from cuts. 225." Buskin. 1886. characters and signs. is established a very pretty custom of assignto the various masculine and feminine Christian ing 28 There Giidermann. distorted in the spine. drew his own sword. so Ruskin sees in such a crystal the signs of an innate "immorality. jagged on the edge. eating out a cavity round its root. consciously or unconagreement with the old fancies which attrib- uted a species of personality to precious stones. it exhibits a quite human image of decrepitude and dishonour. p. 96. contrary to the direction of the main crystal. ." if we may use this expression. thrusts. 1873." New York. the button at his neck. a Christian is the sufferer. has happened to thee. with his keen poetic insight into the working of natural laws." Hereupon he led the man to the gate. it is sorcery among the Jews and their sorcerers think: "If well for us. what care we for that?" When a Jew offered him a button. Of a crystal aggregation of this 27 type he writes as follows : Opaque.

Adelaide Andalusite Agnes Alice Agate Alexandrite Anne Beatrice Belle Amber Basalt Bloodstone Bertha Caroline Beryl Chalcedony Cat's-eye Catherine Charlotte Carbuncle Carnelian Crystal Clara Constance Dorcas Diamond Diaspore Eye-agate Elaeolite Dorothy Edith Eleanor Elizabeth Emerald Essonite Ellen Emily Euclase Emma Florence Epidote Fluorite Frances Gertrude Fire-opal Gladys Grace Garnet Golden Beryl Grossularite Hannah Helen Heliotrope Hyacinth . It is considered an exceedit ingly good omen when of the same sort. happens that all three gems are GEMS FOB FEMININE NAMES.TALISMANS AND AMULETS names a 47 particular gem. and such name-gems are often set together with natal and talismanic gems and with gems of one's patron saint.

48 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Irene lolite Jane Jessie Jacinth Jasper Jadeite Josephine Julia Jade Lapis-lazuli Louise Lucy Margaret Martha Marie Lepidolite Moss-agate Malachite Moldavite Mary Olive Moonstone Olivine Pauline Pearl Rose Sarah Susan Therese Ruby Spodumene Sapphire Turquoise GEMS FOR MASCULINE NAMES. Abraham Adolphus Adrian Albert Aragonite Albite Andalusite Agate Alexandrite Alexander Alfred Almandine Ambrose Andrew Archibald Amber Aventurine Axinite Arnold Arthur Aquamarine Amethyst Agahnatolite Augustus Benjamin Bernard Bloodstone Beryl .

TALISMANS AND AMULETS Charles Christian 49 Chalcedony Crystal Claude Clement Cyanite Chrysolite Croeidolite Conrad Constantine Cornelius Chrysoberyl Cat's-eye Dennis Dorian Demantoid Diamond Emerald Epidote Euclase Essonite Ednrund Edward Ernest Eugene Ferdinand Francis Frederick Feldspar Fire-opal Fluorite George Gilbert Garnet G-adolinite Godfrey Gregory Gustavus Gagates Grossularite Galactides Guy Henry Herbert Gold quartz Heliolite Horace Hubert Hyacinth Harlequin opal Heliotrope Heliodor Hugh Humphrey James Jasper Hypersthene Jade Jasper Jadeite Jacinth Jerome John Joseph Julius Jargoon Jet 4 .

Willemite .50 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES Lambert Lawrence Leo Leonard Labradoiite Lapis-lazuli Lepidolite Loadstone Malachite Mark Matthew Maurice Michael Moonstone Moss-agate Mierocline Natrolite Nathan Nicholas Oliver Nephrite Onyx Orthoelase Osborne Osmond Oswald Patrick Opal Obsidian Pyrope Pearl Paul Peter Philip Porphyry Prase Rubellite Ralph Raymond Richard Robert Rose-quartz Rutile Rock-crystal Roger Roland Stephen Theodore Rhodonite Ruby ire Sapphi Tourmaline Thomas Valentine Vincent Topaz Vesuvianite Verd-antique Walter William Wood-opal .

AFRICAN AGATE CHARMS. Made of Brazilian agate at Oberstein. Germany. for African trade. Chicago. . Field Museum.

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Bishop of Bennes. fol." Chicago. in the eleventh century. who claims that these stones give victory and strength to their owners and avert tempests and lightning. Chicago." Friburgi. shalt come With all thy wish is fulfilled rejoicing home. p. 1894.Ill t^e Caltemattic ajse of author of "Lithica" celebrates the merits of the agate in the following lines Adorned with this." Venetia. 10. * Camilla Leonardi. And by persuasion thy desire obtain. now in the Field Museum. And if of men thou aught demand. was enabled to vanquish all terrestrial obstacles and was endowed with a bold heart this latter prerogative was presumably the . 3 Still other virtues are recounted by Camillo Leonardo. See also the writer's pamphlet: "The Folk-Lore of Precious Stones. "Speculum lapidum. for its wearer was guarded from all dangers. a paper read before the Folk-Lore Congress held at the World's Columbian Exhibition. 22. who declares that agates make the wearers agreeable and persuasive and also give them the favor of GTod.4 The agate possessed some wonderful virtues. 51 . 1865. 2 : them woman's heart shall gain. and describing the Kurtz lection is 3 x Collection exhibited in the Anthropological Building there. 392. 'Marbodei. "De lapidibus. fol. This col- Bang's version in his "Natural History of Precious Stones. 1531." London. 1502. This idea elaborated by Marbodus.

Et aultre livre des Merveilles du Monde. . ii. the attractive qualities of the so-called coral-agate were to be utilized in art airship. Chat * T (e. but he quite failed to appreciate the fact that no real connection of any kind existed between the stones and their supposed effects. therefore they are all useful for acquiring riches. Cardano appears to have tested the talismanic worth of gems according to a plan of his own. there was a network of iron to which large coral-agates were attached." Basilese. "Le Grand Albert des secretz des vertus des Herbes. d'aulcuns effetz causez daulcunes bestes/ 7 Turin. while others again were entirely white. 323. namely. 5 secret of Some The wearing of agate ornaments was even believed to be a cure for insomnia and was thought to insure pleasant dreams. the invention of a Brazilian priest. by wearing them in turn and noting the degree of good or ill fortune he experienced.52 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Ms success. Bernard du mont du 5 continent. abandoned its use. In another treatise this author takes a somewhat more favorable view of the agate. According to the text accompanying a curious those who wear them "temperate. fol. Cardani. Albertus Magnus. 1585 p. D0 subtilitate. 1560. Pierres et Bestes. Liv. as he sat in the air-ship. therefore. 460. By this in his actions. He. Cardano asserts that while wearing this stone he had many misfortunes which he could not trace to any fault or error of his own. 1515). 6 method he apparently arrived at positive results based on actual experience. and proclaims that all varieties render print published in Vienna in 1709. 8 recto. p. although he states that it made the wearer more prudent Indeed. of these wonder-working agates were black with white veins. Over the head of the aviator. In spite of these supposed advantages. and cau7 tious . "De gemmis/ Basilese. " . 7 Cardani.

"Museum museorum oder die vollstandige SehauBiikae. Author's library. the stones had acquired magnetic power. p. Valentini. ii. pt. 3. Franckfurt am Mayn. supposed to possess such " Museum Museorum. 35.TALISMANIC USE OF PKECIOUS STONES 53 These were expected to help in drawing up the ship. vol. From Valentin!. p." Franckfurt am Mayn. 35. 1714. 8 . when." Pt magnetic powers as to keep the craft aloft. through the heat of the sun's rays. 34. provided by powerful magnets enclosed in two metal spheres how the magnets themselves were to be raised is not explained. In the network above the figure were to be set coral-agates. figure of air- 8 ship on p. The main lifting force was AN AIR-SHIP OF 1709. III. . 1714.

the mineralogist. in the Ural region. the white ring being regarded as a symbol of the eye.54 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES About the -middle of the past century. The stone as found in gem form rarely weighs over from one to three carats. a considerable There are a few talismanic stones which have gained their repute in our time. The demand for these amulets has fallen off greatly. a variety of chrysoberyl found in Bussia. the demand for agate amulets was so great in the Soudan that the extensive agate-cutting establishments at Idar and Oberstein in filling Germany were almost exclusively busied with orders for this trade. and it was therefore named alexandrite. in the emerald mines on the Takowaya. and is characterized by a marked pleochroism of a splendid green changing to a beautiful columbine red. But in Ceylon much larger gems are found. Brown or black agates having a white ring in the centre were chiefly used for the fabrication of these amulets. the total export amounting to hundreds That there is still a fashion in amulets is shown by the fact that.000 thaler s ($30. only white stones are favored for this use in Northern Africa. and green amulets are in demand on the west coast of Africa. by Nordenskjold. white. trade in these objects is Even at present carried on. of thousands of thalers. Hence the amulets were supposed to neutralize the power of the Evil Bye. while red. notably the alexandrite. some few weighing . but when it was at its height single firms exported them to the value of 40. or else to be emblematic of the watchfulness of a guardian spirit. The discovery of this variety is stated to have been made in 1831 on the day Alexander II (then heir-apparent) reached his majority.000) annually.

Baltic Provinces.1. 3. Amber wedding necklace. Aztec work. Amber beads. 5. Large annular bead of amber from Mexico. Amber ornament. from Assyrian Amber ring ornament from Pompeii. grave. perforated. Eighteenth century. Worn by African natives. 4. . 2.

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the alexandrite has become a great favorite with the Russians. and it is eagerly sought in other lands as well Amber was one of the first substances usd by man for decoration. Figs. marked with circular depressions. 376. and it was also employed at a very early period for amulets and for medicinal purposes. PL XV. often the work of man's hand. but occasionally the result of natural causes. although rarely of more than one or two The color is of a darker and more bottle-like carats. Mullens Ordn. which are extremely rare. Urgeschiehte der bildenden Kunst. Schleswig-Holstein. As red and green are the Russian national colors./' i. " 252 sq. the grains of amber were the tears annually shed over the death of their brother Phaethon by the Heliades after grief had meta' Hoernes. and the change by night renders them darker and green. Olds. and seem intended to imitate similar depressions found in large stones and rocks. . however. and hence it is probable that the amber fragments were used as talis- mans or amulets. 9 For the ancient Greek poets. " Figured in S. These depressions are sometimes regularly disposed and -at other times irregularly. p. 1898. and is looked upon as a stone of good omen in that country. Such." Vienna. in deposits of the Stone Age.TALISMANIC USB OF PRECIOUS STONES 55 60 carats each. More or less shapeless pieces of rough amber. more granitized than the Russian stones. is its beauty as a gem that its fame is by no means confined to Russia. af Damn. have been found in Prussia. and Denmark. In Hoernes' opinion they marked the resting place of the spirit or spirits believed to animate the stone.

Jean bus cap.56 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES morphosed them into poplars growing on the banks of 10 the Eridanus (the modern river Po)." lib. urine of the lynx. cap. he saw the origin of amber in the tears shed over the death of Meleager by certain Indian birds. hence one of its names. posed to read Redanus instead of Eridanus and have seen in the former name the designation of a stream flowing into the Vistula. De lapidi- ified Author's library. A more prosaic explanation likened amber to resin. from the the trunks of certain trees. Another represented to fancy amber THE TREE THAT EXUDES AMBER. Ixx. congealed in the rays sea of and then cast up upon the shore.^ The brilliant and beautiful yellow of certain ambers and the fact that this material was very easily worked served to make its use more general." of Johaunis de Pryss. In a lost tragedy of Sophocles. xxxvii. Prom the "Hortus Cuba [Strassburg. be the solid- Sanitatis. and it soon became a favorite object of trade and barter between the peoples of the Baltic Coast and the more civilized peoples to the Some have pro0vidii. lyncurius. . " For Nicias it was the juice" or essence of the brilliant the setting sun. 7. poetic just noted is the fancy we have same idea clothed in a met- aphorical or mythological form. and regarded it as being an exudation Indeed. 340 sqq. "Metamorphoses. ca. Naturalis Historia. 11." lib. 1483]. ii. 1 10 u " Plinii.

xviii. richly wrought. A pair Two To Eurydamas there came of ear-rings. vol. 1210. the relator of the Bk. 1889. New York. (Figs. he bitterly lamented having lost the opportunity of selling him amber for a high price. and the frequent allusions to it in the works of Latin authors of the first and succeeding centuries testify to its popularity in the world. and the peculiar forms were supposed to enhance the power of the material. 314. Daintily fashioned and of exquisite grace. 1211.TALISMANIC USE OF PBECIOUS STONES 57 south. trans. Pieces of amber with singular natural markings were greatly esteemed. Thus. The same dealer had another piece on which he read the initials of Charles XII of Sweden. Du Chaillu. Norway. 13 These curious objects were worn as amulets. Schliemann found considerable amber from the Baltic in the graves of Mycenae. Eoman : Eurymachus Received a golden necklace. And set with amber beads. 1212. But he was cleverly consoled 13 18 by Nathaniel Sendal. especially when these markings suggested the initials of the name of some prominent person. of William (Mien Bryant. p. each a triple gem. servants bore them. giving it special virtues and rendering it of greater Amber value and efficacy.) . " The Viking Age. When he received the news of this king's death. Probably the very earliest allusion in literature to the ornamental use of amber appears in Homer's Odys12 where we read sey. that glowed as if With sunshine. ingeniously carved into animal forms has been discovered in tumuli at Indersoen. we are told that Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia paid to a dealer a high price for a piece of amber on which appeared his initials. ii. 11." 295-298.

p. 15 it had the. "While the special and traditional virtue of the ametliyst was the cure of drunkenness. but also upon those over-excited by the love-passion. 1502." Elbingse. and declared that the his train tigers. it preserved from harm and gave them victory over their enemies. An amethyst worn on the person had a sobering ef ect. 15 when he and passed along. 22. Lastly. " Johannis de Cuba. 1725. especially destined for their rial. I. 16 pretty legend in regard to the amethyst has been The god Bacchus." [Strassfcurg-. Speculum lapidum. f al. offended at some neglect that he had suffered. happily treated in French verse. vii.power to control evil thoughts. and was of great assistance to hunters in the The amethyst shared with capture of wild animals. not only upon those who had partaken too freely of the cup that intoxicates. 14 use. should be devoured by his M Sendelii. and to render men shrewd in business matters. it Fate willed that this " Eleetrologiro. cap.58 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES who easily story. M Camilli Leonard!. 1483] tractatus de lapibus. first per- son he should meet. "Hortus Sanitatis. Pt. was deter- A mined to avenge himself. For Leonardo. Sendal adduces this as a proof that the letters read on such pieces of amber were as much the product of the observer's imagination as of the markings on the mate- Those who secured amber so mysteriously marked by Nature's hand probably felt that they had obtained a talisman of great power. other stones the power to preserve the wearer from many soldiers contagion. persuaded the dealer that the markings could just as well signify the initials of some other name." Venetia. many other qualities were attributed to this stone in the fifteenth century. . 12. note. to quicken the intelligence.

431. writing about 1220. we read that Cantimpre's "De Proprietatibus Eerum. 1576 and " Arnoldus Saxo. vi. . after reciting the Evax virtues of the beryl as given by Marbodus. Bacchus poured the juice of the grape as a libation over the body of the maiden. et Marty-Laveaux. fur D. Paris. which this tale occurs^ is the The poem in ed. like wine." 1T Belleau.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES luckless mortal 59 was a beautiful and pure maiden named Amethyst. As the ferocious beasts sprang toward her. thus giving to the stone petrified 17 the beautiful violet hue that so charms the beholder 's eye. the liquid poured into a vessel made of a reddish stone." pp. vol.. who was on her way to worship at the shrine of Diana. Aristotles d lapidibus und Amours "written in m . (Euvres poetiques. it appears that one of the varieties was and it probably the purple almandine or Indian garnet. p. vol. the various descriptions of this stone given by ancient writers. New Series. after and Isidorus. that we have here the reason for the is not From improbable name amethyst and for the supposed virtue of the stone For if water were in preserving from drunkenness. 172 sqq. of while his intellect was quickened and he was cured 18 of Thomas de In the old German translation laziness. reports in addition that the stone gave help was foes in battle or in litigation. "Rose. and could nevertheless be drunk would appear with impunity. the wearer against ^ rendered unconquerable and at the same time amiable. Eecognizing the miracle and repenting of his cruelty. she sought the protection of the goddess. Alt. 1878." dedicated to Henri in. Arnoldus Saxo. and was saved from a worse fate by being turned into a pure white stone. nouveaux eschanges des pierres prScieuses. ii.

so when the rays of the sun fell upon the that water they gave forth red reflections. ca. cap. " the before con- ceeding stone for their incantations. watched the heavens and waited until they noticed the signs of an approaching storm. rain. adding that it announced future events by producing rain and by A PRACTICAL TEST OF THE VIRTUES OF THE BLOODSTONE TO PREVENT NOSE-BLEED.60 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the beryl reawakens the love of married people (er hat auch die art daz er der elaut lieb wiederpringt). "audible Probably jurors." ed. by Dr. They then interpreted lapidibus. 19 The a reddish hue heliotrope or bloodstone was supposed to impart to the water in which it was placed. and tempest. "Buch der Natur. Stuttgart. From this fancy was devel- oped the strange exaggeration that this stone had the power to turn the sun blood-red. From the " Hortus Sanitatis " of Johannis de Cuba [Strassburg. De Author's library. The old treatise of Dami- geron relates this of the bloodstone. itself a and to cause thunder. 1483]. 1861. lightning. xc. to oracles. . Franz PfeiEer. p. Jean Pryss. use prothe "Konrad von Megenberg*. 436.

CHALCEDONY VOTIVE CHARM FROM MEXICO.) . Aztec. Chicago. The ceremonial objects are grouped around a crystal of rock-crystal in the centre. CURIOUS ALTAR OF POWALAWA INDIANS OF ARIZONA. (See page 254. Field Museum.

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The carbuncle was recommended as a heart stimulant indeed. It is well known that the sighing of the wind. not only in Christianity was this stone used to illustrate religious conceptions. while 21 bonds and stone walls will be rent asunder. p. Pitra. 20 In the Leyden papyrus the bloodstone is praised as an amulet in the following extravagant terms : constitute the The world has no greater thing. vol. were interpreted by prophets and seers into articulate speech. so as answers to the questions addressed to them touching future events. all those natural sounds which grand symphony of Nature. p. However. and guarded him from deception. and pronounces the name engraved upon it. it also assuages the wrath of kings and despots. 22 Cardani. so powerful was its action. for the that the Fourth Koran affirms 20 21 Heaven is composed of car- Specilegium Solesmense/' Parisiis. " De amulet orum apud antiquos usu." " De gemniis. that the wearers were rendered angry and passionate and were even warned to be on their guard against attacks of apo22 The blood-red hue of the stone also suggested plexy. " 1907. will find all doors open. which is a gem. 16. 323. and whatever the wearer says will be believed. " Philosophi opera quasdam lectu digna. p. 1855. its use as a symbol of the divine sacrifice of Christ on the cross.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES the sounds of the to give apt 61 wind and thunder in various ways. in. . 1585. if any one have this with him he will be given whatever he asks for. and." Gryphiae. Kropatsehek. Damigeron also declares that the bloodstone preserved the faculties and bodily health of the wearer. brought him consideration and respect. Whoever bears this stone. 325. indeed." Basileas. .

The stone is of the rulers in the island of described as having been of a warm yellow hue. 84 " Amboinsche Rariteitkamer. If resting on an onyx ground. Amboin a carbuncle said to have been brought by a serpent. eventually passed into the pos- R session of a King of Siam. The story ran that this ruler. A 23 sacred kiss imprint when found. Camettan Talisman ist Karneol Glaubigen bringt er Gliiek und Wohl. Amsterdam. good luck to cbild and man. 1741.62 THE CURIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES In mythical fancies too this stone played its part. Dicb zu Lieb' und Tat entziindet." Goethe Westosterlicher Divan I. verging on red. Rumphius. Kuss' ihm mit geweihtem Munde! Alles tfbel treibt er fort. for dragon's eyes were said to be carbuncles. . TJnd besonders werden Frauen ** Sieh am Talisman erbauen ! Carnelian It brings is a talisman. In gratitude for this gift the parents of the child fed and cared for the serpent. 308. p. when a child. (SVenn das eingegrabene Allah's Wort Namen rein verkiindet. it shone so brightly at night that a room could be illuminated by it. Enmphins 23 states that in 1687 he was told by a chirurgeon that the latter had seen in the possession of one buncle. Segenspf ander. had been placed by his mother in a hammock attached to two branches of a tree. Schiitzet dicb und schiitzt den Ort. While there a serpent crept up to him and dropped a stone upon his body. Stebt er gar auf Onys' Grain de.

deliver us from the devil ^Grod Who tries to do harm and evil to us through ! On a Bad people. East people are afraid of the you envy a person for his health or his wealth or any good thing he may have. their envy will cease to do you harm. They believe that if posed that by wearing this stone. 49. The popularity 25 of the carnelian as a talismanic stone " Lapidario del Rey D. 77. 1881. and it is the devil who incites the envy of some people against others. indeed. and from the evil of the envious. of the World. f ol. So it is sup- Throughout all the envious." codice original.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES It drives 63 away all evil things. bearing this prayer against the envious. The name of Allah. If graven on this stone. the very Just I implore you. Will move to love and doughty deed. From such a gem a woman gains Sweet hope and comfort in her pains. for the warm-colored stone will The wearing X give them the courage they lack. p. and animating effects produced carnelian is engraved in Arabic characters a to keep away evil and to deliver the wearer from prayer The all the tricks of the devil and from the envious. To thee and thine protection brings. king of kings. of carnelians is recommended by the 25 of Alfonso to those who have a weak voice Lapidario or are timid in speech. he will lose it in a short time. inscription reads in translation: In the name of God the Just. so that they will speak both boldly and well. Madrid. This is in accord with the general belief in the stimulating by red stones. . God King of the World. Alfonso X.

if powdered and taken in a potion was believed to banish all dark forebodings and to excite joyous emotions. C. First Consul picked it up with his own hands during the campaign in Egypt and always carried it about him." a string fastened about his neck in obedience to the injunction of his father." London. as a He carried the seal upon talisman. when they stripped his body. To the carnelian was attributed a virtue somewhat analogous to that ascribed to the turquoise. Hence in Persia the name of one of the twelve imams." Napoleon III wore it on his watch-chain. and it has never been recovered. ^Hendley. as An Armenian anyone wearing a carnelian was proof p. lent the weight of his authority to the belief in the virtue of the carnelian. III." The Prince Imperial received it with the following message: "As regards my son. "Indian Jewellery. Jafar. I desire that he will keep. for he declared that all the defor use as a seal. This most interesting seal is described by the Rev. 158. a silver ring set with a carnelian engraved of the most famous of the imams. .64 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES is among Mohammedan peoples said to be due to the fact that the Prophet himself wore. 1909. on the little finger of his right hand. At the time of hia lamentable death it must have been carried off in South Africa by the Zulus. is comprising Ali and his successors. as his nephew did later. sires of One any man who wore this stone would be gratified. the Seal which I used to wear attached to my watch. NAPOLEON AND THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. Gems. octagonal-shaped. Abraham relying upon He said about it: *' The writer of the seventeenth century reports that in India the lal or balas-ruby. W. WORN BY NAPOLEON I. the writer on Antique It is carnelian. on this stone. 26 frequently engraved CARNELIAN SEAL. and upon it is engraved the legend: "The slave the Merciful (God). King.

Joseph! Gonelli." Lug. De Boot states that a cat's-eye estimated as worth ninety gold pieces in Lusitania was sold for six hundred in India. transl." Neaphilosophicus. p. 3T Arakel. and rightly enough recognized the purely subjective character of such phenomena. 230. Petersburg.. liil. 544. thus removing the diseased condition of that organ which caused the apparitions to be seen. writing in 1702. 545. it nevertheless shows that the author put little faith in visible ghosts. "Collec- tion d'bistoriens armeniens. 28 i." chap.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES . or precious cat's-eye. "Livre d'histoire. 28 However absurd this explanation may be. poli. 112. 28 " Gemmarum et lapidum historia. " against injury from falling houses or walls the writer emphasizes this by stating that "no man who wore a carnelian was ever found in a collapsed house or beneath 27 An ingenious though far-fetched explanation of the power attributed to chalcedony of driving away phantoms and visions of the night is supplied by Gronelli. is used by the natives of Ceylon as a charm The against evil spirits." St. vol. 65 a fallen wall. For him the source of this asserted power was to be found in what has been erroneously termed the alkaline quality of the stone. 1636. cat's-eye variety of chrysoberyl. in Brosset. 29 Some of the finest speci- mens come from Ceylon. pp. This dissipated the evil humors of the eye. Bat. 5 . p. " Thesaurus sen de gemmis. As a proof of the high value set upon the gem in India. 1874. 1702.

The topaz of the an- called chrysolite at present (olivine. 38. the most magnificent ex- amples of this gem. evidently by loot or trade at the period of the Crusades. Diodoms Sieulns. have come the finest chrysolites (peridots. . iii. was stated by whence came the topaz (chrysolite) here. Those most notable are in the Treasury of the Three Magi. was unquestionably the gem commonly 2. and possibly from others exploited by the Egyptians. the seekers then marked well the spot and were able to find the stone on the following day. Some of these gems are nearly two inches long. Even those who had the right to seek the gem could not see the chrysolite in daytime. In our own land beautiful specimens can be seen in the Morgan collection at the American Museum of Natural History and in the Higinbotham Hall in the Field Museum of Natural History. cap. in the great "Dom. 31 From this Egyptian source. These found their way into the cathedral treasures of Europe. Illinois. peridot). Chicago. by the mandate of the Egyptian kings." Agatharcides.66 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES Sea. only after nightfall was it revealed by its radiance. lib. or olivines)." or Cathedral at Cologne. Pliny quotes from Juba the tradition that the topaz (chrysolite) derived its name from the Island of To80 cients 51 " De Mare Erythrao. and are generally called emeralds. 30 These simple details are elaborated by Diodorus Siculus into Isle/' in the to be the source Agatharcides . The " Serpent Bed the legend that the island was guarded by jealous watchers who had orders to put to death any unauthorized persons who approached it. the inhabitants collected specimens of this stone and delivered them to the gem-cutters for polishing.

. 1531. p. required to be set in gold. states that the topaz" was set in the diadem of the "Theban queen. the precious gift sent by Philemon must have been a mass of fluor-spar. mother of Ptolemy II.TALISMANIC USE OP PEECIOUS STONES 67 pazos. 32 said to have had a statue More than three hundred years after Pliny's time. Although we are not informed in what way fortunate result was attained. 33 M Marbo-dei. it seems likely that the this 32 Plinii. " De ed. it were to be used as a protection from the wiles of evil spirits. cap. 1877. Wonderful things axe told of the virtue of the chrysoprase. or some similar material. evidently repeating another version of this tra" dition. to exert its full power. the stone had to be pierced and strung on the hair of an ass and then attached to the left arm. by Hans Lambel. in the Eed Sea. lapidibus. for Volmar states that. Epiphanius. 16. tlie first specimen having been brought thence by the procurator Philemon." Friburgi. xxxvii. Philadelphia. 33 The belief in the virtue of the chrysolite to dissolve enchantments and to put evil spirits to flight was probably due to the association of the stone with the sun. peridot). 32. If. of his wife Arsinoe made from If there be any foundation for this latter statement. before whose life-giving rays darkness and all the powers of darkness were driven away. worn in this way it dispelled the vague terrors of the night. 22. he would immediately escape from his execu34 tioners. Yolmar. Heilbronn. to Berenice." Chrysolite (olivine. " Naturalis Historia. This monarch is the stone. f ol. lib. Steinbnch. if a thief sentenced to be hanged or beheaded should place this stone in his mouth. however.

9 recto. and gave wisdom. was said to have been experimentally proved. fol. may of coral as an ornament." ed. Many attempts have been made to introduce coral beads instead of glass beads among such tribes. as the cheaper. 37 35 Albert! Magni. According to this recital. far from critical. 1909. p. 36 De mineralibus. On his return from his Indian campaign. or for amulets. Pierres et Bestes." Leipzig. To still tempests and traverse broad rivers in safety was the privilege of one who bore either red or white coral with him. ii. "Le Grand Albert des secretz des vertus des Herbes. . p. seems to presuppose a certain development of civilization. and a serpent 35 bit off the stone and then dropped it into the river." Turin. and it probably belongs to a comparatively late period. As the term "prase" is used Even Albertus. strange story regarding a magic stone reputed to stone make A have been worn by Alexander the Great is related by Albertus Magnus.68 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES was believed to the thief invisible. "Opera Omnia. Parisiis. 1890. d'aulcuns effete causez daulcunes bestes. Bernard du mont du Chat (c. admits that the story seems like a fable. tract. he laid aside his girdle. Alexander. " in his battles. Et aultre livre des Merveilles du Monde. 43. cured madness. vol. ii. Bauer. lib. 2. who is very loosely by early writers. v. but with no success. 1515). wishing one day to bathe in the Euphrates. glass 36 always commands a higher price. " Edelsteinkunde. 750. wore a prase" in his girdle. but brighter. and thus possessed a virtue often attributed to the opal. for savage tribes greatly prefer glass orna- The appreciation ments. this "victory stone" have been an emerald or po&sibly jade. Borgnet. "Albertus Magnus. That this also stanched the flow of blood from a wound. Liv.

KABYLE JEWELRY. Chicago. . Field Museum. Of Mediterranean coral and pearls.

.

the separate pieces have no virtue. pure and fair to look upon. must not have been worked. if. Indeed. "II feticismo primitive in Italia/' Perugia. women are careful to guard the corals they wear peasant for a special purpose from the eyes of their husbands. and we might well call one the " king-gem " and the The diamond. pp.TALISMANIC USE OF PEECIOUS STONES 69 Coral. is the emblem of fearof old. coral must be worn where color its brilliant conspicuous. to retain its power as an amulet. it should by accident be broken. . the pearl. To exercise all its power against spells. is the emblem of modesty and 38 purity. Therefore it does not seem unfitting that Bellucci. for the substance is believed to grow pale at certain seasons. These beliefs are all clearly traceable to the animistic ideas of primitive man. however. like a lady of old. or enchantments. /All this serves to show that a kind of vital force is believed to animate the ma- gaining or losing in vigor according to certain conditions. and finally disappearing when the form is broken. brilliant 7 ' lessness and invincibility. and in Italy only such pieces are valued for this purpose as have been freshly gathered from the sea or have been cast up by the sea on the shore. regaining its pristine hue after a short interval of time. 22-25. 1907. as though the spirit makes it The dwelling in the coral had fled from its abode. the women believe that the coral shares their indisposition with them. and resistant. and the magic power ceases. like a knight other the " queen-gem. which for twenty centuries or more was classed among the precious stones. Diamonb The diamond is to the pearl as the sun is to the moon. 38 terial.

40 resisted his Eueus 41 calls "a gem of reconciliation." . prudence and fear. by endowing the devil. Marbodus 39 tells us strength. ed Migne. The virtues the ascribed to this stone are almost all directly traceable either to its unconquerable hardness or to its transparency and purity." Tiguri. col. for the dims than strengthens the is it is latter rather less. For St. "Opera Omnia. it is expressly " De lapidibus. He says: It is believed to are the make the wearer unhappy. Hildegardse. excvii. for this purpose it should be set in gold and worn on the left arm." Friburgi. Hildegard the sovereign virtue of the diamond was recognized by victory to the wearer. 1254. sight. It was therefore thought to bring him with superior and courage. f . ro Here 8. gemmis. p. 1566. 1531. its effects therefore same upon the mind as that of the sun upon the eye. f 52." Basilea^ 1585.70 THE CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES diamond should be presented as a token to the pearl. it was a magic stone of great power and served to drive away nocturnal spectres." as it enhanced the love of a husband for his wife. in Pat. it who was a great enemy power by day and by of this stone because it night. but we do not recall having seen elsewhere the statement made in an anonymous Italian manuscript of the fourteenth century. therefore The diamond was often associated with the lightning and was sometimes believed to owe its origin to the thunderbolt. 41 " De gemmis." " . Lat. Cardano 42 takes a more pessimistic view of the qualities of the diamond. 43 "De Philosophi opera qusedam lectu digna. 322. 40 St. vol. fortitude. and that pearls should go with the diamond. It indeed renders fear- but there nothing that contributes more to our safety than better to fear.

. Epiphanius. the four friends. all manner of good fortune. the stone would grow dim. who wrote: . which was worn by the high priest. This quality is also alluded to by Sir John Mandeville. of the fourteenth century in the St. the Kshatriya diamond prevented the approach of old age. to the wearer. in the treatise on gems by Buddhabhatta we read: diamond. It happens often that the good diamond loses its virtue by sin and for incontinence of him who bears it. In the Talmud we read of a gem. MS. the Vaisya stone brought success. it would shine more brilliantly than ever. p. fol. that the same force that was supposed to have formed the stone should be able to dissolve it. and therefore the belief in the destructive effect of the electric current must have arisen from superstitious or poetic fancies. even if he the color of blood or spotted with were the Anonymous writer in Ital." Paris. 41 p. author's library. The Hindus classed diamonds according to The Brahmin diamond gave power. verso. 43 diamond can be entirely consumed at a high temperature was a fact not known in Europe in the fourteenth century. On'the other hand. ** 48 See page 278 for description of this diamond by " Les Finot. 9. lapidaires indiens. and not from any vague conception of the true nature of the diamond. riches and good luck. but if he were innocent. castes.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES asserted that the diamond is 71 sometimes consumed or melted when Certainly. supposed to have been the diamond. 44 This stone served to show the guilt or innocence of one accused of any crime if the accused were guilty. 1896. and the Sudra. a part of which would quickly bring death Master of Death. That the it thunders. 43 45 A is red. is not an illogical idea.

a mystic of the fourteenth century.72 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES The Arabians and Persians. and it is therefore not surprising that these stones were also supposed to possess reproductive powers. and they engender commonly. asserted that the diamond made the wearer invisible. I have oftentimes tried the experiment that if a man keep them with a little of the rock. and water them with May dew often. show the high esteem in which the XThe adamas was held at that time: The Evil Eye shall have no power to harm Him that shall wear the diamond as a charm. This probably refers either to colorless corundum. And e'en the gods his wishes shall fulfil. so powerfully attracts the planetary influences that it renders the wearer invincible it was also said to provoke a state of spiritual ecstasy. as well as the modern Egyptians. they shall grow every year and the small will grow great. The writer is disinclined to believe that the ancients knew the diamond. asserts that it produces somnambulism." or to quartz. deville A curious fancy. . treating of its magic virtues. male and female. agree in attributing to the diamond a wonderful power to bring good fortune. and Kabbi Benoni. prevalent in regard to In this connection Sir John Man- wrote : They grow together. written in the second century. Pierre de Boniface. many stones. No monarch shall attempt to thwart his will. An alchemist of the same century. as a talisman. and. " the so-called white sapphire. and are nourished by the dew of heaven. . attributed sex to the diamond. and bring forth small children that multiply and grow all the year. following lines from a translation of the celebrated Orphic poem.

illuminating space with its fire and with the reflection of the rainbow. Franz Pfeiffer. 8." ed. . light. c. p. and was supposed to depart from the stone. 1. the turquoise. "Buch der ETatur. The Talmud shows us that the Jewish Eabbis some*6 47 Knot. p. p. was thought to take offence at the idea of being bought and sold.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES The asserts 73 Hindu that the diamond ancient gem-treatise of Buddhabhatta of the Brahmin should have the whiteness of a shell or of rock-crystal. 48 Konrad von Megenberg. 1861. the sheen of a polished blade. those red as coral and those yellow as saffron. that of the Vaisya. without defects. According to a wide-spread superstition. the diamond (or turquoise) were offered as a pledge of love or friendship. The spirit dwelling in the stone regarding . 46 typical diamond is thus described in a Hindu gem- diamonds. leaving it nothing more than a bit of senseless matter. that of the Sudra. Stuttgart. the talismanic power of a diamond was lost if the stone were acquired by purchase only when received as a gift could 48 The same belief is noted its virtues be depended on. the lovely shade of a petal of the kadali flower. with well-formed facets. with pronounced and sharp edges. To kings alone the sages assigned two classes of colored namely. If. by Dr. " Les lapidaires indiens." Paris. but diamonds of all other shades could be set in royal jewels. the brown color of the eye of a hare . Finot. that of the Kshatriya. of a beautiful shade. 9. pure. the spirit was quite willing to transfer its good offices from one owner to another. however. These were exclusively royal gems.. 433. 1896. without stain. A A treatise 47 : six-pointed diamond. a diamond of this kind is not easy to find in the earth.

bit off its head. 207. i. diamonds were the playthings of some Boer children. See Aristoteles . threatening to swallow the ship. v (xiii). 1885. New Series VI. 365. vol. ed. pp. p. any small stone that is wrapped in colored rags and worn on the neck may be regarded in the same 50 Several competent authorities state that these way. ed. and we wanted to try whether the diamond would bring them to life. Then a raven came." Beilage delberg. One of these may be given as illustrating at once the wild improbability of some of these recitals and the belief in the wonderful magic virtues of the dia- mond a 49 : tell Once while on board of saw a diamond that was encircled by a snake. vol. New York. 389.A. and it became alive. put it in the carcass. Jehudah of Mesopatamia used to : ship. bit off its head. so we placed the gem on them. I flew away with the gem. 364. 1902. in order to swallow the ship. 60 " Ratzel. in South Africa diamonds discovered by were found in the leather Although large stones or fragments of rock are usually the objects of adoration as fetiches in Africa. and they became animated and R. by Michael L. Al Kazwini relates as follows the marvellous tale of the Valley of Diamonds 48 51 : New edition of the Babylonian Talmud. and trans. We had with us salted birds. took the diamond and threw it on the ship. 36. Julius Ruska." Leipzig. Z. The " is writer probably Ahmed Teif ashi. 51 Dr. 390. " other Rose.D. zum Jahresbericht 1894-5 der Oberrealschule Hei- De Lapidibus und Arnoldus Saxo. and again it opened its mouth.74 THE CUEIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES times endeavored to enliven their exhaustive discussions of ritual and legal questions by telling "good stories" to each other. Volkerkunde. Then another snake came. p. It is said that the first large Europeans bag of a sorcerer. and a diver went to catch it.f. "Das Steinbuch aus der Kosmographie des al-Kazwini. Another bird then came. Rodkinson. and all water around turned into blood. The snake then opened its mouth. 35. took the diamond. Baba Batra. p.

" from "Another writer his people to the flesh.TALISMANIC USE OF PEECIOUS STONES 75 " Aristotle 52 says that no one except Alexander ever reached the place where the diamond is produced. When people wish to take out the diamonds they throw down pieces of flesh. but upon these and bore were obliged to alight from was composed The work on precious stones attributed to Aristotle in Arabic probably in the ninth century. . these are of the size of a lentil or a pea. in time of drought. and this caused their death. their glance fell upon their own image in the mirror. connected with the land Hind. There such of the diamonds as cling to the flesh are secured. however. The eagles pounced them away 52 to their nests. Hereupon. the serpents approached. the diamonds became attached to the flesh. and the gemseekers used to place large pieces of flesh at the foot of the mountain. and the birds of the air seized the flesh and bore it up out of the Then valley. this power endures only as long as the serpents live. undertake the descent. on the island of Ceylon." pursue the birds and to pick up what In his version of the tale. this source of supply ceased. In this place summer reigns for six months and winter for the same length of time. in which are deadly serpents. for when they die the power leaves them. one form of which appears in the seventh voyage of Sindbad the Sailor. The largest pieces found attain the size of a half -bean. the like of which no man hath seen. Alexander wished to bring out the diamonds from the to valley. Now it happened that many eagles built their nests on the top of this mountain. This is a valley. but no one was When willing Alexander therefore sought counsel of the wise men. which are seized by vultures and brought up to the brink of the gorge. and they told him to throw down a piece of flesh into the valley. This he did. Teifashi states that the finest corundum gems were washed down the streams that flowed from Adam's Peak. Alexander ordered fell states that the mines are in the mountains of Serendib (Ceylon) in a very deep gorge. The glance cannot penetrate to its greatest depths and serpents are found there. Now. and upon which no man can gaze without dying. However. Alexander ordered that an iron mirror should be brought and placed at the spot where the serpents dwelt.

303. 13. 53 These oft-repeated tine Ball as originating in the carried away by birds of prey. of the Royal Irish Academy. . 1565. has confessed that she wears a diamond suspended on her forehead because her husband believes that this This forehead-jewel characteristically Hindu and enjoys in India the repu- brings good fortune to the wearer. so that when the eagles resumed their flight the stones dropped off and rolled down the by Dr. The emerald was believed but we to foreshow future events.. 54 Antiquities. " Fior di pensieri sulle pietre preziose/' Firenzi. Ball wrote. fol. Epiphanii. Proc. and leaving on the spot a certain part of the meat as an offering to the guardian deities. a supernatural fore-knowledge of what was to come. 2d Ser. Maeterlinck. As these pieces of meat were soon tales are explained mountain side. This custom still 54 prevailed in some parts of India when Dr.76 THE CURIOUS LOftE OF PRECIOUS STONES time to time in order to rest. 1879-1888. The effect exercised by Hindu superstition on even the most enlightened Europeans of our day may be rec- ognized in the fact that the gifted prima donna. 55 do not learn whether visions were actually seen were in spheres of rock-crystal or or whether the emerald endowed the wearer with beryl. De XII gemmis. the legend arose that the diamonds were obtained in this way. as they 53 Teif ashi. some of the corundums became lightly attached to this. Polite Literature and ii. 1818. the wife of the foremost living European poet. ValenHindu custom of sacrificing cattle when new mines were opened. vol. 66 Dublin. is tation of being especially auspicious. 5. p. Mme. As in the stone. p." Tiguri. and while the pieces of flesh lay on the rock.

Cr u^Ae ahduittwtofl ii. . e. 101. when they f ol.7 mtvyw rum^ f ntv CDnutiuco mfcoUtctia ^ft6 uyto .i *nc dt tame-' 074 fitouatu - ? uiiLi -7 buotLi.C7a Dia-fi cbc-ijucUt fttpttaw Itili qucftq." lonicmcD calmdri tins'- OU piue- iilc- con Ciiut <7 "UA-U-. set in a ring worn by King Bela IV o Hungary his wife.*- piluoct tt4fl'.o taswncuiltv Oeleucnc ^tutnc- & tawe i iiir niouiwcna %r i infu'. hence it was greatly favored by magicians.p ivcut u quclfci jncr&f fono mUa ^UcJ jjf t|4rC" leqiwtc^nttdiv.cbc.buoni i Oj tumlulm. this On Containing an Italian version of the "De Mineralibus" of Albertus Magaus. this stone was an enemy of all enchantments and conjurations. (1235-1270). " De las piedras preeiosas. durno <? <uafbna <7lioil?t fcnw -63^^10 Ouvrto c {t. Tlo ^o. Author's library. page is the account of the emerald. that was fractured when he caressed avail if an emerald were in their vicinity 5^ began to weave their spells. au fcuJ ftDiO." Valladolid.cjumo.it lp tew IM> OID ^ t lF qucib Luitujiuc" ttwUte- SPECIMEN PAGE OF ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. who found all their arts of no fu fc ano Uav IU4-Ciutf- Ufiu imlwreOlthtzltV 1 . V 6S Morales.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 77 a revealer of truth.lfvij<ifl4. -.IfKiTo Cnvtu UcuL-jjfaiDaucti Otmoin in^clcn ptani (viviw 6daO.on0 Ufana'^uic. picrci c5"opnnCt OtfTc tituj A)icmi ^ 1 ^/6-itOTHujo. 1604.

four cardinal points. Leon- Speculum lapidum. the stone broke into three parts. The possession of the four stones is said to have endowed the wise king with power over all creation. Cardano declares that it therefore made people more honest. . we might conjecture that the other three stones were the carbuncle. 225. And Strange to say. enabling added to quicken the prophetic faculty. the lapislazuli. the emerald. may many other virtues. blue. for it revealed the truth or falsity of lover's oaths. Camilli fol. he was sure to attain his end by securing possession of not only the ambitious. "Biblische Legenden. xliii. and green color respectively. " ardi." p. 58 In Eabbinical legend it is related that four precious stones were given by God to King Solomon one of these was the emerald. 1502. that. yellow. 48. but also those whose hearts had been smitten by the shafts from Cupid's bow found in this stone an invaluable auxiliary." Venetia. and were very likely of red. a 57 fine emerald. 08 "De lapidibus. 69 Weil. If any one wished be to strengthen his memory or to become an eloquent speaker. however. 14th Century. Friburgi.78 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES To this supernatural it power inherent in the stone. and the topaz. fol. So sensitive was the stone believed to be in this respect that Albertus Magnus relates of King Bela of Hungary. who possessed an exceptionally valuable emerald set in a ring. 59 As these four stones probably typified the . IV Pol. although commonly assigned to Venus. Reference is to Bela (1235-1270). Lo reo dilugaria bela lo'qale in di nostri tempi regna. 55 recto of Ital. was often regarded as an enemy of sexual passion. After stating that the emerald sharpens the wits and quickens the intelligence. 1531. when he embraced his wife while wearing this ring on his finger. MS.. for "dishonesty is ^Marbodei.

" The same writer adds that the stone was believed to make men economical and hence to make them rich. scarf-pins. ii. or gilded Cardani. The light-colored stones were es- from the " nests teemed the best and legend told that they 61 were brought of griffons." This material is Some w " 61 of the cut stones are mounted in brass. "Philosophi opera queedam. 1585. conferred riches and the power that the emerald possessed very in this direction." Turin. p. or en cabochon. known as " satin the fibres being long and spar. and ill-nature. Pierres et Bestes. or of pear-shaped drops. which are mounted in earrings. across the fibres. has recently been shown in Europe. "Le Grand Albert des secrets des vertus de* Herbes. De gemmis. since the experience of others as well as his little own showed A talismanic emerald. and weighs 78 carats. 328.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 79 nothing but ignorance. or neckThe material is frequently found in Russia. once the property of the Mogul emperors of Delhi." Basileae. To evolve this latter virtue it must be put under the tongue." Albertus Magnus." Emerald sharpened the wits. The stone is of a rich deep green. It also strengthened the memory. and is cut in England or Russia." Gypsum when is fibrous straight frequently cut rounded. 11. 60 power to predict future events. sometimes it is cut in the form of beads. but of this he was very sceptical. Et aultre livre des Merveilles du Monde. Bernard du rnont du Chat (c. laces. Aronnd the edge in Persian characters runs the inscription: "He who possesses this charm shall enjoy the special protection of God. stupidity. . England. and elsewhere. 1515). fol. d'auleuns effetz causez daulcunes bestes. Liv.

the ornaments being called " Pharaoh's eggs. both engraved and unengraved. That found in Eussia is of a golden-yellow or salmon color and is worked into various ornaments. Azchalias. ties They are also believed to possess qualiof protection and to bring good fortune. the one popular form being egg-shaped. as cited by Pliny 62 taught that virtues of the hematite The human destinies were influenced by the virtues inherent in precious stones. such objects are frequently given as Easter gifts. cap. or owing to the fact that it has the effect of the cat's-eye.80 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES and sold as luck stones at Niagara. It is a red oxide of iron. the claim being made that the " satin spar " was taken from beneath brass. the Falls at great peril. . whence the ea " ISTaturalis historia. so that it can be scratched with the finger-nail.C. From time to time small consignments of this material have been sent to Japan. The same material is also known in Egypt. and possessed a splendid collection of them. and is cut in the same egg form." although just which Pharaoh this refers ? to is not stated. 60. It is quite cheap. procured for the wearer a favorable hearing of petitions addressed to kings and a fortunate issue of lawsuits and judgments. because of their form. when used as a talisman. as the Japanese valne it possibly on account of its purity. and asserted that the hematite." lib. and.). King of Pontus (d. 63 B. hematite were praised in an ancient written by Azchalias of Babylon for Mithrigem-treatise dates the Great. which when abraded shows a red streak. and at the same time very soft. as occasionally small deposits of this kind of gypsum are found under the Falls. xxxvii. a sovereign who was passionately fond of precious stones.

because of its reputed value as a protection against the plague and against wounds and injuries. probably an amulet. The high degree of skill possessed by the Pueblo workers is strikingly shown in a finely inlaid hematite cylinder found in Pueblo Bonito. the two classes of perils most feared by those who undertook long journeys. The wings are indicated of pyramidal outline. The jacinth was more especially recommended as an amulet for travellers." As an iron ore and hence associated with Mars. This conical termination bore a small bird-figure tional representation of a bird. 239 j Fig. this substance was also considered to be an invaluable help to the warrior on the field of battle if he rubbed his it was believed to confer invulnerability. carved in relief. " blood. the head being figured by a conical piece of turquoise attached to one end." Putnam Anniversary Volume. and was most likely tEe property of some one of high rank in the tribe or community. must have been considered very valuable. Moreover. 63 When we consider the difficulties the Indian workers had to overcome in the execution of this artistic task with the tools at their command. p.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 81 name hematite. te . like the loadstone. "The Exploration of a Burial-room in Pueblo Bonito. the god of war. this stone assured the wearer a cordial reception at any hostelry he George H. body with Probably. Pepper.New York> 1909. The inlays are of turquoise and are designed to make the cylinder a convenit. New Mexico. curved so as to by turquoise inlays follow the curvature of the cylinder. from the Greek haima. we can well realize that this object. 5.

ed. is then to eat of the bread. f ol. " it being confidently declared that in re- Marbodei. 1585. 64 was said and dull if the wearer borhood became ill of the plague. 38." through. col. De lapidibus. however. . all phantoms and all magic spells. the pain will be relieved provided the sign of the cross be made over the heart while the above mentioned words are recited. and it was even asserted that wax that had been impressed by an image graven on this stone averted the lightning from one who bore the seal. cutting it quite and then pass the stone along the cutting. Parisiis. All other solid food given to the sick person should be treated in the same manner. however. 1531. unleavened bread may be used. That the stone really possessed this power was a matter of The patient his common M M report.82 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES It visited. J. 1ST." Friburgi. take bewitched by phantoms or by magical spells. . vol. Hildegardse. Lat. the Abbess of Bingen (d. reciting these words: "May God. who cast away all precious stones from the devil cast away from thee. and endowed "him with prudence in the conduct of his affairs. so that a hot loaf of pure wheaten bread and cut the upper crust in the form of a cross. p. Opera onmia. stomach should be too feeble. In addition to these qualities the jacinth augmented the riches of the owner. gives the following details as to the proper use of the jachant St. and free thee from the pain of this madness. 1855. if. Migne. 1251." Basileae. (jacinth) 66 : If any one is he has lost his wits. 323. 65 to lose its brilliancy and grow pale or any one in his immediate neigh- Hildegard. " "Philosophi opera qusedam. De gemrois.. P. in Pat. . not. The wearer of a jacinth was believed to be proof against the lightning. 1179). . We are also told that if any one has a pain in his heart. cxcvii. Cardani." *S.

of exceedingly tough structure." as shells were used as money in very ancient times. Pittsburg. 132. and ranks 6. Early Chinese Writing-/' Mem.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 83 gions where many were struck by lightning.5 in the scale of hardness. Of this. By a like miracle it preserved the wearer from all danger of pestilence even though he lived in an air charged with the disease. Cardano states that he was in the habit of wearing rather a large jacinth. 10 and PL XX. the Chinese already collected 68 The jade and employed it for personal adornment oldest form of the ideograph for "king" ." Basileas. and an earthen jar. See also No. while jadeite. none who wore a jacinth were ever harmed. Cardani. which are even fi7 c8 " De subtilitate. differing much from the best. p. iv. nephis a silicate of magnesia. appears to crystalline ness of 7. it is also denominated Imperial jade. of Carnegie Museum. in explanation of its slight efficacy. "shell. "Kingfisher plumes". The former includes two distinct minerals. PL X. No. The original form of the Chinese character pao. 442-3. nor of the best sort. A third virtue was to induce sleep. but not much/' He adds. 1. shell. 1560. 275. is more and not as tough as nephrite and has a hardA variety having a rich emerald-green hue is called by the Chinese f cits' ui. " Chalf ant. a silicate of alumina. and had found that the stone "seemed to dispose somewhat to sleep. within which are the symbols of jade beads. . 67 The name jade rite and jadeite." "value. pp. that Ms stone was not bright red. 1906. but of a golden hue. pei.|. This shows that at the very early time when these characters were first used. "consists of the outline of a house. No. signifying "precious. ' 9 be the symbol for a string of jade beads. vol.

84

THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES
in

now used
thority.
69

China as insignia for

high,

rank and au-

Jade amulets of many different forms are popular with the Chinese. One representing two men is called Two Brothers of Heavenly Love, and is often given to friends. A phoenix of jade is a favorite ornament for young girls and is bestowed upon them when they come of age. To a newly-wedded pair is given the figure of a man riding on a unicorn and holding castanets in his hand this signifies that an heir will be born in due time. Such is the fondness of the Chinese for jade that those who can afford the luxury of its possession are wont to carry with them small pieces, so that they may have them
* *
' '

;

always at hand; for they believe that, when handled, something of the secret virtue of the substance is absorbed into the body. When struck, jade is thought to emit a peculiarly melodious sound, which for the Chinese poet resembles the voice of the loved one indeed, jade is
;

termed the concentrated essence of love. Fashioned into the form of a butterfly, a piece of jade acquires a special romantic significance in China, because of a Chinese legend which relates that a youth in his
eager pursuit of a many-hued butterfly made his way into the garden of a rich mandarin. Instead of being punished for his trespass, the youth's unceremonious visit led to his marriage with the mandarin's daughter. Hence the figure of a butterfly is a symbol of successful love, and

Chinese bridegrooms are wont
flies

to present

jade butter-

to their fiancees.

ornament constituting a child's amuassumes a form approximating to that of a padlock. tWhen this is attached to a child's neck, it is supposed to
A. Chinese jade
let
08

Chalf ante, " Early Chinese Writing/' PI. XXII, No. 299.

TALISMANIC USE OF PEECIOUS STONES
bind the
little

85

one to

life

and protect

it

from

all

in infantile diseases.

A jade object of a different kind is

danger

sometimes used at nuptial feasts in China. This is a cup having the form of a cock, and both bride and groom, drink from it. The form of this vessel is accounted for

by a legend to the effect that when a beautiful white cock saw its young mistress, who had often petted it, throw
herself into a well in a transport of despair at the loss of her lover, the faithful fowl sought and found death in

the same way, so as not to be separated from its mistress. Among the splendid Chinese jade carvings of the
is a curious symbolic ornament carved out of the rare fei-ts'ui yii, or "kingfisher-green jade," a rich emerald green jadeite with translucent green shading. This ornament, executed in the beginning of the eighteenth century and believed to be a product of the Imperial Jade Works in Peking, figures the natural form of a so-called "hand-of-Buddha" citron,

"Woodward Collection

the finger-like protuberances of the fruit suggesting this strangely fanciful name. The Chinese regard this as a most felicitous emblem, denoting at once a long life and abundance of riches for its enjoyment. In the present

carving the figure of a bat clinging to the foliage enveloping the fruit constitutes an added omen of good fortune, the Chinese character fu signifying at once "bat" and " "happiness, another proof of what we are prone to call Chinese queerness, for with the superstitious of our race 70 the bat is always looked upon as especially ill-omened. It is a well-known fact that many analogies have been

found between the customs, usages, and products of the more civilized aborigines of the New World and those of
Catalogue of the "Woodward Collection of Jades and other Hard Stones," by John Getz, Privately printed (New York), 1913, p. 11, No. 24.
T0

"

86

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

the ancient Egyptians. Another instance is offered by the custom of placing a piece of chalchihuitl (jade?) or of some other green stone in the mouth of a noble after
?

his death, and calling this his heart. Among the lower classes a texa&octli, a stone of small value, was used for the same purpose. "We shall see that, in the Egyptian

"Book

of the Dead," directions are given for putting a semi-precious stone on or in a mummy, as a symbol, and

designating this the heart of the deceased person. For the use of a green stone for this purpose by the ancient Mexicans, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall finds a reason in the two

meanings of the Nahuatl word xoxouhqui-yollott, which is used to signify a "free man," the literal meaning being a "fresh or green heart." Hence, the stone was a symbol of the rank of the deceased as well as of Ms heart. 71 The fact that jade celts have been found cut into several pieces is taken to indicate the high value placed upon this material; for it has been conjectured by Dr. Earle Flint, that a living chief would cut a piece from the jade he wore as a sign of his rank, in order to provide a suitable ornament or amulet for a dead kinsman. To certain of the Chinese "tomb- jades" that is, jade amulets deposited with the dead has been given the
or "mouth-jade," because these amulets, afford protection to the dead, were placed in supposed to their mouths. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New
Jian-yii,

name

York contains a fine collection of 279 specimens of jade from Chinese tombs, found within the past five or six years, and presented to the museum by Mr. Samuel F.
71

World
and

Principles of Old and New Civilization," Cambridge, Mass., 1901, p. 195. Archaeological Ethnographical Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard UniZelia Nuttall,

"The Fundamental

versity, vol.

ii.

TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES
Peters.

87

In color these jades are not especially attractive, material has acquired a brownish stain, due to the for the products of decomposition of the body, and also to the absorption of some of the chemical constituents of the other objects in the tomb, during the long period of time, in many cases a thousand years or more, since the bodies were consigned to their final resting place.

So multifarious are the uses to which jade is put by the Chinese, and so great is their admiration of its
qualities, that

excellence.

A

they regard it as the musical gem par series of oblong pieces of jade, of the same
feet long and ?.35 to 24, constitute a

length and width, usually about 1.8 feet wide, and numbering from 12

when sharply

chime, the difference in the notes emitted by the material struck depending upon the varying thick-

" stone chime' used in court and religious ceremonials, is composed of 16 undecorated stones, while a series known * as the singers chime consists of from 12 to 24 pieces
y

ness of the separate pieces.

What

is

designated the

carved into fantastic shapes. This use of jade for the production of musical sounds dates far back in the Chinese annals. We are told that when Confucius was much troubled at the ill-success of his efforts to reform the Chinese morals of his day, he sought consolation in playing on the "musical stone/' A peasant who noted this in passing by, exclaimed, as he heard the sounds: "Full indeed is the heart of him who beats the musical
stone like that !"
72

A
72

jade ornament greatly favored by the Maoris of
The Bishop
Collection.

New
by

"Investigations and Studies in Jade/' " York, privately printed, 1906, vol. i, pt. iii, Jade as a Mineral," George Frederick Kunz, p. 117. Nos. 421 and 646 of the collection

are excellent examples of this special jade.

88

THE CUBIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES
("a carved image for The ornaments of this class are very rude
Jiei-tiki

New Zealand bore the name
the neck").

and grotesque representations of the human face or form, and were generally regarded as schematically figuring some departed ancestor. The head sometimes slanted right or left, so that the eyes, which were very large and occasionally inlaid with mother-of-pearl, were on an angle of forty-five degrees. These ornaments were
prized not only as memorials, but because, having been

worn by successive ancestors, they were supposed to communicate something of the very being of those ancestors to such descendants as were privileged to wear the treasured heirloom in their turn. In many cases, when the family was dying out, the last male member would leave directions that his Jiei-tiki should be buried with him, so that it might not fall into the hands of strangers. 73 So rare was this New Zealand jade, known to the
Maoris as punamu (green-stone), that the aid of a tohunga, or wizard, was regarded as necessary to learn where it could be found, On setting forth on a search for this material, the jade-seekers would take with them a tohunga, and when the party reached the region where jade was usually found the tohunga would retire to some solitary spot and would fall into a trance. On awaking he would claim that the spirit of some person, dead or living, had appeared to him and had directed to search in a particular place for the jade. He would then conduct
73

The Bishop

Collection.

i, York, 100 copies. For a description monumental The Printed Catalogue of the Heber E. Bishop Collection of Jade," by George Frederick Kunz, supplement to the Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for May, 1906, Occasional Notes, No. 1..

New

1906, vol.

p. 12.

Investigations and Studies in Jade," Privately printed and edition limited to of this work see "

"

TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES

89

the party to this place, where a larger or smaller piece of jade was invariably found. Of course the wizard had

previously assured himself of the presence of the stone in the place indicated, To this jade was given the name of the man whose spirit had revealed its location, and in many cases the

grotesque form given to the stone was conceived to represent this man. "We can easily understand the reverence accorded to the hei-tikis when we consider that they were not only prized as heirlooms, which had been handed down by the successive heads of the family, but were also believed to have been originally found in such a mysterious way. "When the head of the family died, his
Jiei-tiki

was

generally buried with his body, but was exhumed after a shorter or longer time by the nearest male relative. As

we have

noted, if no representative of the family remained, the heirloom was allowed to remain in the grave. The fact that tribal or intertribal feuds some-

times arose in regard to the possession of a heirtiki serves to prove the peculiar virtues ascribed to them. While there can be little doubt that the heirloom was supposed to represent, in a very general way, the person
bore, the particular form given it was largely determined by the natural shape of the mass, which was slowly and patiently fashioned into the form

whose name

it

it

eventually acquired. Though this was mainly due to the imperfect means of which the artist disposed, there was probably a conviction that the form of the natural stone was not the result of accident, but was in itself
significant

and required only to be rendered more clear and definite. The fabrication of the hei-tilcis of the Maoris is said to have ceased in the early part of the last

90

THE CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

century. The greater number of those that have been collected in New Zealand appear to have been made from

one hundred to one hundred and

fifty

years ago.

74

The jasper had great repute

in ancient times as a

rain-bringer? and the fourth century author of "Lithica" 75 celebrates this quality in the following lines
:

The gods propitious hearken to his prayers, Whoe'er the polished grass-green jasper wears; His parched glebe they'll satiate with rain,

And

send for showers to soak the thirsty plain.

Evidently the green hue of this translucent stone suggested its association with the verdure of the fields in an even closer degree than was the case with transparent

green stones such as the emerald, etc. Another early authority, Damigeron, mentions this belief, and states that only when properly consecrated would the jasper do
service in this way. 76 Jasper was also credited in the fourth century with the virtue of driving away evil spirits

mous

and protecting those who wore it from the bites of venocreatures. 77 An anonymous German author of the eleventh or twelfth century recommends the use of this stone for the cure of snake bites, and states that if it be placed upon the bitten part the matter will come out
w
"

See Fischer, Ueber die Nephritindustrie der Maoris in Neuseeiand/' Archiv fiir Anthropologie, vol. xv, Braunschweig, 1884, pp. 463-466.
King's version in his Natural History of Precious Stones, London, 1865, p. 382. 7* " Specilegium Solesmense," Parish's, 1855, p. 328. Pitra,
77

75

"

Epiphanius,

De XII gemmis,"

Tiguri, 1565, f ols. 7,

&

TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES
from the wound. 78
Here
the cure is operated, not

91

by the

absorbent quality of the stone, but by its supposed power to attract poison or venom to itself, thus removing the cause of disease.

popular etymology of the Greek and Latin name for jasper is reported by Bartolomseus Anglicus, who writes that "in the head of an adder that hyght Aspis is founde a lytyl stone that is called Jaspis." The same
authority pronounces this stone to be of "wonder vertue," and says that "it hath as many vertues as dyvers coloures and veines." 79 This is fully in accord with tradition, for, as color was at least as important as chemical

A

composition in determining the talismanic or thera-

peutic worth of the different stones, the great variety of colors and markings in the different jaspers naturally

indicated their use in

many

different ways.

Jet has been found among the palaeolithic remains in the caves of the "Kesslerloch," near Thayngen, Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland. The material was evidently
derived from the deposits in Wurtemberg and was shaped by flint chips. Quite possibly jet, as well as amber, was already regarded as possessing a certain talismanie virSuch ornaments, when worn, were believed to betue. come a part of the very body and soul of the wearer, and were therefore to be guarded with jealous care. 80 In the
T8

Birlinger, "Kleinere deutsche Sprachdenkmaler," in Germania,

vol. viii (1863), p. 302.
79

Bartolomaai

Anglici

"

De

proprietatibus
cap. 51,

rerum,"

Wyiikyn de Worde, 1495,

lib. xvi,

De

Jaspide.

London, Old English

version by John of Trevisa. 80 " Urgesehichte der bildenden Kunst," Wien, 1898, pp. Hoernes,
22, 24.

92

THE CURIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES
Belgium
also, jet

palaeolithic cave-deposits of

appears,

the supply being in this instance derived from northern Lorraine. The fragments had been rounded and pierced
81 This indicates their use as parts through the centre. of a necklace or as pendants. Necklaces, bracelets, and rings were especially favored for the wearing of talismanic gems, since the stones could easily be so set that they would come in direct contact with the skin. Jet was one of the materials used by the Pueblo

Indians for their amulets. An exceptionally well-executed figure of a frog made of this material was found in Pueblo Bonito, in 1896, by Mr. Pepper. The representation is much more realistic than is the case in the
other figures of this type from this region. Turquoise eyes have been inserted in the head of the figure and a

band of turquoise surrounds the neck. 82

in Babylonia and in Egypt, lapis-lazuli was very highly valued, and this is shown by the use of its Assyrian name (uknu) in poetic metaphor. Thus, in a hymn

Both

Sin, he is addressed as the "strong bull, great of horns, perfect in form, with long flowing beard, " 83 This bright as lapis-lazuli. may remind us of the

to the

moon-god

"hyacinthine locks" of classical literature. " Lapis-lazuli, "a blue stone with little, golden spots, was a cure for melancholy and for the "quartern fever,"
^Dupont, "L'homme pendant
1872, pp. 156 sqq. 83 " The
les ages

de

la

pierre," Brussels,

Pepper,

Exploration of a Burial-room in Pueblo Bonito/'
1909, p. 237.

Putnam Anniversary Volume, New York,
88

Ward,

" Seal Cylinders of Western Asia/' Washington, D. C.,

1910, p. 121; citing Jastrow, "Religion," p. 303.

ft
*yr

.S.g 31

M

a

O
^3
1

O^,
Vl-I

CS

O ~1 -j
l

.1

s

t

H O

a 3

.

Of "Albertus Magnus. ST Plinii. because the nails of his shoes clung to a piece of it. 1515). ii. ed. cap. is repeated in a variety of forms by early writers.C. an We The latter engaged to place Alexandrian architect. 254. 16. 269 verso. a shepherd. p. "Historia naturalis. The Tima3us of Plato. both the Egyptian king and his architect died before the design could be realized. cap. "Le Grand Albert des secretz des verfcus des Herbes. verso. the more usual name being "the Heraclean stone. 533 D) for the statement that the word magnetis was first applied to the loadstone by the tragic poet Euripides (480-405 B. Liv. xxxvi. Magnesia and Herakleia.C. London. where the mineral was found. "Plinii. therein an iron statue of Arsinoe which should appear to hang in mid-air without support. Pierres et Bestes. 7 d'aulcuns effetz cansez daulcunes bestes/ Turin. lib." These designations refer to two p]aces in Lydia. 87 This story of an image held in suspense by means of powerful magnets set in the floor and roof." Venetiis. day counting in the previous attack. while pasturing his flock. fol. 1888. 14. on the authority of Nicander. that a certain Magnes. 1. planning to erect a temple in honor of his sister and wife Arsinoe. Archer-Hind. 1507.. or each fourth. 302. 86 are told by Pliny that Ptolemy Philadelphus (309247 B. xxxiv. c. 84 Eoafcgtone We have the authority of Plato (Ion. recto. called in the aid of Chirocrates. foL 11. However. fol. discovered the mineral on Mount Ida. Bernard du mont du Chat 18 (c. third day. 85 Pliny states.).TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 93 an intermittent fever returning each. lib. . note. R. Et aultre livre des Merveilles du Monde.). and sometimes also in the walls of a temple. by R.

(made in 1396) "De proprietatibus rerum/' London. The Magnet weds the Steel the sacred rites 88 Nature attends. and the loadstone drew the iron to itself. De Magnete. if placed beneath the pillow of a sleeping wife. This first appears in the Alexandrian poem "Lithica. ! "With amorous breath his martial breast inspires. Flies to the wedded gem the God of War. The Eoman poet Claudian (fifth century A. she shall meve her onte of the bed sodenly by drede of fantasy." of Bartholomaeus Wynkyn de Worde. Drawn by the mystic influence from afar. 226. Lifts the loved weight. 80 88 King's metrical version in his "Natural History of Gems. : There was current as early as the fourth century a curious belief that a piece of loadstone. 1865. and close embraces joins. it makyth her sodenly to beclyppe [embrace] her husbonde. London. and th7 heavenly pair unites. 43. 89 John of Travisa's version Anglieus' 1495. lib. . p. one of Mars in iron. and another of Venus in loadstone.D. cap. there was no real foundation for such tales. & yf she be a spowse breker. Instant to her arms Behold a marvel Her eager husband Cythereia charms.) relates that the priests of a certain temple. in order to offer a dramatic spectacle to the eyes of the worshippers. Claudian vividly describes this : The priests prepare a marriage feast. as the thing is altogether impracticable. And ever mindful of her ancient fires. would act as a touchstone of her virtue.94 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES course. yf it be sett under the heed of a chaste wyfe." and it has been thus quaintly Englished by a fourteenth century translator : Also magnes is in lyke wyse as adamas. At a special festival these statues were placed near to each other. xvi. caused two statues to be executed. close round his helmet twines Her loving arms.

T'sang KM. p. 1834. This is commonly believed to be the sense in which we should understand the French designation aimant. namely. the inmates would feel as though the house were falling down. 91 who if such a woman looks at a man she draws him and leads him whither she will. It is certainly worthy of note that in two such dissimilar languages as Sanskrit and Chinese. . some etymologists prefer to derive the word from adamas. although properly signifying the diamond. To the same idea is probably due the fact that in several languages the name given to the loadstone indicates that its peculiar power was conceived to be a manifestation of the sympathy or love of one mineral substance for another." Paris. the influence of this idea appears in the names given to the loadstone. "Lneian. 92 Klaprotk. wrote that "the loadstone attracts Iron just as does a tender mother when she calls her children to her. c." and in Chinese t su slii. " De le proprietatibus rerum. a Chinese author of says that to her. however. "to love". de Humboldt sur ^invention de la boussole." 80 In classical writings the fascination exercised by a very beautiful woman is sometimes likened to the attractive power of the loadstone. " Lettre a M. In Sanskrit the word is chum~baka or "the kisser. or "the " Chin loving-stone. of this he says: "That seemynge is by mevynge [moving] that comyth by tornynge of the brayn. Baron A. just as the loadstone draws the iron. I. Imag. sometimes used in Low Latin for the loadstone. as the participle of the verb aimer. as notably by Lucian.TALISMANIG USE OF PEECIOUS STONES 95 The same writer attempts an explanation of the popular fancy that when powdered loadstone was thrown upon coals in the four corners of a house.92 * Bartolomsei Angliei. ( the eighth century." 1. 20.

As the market value of this mineral was only seventy-five cents a pound. In July. for even in some parts of our own land this belief is still prevalent. a striking example being given on another page. or evil spirits. where a negro woman sued a conjuror to recover five dollars which she had paid him for a piece of loadstone to serve as a charm to bring back her wandering husband. of El Damn's "Hayat el liayauan. and gifts to the sovereign. 310. being regarded as a sure defence against enchantments and all the machinations of malignant spirits. their surface is smooth and brown and they have the appearance of water- worn pebbles. vol. and it is estimated that from one to three tons are sold annually to the negroes to be used in the Voodoo ceremonies as conjuring stones. 93 In the East Indies it is said that a king should have a seat of loadstone at his coronation. probably because the magnetic influence of the stone was supposed to attract power. But it is not only in the Orient that magnetite is prized for its talismanic powers. an interesting case was tried in Macon." Cairo. and the piece 83 From El i. They . the loadstone. Kazwini's "Adjail el makluqnat " .96 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES A rich growth of Mohammedan legends grew up about the exploits of Alexander the Great. as well as magnetized iron. sticky soil. . favor. Arkansas. Large quantities of loadstone are found at Magnet Cove. The material has been found in land used for farming purposes. pp. and in one of them it is related that the Greek world-conqueror provided his soldiers with loadstones as a defence against the wiles of the jinns. 1313 (1895). occur in a reddish-brown. Georgia. and many pieces have been turned up in ploughing for corn these vary from the size of a pea to masses weighing from ten to twenty pounds. 1887. cited in marginal note. 311.

264. as the source of all light. 1890. p..TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES was very 97 small. "5 " Gems and Precious Stones of North America.95 be engraved upon malaSuch a gem became a powerful talisman and protected the wearer from enchantments." Veronae. child slept soundly and peacefully. was generally regarded as the deadly enemy of necromancers. 227. " Boot. foL 51. xxxvili. cap. and it also gave warning of approaching disaster by breaking into several pieces." Friburgi. lib. 87 "De lapidibus. all evil spirits were held aloof and the In some parts of Germany. 94 For some reason not easy to fathom. De 7 Museum Caleeolarium. " Gemmarum et lapidum histoxia. p. is believed to bring good fortune and as a sacred stone in India. 1622. weighing but a few ounces. from evil spirits. witches. malachite mines having been worked between Suez and Sinai as early as 4000 B. who delighted in the darkness and feared nothing more than the bright light of day. 113. ii. " ard!. Camilli Leonfol. the judge ordered that the money should be refunded. w Speculum lapidum. and demons. 1502. malachite shared with turquoise the repute of protecting the wearer from danger in falling." Yenetia. 192." Lug. Bat. It is never disis regarded played for sale there. Marbodei. 1531." New York. malachite was considered to be a talisman peculiarly appropriate for children. 96 This material was well known to the ancient Egyptians. If a piece of this stone were attached to an infant's cradle.C. 97 The sun. 1636. . p. and from the attacks of to chite The appropriate design was the image of the sun. as yellow The moonstone 94 Kunz. venomous creatures. except on a yellow cloth. Chiocci.

98 is THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES an especially sacred color. The white mark first was like a small millet-seed. f ol. " Les secrets de la Lune/ ? Paris. 100 This belief is closely related to the idea commonly associated with the onyx. if worn on the neck. good or ill. It to rare and precious things. 98 89 namely. 98 Antoine Mizauld " tells us of a selenite or moonstone owned by a friend of his. 51. Mizauld relates that to convince himself of the truth of this he obtained possession of the stone for one lunar month. that is in store for them. The owner declared that he had "vowed and dedicated this stone to the young king [Edward VI]. and to give lovers the power to read in the future the fortune. then the mark gradually passed up again as the moon diminished. 1560. a great traveller. To gain this knowledge. This stone. p. Cardani. 300 De subtilitate/* lib. indicated the waxing and waning of the moon by a certain white point or mark which grew larger or smaller as did the moon. vii. it was round like the full moon. 1531. during which it. and Oardano relates that everywhere in India the stone was worn for this purpose. however. was said to cool the ardors of love." The onyx. 1571. about the size of the gold piece known as the gold noble." Friburgi. always assuming the form of the moon until. 464. that it provoked discord and separated " De lapidibus. but somewhat thicker. increasing in size and moving down on the stone. on reaching the middle. who was then highly esteemed because he had good judgment in regard time he sedulously observed appeared at the top. Basileae. the stone must be placed in the mouth while the moon is full. . for it is believed to arouse the tender passion. Marbodei. As a gift for lovers the moonstone takes a high rank.

Smithsonian Inst.. Nevf . 331. 1890. 30. 102 101 " Frederick Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico/' ed. "Gems and Precious Stones of North America/ York. 102 Kunz. native iron disulphide) are sometimes used as amulets by the North American Indians. p. while the other side was strongly convex. FROM OAXACA. by Webb Hodge. PARIS. Bull. 1910. MEXICO. 299. 299. Am. one side being usually polished flat. Paris. and the belief in their magic power is attested by their presence in the outfit of miscellane- ous objects which the medicine-men use in the course of their incantations. p. Crystals of iron pyrites (pyrite. Bur. the name been gold" has popularly bestowed 101 "fool's upon them. 300.. quently this side was curiously carved with some symbolic representation as appears in the case of a pyrite mirror of the Pinard collection in the Trocadero. 1890. Ethn. Pt. 2. NOW IN TROCAD^IRO wonderful mirrors. " See Gems and Precious Stones of North America. 7 Washington. pp. New York." by George Frederick Kunz. Fre- MUSEUM.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES lovers. Because these gleaming yellow crystals are occasionally mistaken for gold. Of this material the ancient Mexicans made OBSIDIAN MIRROR. 99 The close union and yet the strange contrast between the layers of black and white may have suggested this.

103 and all the doors of these ed. He built many water to the eye. although not citing his authority.100 THE CUKIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES The popular belief in Ms time as to the origin of rock- Jerome. when. 1890. 545. From Gems and Precious by George Frederick Kunz. vol. p. Now in the British Museum. 1865. New York." This belief was evidently due to the fact that rock-crystal was so often found in mountain clefts and caverns. col. 285. London. he says that it was formed by the congelation of water in dark caverns crystal is voiced by St. Parisiis. . Symbolically." Wu edifices for religious purposes. so that. "While a stone to the touch. using the words of Pliny." Migne. where the temperature was intensely cold. iv. Stones of North America. ANCIENT MEXICAN " Troy. of the mountains. 103 The Chinese emperor was devoted to the service of the gods and of the immortal spirits. it signified that those within the portals of the Church should keep themselves free from stain and have a pure faith. Sancti Eusebii Hieronymi " Opera Chirm a. it seems like Weighing 475 X z- BOCK-CRYSTAL SKULL.

FROM THE FAYOUM. The ob- .OBSIDIAN MASK. the typical stone of Mexico. EGYPT. sidian is Collection of Mrs. Henry Draper. Late De Lesseps Collection. Twelfth Dynasty.

TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES

101

buildings were made of white rock-crystal, so that a flood of light poured into the interior. Although the Chinese texts call this material rock-crystal, it is possible that the

name was

applied to glass when that substance was but introduced into China. 104 recently

Regarding this same "rock-crystal" a humorous tale Muan-fen, a mandarin who had a great terror of draughts, was once received in the palace by one of the Chinese emperors. The doors of the audience chamber were of rock-crystal and were tightly closed, but, because of the transparency of the material, they seemed to be wide open, and the emperor was greatly amused to note that Muan-f en was shivering with cold, although the temis related.
105 perature of the room was quite comfortable. An exceptionally fine specimen of Aztec work is a skull carved out of rock-crystal. It weighs 475*4 ounces

Troy, and measures

8%

inches in width.

The ruby has many names in Sanskrit, some of them clearly showing that it was more valued as a gem by the
Hindus than any other. For instance, it is called rat" and ratnandyaka, naraj, "king of precious stones, "leader of precious stones;" another name, applied to a the particular shade of ruby is padmaraga, "red as
lotus."
106

the ruby suggested the idea that flame burned in this stone. From an inextinguishable this fancy came the assertion that the inner fire could not

The glowing hue of

104

"
Pfizmeier,

Beitrage zur Geschichte der Edelsteinen tmd des
d. phil. hist. p. 201.

Goldes," Sitzungsbericht
1C

KL, Wien,

vol. Iviii, 1868, p. 200.

*

Pfizmeier,
a<

1.

c.,

*

Garbe,

" Die indische

Mineralien j

Nahaxari's

Eajanigliantu,

Varga XIII,

Leipzig, 1882, p. 70.

102

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

be hidden, as it would shine through the clothing or through any material that might be wrapped around the stone. 107 If cast into the water the ruby communicated its heat to the liquid, causing it to boil. The dark and the
star rubies

were called "male"

stones, the others,

more

especially, however,

those of lighter hue, being considered as "female" stones. All varieties served to

preserve the bodily and mental health of the wearer, for they removed evil thoughts, controlled amorous desires, 108 dissipated pestilential vapors, and reconciled disputes. In the "Lapidaire" of Philippe de Valois, it is said that "the books tell us the beautiful clear and fine ruby is the lord of stones it is the gem of gems, and surpasses all other precious stones in virtue." In the time of Marbodus (end of the eleventh century A.D.) the same proud
;

place was assigned to the sapphire. The ruby is spoken of in similar terms in the "Lapidaire en Vers," where it

"the most precious of the twelve stones God when He created all creatures" By Christ's command the ruby was placed on Aaron's neck, "the ruby, called the lord of gems the highly prized, the dearly
is called

created

;

loved ruby, so fair with its gay color." 109 As with diamonds, rubies also were divided by the Hindus into four castes. The true Oriental ruby was

a Brahmin the rubicelle, a Kshatriya the spinel, a Vaisya, and lastly, the balas-ruby, a Sudra. The possession of a padmaraga, or Brahmin ruby, conferred perfect safety upon the owner, and as long as he owned this precious stone he could dwell without fear in the midst of enemies
;

;

w
108
108

" Epiphanii, De XII gemmis," Tiguri, 1565, f ol. 5. " Camilli Leonard!, Speculum lapidum," Venetia, 1502, f ol. xxvi.
" Les lapidaires f rancais," Paris, 1882, pp. 246, 264, Pannier, " The Cited in Scbofield, Pearl," Pub. of Mod. Lang. Asso. of

295.

Am.,

vol. xxiv, Pt. 4, p. 599,

TALISMANIC USE OF PHECIOUS STONES

103

and was shielded from adverse fortune. However, great care had to be taken to preserve this ruby of the first class from contact with, inferior specimens, as its virtue would thereby be contaminated, and its power for good
correspondingly diminished. The many talismanic virtues of the ruby are noted in the fourteenth century treatise attributed to Sir John Mandeville. 111 Here the fortunate owner of a brilliant
110

ruby is assured that he will live in peace and concord with all men, that neither his land nor his rank will be taken from him, and that he will be preserved from all perils. The stone would also guard his house, his fruit-trees, and

from injury by tempests. All the good effects were most surely secured if the ruby, set in ring, bracelet, or brooch, were worn on the left side. The gorgeous ruby, the favorite gem of Burma, where
his vineyards

the finest specimens are found, is not only valued for its beauty, but is also believed to confer invulnerability. To
attain this end, however, it is not thought to be sufficient to wear these stones in a ring or other piece of jewelry, but the stone must be inserted in the flesh, and thus bein this

come, so to speak, a part of its owner's body. Those who way bear about with them a ruby, confidently be112

wounded by spear, sword, or often remarked that the most daring and gun. reckless soldiers pass unscathed through all the perils of war, we can understand that this superstition may somelieve that they cannot be

As

it is

times appear to be verified.
110

Surindro

Mohun

Tagore,

"Mani Mala/' Pt

I, Calcutta,

1879,

p. 199.
111 ff

1561, ed.
113

Le grand lapidaire de Jean de Mandeville," from the ed. of by J. S. del Sotto, Vienne, 1862, p. 8. Taw Sein Ko, communication from, his " Burmese Necromancy."

104

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

noted as a regal gem by Damigeron, who asserts that kings wore it about their necks as a powerful defence from harm. The stone preserved the
is

The sapphire

sapphire," ably translate here "lapis-lazuli" such passages were later understood as referring to the true sapphire, which is not found in pieces of the
all

For royal wearer from envy and attracted divine favor. use, sapphires were set in bracelets and necklaces, and the sacred character of the stone was attested by the tradition that the Law given to Moses on the Mount was 114 While we should probengraved on tablets of sapphire. " instead of

113

requisite size. In the twelfth century, the Bishop of Eennes lavishes encomiums upon this beautiful stone. It is quite natural

that this writer should lay especial stress upon the use of the sapphire for the adornment of rings, for it was in his

time that it was beginning to be regarded as the stone most appropriate for ecclesiastical rings. The sapphire was like the pure sky, and mighty Nature had endowed

with so great a power that it might be called sacred and the gem of gems. Fraud was banished from its presence and necromancers honored it more than any other stone, for it enabled them to hear and to understand the
it

obscurest oracles. 115

The

traditional virtue of the sapphire as
is

an antidote

noted by Bartolomseus Anglicus, who against poison claims to have seen a test of its power, somewhat similar
to that recorded
U8

by Ahmed Teifashi of the emerald.
iii,

In

"
Pitra,

**

Epiphanii,
U5

Specilegium Solesmense," Parisiis, 1855, vol. " De XII gemmis," Tiguri, 1565, fol. 6.

p. 328.

Marbodei,

"De

lapidibus," Friburgi, 1531, fols. 46, 47.

S J= 3 o
PH
-<1

jg

c

TALISMANIC USE OP PRECIOUS STONES
John
follows
of
116
:

105

Trevisa's

version

this

passage

reads

as

His vertue

is

And yf you put an

contrary to venym, and queneheth it every deale. UT in a boxe and hold a very saphyre of attercoppe

Inde at the mouth of the boxe ony whyle, by vertue thereof the attercoppe is overcome & dyeth as it were sodenly, as Dyase. sayth [pseudo Diosc orides] And this same I have assayed oft in many and dyvers places. His vertue kepeth and savyth the syght, & clearyth eyen of
.

fylthe wythout ony greyf ,

Voicing the general belief that the sapphire was endowed with power to influence spirits, Bartolomaeus says
that this stone

was a great favorite with those who practised necromancy, and he adds: "Also wytches love well this stone, for they wene that they may werke certen
7

wondres by vertue of this stone.' 11S There was in the South Kensington Museum, in London, a splendid sapphire of a peculiar tint. In the daylight it shows a beautiful rich blue color, while by artificial light it has a violet hue and resembles an amethyst. In the eighteenth century this stone was in the collection of Count de Walicki, a Polish nobleman, and Mme. de G-enlis used it as the theme of one of her stories, entitled "Le Saphire Merveilleux." Here the sapphire is used as a test of female virtue, the change of color indicating unfaithfulness on the part of the wearer. If the owner of the stone wished to prove that the subject of the test was innocent, she was made to wear the sapphire for three hours of daylight but in the opposite case the test was so timed that it begaji in daylight and ended when the
;

8 116

-

Bartolom8ei

Angliei,

"De

proprie-tatibus

renim,"

London,

Wynkyn de Worde, 1495, lib. xvi, cap. 86, 11T Old English for spider.
118

De

Saphiro.

Bartolomseus Anglicus,

1.

e.

106

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

candles or lamps had been lighted. This sapphire, still known as the "Saphire Merveillenx/' was for a time in the collection of the Duke of Orleans, who bore the name
of Philippe Egalite during the French Eevolution. The star sapphire is that variety of sapphire in which,

when the stone is cut and rounded off horizontal with the dome of the crystal, the light is condensed across the three
lines of crystalline interference.

Three cross lines pro-

moved from

duce a star which moves as a source of light, or as it is the source of light. Star sapphires very

rarely possess the deep blue color of the fine blue sapphire; generally the color is somewhat impure, or of a milky-blue, or else a blue-gray, or sometimes almost a

The blue-gray, gray, and white stones freshow a much more distinct star, possibly from quently the fact that there are more inclusions between the layers
pure white.
of the crystals than with the darker blue stones, as it is the set of interference bands that produces the peculiar light. Just as the eye agate was used in some countries

believed

to preserve against the Evil Eye, so the moving star is by the Cingalese to serve as a protection and a guard against witchcraft of all kinds.

The great Oriental traveller, Sir Eichard Francis Burton, had a large star sapphire or asteria, as it was
called.

He

referred to

it

as his talisman, for

it

always

brought him good horses and prompt attention wherever he went; in fact, it was only in those places where he received proper attention that he would show it to the na-

a favor they greatly appreciated, because the sight was believed to bring good luck. The fame of Burton's asteria travelled ahead of him, and it served him well as a guiding-star. De Boot, writing in the seventeenth century, states that such a stone was called Siegstein (victory-stone) among the Germans.
tives,

of the stone

Rubellite, irom th Sh.ui Mountai Chum. Ubed as iUol\s ej e lud

m

Star of India

Star Sapphire

Engraved Emerald
Carving

East Indian Itth Ceuiury

GEMS FROM THE MORGAN-TIFFANY COLLECTION.

.

and was believed to sharpen the wits of the wearer. the star-sapphire is worn for the same reasons as were the oculus mundi and the oculus Beli. the American some three centuries. note of The subject of the Villengensis.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES The remarkable asteria. Hope. One of pears. known as the in tlie ' ' 107 ' ' Museum Morgan-Tiffany Collection in of Natural History. 119 The asteria." Friburgi. or star sapphire. first wearer even when it has passed into other The sard was regarded as a protection against incanand sorcery. As a the most unique of talismanic stones. 1531. has a more or less indefinite it Star of India. As the stone is moved. potent that it continues to exercise it is said to be so influence its good over the hands. 50. tations neutralize the malign influence of the dark oynx. pp. and Destiny. rendering him fearless. of the Sac. The New International Metric Diamond Carat of 200 milligrams. but after its many now found a worthy resting-place in wanderings the great Museum. warding off ill omen and the Evil Eye." 130 " Pietor Marbodei. Engineers. or the light changes. Its weight is 543 carats. a living star ap- guiding gem. might be called a " Stone historic record of has of Destiny. 1913. 1225-1245. and 120 The red hue of this stone was supposed to happy. of weight " Min. origin. driving away the bad dreams caused by the latter and dispelling the melancholy thoughts *** it inspired." as the three cross-bars which traverse it are believed to represent Faith. f ol. victorious. De lapidibus. . development and reform of the carathas been fully treated by the author in the Trans.

such as the tool of the gem-cutter. 26. it 121 regard to stones than in reference to coral. is supposed to draw out the poison. . Citrquoige While there was a tendency to attribute the virtues originally ascribed to one particular stone to others of the same or similar color and appearance. These stones are usually green with streaks or veins of white. pp. and the name was derived from their fancied resemblance to a serpent's skin. when applied to the wound. the the amulet. however. is less firmly held in in the case of coral. 1907. A notable instance of this is the quality supposed to inhere in the turquoise. Here. destroys the magic efficacy of the substance. As a general rule. This stone was known in Egypt from a very early period and is later described by Pliny under the name of callais. For Pliny. See Chrysolite.108 THE DUBIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES The Italian peasants of to-day believe tliat pebbles of green serpentine afford protection from the bites of venomous creatures. if any one has been bitten by such a creature. and for all those who derived their information from him or from the sources he used. the stone. certain stones were regarded as possessing special virtues not com- monly attributed to others. In addition to their prophylactic powers. the turquoise all only participated in the virtues assigned to blue or "H 25. fetieismo primitive) in Italia/' Perugia. as hand of man must not have shaped should be in its natural state. the belief that the touch of any iron instrument.

later. 123 Anselnms de Boot. more especially from horseback. states that the turquoise protected horses from the ill-effects resulting from drink- A ing cold water when overheated by exertion. We can only hazard this as a plausible conjecture. court physician of Emperor Rudolph II. whether he be riding or walking.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES when the name 109 greenish-blue stones. They are also so used in Samarcand and Persia. this was extended to cover falls from a building or over a precipice. Eeilbronn. As the horse was often regarded as a symbol of the sun in its rapid course through the blue heavens. p. but from the thirteenth century. so long as he has the stone with him. 1877. ^Volmar. fourteenth century authority. after being was offered thirty years in the possession of a Spaniard. We might there- fore be justified in supposing that the turquoise was " originally used in the East as a horse-amulet. . the "Lapidaire"of Sir John Mandeville." and the power to protect from falls may have arisen from the idea that it rendered the horse more sure-footed and enduring. by Hans Lambel. tells a story of a turquoise that. 19. the celestial hue of the turquoise may have caused it to be associated in some way with the horse. turquoise was first employed." where we read: stition in Whoever owns the true turquoise set in gold will not injure any of his limbs when he falls. and it is said that the Turks often attached these stones to the bridles and frontlets of their horses as amulets. " Steinbuch." ed. we read that the stone possessed the power to protect the wearer from injury by falling. that it prethe wearer from injury in case of falling is conserves tained in Volmar's thirteenth century "Steinbuch. belief in its Probably the earliest notice of the peculiar superregard to the turquoise namely.

saying. . it turned out that he had not broken any bones but had simply strained himself. 1636. he gave it to his son.110 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES for sale with the rest of the owner's property. Not long after. he was forced to traverse a narrow and dangerous road at night. when the wearer a very heavy pole. nevertheless De Boot's father bought it for a trifling home. 123 lose Its virtue. He had scarcely worn it a month. he felt all at once a sharp was lifting pain in his side and heard his ribs crack. De Boot remarked that about a quarter of his turquoise had broken away." Lug 1 . mean-looking as the virtues of the turquoise are said to exist only when the stone has been given. he saw that it had again broken into two pieces. However. 123 De Boot. the recipient had his arms engraved on it as though it had been only a common agate and wore it as a signet. ashamed to wear so a gem. Bat. but." Little appreciating the gift. "Son. On his return upon thee. but. 266-268. neither horse nor rider was injured by the fall. Could we accept this statement as true we would have here an altogether unique instance of the recovery by a turquoise of the blue color it had lost. the powers of De Boot's turquoise were put to the test As he was returning to Bohemia from Padua. while washing his hands. Suddenly his horse stumbled and threw him heavily to the ground. "Gemmarum et lapidum Mstoria. pp. so that he feared he had injured himself seriously. strange to say. before it resumed its pristine beauty and daily seemed to increase in splendor. Every one was amazed to find it had entirely lost its color. on looking at his turquoise. however. I will try its efficacy by bestowsum. where he had just taken his degree. however. Next morning. Nevertheless the stone did not ing it Some time afterward.

1636. p. 270. a friend and the source and warrant of religion. their national stone. 1.." Lug. 158. 169. "Hesndley. The expectation A that the stone was going to strike a certain number of times induced an involuntary movement of the hand. "Indian Jewelry. De Boot states that he made the experiment successfully. The Persians fully appreciate the beauty and power of this. 125 This custom was much in vogue among the Englishmen who travelled in the Orient. . *" et lapidum Mstoria. rarely wore this gem. Bat.TALISMANIC USB OF PEECIOUS STONES 111 singular virtue ascribed to the turquoise was that of striking the hour correctly. 124 The turquoise seems to have been worn almost exclusively by men at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 126 thus ranking this stone with two most precious things. c. 170. writing in 1609. Possibly we should take this proverbial saying to indicate that whoever has a true friend. however. Women. De Boot. 1909.. but he very sensibly explains the apparent wonder by the unconscious effect of the mind on the body. or on a turquoise. said that it was so highly regarded by men that no man considered his hand to be well adorned unless he wore a fine turquoise. a copy of the sacred volume or a turquoise will be preserved from harm." London. p. for De Boot. The turquoise of the Los Cerillos -mines in New Mexico is rudely extracted by building large fires at the reflection of the "'De Boot. and they have a saying that to escape evil and attain good fortune one must see the new moon either on the face of a friend. on a copy of the Koran. until a score of years ago. if the stone were suspended from a thread held between the thumb and indexfinger in such a way that a slight vibration would make the stone strike against the side of a glass. "Gemmarum pp.

as they looked upon this as a sacred stone which should not pass into the possession of those whose Saviour was not a Montezuma. . the sharp change of temperature splitting up the rock. Pepper. unearthed by Mr. Arizona. notably in those of Pueblo 129 Bonito. A. New Mexico." Putnam Anniversary Volume. pi. The religious veneration with which many of the New Mexico Indians still regard the turquoise was noted by Major Hyde. see pi. opposite p. locally called malacates. 2. New York. c. in the northwestern part of New Mexico. New York. 128 1. when he explored the region in 1880. pp. in which are encrusted turquoises and garnets so disposed in mosaic as to represent clearly enough the figure of a 128 toad. the sacred emblem of the Zunis.112 THE CURIOUS LOBE OP PRECIOUS STONES base of the rock until it becomes heated. pp." fig. 62. expressed strong disapproval of his action in extracting turquoise from the old mine. situated nine miles from Tempe. have furnished a peculiarly interesting amulet or fetish of Zuni workmanship. " The Exploration of a Burial-room in Pueblo Bonito. New Mexico. 1890.. 56. 61. 1909. In one case nearly nine thousand beads and pendants of turquoise were found on or about a single skeleton. Gfeorge IL Pepper in 1896. The sacred character with which this stone was invested is shown by the wealth of turquoise ornaments found in some of the burials. when cold water is dashed over it. or amulets. 127 The ruins called Los Muertos. Some of the fragmentary material thus secured is worked up in the region into heart-shaped ornaments. 196-252. Kunz. There was abun- "Gems and 128 Precious Stones of North America. This is one of the Chaco Canon groups of ruins. for some Pueblo Indians from Santo Domingo. This is a seashell which has been coated with black pitch.

Field Museum.TURQUOISE NECKLACE. Chicago. . THIBET.

.

p. Mexico. 223. a bird. originally made of slender splints with a coating of gum in which 1214 small pieces of turquoise have been set. Pepper raises the question whether or no this can refer to those made by the Pueblo Indians. The legends of the Navahos contain allusions to "turquoise jewel baskets." and Mr. and one having probably a special ceremonial use and in the value. In this single burial were found pendants shaped more or less roughly into the forms of a rabbit. The Exploration of a Burial-room in Pueblo Bonito. Around another burial same chamber were strewn nearly sis thousand 130 In all 24. a human foot and a shoe.as a necklace. an insect (?). " Pepper. the strings having decayed and disappeared in the course of time. 227. basket three inches in diameter and six inches long. These are very closely set and form a complete mosaic covering for the object. however. that is to say. the pendants worked into various forms designed to favor the entrance of some guardian spirit into the stone. L e. Another very interesting object from Pueblo Bonito. The most interesting of the turquoise objects are. and the condition of the skull plainly indicated that he had met a violent death. 224. 131 The Apache name for the turquoise is duklij. which. were found in these burials.TALISMANIC USE OF PRECIOUS STONES 113 dant evidence in the special care bestowed upon the burial that the deceased must have been a man of high rank. 8 . and the position of other masses of these beads renders it probable that they had been used for bracelets or anklets. a cylindrical is a turquoise basket.." pp. The 1980 beads found on the breast of the skeleton are believed to have been strung.932 beads turquoise beads and pendants. MO 331 New Pepper.

warrior or hunter by assuring the accuracy of his aim. 133 While the improvement supposed to be noted may be more imaginary lady is friends than real in many cases. According to report. be influenced by the wearer's general state of health. like an egg. 132 sped A lady prominent in the London world is said to possess the power of restoring to their pristine hue turquoises that have grown pale. no distinction being made between the two colors. "Precious Stones for Curative Use. p. can never be restored to its original state. as withont it he would not receive proper recognition. at times. This stone is highly prized for its talismanic virtues. " The Medicine-men of the Apache. 133 p." Bristol. . this for if often called upon to use her peculiar gift by whose turquoises have faded. 1907. 269. there is little doubt that this stone is exceptionally sensitive to the action of certain emanations. 589. 1892." Ninth Annual ReBurke. Washington. 1887-1888. The writer believes that a turquoise. One a turquoise were affixed to a gun or bow the shot from the weapon would go straight to the mark. That signifies either some of the powers of the thunder-stone were ascribed to the turquoise by the tribes appears from the fancy that a man who conld go to the end of a rainbow after a storm and search in the damp earth would find a tur- of its supposed powers was to aid the quoise. of the Bureau of Ethnology. and may. port ^Fernie.114 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES a green or a bine stone. Indeed the possession of a tnrqnoise was indispensable for a medicine-man.

scarab. The ornamental form. and. namely. so highly favored by the Egyptians as an is a representation of the scarab&us sacer. the insect rolls this along. and were worn on the person as talismans.IV ityt se of oEtigtafcefc anfc Cat&eti Calfgmans virtue believed to be inherent in precious stones was thought to gain an added potency when the stone was engraved with some symbol or figure possessing a special sacredness. were both designed to serve an eminently practical purpose as well. becomes hardened and almost percurious symbolism induced the Egypfectly round. but occasionally show a fine play of metallic colors. as the Egyptians fatherhood and of man. that of seals but in a great number of in. This presupposes a considerable develof civilization. the Babylonian cylinders and the Egyptian scarabs. or denoting and typifying a special quality. stances these primitive seals were looked upon as endowed with talismanic power. using the hind legs to propel it. 115 . until the material. at first soft and of irregular form. They are usually black. After gathering up a clump of dung for the reception of the eggs. It is true that the earliest engraved stones. the typical genus of the family Scarabaida. A tians to find in this beetle an emblem of the world of The round ball wherein the eggs were deposited typified the world. since the art of engraving on precious stones offers many mechanical difficulties and thus requires a high degree of artistic and mechanical opment skill.

58. but. the fully developed beetle could be regarded as a type of the rebirth into . "increase of (tef) is also power"). in this case also. the intermediate period represented by the mummy. Nos. 46. Plate VIII. . becoming At the same time. 276. Scarabs are frequently engraved with the hieroglyph "life") and *&? jj (ha. 89. this was the popular view. however. it seems unlikely that such close observers as were the more cul- tured Egyptians should have been entirely unfamiliar with the real genesis of the Scarabceus sacer.116 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES all thought that the scarabsei were signified the male principle types of fatherhood and man. with which the soul was conceived to be vaguely connected. when the purified and perfected soul again animated the original and transfigured form in a mysterious resurrection. males. London. as many others. 1 From "The Sacred Beetle/' by John Ward. there would have been no difficulty in finding it emblematic of immortality in the various stages through which it passed. 275. as only full-grown beetles were observed. teristic specimens. in was not realized that the eggs or larval and pupa stages had anything to do with the generation of the beetle. In addition to these simple symmany scarabs bear legends supposed to render them The following are charac1 exceptionally luck-bringing. . lastly. of stability employed. While. The emblem well as bols. in spite of its wanderings through the nether-world and. it was believed these creatures represented a regeneration or reincarnation. The larval stage might well signify the mortal life the pupa stage. everlasting life. they especially generation. 1902. Thus the scarab was used as a symbol of since it immortality. 446.

lapis-lazuli. kings. officials. "A good day" (a holiday). with the names of gods. amethyst. was copied by the Phoenicians from the Egyptian types and modified in various ways to suit the religious fancies of the various lands to which they bore the products of their Much of the original significance of this symbol art. Funeral scarabs were often made of jasper. or private persons engraved on the base occasionally monograms or floral devices were engraved. ruby." Cambridge. in graces" (very deeply cut "May son. must have been lost probably in many cases little was left but a vague idea that an amulet of this form would bring good luck to the wearer and guard from harm." thy name be established. "The Mummy." Lord of Truth and Life. they rested on the heart of the deceased. "A mother is a truly good thing" or "Truth is a good Mother. a They were Budge. 2 symbols of the resurrection of the body. Sometimes the base of the scarab was heartshaped and at others the scarab was combined with the "utat. and also with the frog. priests. Set in rings they were placed on the . or else. 1894." ^ikht neb nefer. fingers of the dead.ENGEAVED AND CABVED GEMS - 117 ' ' maat ankh neb. typifying revivification. ." or eye of Horus." The scarab. for the Egyptians a type of the rising sun and hence of the renewal of life after death. a type of the sun which rose each day to renewed life. "good stability. pp. mayst thou have a g J f (within ornamental border). wrapped in linen bandages. . or carnelian. "All good things. 234-235. o "abounding as a seal)." (Inlaid).

" and "May your house flourish It is a curious fact that the modern greeting every day. 1910. since it is capable of causing an effect out of all proportion to its intrinsic worth or its material quality. of which a great number occur." "Happy New Year" was current in Egypt probably three thousand years ago. Two such scarabs are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. is sometimes associated with the knot. showing that gold beads must have been known in Egypt in the early days when the hieroglyph for gold was first used.118 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Some of the Egyptian scarabs were evidently used as talismanic gifts from one friend to another. the so-called Often the hieroglyph for anJch symbol. Many scarabs and signets exist made of the artificial 3 Egyptian The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The nub. denoting life." the text of the other reading as follows: "May your name be established. served to impart to the signet a sacred and auspicious quality which communicated itself to the wearer. 3 On the Egyptian inscribed scarabs used as signets were engraved many of the symbols to which a talismanic may you have a urseus serpent. this symbol is a necklace with pendant beads. of Art. signifying death. Mus. All these symbolic figures. virtue was attributed. this in its turn acquiring a certain magic force. but the suggestive power of a symbol is as real to-day as it ever was. the Mureh Collection of antiquities. Any object that evokes a high thought or serves to emphasize a profound conviction really possesses a kind of magical quality. appears . gold. . and even to the impression made by the seal. Few of us would be willing to confess to a belief in the innate power of any symbol. son. January. One bears the inscription "May Ea grant you a happy New Year. supplement ta the Bulletin of the Met.

5 In Roman times some of the legionaries are said to have worn rings set with scarabs. lib. and The Egyptian amulets of the earliest period. vol. historieales. colored a deep blue with carbonate of copper. and gems were also cut from it in imperial Eoman times. 151. in Egypt and Assyria. beryl. 65.4 notable instance of the use of lapis-lazuli in ancient Egypt was as the material for the image of Truth (Ma). After the close of the so-called Hyksos period. differ considerably from those made and worn after the beginning of the XVIII Those of the earlier period are not numerous and present but a small number of types. Often a wonderful translucent or opaque blue glass was used.C. Some of the old forms were entirely while others were greatly modified in form and cast aside fetichsignificance.). which the A Egyptian chief-justice wore on his neck. " De animalibus/' x cap. The kings ruled over Egypt. .C. The genuine lapislazuli was also used to a considerable extent for scarabs and cylinders. Dindorf. 75. up to the XIX dynasty (circa 2000 B. animal forms or the heads of animals constituting the most dynasty (1580 B. 15. 6 " Bibliotheca Diodori Siculi. for the reason that this figure was believed to impart great courage 6 vigor to the wearer.). p. JEliani. 1842." ed. and amethyst. lib.ENGRAVED AND CAEVED GEMS 119 cymus. 4 7 p. 1891. the animal forms losing much of their XVIII Middleton. i. * i. the age during which foreign favored models. . suspended from a golden chain. cap. came the brilliant revival and development of Egyptian civilization that characterized the dynasty. "Engraved Gems of Ancient Times/ Cambridge. which was an imitation lapis-lazuli made in Egypt This was an alkaline silicate. precious stone materials are principally carnelian. Parisiis.

Various symbolic designs were also favored. 1861. . crease the strength and courage of the wearer. MS. "Hortus Sanitatis" [Strassburg. There can be no doubt that this was one of the T " Hoernes. while some of these images were wholly human. unquestionably a red stone.120 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES and coming to be more and more regarded as images of the multifarious divinities worshipped in this later period. Konrad Megenberg. cap. repeated by many early engraved. s Uigeschiehte der bildenden Kunst." Wien. and very possibly carnelian. 156. Stuttsee also Johannis de Cuba. 155. v. The children of Israel." writers. when in the desert. 1483]. pp. xliii. "Buch der Natur. 1898. p. In many cases the animal type was or partially discarded and the amulets figured entirely the conventional types given to the various divinities. A frog fashioned out of lapis-lazuli and having eyes of gold later. with which he is about to dash out the lion's brains. may perhaps have arisen from an identification of carnelian with the first stone of the breastplate. many of them show a human body with an animal head. The Egyptian word quen. the inscription being a kind of perpetual invocation to the 7 higher powers whose aid was sought." is engraved beneath the design and indicates that the virtue of the talisman was to in. tractatus de lapidibus. Istic quality However. the odem. were said to have engraved figures on carnelian. " just as seals are 8 This statement. Pfeiffer. "strength. one believed to signify the blood of Isis having the form of a knot or tie. gart. is one of these amulets of the XVIII dynasty or An interesting Egyptian talisman in the Louvre is engraved with a design representing Thothmes II seizing a lion by the tail and raising the animal aloft at the same time he brandishes in the other hand a club." ed.

19. "Fischer and Wiedemann. These cylinders are perforated and were worn suspended from the neck or wrist. it was believed to still times. the accompanying inscription merely consisting of the names of the gods. diorite. From the earliest period until 2500 mann is B. 1531." Stutt* they were made gart. and the engraved designs often represent religious or mythological subjects. effect exercised 9 from early Egyptian all angry passions. while others incline to the belief that many of them were intended only for use as amulets or talismans. and render the divinities or spirits accountable for the fulfilment of the contract.C. . Cylinders of this type could not have been used as personal signets. Babylonian and Assyrian cylinder-seals are known of a date as early as 4000 B. Wiederight in supposing that their imprint on a document was considered to impart a certain mystic sanction to the agreement. There has been much discussion among A scholars as to the original purpose for which these cylinders were made. class of amulets even older than the Egyptian scarabs is represented by the engraved Assyrio-Babylonian cylinders. p. im steieriseh-landscliaftl. 9. lapiditras." Friburgi.C. 10 The oldest known form of seal is the cylinder. as is most frequently the case with talismans. 1881.ENGBAVED AND CAEYED GEMS first 121 stones used for ornamental purposes and for engraving. Joanneum 211 Graz. f ol. as a number of specimens have been preserved Because of the cooling and carnelian upon the bloody if calming by worn on the neck or on the finger. and frequently of the central core of " De Marbodei. some holding that they were exclusively employed as seals or signets. conglomerate. of black or green serpentine. and it is quite possible that Dr. "Ueber Babylonisdie 'Talismane' aus dem hist Mus.

and not by the wheel. carnelian.C the cylindrical form was prevalent..C. black variety of serpentine is perhaps the most common of all the materials used for this purpose. The materials used for these cylinders include lapis-lazuli. until the second or third century A. which gives them the shape and size of the lower short joints of a reed indeed. 1910. the cylindrical seals became less frequent. that wheel work is apparent in any Babylonian or Assyrian stone-engraving. In the course of the sixth century B. namely..C. .C. 11 A new type makes its appearance about the fifth or sixth century B. to 2500 B. into use. very . the designs most frequently represent animal forms on those dating from 2500 B. On the cylinders produced from 4000 B. rock-crystals. "The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia/' Carnegie Institution Pub. to . 1. 12 Ward. From the third century B.C. C.C. the seals became lower and flatter. 5 and pp.C. a beautiful variety of the last-named stone known as sapphirine being sometimes used. it has been suggested that the original seal was rudely patterned after a reed joint.. Washington. red hematite (an iron ore).122 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES shell from the Persian Gulf. jasper.. to 500 B. the scaraboid seal introduced from Egypt. 1-5. are generally inscribed five or six rows of cuneiform characters. chalcedony. agate. and the perforation larger.. freely used and probably from the Persian mines. and the materials include a brick-red ferruginous quartz. and it is not until the fifth century B. Up to the last-named date the work was all done by the sapphire point. They are usually hollowed a little in the middle.D. D. From 2500 500 B. and chalcedony. c. 5-8. and the tall cone-like seals came a large conch B.C. pp. jade. p. 12 31 See Ward.C.. a hard. until they sometimes assumed the form of rings later the ring form becomes general. etc. .C.

These seals are inscribed with symbols supposed to represent the prehistoric Cretan form of writing. Eegarded as the inventor of of adoration." siv (1893). Talismane/' Stuttgart. 3. Nebopalasser. and this shows a close connection between Babylonian and Grseco-Eoman ideas in reference to the god associated with that planet.C. in "Journal of Hellenic Studies. and this character is indicated by the star and the crescent. 14 PL I. 1881. which have not yet been deciphered by archaeologists. 33 Fischer and Wiedemann. and Nabonaid. 11.as was the case with the galactite. p. A Borsippa. The peasants call them galopetra. but they undoubtedly serve to render the stones objects of mystery. 14 The careful preservation of these so-called galopetrce by Cretan women has served the purpose of archaeological research. 270. Of course these inscriptions. p. as otherwise so large a supply of these very interesting seals would not now be available. are utterly incomprehensible for the peasants. Before him are two altars. special seat of the worship of Nebo.. %. seated on a throne and holding a ring in his left hand. A. 13 The Cretan peasants of to-day set a high value upon certain very ancient seals dating perhaps from as early as 2500 B. was the writing and as the god of learning.ENGRAVED AND CAKVED GEMS 123 good example of these talismanic cylinders shows the figure of the god Nebo." and they are supposed to promote the secretion of milk. over which appear. Nebo was also believed to be the orderer of times and seasons. "Ueber See Babylonische vol. or "milkstones. which they find buried in the soil. a star and the crescent moon in front of the god is the figure of a man in an attitude . whose name appears in those of the kings Nebuchadnezzar. . Nebo was the lord of the planet Mercury. where the cylinder was found. respectively. Evans.

2. From Gori'a Head ENGRAVED RED JASPER. in Greek and Eoman times but occasionally the emerald was used in this way. carnelians.124 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Many engraved stones of the Eoman On The imperial period bore the figures of Serapis and of nifying Time and the latter Earth. Museum Cl. Gemmarum Antiquarum Vol. These designs were usually engraved on onyxes." Florence* 1750. i. who derived their lore from the Orient. were consulted by all classes of the Eoman people. and it is therefore very cxcviu I. the former sig- other stones the symbols of the zodiacal signs appear. or the ring worn as an amulet. Here the costliness of the material was probably thought to en- . natal constellation of the wearer. referring to the astrologers. of "Thesaurus PI. of Serapis surrounded by the twelve Zodiacal symbols. ENGRAVED HELIOTROPE. should frequently have been engraved with astrological symbols. Head Medusa. and more rarely the ruby or the sapphire. natural that the signet. Isis. . and similar stones. Passerii. Astriferarum. XVII.

From figured this cup Macer drank to the health of the pontifex and trait of then ordered that it should be passed around among the guests. II. especially in the first centuries of our era. and the types produced here were scattered far and wide throughout the Eoman world. when it could be regarded by him as In Eoman the most precious of his possessions. so that each one might gaze upon the image of the great man. Lipsiae. Pollio. Alexandria was founded in 15 16 Trebelii Pollionis. catech. so that the custom was deeply rooted in that land. finely engraved representations. Indeed. even among Christians coins of Alexander were in great favor as amulets. The emerald ring of Polycrates must have possessed some other than a purely artistic value in his eyes. states that it was a common belief that everything happened fortunately for those who bore with them Alexander's portrait executed 15 in gold or silver. therefore. 295.. . the chief ornament of the table was an amber cup. and it is related that when Cornelius Macer gave a splendid banquet in the temple of Hercules. relating this. De XXX tyrannis. and the stern John Chrysostom sharply rebukes those who wore bronze coins of this monarch attached to their heads and their feet. times the image of Alexander the Great was looked upon as possessing magic virtues. Ad ilium. "When. and around this his whole history in small. Horn. Amulets made from various colored stones had been used for religious purposes in Egypt from the very earliest period of its history. in the midst of which was a por- Alexander. p. 16 Nowhere in the world was the use of amulets so com- mon as in Alexandria. 5.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 125 hance the value of the amulet.

not surprising that the population eagerly adopted the various amulets used by the adherents of the different The result was a combining and confusion religions. a new element was introduced.C.126 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES and became a great commercial attracting men of all races and all religions. and the adepts willingly catered to this taste. In the second century the Gnostic heresy gave a new impulse to the fabrication of amulets. of many different types. always seems to devoted to the magic arts. found expression in the creation of the most bizarre types of amulets. Unquestionably the leading Christian teachers were strongly opposed to such superstitious practices." Halle. So widespread was their tories The incomprehensible have a mysterious charm for those use throughout the Eoman Empire. 1856. Pyrgoteles. Augus- h&res. it is B. and the magic virtues of the curious designs was enhanced by inscriptions purposely obscure. This strange eclecticism. with its complicated symbolism. the fourth century centre. it was for this reason that he regarded the name Abrasax as sacred and venerable. scribed on so Eegarding the sacred name Abrasax. .. resulting from an interweaving of pagan and which Christian ideas. but the rank and file of the faithful clung to their old fancies. we read in St. With the rapid rise and growth of the Christian religion.. much of is almost incomprehensible. so that we can often only guess at the signification of the words and names engraved upon the Gnostic or Basilidian gems. which was inmany Gnostic gems. vi. pp. "Basilides asserted that there were 365 heavens. that there were facentirely devoted to the production of these 17 objects. 197-8. " 1T tine's treatise De Krause.

Gemmarum Gnostic gem. Original at one time in the collection of Johann Schinkel. Collection. PL CLXXXIX. with seven stars. From the "Abra" Apistopistus of Macariua (L'Heureux) Antwerp. jasper. PI. 1657. 3. vol.). Abraxas gem." Florence. . XVII. From the "Abraxas aeu Apistopifltus" of Macariua (L'Heureux) Antwerp. Type of Abraxas god and mystic letters I A vv . Gorlaeua. i." Paris. 5.ENGBAVED AND CARVED GEMS 127 1. with Abraxas god. xas sell saurus Antiquarura Astriferarum. 1657. Jasper engraved with the symbol of the Agathodaemon Serpent. heliotrope. From Gorlaeus. 1778. 1750. Seepage 385. Another type. "Cabinet de Pierres 4. Gravies.C. From Gorrs "TheGnostic gem. 2. mystic letters I A W. The type of amulet noted by Galen as that used by the Egyptian king "Nechepsus" (Necho 610-594 B. PL II.

the last four letters and spirit (ab. . the solar divinity.. son. ben. 489. Naturalis Historia. fetched. are ruah). and Eoman empires our era.128 THE CUBIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES letters According to the Greek notation the this name give that number: comprising a= ]5= p 1 2 = 100 a== 1 = 200 (7 a= e= 1 GO 365 however. it must be confessed. and yet to any one familiar Greek words dvOpdnou? *<&& " with the vagaries of Alexandrine eclecticism. Parisiis. Caii Plinii Secundi. not unlikely that the 365 days in the solar year are signified. p. God. there is nothing inherently improbable in the explanation. who was worshipped throughout the Persian It is. vol. ii. ed. and this enigmatical name might thus be brought into connection with Mithra. in the first and second centuries of very recondite but ingenious explanation of the name Abrasax is given by Harduin in his notes 18 He sees in the first to Pliny's "Natural History. Harduin." Gnostic three letters the initials of the three A Hebrew words sig- nifying father. Indeed. the Triune the initials of the he saves men by tyy 56ty or " sacred wood This seems rather farthe (the cross). the Hebrew and Greek words in this composite sen18 . and with the tendency of the time and place to make strange and uncouth combinations of Greek and Hebrew forms.

enclosed within each of which are characters expressing the name of one of the personifications of Gnostic theosophy. fig.PHOENICIAN SCARAB. 1. Brought from Egypt and deposited by its possessor. AND SYMBOLS OF SUN AND MOON." Stuttgart.) ANCIENT BABYLONIAN CYLINDER IMPRESSION. 1881. From Fischer and Wiedemann " Ueber Babylonische Talismane. A SMALL JADE CELT ENGRAVED WITH GNOSTIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE FOURTH CENTURY. principally consisting of the seven Greek vowels used to denote the Ineffable Name. On the reverse is cut a laurel branch with 18 leaves. On one side arc seven lines of characters. 3. BEARING FIGURES OF THE GOD NEBO AND A WORSHIPPER. . WITH ENGRAVED SCORPION. PI. (See page 115.

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and. 1159). in- A 9 . While the details of the type as perfected were undoubtedly borrowed from the eclectic symbolism of the Egyptian and western Asiatic world it is almost impossible to conjecture the reasons determining the selection of this particular form.D. chief of the Gnostic sect bearing his name. Many explanations have been offered as to the origin and significance of the characteristic figure of the Abrasax god engraved on a number of G-nostic amulets. bishop and is now preserved in the treasury of the Cathedral of Chichester. and who flourished in the early part of the second cen- ANTIQUE JADE CELT CONVERTED INTO A GNOSTIC TALISMAN Enclosed within the outlines of the 18 leaves are as many names of the personifications of Gnostic Theosophy. Undoubtedly the curious symbolic figure was given a perfectly orthodox meaning. and such an acrostic would certainly have been looked upon as possessing a mystic and supernatural power. Bishop of Chichester This ring was found on the skeleton of the (A.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 129 tence might have been regarded as typifying the union of the Old and New Testaments. There seems to be no doubt that this figure was invented by Basilides. jasper engraved with the famous Gnostic symbol was set in the ring worn by Seffrid.D. tury A.

p. de quibusdam Alesandri Seven numisnmt.130 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES deed.. Catalogue of Engraved Gems. where the amulet is figured. "ZACTA IAW BAPIA/' which have been translated. illustrating the eclectic character of some of the amulets used in the early Christian centuries. 1789. is now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. however. we may As note one in the Cabinet de Medailles. in New York. 302. 1885. 59. On the obverse the horse is figured with the victor's palm and the name Tiberis. i. vol. Metropolitan Museum of Art. it was not really a pagan symbol." although their system was a fanciful elaboration of the doctrines of the late Alexandrian school of Greek Philosophy and an adaptation of this to the teachings of Christian tradition. figured name Jesus by Vettori. on the reverse appears the vulture-headed figure of the Abraxas god and the characters. Cited in Dictionnaire de Parch. 81.. on the reverse is a she-ass with her foal. Christ. and intended to bring success to the owner of a racehorse. chret. II. and below this a scorpion and the this class. In many cases. worn by infant Jesus. as we know that amulets of this kind were used in this way. "lao the Destroyer and Creator. cols. 1907. A curious amulet. Paris. . This has upon the obverse the head of Alexander the Great. as the Gnostics were "indifferent Christians." 19 Possibly this amulet may have been attached to the horse during his races to insure victory. No. 30 Dissert. 1790. designs such as Isis with the child which was taken to be the Virgin Mary with the Horus. The material is green jasper with red spots. apparently belonging to the Gnostic variety. apol. in Paris. 20 Another amulet of also has the head of Alex- "King. p. Pt. gems with purely pagan designs were Christians.

or at least to have been very seldom practised. 1502. However. and the gem became less potent when this was not the case. For the influence of the planet. the appropriate image to exert the was being engraved. the virtue of the image character as the virtue inherent in Cainilli Leonard!. maximum must be of the same the material. day. use the words "if you engrave" such or such a " figure on a stone. if ever. but in medieval and later times the idea of the magic quality of all engraved gems had become so deeply rooted that in many cases a magical 31 power. Yenetia. . or month during which the work was executed. others again were only efficacious when engraved on stones the quality of which was in sympathy with them. Speculum Lapidum. figures engraved on precious stones were supto have a greater or lesser degree of efficacy in posed themselves independent of the virtues peculiar to the The stone on which they were engraved. Certain images. After the third or fourth century of our era the art of gem-engraving seems to have been lost. while the reverse bears the Greek name Chris tos. and this efficacy depended largely upon the hour. but write if you find" such a figure. those symbolizing the zodiacal signs for instance. or constellation which was in the ascendant was thought to infuse a subtle essence into the stone while star. 21 Naturally. and it is noteworthy in the matter that after this period writers who treat of the virtues of engraved gems as talismans rarely. many of the ancient gems which had been preserved from Greek and Roman times were recognized as being purely products of art.ENGEAYED AND CARVED GEMS monogram of the 131 ander on the obverse. were looked upon as possessing such power that their peculiar nature impressed itself even upon stones inherently of different quality.

when this completed. for instance. according to Damigeron. 327. Canaillo Leonardo says that its many different varieties had as many different virtues. The fortunate owner of this talisman was then to adorn himself and the members of his family.132 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES character was ascribed to them entirely foreign to the Great ingenuity was often intention of the engraver. a consecration having been pronounced." Parisils. Although it owes its origin to the Hebrew "Book of Baziel. The emerald." by Eagiel. pp. vol. As will be seen in the following items. beneath which was to be a standing figure of Isis. The idea that some special design should be engraved upon a given stone became quite general in the early centuries of our era. one of the curious treatises composed about the thirteenth century under the influence of Hebrew and Greco-Eoman tradition. he was assured that he would see "the glory of the stone granted it by God. . and. A list of these symbolic designs is said to have been given in the "Book of Wings. 18S5. 326. was to be engraved with a scarab. displayed in seeking and finding some analogy between the supposed significance of the design and the fancied power of the stone itself. the fact that the design is on its appropriate stone " is always insisted on : Speeilegiuin Solesmense. ill. was to be pierced longitudinally and worn in a brooch. without realizing that the true reason was that this material lent itself more readily to artistic treatment than did many others. and he finds in an explanation of the multiplicity of images engraved on the various kinds of agate. Taking the agate as an illustration. The gem." 22 Possibly this may have meant that the stone would become luminous." it bears little if any likeness to that work.

engraved on a beryl. gives the wearer power over "demons and helps incantations. protects both the wearer and the place where it may be. If this is found on a ruby or any other stone of similar nature and virtue. has power to increase wealth and enables the wearer to predict the future. cures the wearer of all diseases. A man from A in armor. demons and prevents them from coming together in the place where the their importunities. and constrain demons. and guards the wearer from vices and enchantments. helps to acquire the goodwill of kings. has the power to cure and preserve from many infirmities as well as to free from poison and from all demons. assemble. on a carnelian. vulture. if engraved on a garnet. This is a royal image. gem may be. on a jasper. A bat. it also guards against The demons obey the wearer. if on a topaz. it confers dignities and honors and exalts the wearer. produces abundance of milk. it has the power to augment the goods of this world and makes the wearer joyous and healthy. represented on a heliotrope or bloodstone. man with a sword in his hand. and magnates. The figure of a ram or of a bearded man.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 133 The beautiful and terrible figure of a dragon. A he will see terrible visions in sleep. place where . engraved on a carnelian. if on an onyx. if on a sapphire. on a sapphire. imaged on a crystal. A griffin. if represented on a chrysolite. has the power to convoke. brings him honors. with bow and arrow. The image of an astrolabe. princes. A frog. will give power to prognosticate and predict the future. The well-formed image of a lion. will have the power to reconcile enemies and produce friendship where there was discord. on an iris stone. An ass. if on a chrysolite. has the power to constrain demons It controls and the winds. gives help against poison and cures A from evil fever. preserves the it may be from lightning and tempest. The figure of a falcon. man richly dressed and with a beautiful object in his hand. A bull engraved on a prase is said to give aid against evil spells and to procure the favor of magistrates. cheeks the flow of blood and confers honors. A lion or an archer. A camel's head or two goats among myrtles. will and preserve honors and health. and guards him from all perils in travelling. if any one protect wears it.

man with his right hand raised aloft. has the power 23 and makes the wearer victorious in war. they also give to the wearer victory over his enemies. gives the following talismanic If thou findest a stone on which is graven or figured a man with a whoever wears this stone. bound with laurel and having a laurel branch in her hand. dating from the fourteenth gems : century. courage and changes and haps of fortune. a stone like this imparts strength and power to the wearer. has the virtue of putting and defends and preserves the wearer from drunkengraven on a magnet. gives success in lawsuits. have the power to preserve the place where the stone may be from tempests. gives him all evil chances. When thou findest a stone on which boldness. or the draped figure of a virgin. A man in armor. establishes and preserves peace and concord among men.134 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES hoopoo with a tarragon herb before it. on a eelonite. with God's help. for it makes the wearer chaste and guards him from lust. will have great riches and the love of all men and animals. If a stone be found on which is graven or figured an armed man goat's head. confers the power to invoke water-spirits and to converse with them. thisi stone is sacred and frees the wearer from all isi graven the figure of a man holding a scythe in his hand. Hold dear moon that stone on which thou shalt find figured or cut the or the sun. A A A swallow. as well as to call up the mighty dead and to obtain answers to questions addressed to them. if engraved on a chalcedony. if engraved flight demons to on an amethyst. to aid in incantations An Italian manuscript. . safety in his travels and preserves him from The names of God. Leonardi. represented on a beryl. or both together. ff." Venetia. or loadstone. bear. "Speculum Lapidum. renders the wearer healthy. Every day adds to his strength. 1502. A ness. A jewel to be prized man is that stone on which is graven or figured a with wings having beneath his feet a serpent whose head he ^Camilli Ivi-lvii. on a ceraunia stone.

are both explained by Hoernes in a similar way. help. The original meaning of the swastika emblem has fire. of the four cardinal points. . the wearer victorious in disputes and in battles. fol. in the author's collection. or a stag. 40 verso. the wearer. by God's abundant wealth of knowledge. a dog. will have the power to heal one possessed of a devil. the "mark" that was to be stamped upon the foreheads of the faithful art in Jerusalem (Ezek. ix. A good stone is that one on which thou shalt find graven or its tail. this renders stone. Shouldst thou find a stone on which is the figure of a man holding in his right hand a palm branch. 25 " Urgeschichte der bildenden Kunst. 41 recto. as well as good health and favor. of the lightning. the two hands and the head." Vienna. with God's help. the four projections would stand for the feet. 25 The Egyptian crux ansata. 338. 135 A stone of this kind gives the wearer. bearing graven or figured a huntsman. of water. and he notes the fact that the swastika symbol does not appear in 44 From an anonymous Hoernes. who inclines to the belief that it is simply a conventionalized representation of the human form. and brings favor of the great. the lower shaft being the two been variously -explained as a symbol of legs joined together. 4). and the upper shaft the trunk of the body. Still another explanation is given by Hoernes. or who is insane.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS holds in his hand. and which in Early Christian was frequently substituted for the usual cross. him the Finding the stone called jasper. it also protects from 24 figured a serpent with a raven. with God's help. the two horizontal shafts the outstretched arms." and the Phoenician Tau symbol. Whoever wears this stone and be much honored. Italian treatise in a fourteenth century MS. on will enjoy high station the ill-effects of the heat. etc. 1898. the hieroglyphic symbol for "life. p.

The so-called "Monogrammatic Cross" was very freely used in work of the fifth century. 1778. To all these symbols were attributed talismanic virtues and they were frequently engraved on precious stones. Paris. This monogram usually assumed the (d. This is simply a modification of the monogram formed of the first two Egyptian or Phoenician MONOGRAM OF THE NAME OF CHRIST ENGRAVED ON AN ONYX GEM. a device appeared after the time of Constantine the 337 A. thus giving the following form: P. " following form: P. From the "Cabinet de Pierres Antiques Gravies. drawing the inference that 26 all three symbols originated in the same form or figure. p.136 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES art. PI. XCV. first which Great X 30 He-ernes^ TJrgeschichte der bildenden Kunst. letters of the name Christ as written in Greek." of Gorlaeus. and making one of its arms serve as the straight stroke of the P (r)." Vienna. and the "Monogrammatic Cross was made by changing the position of the Greek (chi).D. 338.). . 1898.

MOSS AGATE MOCHA STONES. . HINDOOSTAN.

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Tuesday. He was also a type of dauntless courage.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 137 curious amulet to avert the spell of the Evil Eye is an engraved sard showing an eye in the centre. 115. All this contributed to make him a defender of ^King. Such stones were called "peacock-stones. It is curious to note. lion. the cock is figured. the dies Saturni. The form of these malachite amulets is usually triangular. in Bettona) as an amulet to protect the its Because of wearer from the spell of the Evil Eye." from their resemblance in color and marking to the peacock's tail. p. 28 On many of the amulets fabricated in Italy for protection against the dreaded jettatura. 38 their Remains. . the dies Veneris. that in an Etruscan tomb at Chiusi there was found a triangular. by a thunderbolt Friday. by an owL2T In this way is represented . Catalogue de PExpositioa de la Soci&e d'Anthropologie ^Expor sition de 1900). some of which suggest the form of an eye. as a proof of the persistence of superstitions.. each angle terminating in an eye formed of glass of various colors. by a scorpion. . 286. by a stag. His image was supposed in ancient times to assure the protection of the sun-god. malachite was worn in some parts of Italy (e. all times from the evil in- peculiar markings. Sunday. by a snake and Saturday. p. p.g. Monday. Thursday. the dies Martis. the dies Jovis. Wednesday. or spell of the Evil Eye. "The Gnostics and 238. figure opp. around which are grouped the attributes of the divinities presiding over the days of the week." London. by a dog. and they were mounted in silver. 1864. the dies Lunse. the dies Soils. A by a the wearer was protected at fluence. and his crowing was regarded as an inarticulate hymn of praise to this deity. perforated piece of glass. the dies Mercurii.

left. 353. ." lias enlarged this conception. 171. 1601. The Evil Eye. especially of women and children. against the 29 Bostand. tinal chant alone that the world owes the daily recurrent phenomenon gift of of the sunrise." London. 1895.138 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the weak. Figs. pp. on the From the DactyEotJieca. of Gorlaeus. "Chantecler. game-cocks. On the rights a Victory. 354. Delft. in his wiles of the spirits of darkness. and endows the cock with the proud conviction that it is to his matu- TWO GOLD RINGS SET WITH ENGRAVED ONYX GEMS. more especially if "Elworthy. 172. In Palestine the Evil Eye is supposed to be the baleful men who have light-blue eyes.

upon which was engraved a figure of Amymone (one of the Danaidse). a flute-player. off A ribbon about maiden with beautiful hair will tie a blue it.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 139 they are beardless. 30 It is a well-known fact that many amulets were made in forms suggesting objects offensive to our sense of propriety* These were thought to protect the wearers by denoting the contempt they felt for the evil spirits them." Berlin. 1903. Possibly this is the power in which some of our blond and beardless "mashers" repose their As an antidote to the awful influence of these trust. und Gescheleehtsleben in der Turkei. It is not exclusively characteristic of our commercial and industrial age that the price paid for a work of art should influence the popular estimation of the merits of the work. having been offered for sale in the Isle of Cyprus.000). these pledges must be sold. Some such fancy may have inleagued against duced the peculiar designs of certain of the jewels alleged to have been pawned in Paris by the ex-Sultan Abdul Hamid for the sum of 1. fore the stones and pearls are to be removed and the gold settings are to be melted and sold as metal. Ac- cording to rumor. Ismenias. Aborglaube i. as appears in an anecdote related by Pliny. p. the Syrian women decorated themselves with blue beads. gave orders to ^Stern. at the price of six golden denarii. vol. but the designs are so risque that they cannot be offered at public sale there. as the sultan has failed to redeem them.200. or wear a blue bead in it. . "Medizin. An emerald (smaragd). on the principle similia similibus curantur.000 francs ($240. 235. so as to ward by the blue eye that might rob her any evil spell cast of her fair dower. blue-eyed monsters.

iii. upon which Ismenias remarked. could turn Andromeda into a dromedary almost equalled that of the enchantress Circe. "By Hercules he has done me but a bad turn in this. Pitra. Harl. p. recto. Here. we read. Plini. vol. 1855. however.140 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES purchase it. this stone will bring peace and concord between man and wife. it should be engraved with the scarab. Archseologia. or else that of a virgin wearing a flowing robe and bearing a laurel branch." Parisiis. 32 The mythical author Cethel aspetual serts that the owner of a jasper engraved with the sacred 33 symbol of the cross would be preserved from drowning. a jasper should bear the figure of Mars fully armed. beneath which there should appear a According to the same manuscript. It should then be consecrated with per* i crested paroquet. Pierres precieuses. p. xxx. where we read that to fit this stone ' A form of a for use as a talisman. London. " The original Latin text read. art. 84 De Mely. No. p. etc. . SS5. reduced the price and returned two denarii. 80. vol. " consecration. A curious quid pro treatise quo appears in a fifteenth century on gems written in French. vol. " Historia naturalis/' folio 105. 31 variant of the design directed by Damigeron to be placed on the emerald is recommended in a thirteenth century manuscript. xxv. 88 " Specilegium Solesmense. 336. The dealer. in La Grande Encyclopedie. 1844. "If you find a dromedary engraved on a stone with hair flowing over its shoulders. in a list of engraved gems suitable for use as amulets. 541. 3. "If you find Andromeda on a stone with hair flow84 The translator's art which ing over her shoulders. 31 33 lib xxxvi. for the merit of the stone has been greatly impaired by this ! 5 reduction in price. cap. MS.

335. and Konrad von Megenberg accepting this view. Dens omnia cernit. p. 1861. p. as we have seen. in ancient Eoman characters. and did not hesitate to assert that the Greek and engravers executed their designs for ornamental purposes rather than to fit the gems for use as talismans." lib. "Buck " Pitra. in. 85 Konrad von Megenberg. " De natura f ossilum. 291. p. It should be engraved with a design showing a grape-vine and ivy intertwined. 36 celebrated topaz was that noted by George Agricola as being in the possession of a Neapolitan. 1855. der Natur. vol.ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS 141 to A few even of the early writers were disposed be sceptical as to the virtues ascribed to these engraved gems. if worn by a woman. some medieval writers suppose that the engraved talismanic gems current in their time were not works of art. 37 It bore. 469. This was undoubtedly true in a large number of cases but nevertheless. the terse A and pregnant inscription ISTatura deficit. As the art engraving was not practised in the Middle Ages.35 Damigeron writes of the sard that. Agrieola. vi. . Hadrianus Grulielmus. gave it as his opinion that "God granted these stones their beauty and virtue for the help and comfort race/' adding that when he hoped to receive help from them he in no wise denied the grace of of the human God. but of nature." Stuttgart. : Fortuna mutatur. 1546. many engraved talis- Eoman mans were of gem really cut in the early centuries. Basilese. it is a good and fortunate stone." Parisiis. 8C w Speeilegium Solesmense.

This seal is said to have borne an inscription in Arabic characters. the unfortunate Prince Imperial. Jah sees for aye. inscribed with a text from the Koran in letters of gold. 1860. 107.142 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES This was very freely rendered by Thomas Nicols as 3B : follows Nature by frailty doth dayly waste away. as a talisman. Fortune In all. anything inherently improbable in the report that he left the seal he It is well known wore on his watch-chain to his son. Edelsteinkunde. p. p. signifying "The slave The 40 relying on the Merciful One (Grod). and there is not.39 that Napoleon III was inclined to be superstitious. p. therefore. cut off in the first flush of early manhood 7 "Nicols. 366. There is in the Imperial Academy at Moscow a turqnoise two inches in diameter. the heir to so many hopes was (see page 64). *Fernie. ." talisman lost its virtue on that unlucky day when. " ^Kluge. "Precious Stones for Curative Wear. 109." Leipsie." Bristol. in Abraham far-off Zululand. an eye know's no decay. 1907. and it was valued at 5000 rubles by the jeweller from whose hands it came. is turn'd there is and changed every day. This turquoise was formerly worn by the Shah of Persia as an amulet. "Faithful Lapidary/ London. 1659.

3 Thus. Thy love. vol. New 143 York. Even so doth love pervade a mother's heart. better far than charm. acriii. never care ! Approach. ever active. 1836. a sort of enchanted princess. Lon- much used in the form of amulets. can be little doubt that much of the modern superstition regarding the supposed unlucky quality of the opal owes its origin to a careless reading 3 of Sir Walter Scott's novel. that thy brow. pp. contains nothing to indicate that Scott really meant to represent the opal as unlucky. Blessington." The wonderful tale therein related of the Lady Hermione. 126-138. to trace a single furrow there Daughter. Like the mild lightnings of a summer eve. and hence." by the Countess of 'Sir Walter Scott. who came no one knew whence and always wore a dazzling opal in her hair. 3 From " Gems of Beauty. "Novels. looks through her fond eyes. my mother.V fl)n >mftto# ana THE OPAL Mother. "Anne of G-eierstein. 1907. Lady Hermione's gem was an enchanted stone just as its owner was a product of The opal in the East. . is don. let me place a charm upon And may good spirits grant." The Janson Society. Come. 1 is said to preserve its wearer from disease. Shoots quivering through its depths in changeful gleams. Shall shield thy child and yet this wondrous gem 1 Looks as though some strange influence it had won From the bright skies for every rainbow hue Mother.

they quenched its radiance. and when a few drops of holy water were sprinkled over it. was valued at safety in . Her- was carried to her chamber. he took with him of all his possessions this ring alone. determined the selection of the opal rather than any other precious stone is the fact of its wonderful play of color and its sensitiveness to moisture. when earth and sky vie with each other in brilliancy and the eye is fairly dazzled with the beopal. or a sapphire. All that can have mione fell into a swoon.144 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES enchantment. it shot out red gleams when she was angry. almost all his notices of precious stones being confined to descriptions of their form and color. on account of which the senator Nonius was proscribed by Antony. In the case of the opalus. a ruby. The spell was broken and the enchantment dissolved. and data regarding what was popularly believed as to their talismanic or therapeutic power. Seeking flight. which might equally well have been attributed to a diamond. October's The wildering variety of color. sparkled when she was gay. however. recalls in its wonderful and varied play of color the glories of a bright October day in the country. which it is certain. and its peculiarities depended entirely upon its mysterious character. Hence we are perfectly justified in returning to the older belief of the manifold virtues of the opal. It rarely happens that Pliny gives any information as to particular jewels. The life it of the stone was bound up with the life of Hermione. gem. only remembering that this gem is a little more fragile than many others and should be more carefully handled and guarded. he writes as follows: " There exists to-day a gem of this kind. and but a small heap of ashes remained the next day nothing on the bed whereon she had been laid.

Referring again to these quartz crystals." lib. and could state that this stone was more successfully imitated than any other. 65 Plinii. however. Some by their refulgent splendor rival the colors of the painters.000.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 2. and as opals are not found in the places whence. others the flame of burning sulphur or of fire quickened by oil. is an almost de*Plinii." 5 is amethyst. 1. in spite of all this. the principal European source of supply in Hungary does not " 4 The stone was appear to have been available in classic times to the Eomans.000). "ISTaturalis historia. the opalus was derived. For it can well be said of opals that " There is in them a softer fire than in the carbuncle. The fact that Pliny could praise the Indian imitations of the opalus in glass. displays with great brilliancy all the colors of the rainbow. Pliny's words his eloquent description of the opalus. we are almost forced to the conclusion that he had some other stone in mind when he gave And yet. so well describe the beauties of a fine opal that it is difficult to determine what other stone he could have meant. sparkling with wonderful clearness in its field of transparent mineral might excite the admiration of one who had never seen an opal.000 sesterces ($80. possessing an internal fracture. c. 10 ." large This "opal of Nonius" would be the great historic opal if we had any assurance that it was really the stone to which we now give this name. cap. there is the brilliant purple of the the sea-green of the emerald all shining together in incredible union. 145 kv as as a hazel-nut. they are often cut so as to form a dome of quartz and are even used as distinct jewels. As. sxxvii. there Possibly some brilliant varieties of iridescent quartz "iris" quartz. according to Pliny.

1766. but surely within a lesser space of time. a peasant found a brilliant precious stone in some old ruins at Alexandria. to imitate. for lose their water slowly perhaps. This stone was set in a ring. it was eventually taken to Constantinople.146 THE CURIOUS LOKE OF PRECIOUS STONES argument against identifying the opalus with an for it is well known that no stone is more difficult cisive opal. 274. in the Middle Ages. and it was a common idea that the image of a boy or girl could be seen in the pupil of the eye. It was as large as a hazel-nut and is said to have been an opal cut en cabochon. About the middle of the eighteenth century. pp. London. 273." Of course this was nothing but a romantic fancy. " Voyages and Travels in the Levant/ English trans. . It is also quite certain that an opal would scarcely hold its play of color or compactness for twenty centuries. its apparent antiquity. The Edda of a sacred stone called the yarkastein. which the clever smith Volondr (the Scandinavian Vulcan) formed from the eyes of children. where it was estimated to be worth "several thousand ducats. tures that this name designates a Albertus Magnus describes under the 6 name orphamts 7 Hesselquist. and the high 7 ' value set upon conjecture that it it have contributed to induce many to was the celebrated "opal of Nonius.. Grimm conjecround. Egypt. and some transparent Mexican opals lose their color and are tells filled with flaws within a few years' time. 6 The description given of this gem. According to the report. Even the finest Hungarian most opals opals show some loss of life and color within a century or even less. milk-white opal. or eyestone. Certainly the opal was often called ophthalmias.

lapidibus. ruddy wine. De the "Hortus Sanitatia" of Johannis de Cuba [Strassburg. It is of a subtle vinous tinge. and its hue is as THE "ORPHANUS JEWEL" From IN THE GERMAN IMPERIAL CROWN. xcii. though pure white snow flashed and sparkled with the color of bright. cap. for this very reason it is called orphanus. This gem is believed to have been a splendid opal. and was overcome by this radiance. but now. in our age. ca. . It is a translucent stone. 1890. 42. Author's library. 1483]. v.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 147 a stone which was set in the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire. p. Jean Pryss. and there is a tradition that formerly it 7 it shone in the nightIt is said time. guard the regal honor. 7 Alberti Magni. vol. Parisiis. and Albertus describes it as follows : The orphanus is a stone which is in the crown of the Roman Emperor. to does not sparkle in the dark. Opera Omnia. ed. Borgnet. and none like it has ever been seen.

However.148 THE CURIOUS LOKE OF PEECIOUS STONES Evidently this imperial gem was regarded as sui generis. the eye. From Evil Eye the earliest times the baleful influence of the has struck terror into the souls of the ignorant It is believed by some that the name written "ophal" in the time of Queen Eliza"opal" beth was derived from ophthalmos. and superstitious. and for many centuries after. and at the opening of the fifteenth century more than three hundred men are said to have been employed here in the search for opals. pertaining to the eye. for while they wore these ornaments their hair was sure to guard its beautiful color. and which seems to have been the opalus of the ancients and our opal. was believed to have a wonderfully beneficial effect upon the sight. were very actively exploited. reciting the virtues usually ascribed to the opal for the cure of diseases of the eye. since the stone called ophthalmius by early writers. and the magic power of the stone to render its wearer invisible. this is altogether incorrect. We are told that blond maidens valued nothing more highly than necklaces of opals. in Hungary. no breath of suspicion ever tarnished the fame of the opal as not only a thing of rare beauty. The latter superstitions probably arose from the frangibility of the stone and its occasional loss of fire." In the Middle Ages the opal mines of Cernowitz. but also a talisman of the first rank. or ophthalmius. and if it . At that time. a name frequently bestowed upon the opal in medie- val times. or wherefore it " patron of thieves. was denominated patronus furum. for Albertus has just described the ophthalmus lapis. and that hence the foolish superstition regarding the ill luck of the opal had some connection with the belief in the Evil Eye.

is produced. and there is a belief among the natives that there are "Aleppo stones. the eye of the serpent. according to the best authorities. this was only an added virtne of the stone. were all regarded as possessed of malign power." 1910. this 8 Communication of Dr. What beneficial influence they may have is due to the fact that the agate is cold so prevalent in many parts of western Asia." The boil frequently does not appear for a long period after infection has taken place. In Aleppo (and elsewhere in the East) there is a certain type of sore known as the "Aleppo button" or "Aleppo boil. naturally pale yellow or pale gray agate. Frederick Knab. with intervening white zones in such a way that it looks like an eye or a double-eye. by a pathogenic organism Leishmania tropica (Wright) 1903. At a later period some of these "agate-eyes" were removed from the statnes and cut with a glyptic subject on the lower side. This "Aleppo boil" or "Oriental sore" organism is introduced into the human subject nothing very definite is known. As to the means by which and furnishes a little relief for the time.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 149 was thought to render the wearer invisible. It often appears as a swelling surrounded by a white ring.8 The eye of some invisible monster. citing Castellani and Chal- mers. It is well known that in the East Indies a peacock's feather is thought to bring ill-luck. but mosquitoes or Phlebotomus have been suggested as possible transmitting agencies. the eye of the dragon. Some of the most interesting antique gems are of this kind. ." these being the so-called "eye-agates" frequently produced by cutting a three-layer. The eye-agates were sometimes used to form the eyes of idols. and such stones are used in alleviation of the Aleppo sore. ''Manual of Tropical Medicine.

. saith. Stephen Batman (cL 1584). that this OptalliuB keepeth and saveth his eyen that beareth it." London. or the oculus Beli." of Bartolomseus Anglicus. The opal seems to have appealed to Shakespeare as a " Twelfth fit emblem of inconstancy. of course. the tiger's-eye. lib. the English version is interest- Eye ing in itself as showing what was accepted by English readers of the time regarding the virtues of the opal. Even in our own time. with a maner clowde. There is. xvi. 73. . " Twelfth 7 Night/ Act ii. 15S2. as Mewes and colours. and smiteth them with a maner blindnesse.150 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES the eye in the feather being the baleful point. in the "Dick Dead-Eye" of Gilbert and Sullivan's "Pinafore" proves that the Evil is familiar to our thoughts. cap. and is a stone distinguished with colors of divers precious stones. always possess a certain strange interest. and among those for whom this primitive superstition has no terrors. the humorous use of the idea as shown. p. 264. . While the passage is essentially a translation from the "De proprietatibus rerum. This stone breedeth onely in Inde and is deemed to have as many virtues. 10 "Uppon Bartholome. Shakespeare. Sc. that is called Amentia. 4. for instance. for in Night" he 10 makes the clown say to the Duke : "Batman. so that they may not see neither take heede what is done before their eyen. . cleere and sharp and without griefe. no trace of the foolish modern superstition touching the ominous quality of this beautiful gem. stones such as those which have been named the cat's-eye. and dimmeth other men's eyen that be about. Therefore it is said that it is the most sure patron of theeves. One of the earliest descriptions of the opal in English is that written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by Dr. as Isid. For this reason. Of this Optallius it is said in Lapidario. Batman writes 9 : Optallio is called Oppalus also.

Formerly black opals were artificially made by dipping the light-colored stone into ink. 151 make thy That the beauty of the opal was fully appreciated in the sixteenth century is shown by the words of Cardano. none of the silly fancies regarding the ominous quality of the opal were then current.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES Now garment of changeable the melancholy G-od protect thee. It has been claimed that $2. for thy mind is very opal. Marion Crawford was a great admirer of this strangely beautiful variety of opal. It was reserved for the nineteenth century to develop these altogether unreasonable and indeed almost inexplicable superstitions. and blue in a black field. black opal is regarded as an exceptionally lucky stone. a number of deposits of natural black opals were found in the White Cliff region of New South Wales.000. That ill-luck and good-luck are relative terms is shown 7 A 11 " Cardani. and the Tailor taffeta. Some of these have sold for $1000 and even for a higher price. with wonderful flames of green. who states that he once bought one of these stones for fifteen gold crowns and found as much pleasure in its possession as he did in that of a diamond that had cost him five hundred crowns. 1560. piece of this volume. the smaller ones bringing from a few dollars upward each. The late F. 445. however.000 wortK have been sold from New South remarkable example is figured on the frontisWales. and hence add to the good fortune of the owner. red. whence exceedingly beautiful gems have been secured. or by allowing burnt oil to enter cracks in the stone produced by heating. The ownership of so fair an object as a fine opal must certainly be a source of pleasure. Although opal has been considered by some a stone of misfortune. About the year 1900. 11 Although superstitious beliefs were rather the rule than the exception in Cardano s time. . p. Be subtilitate." Basileae.

in Zeitschr. but was owing to the natural brittleness of the opal. To the girl's great an elegantly attired lady standing there slipped an opal ring from her finger and gave it to the girl. 20. p. vol. lib. This was frequently due to no fault on the part of the cutters or setters. is soon lost sight of and popular fantasy suggests something entirely different and better calculated to appeal to the imagination. when the street traffic was at its greatest. Here she was arrested on suspicion of having stolen it. stopped at one of the A "refuges" halfway across the street. substantiating the girl's statement. and would come to regard them as un- lucky stones.152 THE CUBIOUS LOKE OF PRECIOUS STONES as published of an opal by Paris newspapers. sometimes a quite rational one. shopgirl. 391. Very widespread superstitions have no better foundation than this. ii. ii. possible explanation of the superstitious dread the opal used to excite some time ago may be found in the A A fact that lapidaries and gem-setters to whom opals were entrusted were sometimes so unfortunate as to fracture them in the process of cutting or setting. who surprise." Tract. for the original cause. and ruptured the intestines if it were swallowed. The belief that the diamond fractured the teeth if it were put in the mouth. She feared ill-luck would befall her if she wore or kept the ring. New Series. which was returned to the shopgirl. p. As such workmen are responsible to the owners for any injury to the gems. Alt. See also Avicenna. 12 13 Rose. fiir " Aristoteles De lapidibus und Arnoldus Saxo. eanonis." Basile.. already appears in pseudo-Aristotle. plainly clad. D. The magistrate before whom she appeared was inclined to believe her story and ordered a "personal" in a widely read journal asking the lady to clear the girl of the charge. 1556. took it to a jeweller's shop to sell it. in crossing the Place de POpera. titled lady presented herself. . vi. "Liber cap. 182. they would soon acquire a prejudice against opals.

Lake Superior. 3. Antique eye agates. from Brazil. Agate called Oriental agate. 12. Eye agates. 10 and 11. Had been pierced lengthwise and worn i . 2.1. Natural agates with eye-like effect. 15. Had been used as votive charms. 8 and 9. 4. 16. Brazil. showing eye from Isle Royal. eye effect. Arabia. Natural pebble. G and 7. Double eye agates. 13 and 14. Aleppo stones set in rings. Ancient eye of idol. Arabia. agate variety sardonyx. Aleppo stones. 5. 17. Eye agate. Aleppo stones. with double zone. East Indian.

.

cut. or diamond dust. finally. version by Clusius). however. The original shape of the stone was also considered of great importance. "Aromatum historia" (Lat. As a proof of the falsity of this belief. the diamond was not used for medicinal purposes in the India of his time. If this did not help him. diatriangular stone was said to cause "Garcias ab Orta. except when injected into the bladder to break up vesical calculi. AntverpiaB. According to Grarcias ab Orta (1563). Hence the firm conviction that it would bring death to any one who swallowed it. 13 The Hindus believed that a flawed diamond. more especially in early times. This fancy evidently owes its to origin to the fact that the diamond. the prevalent belief that diamonds. He notes. 172. was so unlucky that it could even deprive Indra of his highest heaven. monds. The same author notes the case of a man who suffered from chronic dysentery and whose wife had for a long time administered to him doses of diamond dust.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES and can therefore be dated back 153 to the ninth and perhaps the seventh century. this strange treatment was abandoned. . when taken internally. p. the stones being recovered in a natural way. 1579. was used to cut all other stones. G-arcias adduces the fact that the slaves who worked in the diamond mines often swallowed diamonds to conceal them. but many days after the doses of diamond dust had been discontinued. in 1563. or one con- taining specks or spots. The Portuguese original was published in Goa. The man eventually died of Ms disease. by the advice of the doctors. were A when but few. because of its hardness. and never experienced any ill effects. neither did it injure him. worked as a poison. and the idea of its destructive quality was strengthened by the old legends regarding the venomous serpents which guarded the place where it was found. if any.

mond dust with the sultan's food. 14 The Turkish sultan Bejazet II (1447-1512) is said to have been done to death by a dose of pulverized diamond administered to him by his son Selim. cited in Pindar. all. te u Museum Aldrovandi." Berolini. 58. metallieum/' Bononije." cap. 1829." pp. he felt something grate between his teeth. p. "Justi Lepsii. "Mani Mala. the unrivalled in Borne. adamante. he was terrified to find to be a diamond "Surindra Mohun Tagore. . Picking np one of these and examinof his contemporaries that there what he supposed and lie straightway gave himself splinter.154 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES quarrels. v. I. p. He prayed to God for an hour and finally ing it carefully. 1648. 122. who mixed the dia- of for it . a square diamond inspired the wearer with vague terrors a five-cornered stone had the worst effect . brought death only the six-cornered diamond was productive of good. 949. Ambrosius 16 conjectures that this was only an excuse to explain the demise of the master in the prime of life he was but forty-eight years old at the time of his death made although he had promised long use of his medicaments. life to all who While Benvenuto goldsmith. he strongly suspected that his enemies were seeking to poison him by tampering with his food. in 1538. 1879. thinking that he had swallowed a quantity of diamond dust. 8. while eating his poison noonday meal. Calcutta. but when he had finished eating his eye was caught by some bright particles on the plate. Cellini shared the belief was no more deadly than diamond dust One day. "De fraude " De et vi. 15 It is also related that the disciples of Paracelsus (1493-1541) spread the report that he died from the effects of a dose of diamond dust. Pt. up for lost. was imprisoned Cellini (1500-1571). He paid no particular attention to this. 125.

. because he opposed her marriage with the favorite of James I. but suddenly it occurred to him that he had not tested the hardness of the fragment he had found in his food. 17 In England. His reply was that this poison would prove too violent. Robert Carr. and he became convinced that what he had swallowed was not diamond dust. To this circumstance alone did Cellini attribute his escape from death.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 155 became reconciled to the thought of dying. however. diamond dust was selected as a poison to do away with a luckless prisoner. Viscount Somerset. whom he had befriended and whose career he had furthered. directing him to concoct a slow and deadly poison. to his joy the attempt succeeded. an apothecary. The gem-cutter was very poor and the diamond was worth a hundred scudi. is said to In the minutes of Franklin's confession. he have stated that the countess asked him what he thought of white arsenic. bury's food. He immediately took the splinter and tried to crush it between his knife and the stone window-sill. in 1613. The marriage took place. p. Later. and. Carpani. more than seventy years after Cellini's experience. 445. after his release. "What say you (quoth she) to powder of diamonds?" He answered. which should be mixed with Overthe countess. 1806. Milano. through the machinations of She then sought the aid of one James Franklin. instructing him to grind it up so that the dust could be placed in Cellini's food. so the man yielded to temptation and substituted a citrine for the diamond. Overbury was imprisoned in the Tower. "I know 17 Vita di Benvenuto Cellini. Sir Thomas Overbury had incurred the bitter animosity of the Countess of Essex. ed. a gem-cutter. Cellini learned that an enemy had given a diamond to a certain Lione Aretino.

Amos. Not long after. little or no confirmation being afforded by the chant's servant instances cited in the matter. but because it was chloroformed to insure the speedy recovery of the stone. sqq. p. While a prize-winning cockerel was fondled by his proud owner. treating of the loves of Horn and Maid Eimnild." London. pp.. However. "The Great Oyer of Poisoning. 1846. the fowl died not. that a number of ingredients were employed. quite recently it has been shown that swallowing a diamond can prove fatal to a fowl. etc. of the deadly effects caused by the diathe Portuguese Zacutus relates the case of a mer- who surreptitiously swallowed three diamonds belonging to his master. and immediately pecked out the stone and swallowed it. all the remedies administered to him were without effect. because it was poisoned by the diamond. 949. This old fancy that diamonds or diamond dust had deadly effects when swallowed is pretty well exploded by this time. and he soon died from the extensive internal ulceration 19 produced by the sharp edges of the diamonds.156 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES She said that he was a fool. 336 ^Aldrovandi. and gave him pieces of gold. Poor Overbury lingered on for more than three months. As a proof mond. and bade him buy some of that powder for her. 1648. from the testimony. but was finally 18 put out of his misery by a clyster of corrosive sublimate. it spied a flashing being diamond set in a ring on his hand. however. cantharides. . recounts that Hind when Hind Horn. not the nature of that. "Museum metallicum. as well as the baleful diamond dust. On the followrough ing day this man was seized with violent abdominal pains." quite probably small doses of mercury. however." Bononi. An 8 18 old English ballad. It appears.

" Boston. Take than a newe. * 12 vol. Eegarding the old fancy that a serpent could not look 20 Child. When the ston wexeth wan Than chaungeth the thought of thi leman. When the ston wexeth rede. : Loke thou forsake The ston it is well it for no thing. " The i. Child.20 In a fourteenth century MS. Against thee. e. his return. It is interesting to note that Epiphanius. went to sea to escape the him a ring set with seven diamonds. Than have 22 Y lorn mi maidenhed. he succeeded in preventing her marriage On to another. and everything ended happily. when far from home One day he looked king. 1. Oghaines the untrewe. of the Old English romance upon which the ballad is founded. for the paleness of the was a sign the loved one was unfaithful to him. trewe. English and Scottish Popular Ballads. the stone in the 21 ring is not named in giving it Eimnild says stone . states that the adamas of the high-priest grew red as a presage of bloodshed and defeat for the Jews. he hastened back. 187 sqq.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES wrath of the : 157 who loved and was beloved by the king's daughter. In this older form of the tale. . 1882-96. the princess gave are told that We He saw his ring upon the diamond pale and wan. Hereupon. writing a thousand years earlier. the stone either grows pale or red as a sign of misfortune. pp.

63. "De gemmis et lapidibus pretiosis. 64. Baccii.158 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES sight. once and again lost 2 *Ravii. 34 "Specimen Arabicum. in his commentary on the Gremmis. and embedded my emerald in this. The reptile was strong and vigorous. I took a stick of wood. I plainly observed in the course of the journey that a very beautiful ruby which she had given me." Latin by Wolfgang Gabelchover. This being done. attached to the end a piece of wax. zababi variety." Trajecti ad Rhenum. as soon as I received them I and placed in a vessel. 1603. uneasily hither and lost. all its agility was would spring from the vessel. I was travelling from Stuttgart to Calw with my beloved wife Catherine Adelmann of pious memory. by frequent changes of color and by growing obscurity. but it thither. gives 24 tragic experience in regard to a ruby book of the treatise "De : It is worthy of note that the true Oriental ruby. set in a gold ring. it Wolfgang sixth Grabelchover. but as soon as I approached the emerald to its eyes. on the fifth of December." by Andrea the following account of a strange and Baccio. 1600. fused. for as. without knowing which way to and its restless movements soon ceased. Alas! that what I had often heard proclaimed by learned men. 98. and the obscurity and opacity is greater or less according to the extent of the coming ill- fortune. I tested it by my own experiment and found the statements It chanced that I had in my possession a fine emerald of the exact. Therefore. I then brought the emerald near to the viper's eyes. 97. in 1242 writes as follows After having read in learned books of this peculiarity of the emerald. I had expected that moved turn. and which I wore on my hand. announces to the wearer some impending misfortune or calamity. Francofurti. and even raised its head out of the vessel. I should myself experience. pp. I heard a slight crepitation and saw that the eyes were protruding and After this the viper was dazed and condissolving into a humor. and with this I decided to make the experiment on the eyes of a viper. pp. 1784. the upon an emerald without losing its dealer. Arabian gem 2S : Ahmed TeifasM. having made a bargain with a snakecharmer to procure selected one me some it vipers. Andreas trans. .

. confirmed him in his belief in the ominous quality of the stone. three essential this qualities in a jeweller. gernmis errores vulgares.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES its 159 a dark hue. Nor was I deceived. he remarked that the stone. one of this man's sons died of varioloid. the jeweller took it from the case and found. he was firmly persuaded that some misfortune threatened him. his apevent happened." Lipsise. who states that it was told him 25 by a trustworthy informant : There was a jeweller. as the stone. after having washed his hands. man sat at a table. and. Since. splendor of the ruby some fresh misfortune was impending. brilliancy returned when the water lest of the onyx is especially noted shown by the Arabic name for in Arabic tradition. splendid coloring and became obscure. concealed it in a case. which resulted in her death. A fortnight later. for within a few days she was seized with a dangerous illness. had lost its brilliancy and become dull. is given by Johann Jacob Spener. and he again fell a prey to anxiety. having removed the ring from his finger. which usually delighted with its splendor. A story explaining one at least of these supposedly ominons changes of color in precious stones. Reminded by this event of the phenomenon observed in the ruby. as the jewellers call it. and that the former had evaporated. he placed it in its case. el jaza. he invesprehensions proved vain and no untoward the matter carefully. and discovered that the obscuration of tigated the color was due to a drop of water which had penetrated between the ruby and the foil. Since he believed what others had related to him. shortly after washing his hands. that anew that the more. "sadness. expert. ii. removing the ring from my finger. the which I inferred from the change and variation of the ruby. and. he remarked was dimmed. Wherefore. when. 12." The following passage The ominous character is 33 " De sect. however. I repeatedly warned my wife that some great calamity was impending either for her or for myself. and rich. Once on examination. One day. glancing at a ruby ring he wore on his the eye finger. 1688. This fact it had regained its pristine brilliancy. prudent. changing its brightness for This dark hue continued not for one or two days only r but so long that I was greatly terrified.

whoever keeps an onyx in his house. was sufficiently powerful to offset the more delicate and subtle essence of the mineral substance. Of course. who have no other means of gaining a livelihood. Those men of the Magreb who are gifted with any wisdom will not wear an onyx or place it in their treasuries. for us the mineral would be much less sensitive than flesh and blood. will have fearful dreams and be tormented by a multi- tude of doubts and apprehensions. for whosoever wears it. he will also have many disputes and it lawsuits. it is carried also out of the country and sold in other lands. the coral also brightness ill. f iir D. vi. and he thinks that in these cases. pp. and to a still greater 28 Rose.. New Series. 361. but the sixteenth century writers. in a vessel. or places or puts it in food or drink. or even if he were only threatened with severe illness. either set in a ring or in any other way. take the stone from the mines. . capacity. When it has been extracted. hence none but slaves and menials. An ominous character was attributed to the red coral." though not strong enough to effect provoke decided symptoms in the human body. unless he be bereft of his senses. Aristoteles De lapidibus and Arnoldus Saxa. 1875. it was asserted that the its if color would pale. Alt. will suffer loss of energy and Lastly. Indeed. its threatening "vapor. which said to come from China and the Magreb 26 : was Those who are in the land of China fear this stone so much that they dread to go into the mines where it occurs. Zeitschr. Cardano writes that he more than once observed this phenomenon. The same losing the wearer became was said to be induced if some deadly poison had been taken. If worn so that the substance came in direct contact with the skin. especially the more highly colored varieties. 360.160 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PKECIOUS STONES offers from pseudo-Aristotle an illustration of the strength of this prejudice against the onyx. vol. where the wearer was not yet attacked by disease. no one is willing to wear it.

A year later. p. for when a young stork just learning lost its strength and fell to the ground before her. aT Cardani. 28 According to another Jewish legend. it let Heracleis took the fall a precious stone into her lap. Eabbinical tradition tells of a wonderful luminous stone placed by Noah in the Ark. The wall with which this city was surrounded was so lofty that the light of the sun was cut off. eh. This stone shone more by day than by night. attributed to stones not only life in a general way. disease. 1903. during the flood. These exceeded the sun in brightness. Her grief made her comto fly passionate. Heracleis picked up the helpless bird and tended it carefully until its strength returned and it was able to fly away. New York and EL. See also Levy. 1909.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 161 degree those of an earlier time. and served to distinguish the day from the night when. vol. rrtonp- Pirke d'R. As the bird passed over her head. 1554. and will be used in the time brilliantly 20 of the Messiah. 27 in a very positive sense. and death. ii. and to offset this Abraham gave to his sons enormous precious stones and pearls. i. subtilitate. when the woman was outside the house ensaw a stork flying joying the bright warm sunshine. 836. vol. she toward her. 298. woman of Tarentum. "Legends of the Jews. 191." Basileae. ^Ginsburg. .. s. who was a pattern of the domestic virtues. p. London. named Heracleis. neither sun nor moon could be seen. Phila. Abraham is said to have built a city for the six sons Hagar bore to him. * Ginsburg. v. " De lib. "Dictionary of the Targumim/' etc. 162. but old age. vii. A ^Elian relates the following tale of a luminous stone. 205. lost her husband and mourned sincerely for him.. 1. pp." Eng. xxiii.. trans. p.. 11 c.

"De animalium natura. it is a wellknown fact that some stones possess a high degree of This circumstance must have been phosphorescence. viii. ii. . feeling by an infallible instinct that the stork which had dropped it was the one she had cared for in the previous year. by the lightning flash. Tiguri. Still. which drew to themselves the radiance of the stars. During the night she up. Probably the fancy that such stones were luminous in the dark was nothing more belief that rubies ("stork-stone"). pp.30 In German. Worterbuch. perhaps a spinel. observed by chance. 22. and may have had something to do with the legends of luminous stones. as.I* * s evident that the stone of Heracleis was identical with the precious and brilliant variety of than the logical result of the quasi-identification of them with fire in some of its manifestations. cap." vol. According to Pliny. the stone called Donnerkett (thunderbolt) has several synonyms. the Greek anthrax and the Latin carbunculus and lychnis. or those resembling it in color. 31 " Grimm. the lychnis. lib. and induced the were generated by a fire from heaven. 1244. although this peculiarity is not characteristic of the ruby. 1568. Gesner.162 THE CURIOUS LOKE OF PEECIOUS STONES stone with her into the house. was ^Claudii 2Eliani." col. the radiance proceeding from the stone bestowed by the stork as a proof woke of its gratitude. for instance. ed." The flashing and ruddy light of the ruby suggested an igneous origin. 31 The analogy between the flame of a lamp or the glow of a burning coal and the radiance of a ruby. 183. suggested some of the names given to this stone. 182. among these is Storchstein " ceramics mentioned by Pliny. in other words. and was astonished to see that the room was lighted up as though by many torches.

the stone itself bore the name tychnos ("lamp"). when placed sent forth a flame without the aid of fire. "La traite des fleuves de Plutarche/ 3 in Eevue des fitudes Greeques. and shone in the darkness with a bright light. "Lueiani. and while they wore it they were defended from outrage. a. vol.s a fiery glow.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES * 163 so called a lucernarum accensu (from the lighting. and one of these. This surpasses the properties of the "saphire mervei leux" which changed its hue at night. "De Syria dea. v (1892). on an noted before the second or third century of our era. when stating that this changeable stone could only be discovered by one of the fair sex? The temple of the Syrian goddess Astarte contained an image of this divinity crowned with a diadem in which a luminous stone. It was a luminous stone of a bright ruddy hue. If this did not refer to the use of rock-crystal as a burning-glass. p. but was still very notice34 able. Two fabulous stones are noted by pseudo-Aristotle. or the The author of the poem ' Lithica ' ' says light. of lamps ) . Only innocent young girls could find the Lydian stone." must have possessed marvellous soporific power. If a small quantity of this stone were was set 32 w "Lithiea. Such was the splendor of the emitted by this gem that the whole sanctuary was light lighted up as though with a myriad of lamps. From the Lydian river Tmolus a marvellous stone was taken which was said to change color four times a day. De Mely. like the crystal. Indeed. we might see in the passage an indication that the phosphorescence of the diamond had already been that the diamond (adamas). . 331. 32. In the daytime this light was fainter. 32 altar. the "sleeping-stone. 33 Is it possible that the ancient writer intended to hint at the proverbial fickleness of woman." cap." line 270.

" If. . and a more satisfactory guarantee for their employers 73 or other tests of wakefulness. he would still be almost overcome by sleep. he would sleep uninterruptedly for three days and nights. had the opposite quality and induced prolonged wakefulness. 375. Alardus of Amsterrelates the history of a wonderful luminous stone. 720-730) . they could read the Hours without any other light. fur D. so long as Our author gravely it was worn. 1875. they wore the 77 they suffered no inconvenience from "waking-stone. The other stone. wife of Theodoric. Count of Holland. with many other precious stones. was set in a marvellous golden tablet dedicated to St. he cast it into the sea and it was never recov. a "chrysolampis. pp. The gift was made to the Abbey of dam the saint's body reposed. clocks than "time- In his commentary on Marbodus. The first building was of wood and was erected by Theodoric I in 923 or 924. vi. this was ravaged by the Frisians not many years later. their enforced vigils. 36 85 Rose." which. when awakened on the fourth day. apostle of the Frisians and patron of the town of Egmund (d.164 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PKECIOUS STONES hung about a person's neck. sleep was banished. 30 New Series.. fearing to keep so valuable a gem with him. This Egmund. states that "some men who must watch at night suffer greatly from lack of sleep. Adelbert. vol. whom Alardus terms "the most rapacious creature who ever went on two legs" but. 35 Evidently this stone would be a precious possession for night-watchmen. ered. of a greenish hue." Zeitsehr. by Hildegard. and. however. The abbey to which Hildegard gave the tablet was probably that built by Theodoric II and destroyed by the Reformers in 1572. "Aristoteles de lapidibtis und Arnoldus Saxo. Alt. Alardus tells us that the "chrysolampis" shone so brightly that when the monks were called to the chapel in the night-time. 376. where wonderful stone was stolen by one of the monks.

Nevertheless. however. to be a large almost flat carbuncle garnet of no great brilliancy. 39 " Chu-fan-ehi. After noting the reports of medieval travellers regarding the wonderful luminous rubies of the sovereigns of Pegu and repeating the tale that the night was illumined by their splendor.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 165 Strange tales were told of a luminous "carbuncle" on the shrine of St. the writer saw what was called "The Eing of St. " purport- ing to be set with her miraculously luminous ruby. p." The luminous "ruby of the King of Ceylon is noted Chau Ju-Kua. 1231) at Marburg. The shrine was an elaborate work of art in silver gilt. 37 At the Dusseldorf Exhibition of 1891. he had heard from an ecclesiastic shone brightly at night. 7 ' " Antik gesehnittene Steine vom Grabmahl der heiligen Elizabeth. besides two large pearls and a great many smaller ones. 26. 87 Creiizer. 1834. Creuzer informs us that it was only a very brilliant rock crystal of a yellowish-white hue. Eliza-beth (d. Cleandro Arnobio adds that it did not appear that any such rubies were to be found in his day. 1602. 89 a Chinese writer of about the middle by of a certain jewel that stone. 72. and it was said to emit fiery rays at night However. but was of a pale citron hue. Elizabeth. 38 This probably refers to the Marburg "carbuncle. M " II tesoro delle Arnobio. was not a ruby. All these gems were stripped from their settings when the shrine was taken from Marburg to Cassel in 1810. p. 25. and hence Arnobio inclines to believe that it was either a topaz or a yellow diamond. The stone in the setting proved." Venice." by Friedrieh See the English translation of his Hirth and W. W. set in a narrow rim of gold. gioie. 1911. ." Leipsie and Darmstadt. pp. St Petersburg. This however. 34. and was literally covered with precious stones to the number of 824. This stone was set above the statuette of the Virgin. Roekhill.

"History of Inventions/' English ii. According to De Thou. vol." ed. 40 When Henry II of France (1519-1559) made his solemn entry into the city of Boulogne. This splendid throne was of gold studded with precious stones and. Jerusalem. by L. hung a magnificent golden crown set with jewels of incalculable value and so bright and sparkling that their glitter rendered needless any other illumination at night. 433.. p. 1846. a stranger from India presented to the sovereign a luminous stone. who visited Constantinople in 1161 A. GriixJmt and Marcus JSF. 1903. 41 Although Garcias ab Orta did not believe in the tales current in his time regarding luminous rubies. It was rather soft. p." This gigantic luminous gem was also believed to possess the virtues of an elixir of youth. trans. for we are told that the king rubbed his face with it daily and by this means would retain his youthful looks even should he live more than ninety years. He says: "The king holds in his hand a jewel five inches in diameter. pt. 17.166 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES of the thirteenth century and hence a contemporary of the Arab Teifashi.D. well known in his day. this story was vouched for by J. which cannot be burned by fire. 40 41 Beckmann. suspended from the canopy by gold chains. he relates a story of such a stone told to him by a gem-dealer. This man stated that he had purchased a number of fine but " Die Reisebesehreibung des R. who saw the stone himself and described it in a letter to Antoine Mizauld. and which shines in the night like a torch. The glories of Emperor ManuePs (ca. a writer on occult themes. Benjamin von Tudela. Pipin. Adler. trans.. and could not be touched with impunity. 1120-1180) throne are celebrated by the Hebrew traveller Benjamin of Tudela. ii. London. . had a fiery brilliance.

p. and had spread them out over a table. 17. but he concludes with the 42 dictum. ** " Platonis. Q-arcias admits that the gem-dealers were fond of telling good stories. contains the tale of a worthy published by parson who lived in a little town near London. i. cap. When he gathered them up again. we must trust in them nevertheless. i. In the night he remarked something like a flame emanating from the table. After relating several expedients which suggested themselves to him. for. version by Clusius).43 Whether the eyes of the magnificent chryselephantine statue of Athene by Phidias were supposed to be luminous we do not know. Pliny records the tale of a marble lion." This tomb was on the coast. which was set over the tomb of "a petty king called Hermias. and who collection of The wished to immortalize himself by building across the Thames a bridge which would always be lighted at night. one of the stones remained hidden in a fold of the table-cloth. p." lib. vol. Didot. with eyes of gleaming emeralds. Antverpiae. Not only the ruby. Hippias major/' ed. but the emerald also had the reputable ' * 7 ? tation of being a luminous stone. but stones.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES 167 small rubies from Ceylon. he approached the and found there the small ruby. 745. Plinii. besides the shining "emerald" pillar in the temple of Melkart at Tyre. when this was removed and the candle extinguished. to the great loss of the fishermen. . 174. lib. 1579. 43 " Naturalis bistoria. Elias Ashmole. the light was no longer visible. Lighting a candle. the poet continues: 42 Garcias ab Orta. xxxvii. 44 they were incrusted with precious works by the English alchemists. " Aromatum bistoria " (Lat. and the flashing light from the emerald eyes frightened away the tunny-fish.

in 1604. but the story shows how popular was the belief that carbuncles or rubies shone with their own light. The place of its occurrence was Monte Paterno. like the it darkness the light that it would be a great aid in the transmutation of the baser metals into gold. 1675. . In seeking all the Worlde about. 27. which has been named the Bologna . p. in Ashmole annicum. For the Bridge to shine by nighte. "Lapis Bononensis. to make men wonder.168 THE CURIOUS LOftE OF PRECIOUS STONES At the laste he thought to make the light. That his satt flesh wasted nigh to naught. 45 It is scarcely necessary to add that the poor parson never realized his dream. Which would for his interest pursue. because. 46 describes various experiments made to test the peculiar qualities of this mineral. Mentzel also relates that the stone was first discovered. which is partly a radiated or crystalline sulphate of barytes. by Vineenzio Casscioroli. is the subject of a treatise pubThe writer lished by the physician Mentzel in 1675." London. " Theatrum Chemieum Brit- "Christiani Mentzelli. an adept in alchemy. luminous or phosphorescent stone.stone. For this he took so mickle thought. near "Norton's "Ordinall". 1652. And where to find wise men and trewe. on account of its solar quality. who believed (lapis lunaris)." Bilefeldise. it gave out in the received from the sun. and phosphoresces when calcined. With double reflexion above and under: Then new thought troubled his Minde Carbuncle Stones how he might finde. Plenty of Carbuncles to find out. It was sometimes called the "lunar stone " A moon. With Carbuncle Stones.

1. electric action . Self-print of upper diamond of No. Exposure one-half minute. 4 by phosphorescence. after one minute's exposure to ultra-violet light. both diamonds. Self-print. 2. produced "by rubbing briskly with stick covered by woolen cloth.

.

Tliis class of physical phenomena has been made the subject of special investigation by the author. The various phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence undoubtedly explain some at least of the legends SPECIMEN GEMMARVM ORIGINE IN QfO Proponuntur & hiftoricc ttlufoairair quscdam Canje&urz circft confiftcntiam raaterix Lapidum Prettoforttniy fubjc&a. Printed in Cologne in 1680. regarding luminous stones.000 specimens of various minerals having . as many as 13. where it 169 appeared in the fissures of the moun- tain. ia ^uibus corum prxcipua: virtutcs con/iilunre & ^S Honorati/tmo ROBERTO NOBILI ANGLO. after torrential rains.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES Bologna. superstition or fantasy having here as in most other cases a certain substratum of fact. TITLE PAGE OF ROBERT BOYLE'S WORK ON THE ORIGIN AND VIRTUES OF GEMS. S.AMVELEM DE TQVRNES. e BOY-LE SOCIETATB REGIA.

50.170 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES been subjected to the most searching tests in order to determine their qualities in this respect 47 His interest in this field of research was greatly stimulated by a fortnitons happening. the diamond which had been used being 48 shown to the members at that time. In 1891 his wife. No. The diamond to be tested should be exposed to the sun's rays. "Works/ London. 1744. See page 172. In order successfully to observe this phenomenon. 85. The experiments were made October 27. 1SL Y. 7 Boyle. vol. "The Action of Kadium. ii. . x. if observable. and Ultra Violet 47 Light in Minerals . Robert Boyle made a similar set of experiments at night with a diamond which must have been an Indian stone. December 48 18. vol. lasts twelve ? . Roentgen rays. and which he describes as table cut. p. 1890-91. xviii. p. More than two centuries before. The " Journal des Sea vans" for 1739 gives certain tests of the luminous quality of diamonds made by Mons. Actinium. for less than a minute. Academy of Sciences. having a blemish with a whitish cloud cover49 ing nearly a third of the stone. See Kunz. " The Phosphorescence of the Diamond/ 7 Trans. vol. and the results were communicated to the Eoyal Society the next day. Kunz and Baskerville. about one-third of an inch long and somewhat less in width he remarks that it was a dull stone of very bad water. phos48 phorescence. 468. 1903. and when taken into darkness the luminosity. saw that the diamond in a ring she was wearing gave off a faint streak of light which was very noticeable in the dark and this fact led to a long series of experiments on the fluorescence. 1663. 769-783. pp. Du Fay. taking the additional precaution of closing one or both of his eyes. or to strong daylight. he prescribes that the experimenter shall remain in a darkened room for fifteen minutes. while hanging Up a gown in a closet one evening. and triboluminescence of the diamond.-and Gems/' Science.

" 1739. single emerald. Their peculiar property may be due to the presence of a slight quantity of manganese or to that of some of the uranium salts. and even against cloth or silk. and it is an included substance and not the diamond itself that possesses the power of storing up light and then giving it out. That it is only the ultra-violet rays that are thus absorbed by these diamonds is proved by the fact that the phenomenon is not observable when a thin plate of glass is interposed between the sunlight or artificial light and the diamond. slightly milky in tint. or blue-white as they are often termed. xxxviii). were luminous. proved A to be luminous. of Amsterdam edi" Hist. this quality. of which he tried a considerable number. pp. Willemite. was named by the author 00 tion. Mons. when rubbed against wood or other hard substances.OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES or thirteen minutes at longest. as glass is not traversed The still undetermined substance to by these rays. this is what is called triboluminescence. 50 Boyle's experiments led to the discovery that some diamonds. sphalerite (sulphide of zinc) and some other minerals possess the same power. The power of absorbing sunlight or artificial light and then giving it off in the dark is only possessed by certain diamonds* These are Brazilian stones. de FAcad. des Sciences. citing . out of twenty that were tested. Boy. 438. 439. kunzite." 1735 (vol. whose presence in diamonds of this type the special class of phenomena must be due. "Journal des Savans. du Fay observed that the yellow diamonds. 171 and nothing in Not all diamonds show their form or appearance serves to determine their possession of it. will emit a ray of light which seems to follow them. However.

This prodigy diamond will phosphoresce in the dark for some minutes after being exposed to a small pocket electric light. Sir William Crookes says 52 : In a vacuum. boiling water caused it to give out a green light. Similar phenomena were observable in the case light 51 See Transactions of the lecture New York Academy delivered of Sciences. red. On the other hand all diamonds phosphoresce when exposed to the rays of radium. But the time has hardly come when diamonds can be used as domestic ilium in ants ! By permission of Mrs. 37. most South African diamonds shining with a bluish light.172 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES tiffanyite. honor of the late Charles L. See also the author's "Diamonds. polonium. exposed to a high-tension current of electricity. in . The luminescence produced by heat is wonderfully marked in the case of chlorophane. 5. pale blue. or actinium." London and New York. 1909. vol. a variety of fluorite. 1905. yellowish-green. The most phosphorescent diamonds are those which are fluorescent in the sun. 1905. p. same . and pale green light. wife of the well-known New York mineralogist. and you can easily read by its rays. 96-101. apricot. xiv. which was so greatly intensified when the specimen rested on a live coal that the radiance could be discerned from a considerable distance. even when glass is interposed. orange. I will show you perhaps the most remarkable of all phosphorescing diamonds. Kunz. Tiffany (181251 1902) founder of the firm of Tiffany & Company. and if rubbed on a piece of cloth a long streak of phosphorescence appears. Diamonds from other localities emit bright monds phosphoresce of blue. gives almost as much light as a candle. Treating of some of the aspects of phosphorescence in diamonds. 1895. when phosphorescing in a good vacuum. p. diadifferent colours. 260. A Siberian specimen of a pale violet color emitted a white merely from the heat of the hand. ""Diamonds." a before the British Associa- tion at Kimberley. One beautiful green diamond in my collection. London. pp. Sept.

MADAGASCAR.ROCK-CRYSTAL BALL PENETRATED BY CRYSTALS OF RUTILE. .

OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES

173

of chlorophane from Amelia Court House, Va., and the writer found that specimens from this source also exhib-

from coahard substance. 53 any As the terms fluorescence and phosphorescence are sometimes rather carelessly employed, it may be well to note here that while both terms are used to denote the luminescence of a non-luminous body resulting from the
ited strong triboluminescence, resulting either
tact with one another, or with

action of light rays, of the electric current, or of radiant energy of any kind, as well as from heat, fluorescence

a luminosity which only continues so long as the cause is present, while phosphorescence means exciting a luminosity persisting for a longer or shorter period after the exciting cause has ceased to operate directly. The latter term therefore denotes a luminous energy stored up in the formerly non-luminous body and emitted by it for a certain time, at the expiration of which it again becomes non-luminous. Other special designations of induced luminosity in minerals are triboluminescence,
signifies

the emission of light as a result of friction and thermoluminescence, a term used to denote light-emission excited

by moderate heating, even by the warmth

of the

hand.

An
from

old treatise in Greek, said in its title to come "the sanctuary of the temple," and containing

material, partly of Egyptian origin, may help us to understand something of the processes employed by a

temple priest to impress the common people by the sight of luminous gems. The writer of the treatise declares
that for the production of "the carbuncle that shines in the night" use was made of certain parts (he says "the
58

Kunz,

"

Gems and

Precious Stones of North America,"

New

York, 1890, pp. 183, 184.

174

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES
and bones
If prop-

bile") of marine animals whose entrails, scales exhibited the phenomenon of phosphorescence.
erly
treated,

precious stones (preferably carbuncles)

would glow so brightly at night "that anyone owning such a stone could read or write by its light as well as he could by daylight. 54 In the Annales de Chimie et Physique, the great French chemist, M. Berthelot, discusses this matter and
expresses the following opinion
55
:

" The texts leave no room for doubt as to the employment by the
ancients of precious stones rendered phosphorescent in the dark by the superficial application of tinctures composed of materials whose phos-

phorescent quality

is known to us. Although this luminescence, due to an application of organic oxidizable materials, could not well be durable, still it might be made to last several hours, perhaps several days, and it could always be renewed by repeating the application."

The use

of jewelled ornaments to heighten

by

their

luminosity in obscurity or in darkness the effect produced by a sacred image, and to stimulate religious awe in the
beholder,
is testified to

by the ultra-Protestant

traveller,

'Fynes Moryson, G-ent, who went to Italy in 1594. Of his visit to the Santa Casa in Loreto, he says that he himself and two Dutchmen, his companions, were permitted to enter the inner chapel of the sanctuary, where," he proceeds, "we did see the Virgin's picture, adorned with pretious Jewels, and the place (to increase

"

by the
*

religious horror) being darke, yet the Jewels shined ' ' Although there is no queslight of wa^: candles.

tion here of naturally luminous gems, this might have
" Collection des anciens alehemistes grecs,"
ed.

by M.

Berthelot,

336-338; text pp. 351, 352, Paris, 1887, 1888. 55 " Sur un precede antique pour rendre les pierres precieuses et les vitrifications phosphorescentes," Annales de Chimie et Physique, 6th
trans., p.
ser., vol. xiv,

pp. 429-432.

OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES
been the impression produced upon a more sympathetic
56

pilgrim.

Writing of the traditions in regard to luminous stones,
Sir Eichard F. Burton says, "There may be a basis of fact to this fancy, the abnormal effect of precious stones

However, while some instances are recorded of psychic impression produced by precious stones on the minds of persons possessing a
highly sensitive nervous system, it seems likely that some legends of luminous stones had their origin in the refractive powers of cut gems, by means of which a dim and distant light would be reflected from the surface of the stones and would seem to spring from them. Quite possibly, in other instances, there was a disposition to cater to the popular belief by placing a light so that the hidden beams traversed the stone and appeared to

upon mesmeric

sensitives. 7557

emanate from

it.

^Moiyson, "An Itinerary containing his Ten Yeeres Travell through the Twelve Dominions," etc., Glasgow, 1907-8, vol. L p. 216.
57

Burton,
note.

"

Supplementary Nights," London, 1886,

vol.

iii,

p. 354,

VI
Crystal i5aUg and Crystal
have evidence of the use of crystal balls as means of divination in medieval times, and "scrying" in some of its many forms was by no means rare in the Greek and Roman periods. The essential requisite for the exercise of this species of divination is a polished surface of some sort upon which the scryer shall
gaze intently; for this purpose mirrors, globules of lead or quicksilver, polished steel, the surface of water, and even pools of ink, have been employed and have been found to
insure quite as satisfactory results as the crystal ball. The points of light reflected from the polished surface (points de repere) serve to attract the attention of the gazer

and to fix the eye until, gradually, the optic nerve becomes
so fatigued that it finally ceases to transmit to the sensorium the impression made from without and begins to respond to the reflex action proceeding from the brain of the gazer. In this way the impression received from within is apparently projected and seems to come from without. It is easy to understand that the results must vary according to the idiosyncrasy of the various scryers
;

for everything depends upon the sensitiveness of the optic nerve. In many cases the effect of prolonged gaz-

ing upon the brilliant surface will simply produce a loss of sight, the optic nerve will be temporarily paralyzed and will as little respond to stimulation from within as from without; in other cases, however, the nerve will be only deadened as regards external impressions, while
retaining sufficient activity to react against a stimulus
176

CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING
from the brain
centres.
It is

177

almost invariably stated

that, prior to the appearance of the desired visions, the crystal seems to disappear and a mist rises before the

gazer's eye.

The Achaians, as Pausanius relates, frequently used a mirror to divine diseases or to learn whether there was danger of sudden death. Of the Temple of Demeter, or * Ceres, at Patras, he writes
:

In front of the temple of Demeter there is a well. stone wall separates this well from the temple, but steps lead down to it from the outside. Here there is an infallible oracle, although it does not answer all questions, but only those touching diseases. They attach a slender cord to a mirror and let it down into the well, balancing it carefully
so that the water does not cover the face, but only touches the rim. Then, after making a prayer to the goddess and burning incense to
her, they look into the mirror,
will die or recover.

A

Such

is the

and it shows whether the sick person power of truth in this water.
its

This sacred well with

oracle of the magic mirror
descrip:

must have been in Lucian's mind when, in his tion of the palace of the Moon-King, he says 2

Another wonderful thing I saw in the palace. Suspended over a rather shallow well there is a large mirror, and anyone who goes down
into this well will hear every word that is spoken on earth, while, if he gazes on the mirror, he will see there every city and every nation just as clearly as though he were looking down upon them from a slight elevation. At the time I was there, I saw my native country and its
inhabitants.

Whether I myself was seen by them
fine

in turn, I

am not

sure.

touch of irony, ''Anyone who doubts this assertion needs only to go there himself and he will find out that I speak the truth. 77 As no one has

Lucian adds, with a

1

Pausanise, "Descriptio Grsecise," ed. Scmibart, vol.
lib. ii,

ii,

Lipsise, 1883,

pp. 54, 55,
3

cap, 21, 12.
Historia,"
lib.
i,

Lueiani,

"

Vera

26.

12

178

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES
made a
trip to the

yet

moon, the assertion

is still

uncon-

tradicted.

sometimes named Necocyautl, " sower of discord," because he often stirred up war and strife among men, but he was also lord of riches and prosperity, which he bestowed and took away again at his will. To the influence of this divinity were attributed and certain strange visions, announced

In their religious legends the ancient Mexicans taught that their god Tezcatlipuco had a magic mirror in which he saw everything that happened in the world.3 He was

many omens
by repeated

knockings. In the Orphic stone is described.

4

poem "Lithica,"
The substance
is said to

is called

a magic sphere of "sideritis"

be black, round, and heavy; possibly some metal, rather than a stone, is designated by these names. Helenus, the Trojan soothsayer, is said to have used this sphere to foretell the downfall of his native city. He fasted for twenty-one days and then
or "ophitis," and

wrapped the sphere
offered sacrifices to

in soft garments, like
it until,

"a living

soul

warmed

strange variety of divination by means of mirrors placed on the heads of boys, who, with eyes blindfolded, were supposed to perceive forms or signs of some description in the mirrors, is noted by Spartianus in his life of the Emperor Didius Julianus (ca. 133-193). This ruler is said to have resorted to this form of divination, and the boy entrusted with the task is asserted to have
"Balz, "Die sogenannte magische Spiegel und ihr G-ebrauch"; Arehiv fur Anthrop. N.S., vol. ii, p. 45, 1904. *Sahagun, "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana," Mexico, 1829, vol. i, pp. 2, 3; vol. ii, pp. 6, 12, 16, 17; lib. i, cap. 3;
lib. v,

A

an infant, and the magic of his prayers, by " the precious substance.

cap.

3, 9, 11,

12.

CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING

179

announced the approaching accession of Septimius Severus (146-211) and the dethronement of Didius
Julianus. 5
indication that the usage of divination by means of a silver cup existed among the primitive Hebrews has been found in the story of Joseph and his brethren. In

An

Genesis
of
this

xliv, 1-5,

we read

that Joseph concealed a silver

cup in the sack of grain borne away by Benjamin, making
pretext for requiring the return of his sent messengers to overtake them and directed them to demand the return of the cup, using these words: "Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and
a brethren.

He

whereby indeed he divineth?" The Arabic author, Haly Abou Gefar, tells of a golden ball used by "the Magi, followers of Zoroaster," in their incantations. It was incrusted with celestial symbols and set with a sapphire, and one of these magicians, after
attaching it to a strip of bullhide, swung it around, re6 citing at the same time various spells and incantations.

Probably the magician, by

fixing his gaze

upon

the bril-

liant revolving sphere, gradually fell into a hypnotic trance, during which visions appeared to him. These he

could afterward interpret to those who had sought his aid to read the future, or obtain information regarding
things that were happening for away.

important side-light on the beliefs of "Western Europe, in the fifth century, regarding crystal-gazing, is afforded by one of the canons of the synod held about 450 A.D. by St. Patrick and the bishops Auxilius and Issernanus. Here it is decreed that any Christian who believes there is a Lamia (or witch) in the mirror is to be anathe5

An

Spartiani,
'

" Yita Didii

Reichelti,

"De

Juliani," cap 7. amtileiis," Argentorati, 1676, p. 36.

180

THE CURIOUS LOEB OP PRECIOUS STONES

matized, and is not to be again received into the Church unless lie shall have renounced this belief and shall have 7 In diligently performed the penance imposed npon him. this case, as in many others, the vision in the crystal or mirror did not represent some former or contempora-

neous happening, but the figure of an evil spirit, who, either by signs or words, imparted to the scryer the information he was seeking. The power to see images of evil spirits on the surface of water was claimed by those called hydromantii in the ninth century. This is attested in a work composed about 860 AJ>. by Hincmar, Archbishop of Kheims, who charac-

supposed appearances as images or decep" These diviners asserted that tions of the demons. they received audible communications from the spirits, and
terizes the

"

they therefore evidently; believed that the appearances

were

realities.*

Although, as we have seen, many different materials were used for scrying, the preference was often given to
polished spheres of beryl ; in modern times, however, the rock-crystal is considered the best adapted for the purpose.

In his introduction to "Crystal Gazing," by N. W. 9 Thomas, Andrew Lang writes of what he terms hypnagogic illusions images which appear when the eyes are closed and before sleep supervenes. When faces apto him in this way, they were always unfamiliar peared
ones, with the single exception of having once seen his own face in profile. The same was almost invariably true
T

"

Synodtun episeorporum
liii,

Patricii, Auxilii et Issernani," in

Migne,

Patr. Lat, vol.
*

Paxisiis, 1865, col. 825.

Hincmari,
7;

"

Opera Omnia," in Migne, Patr.

Lat., vol. cxxv, col.

De

devortio Lotharii et Tetbergse.

"London, 1905, pp. xxiv,

GLASS BALL, PERFORATED AND MOUNTED IN METAL, SO THAT IT CAN" BE SUSPENDED AND USED FOR OCCULT AND CURATIVE PURPOSES,
>

BALL OF JET, PERFORATED, MOUNTED IN METAL, SO THAT IT CAN BE SUSPENDED AND USED FOR OCCULT AND CURATIVE PURPOSES.
Period of about tenth or twelfth century. Collection of Sir Charles Hercules Read.

Period of about tenth or twelfth century Collection of Sir Charles Hercules Read.

EYE AGATE, SHOWING A NUMBER OF CIRCULAR MARKINGS.

.

like a mist. concerning the matter on which he is questioned. clear. a Persian writer. and Lang suggests a similar origin for the visions of the "seryers * namely. These forms seemed to grow out of the bright points of light which frequently closed. Gabriel. vol. Raphael. " The Magus/' London. the master of the famous Cornelius to the character As Agrippa. and quality of the crystal to be used.e. 135. Moon. Michael. 1801. Se MSB. Uriel. pellucid crystal of the bigness of a small orange. to encompass the crystal round one-half. . The diviner looks at this surface fixedly until it disappears. Imp. Venus.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 181 of landscape and inanimate objects. without any clouds or specks. 10 of the phe- Some believe that the image perceived in this way takes form on the surface of the mirror. The diviners.. let this be fitted pure gold on an ivory or ebony pedestal. 221. is interposed between him and the mirror.. afterwards the name: Tetragramrnaton. but they are mistaken. we have an interesting passage in the works of Ibn Kaldoun. p. p. them. Abbot Tritheim. says : u Procure of a lapidary a good. Let there be engraved a circle round On the other the crystal. 7 appear when the eyes are In regard to this. He . Upon this curtain are designed the forms he wishes to see. about one inch and a half in diameter. et Ext. and this permits hi. the development of the images from dark or light points in the glass. do not see is realized seen (in the mirror) then describes his perceptions as he has received what is really to be it is another kind of perception. 10 Ibn Kaldoun. then you have got this crystal Get a small plate of fair and clear. which is born in them and which not by sight but by the soul. which are the four principal angels ruling over the Sun. side of the plate let there be engraved. to give indications. de la Bib. i. xix. who gives the following very acute analysis nomena accompanying crystal-gazing. and a curtain. born in 1332. and Mercury. in Notices See Barrett. let it be globular. while in this state. either affirmative or negative. or round each way alike.

and looking in that Mirror's face The Shah beheld the face of his Desire. was substituted for it in the reading of the Scriptures." trans. For this reason. The curious old work entitled "The Famous Historie of Fryar Bacon" gives a number of the strange recitals which became current in England in regard to tial principles^ glass" made by the friar. 84. p. One of these treats of a marvellous " Jami's " Salaman and Absal. greatness and popular fancy wove about his name a fabric of legend in which he appeared as an arch-necromancer and magician. . Bos- ton. and his writings testify to an extraordinarily clear perception of the essenof scientific research. his true was not generally appreciated in his own age. wdw and he. 1899. by Edward Fitzgerald. a Mirror like The bosom of All-wise Intelligence.182 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES The four letters constituting the Tetragrammaton are the Hebrew characters yodh. However. adonai. Reflecting in its mystic compass all Within the sevenfold volume of the World InvoPd. The Persian poet Jami writes thus of a magic mirror in the 12 poem "Salaman and Absal": Yhwh were Then from A his secret Art the Sage Vizyr Magie Mirror made. he. the consonants provided with the vowels of adonai and the name was therefore read Jehovah by Christian scholars. the word lord. to indicate the traditional pronunciation. when the vowel signs were added to the text . in which events happening at far-distant places 13 'Bacon's wonderful powers. Eoger Bacon (1214-1292) was probably the most gifted man of the thirteenth century. mn* As this divine name was regarded in later Judaism as too sacred to be pronounced.

On one occasion two young men. he himself and a companion a few years older received instruction from "Description of the Regalia of Scotland. knew not what to say to one another. The sceptre of the Scottish regalia is surmounted by a crystal globe. two inches and a quarter in diameter. they were met. divination by means of the arts of the specularii was often practised. taking the eares. In former times these stones were regarded as amulets and their use was traced back to the Druids. and the other. between whom the friendliest feelings existed. and having been alwayes great friends. Bart. The Sonne of him was downe could then eontaine himselfe no longer. that his Father had received wrong. came to Bacon and requested him to let them see in the mirror what their fathers were doing at the time.. but told the other young man. p. was the cause of a terrible misfortune. looking to see how they were in health. as it should seeme. that it was f aire. by Sir Walter Scott. while successful. but blowes. but the experiment. that wheresoever they met. Their Sonnes seeing this. The prelate writes that when a boy. had a fall. The friar consented. in England. stood over him ready to strike him. d. He answered againe. At last one of their Fathers. Just at that time. and so fell downe dead. and their bloods were so heated. as they might perceive in the Grlasse. Edinburg. but beheld each other with angry lookes. and the mace by a large crystal beryl. At last there grew such foule words betweene them. 13. ." The testimony of John of Salisbury (11201-1180) shows that in the twelfth century. n. Sir Walter Scott tells us that in his time they were still known among the Scottish 18 Highlanders as "Stones of Power. they had not onely wordes. that advantage. that their Sonnes were : The Fathers of these two Gentlemen this hatred and were together by and had drawne.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 183 were mirrored. that they presently stabbed the one the other with their Daggers. The story is as follows : were become great foes (in their Sonnes absence) betweene them was growne to that height..

" Paracelsus (1493-1541) declares that " to conjure " means nothing more than "to observe anything rightly. Ixxvi. This priest used to polish the finger-nails of the boys with a consecrated oil or ointment. i. and then direct them to look upon the polished surface until some figure or form should appear. participate in the unholy rites that his presence was believed to interfere with the production of the phe- nomena. 1894. but theft was often useful in the detection of and in counteracting magic spells. cap. 28.. 28. 30 ae fols. Certain names pronounced by the priest on these occasions terrified the boy. lib. fol. 15 Under the comprehensive chapter heading: "How to conjure the crystal so that all things may be seen in it. e. vol. such was his reluctance to ." The crystal was of the nature of the air. verso." John of Salisbury states that the specularii claimed that their gift of seeing visions on polished surfaces was never used to injure any one. u Policraticus/' Lyon. recto. recto. but he states that his companion observed certain vague and shadowy forms.184 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES a priest who was addicted to the use of these magic arts. London.. ii." by Arthur Edward Waite. to learn and to understand what it is. called Paracelsus the Great. John of Salisbury regarded it as a mark of divine favor that he himself saw nothing upon the smooth and lustrous surface. lib. 224. and hence all things movable and immovable that could be seen in the seen in the crystal or speculum. Lxxvii. Johannis Saresberensis. ii. polished surface of a basin was used. 1. 1513. for he believed them to be the names of evil spirits indeed. p. Theophrastns Bombast of Hohenheim. cap. Sometimes the smooth. 14 In another part of his "Policraticus. 16 air could also be "Johannis Saresberensis. . " The Hermetic and Alchemical writings of Aureolus Philippus trans. Ixrviii.

and of the Holy Spirit. or rather invocation. and his conclusions are excellent. "In the name of the Father. He. Jod. These images are reversed. I pray to thee most fervently through. the following prayer. receive my greeting and give ear to the humble petition which I offer in the name of the great and highest God. repeating the words. may give the brain for a time the power to evolve kaleidoscopic effects. the great and -unsearchable name of the Lord of all Lords and King of all Kings. One might add. of the Son. forming as it were. The scryer is recommended to place three grains of salt upon his tongue. an internal crystal sphere. edge and instruction in answer to my questions.. Adonay. Amen." in 1658 These preliminaries having been accomplished.CEYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 185 Paracelsus showed keen insight. 1ST. is repeated: thou holy Archangel 1ST. Schatze aus Kloster Bibliotheken. Elohim. He now takes the mirror in his hand and breathes upon it three times. Sehaday. that it is a fact that these are images condensed in the double convex lens. distorted and twisted." are given in an old German manuscript written 17 The mirror is to be set by a Capuchin priest about two inches above a board. in 'Tlandsehriftlichea am Ehein. Tetragrammaton. Directions for the use of an Erdenspiegel. and when they become visible to one who is expecting strange things. however. that thou shalt appear to me in the world-mirror. He. 1T and give me knowl- " Unterricht vom Gebrauch Kapiiziner-Kloster in Immenstat. and the questions to be answered are to be placed beneath it. Zebaoth. they form mental impressions which it is often very difficult to erase. 1658" (Aus dem Eine Handschrift des KapuzinerHeider daselbst) . whereupon he is to repeat a prayer and cross himself. and other influences uniting with the impressions produced. 1734-1810 (reprint) ." Koln des Erdspiegels. Van. . nervous and susceptible. Paters Franziscus Seraph. Many crystal gazers are fre- quently very highly wrought. or "earthmirror.

but so much corrupted by reciters who did not know their meaning that it is now ister. An in the repetition of a difficult to interpret them correctly. If the conjuration is successful. spell to force this spirit to enter the Many of these ancient spells have been preserved. that this form of magic was often regarded proof as quite compatible with religion is offered us in a pas- exceedingly A 18 where we sage from a sixteenth century manuscript. only granted to a favored few as a peculiar privilege. read that the crystal should be laid on the altar "on the Side that the gosp'ell is read on. the conjuration being spoken by the minimportant part of the conjuration consisted number of divine names. In one of these.186 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES The strong the employment of such " white magic. 3851. " It also seems that "scrying" was looked upon as a special gift. most of them originally Hebrew. "And y ask r e e y chylde yf h seethe any thyng. And let the priest say a mass on the same Side." In medieval times it was believed that the vision in the crystal was produced through the agency of an indwelling spirit. ? ' the same manuscript tells us that "these angells being once appeared will not depart the glasse or stone untill the Sonne be sett except you licence them. it was necessary to use religious tone of these directions for the use of the mirror and the fact that it is a priest who gives them. 50b. and they contain a strange and incongruous mixture of religious and magical formulas. therefore. f. and. dating from the end of the fifteenth century. let the m begin his conjuratyo agayn." As usual the scrying was done by a child. and we MS. shows that there was a disposition to tolerate some very potent stone. after a recitation of en a long and rambling conjuration. we read. and yf no. .

de' ' ' ' clared that the spirits that appeared to her in the glass would often follow her about the house from room to 19 room. It was requisite that this 7 19 Jonson. indeed. just as he would have a body-physician. whether glass or quartz. on a Tuesday. and get the latter to form a glass. who confessed that when he led an impure life the daemons would not appear to him in his glass. Faustus. a woman named Sarah Skelhorn. and the spirit replies: "Yes. however mistaken. " The Alchemist/' ed.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 187 read that "Prayer and a good beleefe prevailed much. to a glass-maker. if he could afford it. pp. Both of these scryers had regular employment. " The child scryer. . whose name has been immortal- A ized for all ages by Goethe. Another scryer. We may hope that the seer was not content with this. is shown in the case of the "speculator a Windor. and without it nothing can be effected. my Faust. but also tried to reform his evil ways.' and directs Faust to go. 1903. as though believing that the very air was contaminated by the sins of the operator. for it was quite customary for a gentleman to have a household seer. should not be more than twelve years old. Hathaway. either maid or boy. often animated the crystal-gamers of the sixteenth cen57 of John tury. 145. note. New York. 101. That a certain religious spirit. gives very particular and detailed directions for the preparation and consecration of a crystal. For faith is the cay to this and all other works. so that she at last became weary of their presence. the "Hollenzwang" of Dr. He would then proceed to fumigate the apartment. sixteenth century work on magic. Faust asks his "Mephistophelis" whether such crystals can be made.

The water is then to be poured out over a grave and the sixth chapter of the Eevelation of St. but a price must be paid for it. that is. After the glass has been bought it is to be immersed in baptismal water in which is a first-born male child has been baptized. The crystal when completed must not be accepted as a work should be done When the object gift. as the mere material inert and possessing no virtue were summoned to dwell within it. thou standest at one of heaven. the thief will ap- pear any one is suffering from disease. the character of his malady will be revealed. 472. " Faust in der Gesehichte und Tradition. Mephistopheles directs that it be buried in a grave. If anything has been stolen. in the first.188 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES in the hour of Mars. of tlie w Keisewetter. where it must be left for the space of three weeks. and he directs Faust to call upon the spirits Azeruel and Adadiel also. eighth. Hereupon the following conjuration should be pronounced : thou art a pure and tender virgin. Faust is assured that the three spirits will show him in the crystal whatever he may wish mass was regarded as until certain spirits to know. etc. these preliminaries only served to prepare the crystal for the final consecration. had been secured. . thou gates standest under a cloud of heaven that nothing may be hidden from crystal. if a woman purchased it. she must bury it in a woman's grave. and therein it is to remain for three weeks. Mephistopheles confesses that he alone would not be powerful enough." Leipzig. However. it was then to be unearthed. John is to be read. 1893. p. 20 Another way of preparing a crystal glass or mirror if given in the same work. fifteenth or twenty-second hour of Tuesday. . that nothing may be hidden from thee.

. This sphere of smoky-quartz came to the British Museum in 1700 with the Cottonian Library. Natural size. British Museum. donated at that time by the grandson of the original collector.DR. DEE'S SHEW STONE. Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571-1631).

.

whether master or servant. who was for a time a prominent figure at the court of Emperor Rudolph II. but the top of the excavation caved in and he was crushed to death. recourse being had in some cases to offering the promise of riches or by acan unlawful glimpse into the future. 1575. 22 " Faust in der Geschichte und Tradition. hoping to possess himself of the treasure. p. in a crystal. Dee. Believing in the truth of this vision. " a " demon showed to a priest. 189 wife or maid. 22 charlatan. good. with her most honorable Privy Council. there was both white and black magic. and even appears to have consulted him on political matters. In his diary the doctor relates that the queen called at his house shortly after his wife's death. the priest went to the spot indicated. and in others to evil spirits. where he found an excavation in the form of a cavern. 1563. some time during the year 1530. The queen visited The famous him several times. in the depths of which he could see a chest and a black dog lying alongside it. whether in fields or meadows. whether Let this be said to thee in the name of God. Dr. prestigiis Wieri.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING thee. As an illustration of the latter practice. came purposely to have visited my library: but finding that my wife was within four hours before buried 50 Keisewetter. a sixteenth century writer relates that in the city of Nuremberg. Of this visit he gives the following details : The Queen's Majestie. for thy help. . 121. the vision of a buried treasure. Eagerly the priest entered the cavern. p. was highly favored by Queen Elizabeth. as a plea 21 The posed souls of to be the visions seen in crystal gazing were often supwork of evil spirits. Here. 473. seeking to seduce the men by cording them as in other magical operations. which took place March 16. and other the Lords and Nobility. " De demonum/' Basilese.

Pub. as a rule. In Dr." This variety of quartz may have been chosen because of the Scotch superstitions regarding its virtues . down from her horse by it. . 9. but willed to fetch glass so famous. make their innovations more To give assurance to those who consulted such crystals that no diabolical agency was involved in the production of the phenomena. London. 13 was at Mortlake. and presumably by the answered the questions put by those doubt that Dee used more than one There can be little crystal in the course of his experiments . which I did.). a certain religious ceremonial. by Halliwell. it was usually the notorious Kelley. Dee made Ms first essay with Ms crystal ball. it was customary that a child should be the crystal-gazer. charlatans seek to avail themselves of already exist- ing superstitions in order to acceptable. for. and began with a pious invocation to the angel of It the stone. however. and to show unto her some of the properties of Her Majestie being taken. her Majestie refused to come in . or "smoky-quartz. little girl The description given by Dee of a who frequently acted as the intermediary suggests of the higher powers 33 one of the fanciful 7 " The Private Diary of Dr. who undertook this task of interpreting the crystal visions. TMs celestial being soon graciously deigned to manifest himself in the stone voice of the scryer present. at the church wall of Mortlake.190 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES out of the Louse. to her Majestie's great contentment and delight. that now in the British Museum is of cairngorm. did see some of the properties of that glass. on December 22. John Dee/ ed. his dme damnee. The proceedings were conducted with. 1581. 516). that Dr. Master of the Horse. my the Earle of liecester. 1842 (Camden Sac. p. Dee's experiments. note ("Compendious Memorial/' p.

The diary is somewhat obscure in this particular and easily misunderstood." (Kelley). this gay little figure could be seen flitting about the study. To make her appearance more conspicuous. Her mystic name was Madimi. and with long flowing hair. only by faith and imagination. Dee says. John Dee and Some bon. ? much is represented as speaking. "That sight is perfecter than his. One passage. but there can be little doubt that where Madimi This visionary maiden Madimi." whose love for candy and jewelry was so very earthly. "I know you see me often and I see you looked. times. 1. it is Kelley's voice that transmits to Dee her revelations. London. and she is depicted as a pretty girl about eight years old." Evidently we must understand this to signify something that Kelley has told Dee. a creation of Kelley s fertile brain. often over- Madimi has appeared and her remarks to Kelley and to Dee by turns addressing finally. during the seances. the curiosities." To this Madimi quickly retorts. is . 34 A true and faithful Relation of what passed for Many Yeeres beSpirits.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 191 creations of our great novelist Hawthorne. tween Dr. Casau- . In many respects little Madimi may recall another "spiritual" maiden of whom we heard much a few years ago. gives evidence of this. With preface by Merie. "pointing to E. the sprightly little Indian spirit "Bright Eyes. she was attired in a silk dress with chatoyant effects in red and green. for the latter 's words show that he did not himself see the little fairy pointing to his friend. K. and the magical instru- ments collected so there. rendered even more whimsical and strange from its contrast with the piles of At dusty old books. of in his diary. 1659. p. 24 whom Dee relates was apparently a child of fancy.

the angels. 380-383. The material was to be swete wood" and upon it was to be placed the Sigillum Dei (Seal of crystal. Venus. Corabiel [Cocabiel] and Levaniel. Sloane MS. it. A. It bore a cross and the magic letters A. See B. measuring two cubits each way and two cubits in height. one to be placed under each leg of the table. Nogabiel. . ' ' impressed upon the purest. Mars. Mercury and the Moon. but also its support and surroundings. xxi. The table was to be square. ZedeMel. particular instructions on the matter were also directly imparted to the scryer by the angel Uriel. hanging down with four knops or 25 tassells at the four corners . M. Dee's In one of his manuscripts is recorded the fact that on the 10th of March. Kelley saw in the crystal a representation of the form and arrangement of the table on which it should b set. and it was to have four feet. Of this we have an interesting instance in the. Semeliel scryer the figure of the table with the crystal resting Of this it is said: 25 upon " Under the table did seeme to be layd red sylk to lye four square somewhat broader than the table. Dalton's notes in the Proceedings of the Society of 2d ser. each of these seals being impressd with geometrical figures within or upon which were the seven sacred names of God and the names of the seven angels ruling the seven planetary heavens . 1582. of Saturn.Antiquaries." words signifying "Thou are great forever. L. vol.. A. [Semeshiel]. colorless was. respectively. There then appeared to the Zabothiel. a transliteration G-od) into Eoman characters of the initials of the Hebrew Lord. Four other and smaller seals were to be provided. the disk being 1% inches thick and 9 inches in diameter. Madiniel.192 THE CURIOUS LOKE OF PRECIOUS STONES Not only the quality of the crystal had to be considered.. Jupiter. 3188. the Sun. Gr.case of Dr.

CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING thereof. his hair hangeth down a his round table of Christal. we are reminded. somewhat curling. When reading the words spoken by Kelley and so carefully preserved by Dr. with a brighter Gold than the rest. of the minute descriptions so glibly given by modern mediums. he hath no berd. 73. 193 Uppon the uppermost red silk did seme to be set the stone with the frame. His phisiognomy is like the pictures of King Edward the quarter of the length of the Cap. white. Dee in the greatest detail. aside from the archaic turn of speech. April visitor. 13 . with a Cape with three pendants with tassels on the end of them all green. 1584. Cracow. Dee. The personages Kelley pretended to see in or around the magic crystal were described by Trim to Dr. and indeed the effect of color may perhaps better serve to neutralize troublesome reflections than does black. He hath a rod or wand in his hand. and this undoubtedly served to lend more reality and authority to their communications. ? we may first take his description of "Nalvage. He standeth upon Sixth. almost as big as my little finger. or rather Mother of Pearl. It is true that ""Casaubon's "Relation/' p." a spirit that appeared while the doctor and his famulus were in 10. Dee. right over and uppon the principal seal. and divided into three equal parts. saving that the sayd sylk was betwene the one and the other/' It therefore seems that the prejudice in favor of a black or at least a dark background for the crystal did not appeal to Dr. As an illustration of Kelley s inventiveness in this matter. On his head is nothing. and seemeth to shine. yellow. it is fur. it is of Gold. with a wavering glittering. The : and was subsequently a frequent seer introduces his new " control' > as f ollows 26 He hath a Gown of white silk.

In many cases. the spirits of the former owners of the land. 255. upon whom her parents look with disfavor. p. "Die Aller-Edelste Zeit-Verkiirtung der ganzen Welt. the hopes. The girl is so terrified at the sight that she faints away. in rapt attention. proceeds more or less consciously to fulfil make it happen. "Rist. Fully persuaded that what has been seen must come to pass. The sequel of this vision is a runaway match. The young girl. crystal is brought out wrapped in a yellow handkerchief. and they appear to be about to set forth upon a long and perilous journey. As an instance of this 2T we may take from an old Ger- man book the tale of a lovelorn maiden who seeks the aid of an enchantress to learn whether she will marry her lover. and is placed in a green bowl beneath which is spread a blue cloth. 1668. or she." Franekf urt on dem Mayn. to the prediction. at last own form and that of her Both look pale and sad. of the blameless aborigines. indeed. and we can easily understand that when the lover proposed tols. the reflections from these The mystic different colors being probably calculated to stimulate the optic nerve and favor the appearance of some picture upon the polished surface of the crystal. he. the vision is only prophetic because it determines the future conduct of the person who consults the stone.194 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES America. in other world. . or the fears of the gazer. looks long and earnestly. for the lover wears riding-boots and carries a brace of pisshe cries out that she sees her lover. seem to have acquired a quasi monopoly of the intercourse with the lately. of the early records of crystal-gazing show conclusively enough that the images revealed in the stone Most were produced by the expectations.

235-8. at Hill. 631-4. The Devi and Euclid o'er and o'er. and Tnis second part was issued in 1663. Earls of Peters- Butler." wherein all the foibles of the seventeenth century are castigated. Canto in. Prince label now in the collection of Alexis Soltykoff. This came into the possession later (1853) into that of is Lord Londesborongh. Smythe Piggott and it polished slab of black stone. confine the operations of his scryer or scryers to brilIn the collection of Horace Walpole. Dr. Horace Walpole wrote a for the long been owned by borough. was a of Mr. Dee used to call his spirits. Strawberry obsidian. who gave it to Horace Wal28 in which he says that it had the Mordaunts. stone. Dnke of Argyle." Part II. Lascus and th Emperor. from Mexico. And all tb/ intrigues 'twist him and Kelley. and was described in the catalogue of their collection as the black stone into which Dr. does not fail to make mention of Dee and Kelley and their crystal. Where. and did not indeed liant spheres. the girl believed that it was written in the book of fate and willingly agreed to undertake it. Of the sorcerer whose aid Hudibras seeks we are told 28 : He'd read Dee's prefaces before. In his experiments in crystal-gazing.CEYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 195 this adventure. Later it was owned by John Campbell. 11. "Hudibras. The great humorous poem "Hudibras. ? Kelley did all his feats upon a stone The devil's looking-glass. playing with him at bo-peep He solved all problems ne'er so deep. Dee evidently used more than one crystal. . would tell ye. four years after Casau- bon's publication of Dee's journal.

a moment or two. whether flat or convex. these shifting light-points and the more or less definite and repeated reflections of surrounding objects offer abundant material out of which to construct life- which asserts itself for apparently seen in the crystal. The following history and description of a ball is given by John Aubrey (1626-1697) : crystal I have here set the possession of Sir 28 down the figure of a consecrated Beryl now in Edward Haxley. there can be no doubt. introd. indeed. when the diverse images coalesce again. Knight of the Bath. THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES 29 Undoubtedly any polished surface. the possible advantage of a convex or a spherical form consists in the multiplying of the reflections and light points so that the sight is induced to wander from point to point. p. That the brain-pictures thus thrown out. London. by Thomas Wright.196 pole. For one gifted with imagination and the natural quality of visualizing brainpictures. depends upon the significance we are inclined to attribute to the processes of the subconscious intelligence. too. and that forms and even motions are suggested by the superposition and combination of the various reflections. though imperfectly. and many of our best thinkers incline to the belief that through it the narrow limits of our personality are occasionally transcended. might serve the purpose of the scryer almost equally well. which Miscellanea graphica: [Representations of Ancient Medieval and Renaissance remains in the Possession of Lord Londesborongh. so to speak. like pictures other than their value as mere phenomena. 1857. Often. of its existence. giving an impression of movement. may or may not have a peculiar psychic value. 81. this sometimes provoking the phenomenon of binocular vision. upon the crystal. a light point visible to one eye will not be so to the other. .

3. Rock-crystal spheres having portions of the surface ground so that they are rendered par opaque. 4. Natural cross of rock-crystal. 2.1. New York. On dolomite. . Osaining.

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Afterwards a miller had it and he did work great cures with it (if curable). the stem of it is about ten inches high.) (There is . of silver. "Miscellanies/' London. and in his Cimelia." but replied that he desired to see his wife who was many miles distant. the diameter of it I guess to be something more than an inch." demonstrated his power to evoke the image of a distant person on the surface of a mirror. This Beryl this Beryl came into somebody's hand in strange things by it. pp. by these angels the minister was forewarned of his death. bid my Friend look in it. To this minister. who practised Physick. and because the miller (who was his familiar friend) one day happened 1 to see them. "Upon this. : In Ms "Sudducismus Triumphatus. which he did. At the four quarters of it are the names of four angels. a minister had it there. It came first from Norfolk. 1645). Afterwards tell London who did questioned for it. This account I had from Mr.CETSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING he keeps in his closet at 197 Brampton Bryan in Herefordshire amongst saw there. the spirits or angels would appear openly. it is set in a ring. insomuch that at last he was and it was taken away by authority (it was about is a perfect sphere. or circle. as he found upon enquiry when he came 30 Aubrey. Hill any one the latter wished to great confidence in his talk. 1890. he gave him the aforesaid Beryl and Call. or else the herb. and setting it down again. Hill "had no Looking-glass that was in the Boom. 156. 30 viz Uriel. and then. Gabriel. and pretends to strange Matters. he saw the exact Image of his Wife. all gilt. Q-lanvil relates that Compton offered to show to a Mr. Raphael. as he most solemnly and seriously prof esseth. a figure on p. either the receipt in writing. On the top is a cross patee. resembling the meredian of a globe. Compton took up a see. 156. 157. which I the Beryl they did see. Ashmole. and a call was to be made with it. " Joseph Glanvil writes that "one Compton of Summersetshire. Michael. in that Habit which she then wore and working at her Needle in such a part of the Room which and about which time (then represented also) in she really was.

he shortly after became a Cath32 If we exclude all idea of trickery. p. from Vie de Glanvil. Cagliostro took courage. . Italien. " "Carlyle. among his other arts to excite curiosity and play upon the superstition of his contemporaries. "Miscellanies. 155. addressed their prayers to God for the happy accomplishment the as- child cried that he Having bid the child look into the Bottle. 1890. whereon stood a Bottle of pure water.. and he is a very sober. The celebrated Cagliostro. ii. 509. xvi. 33 Joseph Balsamo. 31 At first the child said : "I see some- " Saddueismus 7 Triumphatus/ London." A contemporary record recites that when a certain Sir (of the seventeenth century) was in Italy. He an exorcism round the boy. he went to a sorcerer and was shown in a glass his own figure kneeling before a crucifix. In the only authentic biography of this extraordinary impostor occurs the following passage. Compton had no knowledge of him before. 1726. directly saw a garden. traduite d'apres Poriginal 1791). Knowing hereby that Heaven him. He was by 31 all accounts a very odd Person. Works. p. it is likely olic." Ashburton ed. vol. which we give in 33 Carlyle's version: little Boy into the Lodge. intelligent. and behind this some lighted candles: he made Cagliostro brought a there. Marmaduke Langdale enough that the idea of becoming a Catholic was already present to the seryer's mind and called up this picture before him. p. Though a Protestant at this time. ch." London. had recourse to a species of crystal-gazing. put of the work.198 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES home. in this attitude. Aubrey. a Sicilian whose real name was Giuseppe Balsamo. son of a nobleman placed him on his knees before a table. sisted his hand on his head and both. and bade the child ask of God the grace to see the angel Michael. The Gentleman himself averred this to me. 281. and credible Person. and was an ntter stranger to the Person of his Wife. 111 (Paris.

and suggestion did the rest . the child so as to convince those present at the experiment that had really seen a representation of some actual happening. stamp" There now I see a child ing like a possessed creature. Taken all satisfactory. and embracing one of her brothers. what fate was in store for him. he looked into the Bottle. among those upon whom fell the suspicions of the Jacobins was General Marliere. if not. A few days before the date fixed for his appearance before his judges. and learn. he met a colonel in the French army. and cried : 77 like myself. or. and the general immediately declared that he was eager to put the matter to the test. He knew that a trial and quite probably a condemnation awaited him. and. The anew remained speechless with emotion. believing as he 'did in the revelations of the crystal. and who was a firm believer in the truth of the visions seen in crystal balls. probably at first very unwilling he thought that 7 General Marliere s doom was sealed. however.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 199 thing white. Cagliostro child being himself. he dreaded the re- . but their usual effect in all this experiment does not seem very we have in it all the essential phases Excitement and expectation produced upon an impressionable child. exorcised with the hand of the Venerable on his head. The colonel was to undertake the experiment. . and the customary prayer addressed to Heaven. the brother in question being then hundreds of miles off. and see. if possible. I know not what it is. who had served in the American Bevolutionary War. it would be explained of crystal-gazing. ." Then he began jumping. the final vision may have been corroborated in some way. During the Terror. and said he saw his sister at that moment coming' down That appeared impossible. In the course of the conversation this subject was alluded to. stairs. and . All the as! sembly. that seems to have something angelical. said they might send to the country- house where the sister was. Cagliostro felt not disconcerted.

476. however.200 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES and the experiment took place. guillotined. crystal appeared a man wearing a private 's uniform of the National Guard struggling with one wearing a general's uniform. which could scarcely have been known to any of those who assisted at the crystalgazing. however. It is claimed that the grandson Leipzig. should have been revealed in the crystal. exclaiming that the general's assailant had thrown him down and was beheading him. "Faust in der Geschiclite 1893. und Tradition/' . The child was much excited and terrified by the sight. the official executioner. 34 That this altogether unusual circumstance. The prediction was. Samson. and letter. is cerbut. tainly very mysterious. p. Many extraordinary visions are said to have been seen in crystal balls by a French scryer whos'e grandmother had clairvoyant powers and was sometimes consulted * by Napoleon I. found guilty. this would be one of the in which the vision seen in the crystal re- produced something entirely unknown to the scryer. This in itself did not mean much in view of the innumerable executions in the time of the Terror. Kiesewetter. but the peculiar dress of the executioner was a mystery to those present at the test. desiring to gratify his personal vanity and to attract the gaze of the spectators. official on the day of this execution. As usual. the medium was an "innocent " In the child. If we had positive assurance that the events narrated happened exactly in the way few instances they are said to have happened. dressed himself in the uniform of a national guardsman. That the vision portended the general's execution was suits. for the garb bore no resemblance whatever to a soldier's uniform. the general insisted clear enough. fulfilled to the General Marliere was tried.

could be committed to the House of Correction. in a more or less definite way. In England all those who attempted. of Yucatan. Means. to reveal the hidden secrets of the future. when they should have been permitted to rest in their tombs until the hour of the Resurrection. This exceptional sensitiveness to occult influences was also shown when the crystalgafcer went to the Boulaq Museum in Cairo. and had predicted. or 35 diviner. with a greater or less degree of success. and gazed exhibited there . places great re- George TV. on such occasions he feels.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 201 has enjoyed the patronage of many royal personages. and the atassassination of Alfonso XIII and of his young tempted bride. upon the rows of mummies ately felt. were expressly designated as rogues and vagabonds according to the terms of an act passed June 21. the King Humbert of Italy. This class of undesirable citizens comprised all using subtle Craft. by Palmistry or otherwise" for the deception of his Majesty's subjects. 35 Such offenders. when they were returning to the palace after the conclusion of the marriage ceremony. This French assassination of scryer has stated that he is powerfully affected when he is consulted by any one destined to die a violent death. "any The h'men. . a modified form of the particular kind of suffering they are fated to experience. on being duly convicted before the Justice of the Peace. in his own organism. 1824. " there to be kept at hard Labour " for any time not exceeding Three Calendar Months. spirits at seeing their embalmed bodies exposed to the vrew of the idle crowd. or Device. he immedi- as intensely as though it were a personal exthe mingled sorrow and rage of the disembodied perience. cap.

Capt. made a great friend of a medicine-man named Na-a-ehe by giving him a large crystal of denticulated spar. 165. 31 . or clear stone. 1887-1888. Burke that by looking into his crystal he could see everything he this wanted to see. Burke his crystal offers great assistance. As these stones are supposed to possess such miraculous powers we need not be surprised that one of them should be found in almost every village in Yucatan. 1890.202 THE CUEIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES liance " upon Ms zaztun. That was thoroughly satisfactory to the medicine-man at least. and also what absent persons are doing at the time he maies his obserNot only this. much superior to the crystal relates that he and to this end John Gr. is shown by his statement to Capt. the diviner claims to be able to see in the depths of the crystal the whereabouts of lost articles. The Apache medicine-men are also fully persuaded that crystals possess the virtue of inducing visions. gum-copal being burned before it. or else some other translucent stone. but in order to serve for divining purposes it must be sanctified according to special rites. p. 461. and they have used them for the purpose of finding lost prop- To aid in the recovery of stolen ponies is one of erty. Washington. Of the way this came about he did not attempt any explanation. "Essays of an Americanist/* Philadelphia. but the future is also laid bare before his eyes. 36 vation. 37 *Brinton. " Burke. 1892. When thus rendered fit for use. and certain magic formulas recited." This may be a quartz crystal. p. The Medicine-men of the Apache/' Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. which have been transmitted from generation to generation in an archaic dialect. he had been in the habit of using for his visions. the most important tasks of the Apache medicine-man.

and this stone is a powerful amulet in Uganda when fastened into leather. " The Golden Bough/' pt. piercing it along its axis 3 after rubbing on the pyramid points of the crystal." vol. and on one occasion Dr. or else grinding it into a complete cylinder. and through them the boys. from whose jaws they had been broken. " The Magic Art. 1911. 176. sometimes leaving the natural six sides. i. 38 In a paper entitled "The Origin of Jewelry. Sorcerers in Africa carry a it small bag of pebbles as an important part of their equipment." read before the British Association. p. Lon- don. From this bead came the artificial cylindrical glass beads made later by the Egyptians. and on this account great was expressed lest the custodian should place the precious teeth in the same bag with some rock-crystals. He holds the same view in regard to cylinders and rings. The crystal was used to light the sacrificial fire and was tians used so employed in the church down to the fifteenth century. Howitt was entrusted with the care of a number of these teeth.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING The magic power supposed 203 to dwell within rock-crystal has been recognized in a peculiar way by some natives of New South Wales. So was in Greece. Professor W. i. They have the barbarous custom of knocking out one or more of the front teeth of their boys at the obligatory initiation ceremonies. . Professor Eidgreley believes that the primary use of all these objects was because of their supposed magic powers. although they cannot bore them. which are believed to preserve a certain undefined connection with the health and fortunes of their former possessors. considering that the use of these as signets 18 Fraser. Egypit largely under the XII Dynasty. fear for the natives thought that the magic power of these crystals would injuriously affect the teeth. Eidgeley says: Australians and tribes of New Guinea use crystals for rain-making.

Crystal Gazing. who would then hang up a piece of white paper and utter a spell. which have fallen from heaven. influences propitious to the diviner's efforts. 1898. 40 The Mexicans made images of their god Tezcatlipoca of obsidian. . These stones. In the notes to the 1888 edition of the Chinese criminal code. 48. While this designation certainly seems to indi- cate the use of a polished sphere of some description.204 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES only became habitual at a later time. perfectly true. some curious details are given of a practice called Tuan-kuang-fuchou (the magic of the round glittering). unquestionably." This is supposed to refer to. are We when anything was stolen appeal was sometimes made to a certain Sun-Yuan iSheng. but does not in the least prove that such not have been originally worn simply for purposes of adornment. and he finds a proof of this theory in the fact that unengraved Babylonian cylinders and Mycenean gems have been discovered. were attached to the corners of the boards whereon the sorcerers produced crystals to aid to were said their geomantic figures. and the name of this divinity is interpreted as signifying "shining mirror." London. the details given refer to a different practice. p. 91-92. pp. ornaments may Flacourt stated that the natives of Madagascar used them in divining. the brilliant effect "The Making of Thomas. told that unlawful practice. the crystals but were only supposed to attract directly used. while a boy gazed upon the paper until he saw the figure of the This magician was punished for carrying on an thief. 1905." London. however. the custom of engraving them so as to render them signets must have arisen at a much later date. This is. or to have been expressed by. 39 were not Here. of course. " Beligion.

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On After invoking boy was directed to fix Ms gaze. the process of scrying was precisely the same as in crystal-gazing. . Mirrors of this material are said to have been used for divination in ancient Mexico and the neighboring countries. the visitors were permitted to ask him questions. 7 " The Fundamental Principles of- Old and New World Civilization/ Cambridge. and after he had shown that he was thoroughly under the magician's influence. the great Arabic scholar. Lane was strongly impressed by the exhibition. The master of ceremonies was an Arab magician. 80. Dee in his experiments in crystal vision. at first. by describing the images suggested to him. that is to say. Although Lane himself was perfectly familiar with Arabic. a single instance will suffice. though. remarkable series of tests in the art of scrying. who as- many mysterious geniuses and burnincense and scraps of paper inscribed with magic foring mulas. 1901. The answers were successful in most cases. illustrates the fallibility of most of the evidence adduced in such matters. in the presence of Lane..41 One of these Mexican mirrors seems to have been employed by Dr. Mass. When the boy was asked to describe Admiral this the 41 Nuttall. Although no crystal was used. of course. p. for. he did not do the scrying himself. tire magician drew a magic square on a large sheet of paper and dropped a quantity of ink in the centre. for it is generally thought that half-grown boys or girls are more receptive. but employed a boy for this purpose. given A and translator of the Arabian Nights. an interpreter was always present in the interest of the other Europeans sisted at the experiments. the vision calted for by the visitors was seen by the scryer on a polished surface.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 205 of the polished surface of the obsidian.

he has one of his arms across his breast. It also seemed as though there could be no collusion. or were supposed to appear. however. he replied there is something strange about him. usually took along a child of the household. for one reason or another. the witch herself did the scrying. he added: "No. makes this explanation almost certainly the correct one. who would describe or identify it saw on the water's surface." Then. and there can be little doubt that he managed to suggest the boy's answer. however. the whereabouts of stolen objects. a distinction the forms . "I see a man clothed in a dark garb Nelson. on the smooth surface of the waters of a well. he has but one arm. If. for it was well known that Nelson usually had the empty sleeve of his coat pinned to his breast. and the person who saw such images was called ~kornalogli. "he who looks into a well. ' ' This correction impressed those present more than the first statement. Unfortunately." An Arab woman living in the neighborhood of Constantinople enjoyed a great reputation for her power in this respect. The Armenians sometimes practised divination by watching the images that appeared. for both the magician and the boy were ignorant of everything English and evidently knew nothing of Nelson. The fact that no satisfactory results were obtained when this interpreter was absent.206 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES : . no child was brought.. Whoever wished to question this woman regarding the cause of an illness. etc. and was frequently consulted by Armenians and by other dwellers in the Turkish capital. for those who would fain believe that there is something supernatural in scrying. and the actual scrying was generally performed by this child. quickly correcting himself. In regard to illness. I was mistaken. masquerading as an Arab. it was later discovered that the interpreter was a renegade Scotchman.

Indeed. viii. 42 ** Proc..44 This does not imply that some highly nervous and fcven hysterical individuals have not " Notes sur la mythologie Anneneenne. for many of the most successful experimenters have been of good and even of exceptionally vigorous physique. 42 The peris of Armenian legend were sometimes good and sometimes evil spirits in the former case these were supposed to perform the functions of guardian angels. London. vol. fact that stinctive when one Armenian felt at first sight an in- sympathy for another. . 470. be seen to glide over the surface of the water. he would say. 1893. "My peri loves you dearly (peris cliad siretz Jcezi). The power to see images in a crystal does not appear to depend to any great extent upon a morbid nervous condition of the seer. a kind of consumption. the Ninth Cong. illness seems to diminish or destroy this power. 832. p. vol. e. Soc." in Trans. p. the sorceress would find it necessary to invoke the whole race of peris to come to the aid of the patient. of Orient. ii. 1. 835. This found expression in the . at least in the case of those who are habitually healthy. of Psych. 43 These spirits were therefore supposed to encourage or discourage greater intimacy with newcomers in accord with the true interests of those over whom they watched. Research. (1892). p. who was expected to pay more than the usual fee for this very special service. the feeling of antipathy was also attributed to the attitude assumed by the guardian spirit toward the new acquaintance. and every one was said to have a peri especially delegated to watch over him. of Teheraz." In the contrary case. 43 Teheraz.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 207 was made between "natural" maladies and those directly caused by some spirit. Should the spirit (peri) supposed to cause the dire malady known as drseve.

and the reply came duly to hand. On one occasion this lady was at a loss to remember the correct address of a friend whose letter. the address she had forgotten. she had torn up.208 THE CURIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES been favored with " crystal visions. but it s'eems almost certain that they do not offer anything but the ideas or impres7 ' sions existing in the One of the minds or optic nerves of the gazers. She mailed her answer to this address. What are the laws that govern the production of these " phenomena? That the visions are real enough has been proven time and again. which show how easy it would be for a less critical observer to suppose that the crystal revealed something unknown to the gazer. in conversation with the writer. This visual fixation has centred her whole being in such a way that her health has notably improved. most painstaking students of the subject. which was . and after a few minutes saw in it. Miss Goodrich-Freer. She resorted to her crystal. a few years ago. while those whose nerves are disordered are subject to the hypnotic influence of others. on the subject of crystal balls. but by fixing her gaze upon any bright object. received a few days before. At the end of two years she found that by concentration she had been able to better her understanding of herself." Very probably the rule here is the same as in ordinary hypnotism. in gray letters on a white ground. gives many instances in proof of this. A well-known lady in New York City. and this effect is not only obtainable now by means of a crystal ball. Those persons who have a strong will and sound nerves are able to hypnotize themselves. with the address stamped in gray upon the white paper of the note. was advised by him to try a ball herself and see what results she obtained.

but merely the words of the scryer. However. after a short lapse of time. 45 The visual had been stirred up and " externalized " itself impression when she gazed upon the crystal. We all know how exceedingly hard it is to repeat. and imagina- cannot know. The attempt to identify either persons or scenes observed by the scryer with real persons and real scenes must always be open to the objection that the one who makes the identification has no photographic impression upon which to base his judgment. v.CEYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING identical with that she 209 had first received. This takes place quite unconsciously. but the memory of the vision. and the informant will be fully persuaded that all the circumstances are related exactly as they occurred. and where there exists the least wish to make the prophecy accord with the event. and that the rest are only inexplicable because the scryer has forgotten the source of the impression that is projected on the surface of the crystal. p. 48 unknown Proc. for Psych. There is a natural growth and modification of mental impressions. vol. this growth and modification will be in tHe direction of agreement. that is later brought into compari- son with actual facts. Coincidence accounts for much. all the circumstances and details of any occurrence. or the vision with the coincident happening. even in these tion for more. 14 . when carefully examined. When we remember to Trim. due to association of ideas. 507. there is little difficulty in finding an explanation. of the Sac. Eesearch. It is true that both Miss Goodrich-Freer and many other crystal-gazers note instances in which the vision appears to represent something the scryer does not and cases. since it is not the vision itself. We believe that this explains the larger number of such visions.

a lady. we can easily appreciate the great chances of error entailed by the use of a verbal description of a visionary experience. p. favored by Orientals." London. *7 Thomas. however.. pp. reported genuine ones. can also see them in ink. . in view of the fact that the crystal sphere is said to appear black to the eye before the pictures are seen. the crystal ball. XI* Xll. said that as a child she had seen pictures in ink that she had 46 This method has been much spilled for the purpose. One of the scryers. theless. it would seem that some naturally black surface would be particularly adapted for the purpose. e. "Crystal Gazing.210 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES what mistakes have been made in identifying individuals from photographs. While Lang does not quite venture " visions" to him were to ass'ert that all the surface. states that. he inclines to the belief that this was the case with many of them. 1908. very impartial witness. Andrew Lang. he saw nothing himself. in the course of a series of experiments he made in crystal-gazing. or on. An interesting point regarding the phenomena of crystal-gazing is the effect produced by magnification upon the images seen in. 1. or on. that not all of those who s'ee pictures in. it appeared to grow milky-hued and then became black. even when the person giving the description is both willing and able to make it as 'exact and adequate as possible. Experience has shown. upon this dark background the pictures showed themselves. Lang's preface. xxi. As to "Thomas. a 47 Neverglass or crystal sphere. but found that a surprisingly large proportion of those who tried were successful in seeing pictures of some sort on the polished A Almost invariably. when the gazer fixed his eyes upon the sphere.

while sonre experimenters assert that the interposi- tion of a magnifying-glass enlarges the image. that he would see a play-bill on the crystal When he was awakened and the crystal ball was placed before him. of the Soc. then we can safely assume that 48 Proc. one of the most critical witnesses. being reduced by the circular surface. the result is due to the expectation of the gazer based upon his experience of an invariable rule. Indexed. When. but in the beholder's eye. and may have been either before or behind the operator. he said that he could see only detached letters. therefore when this image appears more clearly under magnification. The magnifying-glass would naturally make the small. however. no result or a negative result follows the use of the glass. Usually. as a play-bill would be many times larger than a crystal ball. in perfect accord with the suggestion. On tire other hand. p. 48 This image may have been reflected from some part of the room where the gazer had not noticed it. . Research. This acts as a stimulus upon the visual function. we have the case of a subject who had been told. for. while in the hypnotic state. but when he looked through a magnifying-glass he saw all the letters distinctly and read the name of the play. W. Verrall. condensed letters legible. however. vol. A. 473.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GLAZING 211 this matter there is considerable difference of opinion. the image is not on the surface of the crystal. declares that her vision entirely disappeared when she held a magnifying-glass before her eyes. for Psych. which must be in an exceedingly sensitive state to produce visions at all. Mrs. viii. others have not remarked any difference in its size under these conditions. and its minute image naturally too small to read.

49 Among the instructions given to a would-be crystal gazer. 1910. as the old astrolo- gers recognized an affinity between the crystal. dation made by one Moreover.212 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PBECIOUS STONES the gazer was naturally of a critical turn of mind. . 50 Above all the portion of the lunar month when the moon is on the increase is said rock- to be far the best season for scrying. indeed. asserts that his clearest and most satisfactory visions were seen in a cube of blue beryl. as anything which tends to disturb the serenity of the organism will also interfere with the due itself in crystal visions. 49 moon and Shepharial. the question of a proper and wholesome diet is not overlooked. pp. "Crystal Gazing. glass became a disturbing influence. or of chicory (CicJiorium inty'bus). 20. because of their tonic and antibilious qualities. proceeding on the theory that subtle emanations from them affected the gazer and played an important part in That the beryl produced a producing the desired vision. Many attempts have been made to establish distinctions between the different materials used for crystals." London. number of these visions than any other mineral greater was the old belief which is still upheld in some Quarters to-day. exercise of the special clairvoyant faculty that expresses curious special recommen- A of the exponents of the art is that good results can be had by drinking an infusion of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). we are told that these herbs are under the influence of the zodiacal sign Libra. the sign controlling the virtues of the beryl. one scryer. interfering with or even completely obliterating tire eye-picture. the beautiful color appearing to dispose the soul to a harmonious unfolding of its latent aptitudes. 21. 14. and was disposed to distrust sensual impressions hence the . 80 "The Crystal and the Seer/' London [1900?]. p. John Melville.

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The passive subject on the other hand is more apt to see a clear and definite picture of the persons or events revealed to him. that is to say. sometimes established. and he proceeds to interpret this in accord with certain generally received rules. In the former case the crystal visions are more apt to be symbols denoting some past or future event than a clear picture of the the mentality of the "positive" subject being. Sometimes that picture is distinctly perceptible' on or about the surface of the crystal. The distinction between past and future is admitted to offer greater difficulty and a decision as to this point must depend upon a kind of intuitive and undefined impression on the part of the scryer. perhaps. however. or in accord with his own personal experience. and simply a symbol. This process is not.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING The claim is 213 made that the adept at crystal-gazing can determine by the apparent difference in proximity of the visions whether they refer to the present or to a more or less remote past or future. Instead of so doing it transforms the impression received from this image into some symbolic form. too strong merely to mirror the image cast upon it. Those who have made a sympathetic study of crystal" " seen in or on the gazing recognize that the visions crystal differ according to the mental and psychic temTwo broad distinctions are perament of the scryer. but the scryer of this type is supposed nevertheless to have an instinctive appreciation of the fact that what he sees is purely event itself. consciously done. the one class comprising those whose mental attitude is a "positive" one while the second class includes the "passive" subjects. while at other times the visual perception will be rather indefinite and clouded. are nearer or farther removed in time from the period when the vision appears. although accompanied by a strong men- .

Sept. for the mind must assume a purely passive and receptive attitude. is also admitted by many. definite information as to what special structural characteristics render glass or rock-crystal particu53 The help that may be larly efficient in this direction. 03 53 " Crystal Gazing. before the British Association for the 51 Advancement of Science." 11-13. 47. 1910." London. impart any derived from crystal-gazing by those who are striving to pierce the veil that separates the "real life" about us from those who believe in that spiritual life which is so much more real for 54 it. 51 The proper use of the crystal is the prime factor in the art of scrying and great attention is paid to this point by all those who treat seriously of the subject. . author on "psychomancy" affirms that fixing the gaze upon a crystal ball is one of the very best means of bringing out the latent faculty of astral vision. "The Crystal and the Seer." Chicago Melville. is quite essential. or even from a sense of physical discomfort. London [1900?] pp. Shepharial. and he finds a reason for this in the atomic structure. p. Among other things they recognize that freedom from pain.214 tal THE CUEIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES impression in itself equivalent to that which wonld have been induced by an actual and objective vision. An He does not. 14. p. p. 1910." London. "We cannot refrain from citing here the words spoken by Sir Oliver Lodge at Birmingham. the molecular arrangement of the material. 46. 1913. The Astral Plane. for which reason a reasonable time should be allowed to lapse after taking a meal. " Practical Atkinson. [1908]. Psyehomancy and Crystal Gazing. w See Leadbeater. however. before trying for 52 crystal visions. 10. and not be forced to take cognizance of bodily discomfort Moreover the nervous system must be in repose.

55 to rest. and set seven candlesticks with wax tapers gazers in front of the screen. during which he is to avoid thinking of anything in par- The ticular while keeping his eyes fixed intently upon the ball. the The tapers are then to be lighted. flat surface on the sphere. Should the eyes w "water" "How be regarded as an Verner. 16. laying his hands flat upon it. circular. as a result of scientific investigation of occult phenomena.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 215 affirming his conviction. he is advised to put it beneath his pillow when retiring points in the crystal. and may also lessen the troublesome and baffling reflections which interfere so seriously with the projection of the mental picture. and to gaze fixedly upon the crystal for half an hour or longer. protect it from the reflections of surrounding objects by means of a velvet screen. The light from the tapers will certainly ensure a multitude of light That the molecules forming the sphere may always remain en rapport with the gazer. and that personality persists beyond bodily death/' One of the latest types of glass balls for crystal-gaz- ing has a small. This may possibly be of service in furnishing a better field for the expected vision. this is to indication that the gazer has persisted to Know Your Future. room being otherwise in perfect darkness. method that has been recommended to crystal- A is to place the crystal on a table. "that memory and affection are not limited to that association with matter by which alone they can manifest themselves here and now. after the test is concluded. . and the would-be scryer is to seat himself comfortably before the table. but without any undue straining of attention." London [1910?]. p. crystal gazer is strongly advised by some to limit the duration of his experiment at first to five minutes.

Lesson 24. 1912. before. the scrying should not be carried few minutes at a time. that it may reveal to the gazer events happening in some distant place. for brain-fag is to be strictly avoided. Aided this suggestion she was able to resume her composiby tion 55 A and successfully terminate her story. if she lost the thread of the story she was writing. as in the simple picture evolved by an image of the past. New York. and would see mirrored therein the scenes and personages of her tale. An acceptance of this claim must depend largely upon our attitude toward premonitions and prophecies in general. then we possible to exterhave at least a begin- ning of successful scrying. use of crystal gazing to aid literary composition has been reported in the case of an English authoress of note. See Hereward Carrington's Correspondence Course of Instruction in Psychic Development.216 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES too long. or even events yet to transpire in the dim future. thought to be seen on. Even after considerable pracon for more than a tice. That it may go far beyond this. as such a state depresses instead of arousing the hidden and higher psychic faculties. and see it as an image as is element of consciousness. When it is nalize this interior vision. the latter carrying on the plot in dramatic action. who. such an present to the consciousness of many when they call to mind a scene of some vivid past experience. is often claimed. the crystal is merely the background upon which are cast the 56 mind-pictures or soul-pictures arising within our being. is in its essence a fancied projection of a purely mental image conceived in the brain. would resort to her crystal. or the face of someone they have known. Here. The faculty of visualization plays The image a most important part in crystal-gazing. . or behind the surface of the crystal.

JAPANESE.CRYSTAL BAT. SUPPORTED BY BRONZE DRAGON. .L.

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it is rock-crystal is the "perfect jewel/ at once a symbol of purity and of the infinity 7 of space. Our illustration.000. while the larger and more brilliant ones were said to be the saliva of the Violet Dragon. used both in China and Japan to designate rock-crystal.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CfiYSTAE GAZING 217 In Japan the smaller rock-crystals were believed to be the congealed breath of tire White Dragon. The Japanese methods of working rock-crystals are extremely simple and depend more upon the skill and patience of the workers than upon the tools at their command. shows the process of manufacturing . one of the largest perfect spheres ever produced. that much of the Japanese material really comes from China. that rock-crystal was ice which had been so long congealed that it could not be liquefied. As the dragon was emblematic teem of the highest powers of creation. and repeated even by seventeenth century writers. Chinese. who probably derived their appreciation of it from the suisho. reflects the idea current in ancient times. and also of patience and perseverance. A Many on fine crystal balls are made in Japan. the mate- rials being large. The diameter is 6% inches and the ball was held at about $20. however. tama. taken from a sketch made by an Oriental traveller. The name For the Japanese. latter significance probably originating This vation of the patience and crystal. has been made from rock-crystal of Madagascar. It is stated. It is a very perfect sphere and of faultless material. from an obsershown by the accurate and painstaking Japanese cutters and polishers of rockskill crystal ball. clear masses in the mountains the islands of Nippon and Fusiyama and also in the found in granitic rocks of Central Japan. this indicates the esin which the substance was held by the Japanese.

218 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES The rough mass of crystal is gradually crystal balls. Trans. The workman has his feet firmly braced against a support. This is illustrated in the case of the method practised upon 67 in Oberstein. the fabrication of rock-crystal is accomplished almost entirely by machinery. having been reduced to a spherical form. The with crocus or rouge (finely divided hematite). Y. Powdered emery and garnet are Plenty of water is supplied during the process. in order to secure a true spherical surface. and full of perforations. is handed to a grinder. and know just when to apply chipping and when hammering. vol. Iv. Acad. the manufacture of crystal objects according to the Japanese nrethods is ex57 tremely laborious and slow. May 30. final polishing is effected exclusively used. pp. 1886). With the aid of this tool alone a perfect sphere is formed. Kunz. The crystal. used for the first polishing. rounded by careful chipping with a small steel ha.TnTn. resting his chest. 103. The crystal to be shaped into a ball is placed against a semicircular groove worn in huge grindstones. K . The Japanese workmen thoroughly understand the fracture of the mineral. It is unnecessary to add that the practice is " The Occurrence and 7 Manipulation of Rock Crystal/ Scientific American. and the balls are kept constantly turning. 1S86. about in length. a foot These cylinders are of different curvatures. Sciences. giving a splendid lustrous surface.er. presses the crystal against the revolving grindstone. whose tools consist of cylindrical pieces of cast iron. As hand labor is In Germany and France and in the United States. 14. Sometimes they are fixed on the end of a hollow tube and kept dexterously turning in the hand until smooth. 104 (Aug. Germany. and. according to the size of the crystal to be ground.

AND POLISHING ROCK-CRYSTAL . By J " permission of the Scientific American.By " permission of the Scieatific American." METHOD OF GRINDING CRYSTAL BALLS AND OTHER HARD STONF OBJECTS IN GERMANY AND FRANCE. GRINDING BAJ^LS.' * \PANESE METHOD OF CHIPPING.

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Another fine crystal ball is now to be seen in the American Museum of Natural History. Paris." in the American Museum Journal. and the cutting has been executed with such a high degree of precision that an ideally perfect sphere has been produced. 24. 1913.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING 219 extremely unwholesome and develops early consumption constant stream of water is kept among the workers. and later in 58 w Kunz. The final polishing is done on a wooden wheel with tripoli. plate on p." " Gratacap. One. It measures 4 n / 16 inches in diameter. " The Occurrence and Manipulation of Kock Crystal. a rock-crystal sphere was found which was for a time . and the subsequent addition of water would be liable to cause a fracture. preserved in the Bibliotheque Eoyale.. and were exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1900 as part of the J. but not entirely perfect. apparently perfect. January.D. p. measures 5% inches in diameter and was cut from a crystal found in Mokolumne. 59 Crystal balls have been found occasionally in tombs or in funerary urns. the father of Clovis. and their presence in sepulchres may perhaps be considered to have been due to a belief In the that they possessed certain magic properties. New York this was donated to the institution. . California. Calaveras Co. tomb of Childeric (ca. 436-481 A. 58 There are three fine crystal balls in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. flowing over the stone so that the crystal shall always be moist. 22. the second is 6% inches in diameter and is from the same locality. The Mystic Crystal Sphere.). as the friction would otherwise hurt it. is of wonderful purity. or by means of a leather buffer with tripoli or rouge. Pierpont Morgan gift to the American Museum of Natural History. These A were shown in the department of the Tiffany Collection prepared by the author.

a space for its reception having been hollowed out in the upper and lower stones. and some bits of gold wire. p. The earliest given in a work by Chiflet entitled "Anas"Kesurrection of Childeric. just outside of the city walls. an ivory comb. superimposed stones. Opening the urn there were found inside. twenty crystal balls. 61 tne Louvre it The discovery of the tomb of Childeric was made. graciously donated by description is tasis Childerici/' w Montfaueon. which were much in the way. 15. so that it fitted within them. One of the most interesting objects found in the tomb was the golden signet of Ohilderic bearing his head and the legend Childerici regis. 1729. tt . 27. the canons of San Giovanni in Laterano. a needle. Borne. Les monnmens de Montf aucon. 60 The chance discovery of a number of crystal balls is related by Montfaucon. by a deaf-mute mason. 1653. while he was excavating for the restoration of May one of the dependencies of the church of Saint Brice de Tournai. named Adrien Quinquin. The presence of the needle was taken to indicate conclusively that the ashes were those of a woman. " published by Plantin of Antwerp in 1655. and were not long afterward. and sent thither some workmen with the order to break up or remove two large. wished to have some repairs made to a house they owned. in 1664. The various ornaments were sent by the Spanish Grovernor-G-eneral of the Netherlands to the Austrian treasury in Vienna. This had been hidden between the two stones. Paris. Towards the end of the sixteenth century. a gold ring with a stone setting. la monarchic Frangaise. measures 1}^ inches in diameter.220 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES Museum . but were much astonished to find embedded within it an alabaster funerary urn with its cover. c. mingled with the ashes. The workmen proceeded to break the upper stone. 1.

Morgan collection. five inches diameter.ROCK-CRYSTAL SPHERE. New York. . Japan. American Museum of Natural History.

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pp. de Childerlc ler rod des Francs. M " Cochet. bearing labels declaring that they came from the sepulchres of the kings of France violated at the time of the French Revolution. 305. op. Closely pursued by the police. at the instance of Johann Philip of Schonborn. Thomas Wright. Pas de Calais. cit. who was under great obligation to the French sovereign. in a Merovingian tomb this is pierced ball. 302. in diameter. . In Paris the various ornaments were preserved in the Bibliotheque Eoyale until the night of November 5-6. this still has the original gold mounting serving to attach it to the necklace from which it had been worn suspended. when many of them. They had been pur- chased about 1810 at the sale of the Duchess of Portland's effects. der was subsequently recovered. dept. and preserved in the Museum of that city. the latter stated that he had seen at Downing in Flintshire with Lord Fielding five crystal balls. 64 In the Bibliotheque at Dieppe there is a crystal 32 -mm. with other valuables. were stolen by an ex-convict. 1859. 1831. a notary of Henin-Lietard. p. SeineInferieure... Dancoise. 62 In a personal communication to Abbe Cochet made in 1858 by Mr. the thief threw his booty into the Seine much of the plun. dept. Archbishop of Mainz. . Cochet. 16 sqq. "* Cochet. in 1838. op. but the signet of Childeric was lost for ever. found at Douvrend. Another found at or near Levas was in the possession of M. 63 Among the crystal balls found in French sepulchres may be noted one discovered by Eigollot in 1853 at Arras.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING Emperor Leopold 221 I to King Louis XIV. figure. in 1852. deposited in the Louvre Museum." Paris. The crystal ball had not seemed of sufficient value to tempt the thief and was left undisturbed. "Le tombeau cit. it was later. p.

iv. p. Lon- don. 71 Miscellanies upon various subjects. 14. No. Gloucestershire. 66 The Saxon tombs of England have also furnished a contingent of crystal balls.." p. pi. or 1658. besides a number of antique engraved gems. cit. 70 reported a crystal ball Burial. chap. and an elephant of amber. 5 . p." Roach Smith's " Collectanea antiqua " . author of the "Beligio Medici. or Urn Burial/ 7 by Sir Thomas Browne. cit. v. the latter measuring 36 mm. at Chassel Down on the Isle of "Wight.." w Akerman.. 1." published in In his "Hydrotaphia. discoveries of this kind. an urn in which. Barham. 303.222 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES 65 The department of Moselle supplied three through. there had been found a crystal ball and six "nuts" of crystal. 10. fig. op. 80 Douglas' ''Nenia Brittanica. op. and also in Kent. to which added "Hydrotaphia. ii . vol. 71 cit. 05 Coehet. near Canterbury. fig. 179. inches in diameter. Sir Urn Thomas Browne (1605-1682). crystal balls having been found in a ville tomb at St. Northamptonshire . pi. 1890. at Breach Down. where four were discovered. 67 Fairford. an ape of agate. fig 2. 40. ii. 244. Nicholas. p. p. sepulchres antiques dec ou verts dans contrees des Gaules. 69 From Worcestershire. plusieures " See Wylie's Fairford Graves/' pi. op. at Fairford is was facetted. w Journal of the Archaeological 70 Institute. ix. Preux-la-Montagne. 1. Akerman's "Remains of Pagan Saxondom. 39." and Hillier's "Antiquities of the Isle of Wight. in diameter. is Akerman." relates that there was at that time in the possession of Cardinal Farnese. " Observations sur les Simon. 2 \y should also note a crystal ball found in a funer6S this as Hill. at We ary urn at Hinsbury well as the one found St. pp. Sablon and Moinenear Briey. for example at Chatham. by John Aubrey.

p. and Supersti- tions of Ireland. are applied a form of quartz in which the crystallization was in- terrupted from time to time.. 1888." "shadow-crystals." "phantom-crystals." etc. much-prized virtue of this crystal is its cattle of The chief and power any one of the many distempers to which they to cure are subject. but requests for its loan are often made from far distant parts of Ireland. where it had been given him by 1100). Not only in the immediate neighborhood of Currahmore is resort had to this magic stone by the peasants. and the legend runs that one of the Le Poers brought it from the Holy Land. 209. It is of rockcrystal.CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING One of the largest and most perfect crystal balls 223 is in This the Dresden "Grime Grewolbe" (Green Vaults). . Its application for this purpose is rather peculiar. was undoubtedly used for purposes of Ten thousand dollars was the price paid for it it A cause crystal ball it is known kept at the seat of that as the Currahmore Crystal. the crystal being in every case 72 conscientiously returned to its rightful owner. has long enjoyed and still enjoys the repute of possessing magical powers. weighs 15 German pounds and measures 6 2/3 inches in diameter. the great crusader Godefroy de Bouillon (1058The ball is a trifle larger than an orange and a silver ring encircles it at the middle. The privilege is almost always accorded and has never been abused." Boston. but driven up and down a stream in which it has been laid. The names "ghost-crystals. in 1780. so that in the transparent successive layers there is an occasional opaque layer." to "spectre-crystals. augury. "Lady Wilde. for the cattle are not touched with it. "Ancient Legends. bename belonging to the Marquis of "Waterford. Mystic Charms.

" or "ghost. but there may be as many as twenty. When these crystals are in the natural form. a larger crystal will form on a smaller one. ." appears with wonderful down it is beauty." or "stilt" quartz. sometimes only one marking is visible. they detract from its value. in which case cut into a ball. Sometimes such crystals are found after they have been rolled in the beds of mountain torrents until they have become entirely opaque. though they add a charm to the ball. The ball may seem to be absolutely pure. and. they show beautifully from the sides and ends. one over the other. forming what is known as cap-quartz. here the crystallizations can frequently be broken apart so that they fit one over the other in many successive layers. Occasionally the entire crystal has been worn to a small part of the original prism. the "phantom. but when the surfaces are polished. These are occasionally due to a layer of smoky material. or "cap. forming a sort of mushroom.224 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES often no thicker than the finest possible dusting of a whiter material. but when held in certain lights little tent-like mark- ings can often be observed . as it is termed. Occasionally the regular crystalline development will be interrupted. tional interest Nevertheless. as it were. Sometimes as many as fifteen or twenty of these successive growths are observable. crystal-gazers may find an addiwhen the "ghostly" or "spectral" inte- rior exists in a crystal ball This growth is similar in kind to that seen at times in opaque quartz." "spectre. and in place of the original crystal its continuing growth harmoniously.

225 .VII ages of tyntfow and >tone& use of stones for the decoration of images of the gods." distinct chapters. called the of the Dead. 'each comin itself. Book composed of a number of the soul addresses the gods and other beings who receive it. upon certain semi-precious stones which had been cut into various symbolical forms. we may regard this religious USB of precious or peculiar stones as the natural development of the original idea of their talismanic virtue. This "Book of the Dead. If a certain supernatural essence manifested itself in the stone. what more fit object could be imagined for the decoration of statues of the gods. can be traced back to a remote antiquity. and in religious ceremonies. the earliest recorded instances come from Egypt. describes the passage of the soul of the plete Here deceased through the realm of tire dead ( Amenti) . and the prayers and invocations recited in the chapters are supposed to procure a safe passage and protection from 15 all evil influences or impediments. and concern the Egyptian custom of engraving texts from a very ancient ritual composition. or to bear engraved texts from the sacred writings. and to be placed with the bodies of the dead as "passports" to ensure the safe entry of the souls of the departed into the better land? While this employment of mineral substances for religious purposes is practically universal. more especially in those connected with the burial of the dead. Indeed.

is usually cut matrix-emerald or made of faience of similar hue. from Vat means "verdure. greenness". Paris. Isis. the son of in seeing Mm. Life Work of Sir Peter le Page Renonf . or else of red glass or faience or of sycamore wood. 93).226 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES One of the most usual of tire engraved amulets is the buckle or tie (thet). 3 " Budge. p. ity. flourishing. Another amulet is the tet. 2 7 ' The "papyrus scepter/' uat. made of faience. the virtue of Isis protects Isis. graved with the 156th chapter of the Book of the Dead. 259." Cambridge. to illustrate the protection afforded. and other materials. vol. buckle with human hands seizes the arm of the deceased and prevents 1 bim from going toward the East. placed on the neck of the mummy it was regarded as emblematic of the 342. is put on the neck of the of Isis. inlaid into the substance of the put on the neck of the deceased. The Mummy. . preservation. rejoices 1 him. xxv (Papyrus. Horus. were placed on the neck of the mummy to afford protection. they power prevent any wrong being done to him. p. lapis-lazuli. stabilThese figures. iv. The hieroglyph represents a mason's table and the word signifies "firmness. and the amulets were sometimes encarnelian. The wood was symbolical of the blood of Isis. 1907. This was generally of red jasper. In the vignette to chapter 93. unfailingly. a. the virtue of Isis. gold. or red porphyry. 1894. This chapter is said on a buckle of carnelian dipped into the The blood of the magic juice of ankhama. The formula engraved reads : Chapter of the buckle of carneliaa which deceased. and no way is barred to him. the inauspicious direction for departed *ouls. they were placed on the mummy's neck. Louvre iii. pi. the magic power of the Eye are protecting this the Great one. sycamore-wood and Whoever has this chapter read to him. carnelian.

was generally made of hematite. urs. p. . 5 " The Mummy/' Cambridge. The heart. thou triumphest over what they do against thee. the type most frequently encountered has the shape of a heart. 5 fine example of a heart amulet shows on one side the figure of the goddess Neith with the pennu bird or A 8 4 Budge. Enclosed with the mummy. The 166th chapter of the Book of the Dead is sometimes engraved thereon. and the belief was that only after it had as the seat of life. gre'en jasper. regarded in ancient Egypt was the object of especial care after in a special receptacle it was buried death." Camhridge. Budge. as Horns. Verily Osiris maketh slaughter at the coming forth of the heads of his enemies. In the 159th chapter of the Book of the Dead. 1894. The deceased was identified with Osiris. p. been weighed in the balance of the underworld. lapis-lazuli. it was believed to be the gift of Thoth. 261. 1894. the avenger of his father. 263. basalt. Thou cuttest off the heads of thine enemies. never shall they carry off from thee thy head(?). could it regain its place in the body of the deceased. Of all these amulets. serving to protect the limbs of the deceased. ab. The heart was symbolically repre- sented by the scarab. 3 The amulet representing the pillow. Dr. Budge renders this as follows : Rise up from non-existence. this Osiris* has commanded to be done for thee. we read of an uat of matrix-emerald. "The Mummy. Thou overthrowest thine enemies. and other hard materials. against the symbol of law. may they never remove his head from him.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 227 eternal youth it was hoped the deceased would enjoy in the realm of the dead. These are found of carnelian. prostrate one! They watch over thy head at the exalted horizon.

about 4400 B.228 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES an emblem of the resurrection. Museum bearing the cartouche of Sebak-em-saf. . To be said over a scarabaeus fashioned from a hard stone. perhaps the lapis-laznli. Chapter of not allowing a man's heart to oppose him in the divine regions of the nether world. being carefully carved out of the stone. 2300 It is fine piece of e Birch. The following words should be said over him as a magic charm: "My heart which came from my mother. do not testify as an ad- My versary against me among the divine chiefs in regard to what I have done before the gods. Lon- 'don. coated with gold. There I am a pure spirit for ! eternity. The most ancient inscription of this text is especially favorite on the plinth of a scarab in the British B. while the legs are of gold. pass around the turquoise basin. 224. Hail to you. 138. p. 1882. I am not dead in Amenti. heart which came from my mother. my heart necessary for my existence on earth." Paris. in his temple and from whom the gods proceed. Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in Alnwick Castle. the 7 fifth king of the 1st Dynasty. august by your sceptre Speak well of the Osiris N". a king of the XIV made from an exceptionally the body and head of the beetle green jasper. and bears 6 phoenix. dwelling in the West! of Amenti. carved in relief. Egyptian tradition assigned this chapter to the reign of Semti. The scarab is inserted into Dynasty. in- scribed the chapter of the heart. The following extract from the cut Book of the Dead treats of the formula to be recited over a funeral scarab from a hard stone. gods of the braided beard. Hail to thee. do not separate from me before the great lord heart of Osiris. and placed on the heart of the man after he has been anointed with oil. my heart is necessary for me in my transformations." and go to Take your him who is aliments. I am reunited with the earth. p. T Pierret. "Le livre des Morts. make him prosper by Nehbka.C. do not rise up against me. 1880.c.

In possession of the author. ."PHANTOM CRYSTAL" OF QUARTZ (ROCK-CRYSTAL) MADAGASCAR.

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Salt As green jasper was believed to possess altogether exceptional virtues as an amulet. made from a lapis-lazuli and Book worn by the Egyptian high-priest. for on that day the supreme god Ea was b'elieved to place such an image upon his head. 76. note. an offering "of all things good and holy" was to be made before this symbolic eye. fashioned and expressed in an image. iv. Paris. Sometimes these eyes were made of jasper. and was found at Kurna (Thebes) by Mr. The form of an eye. . 977. "Ibid. vol. and the perhaps have been originally due to some association of the god principally invoked in the text with the precious substance upon 29th upon carnelian. it was inscribed with tire 140th chapter of the of the Dead. 9 Of the image of Truth. siv. constituted an amulet of great power. JElian aptly says that he would prefer the judge should not bear Truth about with him. 295. the 26th chapter was engraved on lapis-laznli. On the last day of the month Mechir. vol. iv. Pars altera. 1731. "Varia historia. this particular scarab was probably regarded as especially sacred.. Bat. for instance." lib. 1907.. p. among those referring to the heart. p. Thus. Lug. p. upon particular stones. but rather in his very soul. It appears to have been tire rule to engrave certain special chapters of the Book of the Dead. fashioned out of lapis-lazuli and ornamented with gold. xxxiv. the 27th upon feldspar.8 This may which the text was engraved." Paris.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 229 a gold base of tabloid form. 1907. cap. the 30th upon serpentine. and could then be laid upon any of the limbs of a mummy. 10 JEliani. 10 8 "Life Work of Sir Peter le Page Renouf.

high-priest of Bel. suggest that they were of similar class. the sirgarru stone. the stone. 301. so great was the virtue of these stones that they were supposed to constitute an ornament for the gods n also. and also by the latter to friendly Asiatic u Fossey? " Gun. Made The sandu The dushu beauty. been a dark-colored stone. perfect in celestial The stone of which the pingu is set in gold. make them sparkle ! Let the evil one keep aloof from the dwelling ! of two of these gems. 3. 18. which was commonly regarded in ancient times as a stone. or "virgin of the sdndu is that it must have pearl. Raw- . Azagsud. hulalini stone. Asia. to be worn on the breast of the king as an amulet indeed. stone. as rendered by Fossey.230 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF 'PRECIOUS STONES Among the Assyrian texts giving the formulae for incantations and various magical operations. there is one which treats of an ornament composed of seven brilliant stones." it is barely possible that we have here the long-sought Assyrian designation for the pearl. The splendid stones! stones of abundance and of joy." vol. 1902.. In Arabic the perforated pearl has a special from the unperf orated. fundamental meaning of the root whence the names are The names formed is "to perforate. p. Placed upon the shining breast of the king as an ornament. iv. No. It is often mentioned in the el Amarna tablets as having been among the gifts sent by the kings of Babylonia and Assyria to the Pha~ Tel raohs of Egypt. Incantation. the precious stone elmtishu. see of West. the liulalu and the As the 'hulalini. The text. Assyrienne. however." Paris. is almost to distinguish it 57 name All we know certainly the lapis-lazuli. make them shine. is as follows : . "La Magie inse. linson. The uJcnu. The splendid stones! The resplendent for the flesh of the gods. the hulafa stone. the uknu stone.

The Scribe Pa-bak: Let him say: "O Heart that I received from mother (to be said twice). AN INSCRIBED SCARAB (GREEN STONE) OF THE TYPE KNOWN AS A HEARTSCARAB. Italian.AMBER HEART-SHAPED AMULET. oppose me not before the fudges. O Heart that belongs to my spirit. seventeenth century. rise not against me as witness. contradict me not in the presence of the Guardian of the Scales. my . DATE ABOUT 1300 B.C.

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"a celestial was a sap- of this mystic ornament. 1896. there is some reason to attribute a Hindu of the King of origin to the nine gems. In the very ancient Assyrio-Babylonian epic narrative of the descent of the goddess Ishtar to Hades. but the elmeshu. probably originated in Babylonia. p. enumerated the ephod of the by Ezekiel. v. the guar" Assyrisches Worterbueh. and seems to belong to the time of the return from the Babylonian Captivity and the Hebrew building of the second temple. elmeshu. As we shall see.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 231 monarchs. "the covering 7 ' The idea Tyre. composed of seven gems. s. Priestly Codex. . was evidently regarded as the most brilliant and splendid of all indeed. symbolizing the twelve months of the year. appears to be of later date.C. 74. for in an Assyrian text occurs the following passage: "Like an elmeshu ring may I be precious in thine eyes. although the TTrim and Thuminim are mentioned and the elaborate description given in Exodus is generally regarded by Biblical scholars as belonging to the so-called " " the latest part of the Pentateuch. Certainly. Friedrich Delitzsch hazards the conjecture that it is the diamond. while the breastplate on high-priest. Prof. 7 fact that this stone is described as having beauty" might incline us to believe that it phire. Of the sirgarru and dusliu stones nothing is known." Leipzig.' 12 The . evolved during the Exile and given its final gradually form in the fifth century B. "Delitsch. the historic and prophetic books of the Old Testament know nothing of it. where the number seven was looked upon as especially sacred. with its twelve stones. the seventh in the list. In any case this stone must have been set in rings and considered very valuable.

Another tree bearing precious stones was seen by the hero Grilgamesh. The crown of it produces lapis-lazuli. to judge from the following u description on a cuneiform tablet: Its branches It bore precious stones for fruits. Its fruit is costly to gaze upon. 232.. In the Grilgamesh epic a mystic cedar tree is described. Its boughs hang with them. It bore fruit costly to the sight. 1910. after he had passed through darkness for the space of twelve hours." Carnegie Institution Pub. C. " Assyrisch-Babylonische Mythen und Epen.232 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES dian of the infernal regions obliges the goddess to lay aside some part of her clothing and ornaments at each of the seven gates through which she passes." Berlin. or stones which aided parturition. 1900. The Babylonian legends also tell of trees on which grow precious stones. This grew in the Elamite sanctuary of Irnina and was tinder the guardianship of the Elamite king Humbaba. and perhaps with some reason. Washington. 13 It has been asserted. . glorious to behold . that of the many mineral substances supposed to possess this virtue. jade (nephrite) or jadeite was the earliest known. This must have been a most resplendent object. One of the rarest and most significant specimens illustrating the use of valuable stones for religious cere""Jansen.. D. we are told that she stripped off her girdle of aban alddi. "Seal Cylinders of Western Asia. "Ward. Of this tree an inscription relates : It produces samtfw-stones as fruit . pp. The twigs were crystals. At the fifth. were glorious to the sight. 234.

BABYLONIAN AXE HEAD Agate. American Museum of Natural History. New York. Morgan collection. with inscription. .

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4 inches). almost universal among primitive peoples. It is evident that the axe-head was a votive offering to a divinity. . Its prevailing hue is what may be called a "deer-brown". object dates While the characters are clearly cut and can be easily deciphered. It was originally secured by. probably on the part of a certain governor named Adduggish. is the disposition of the layers in this agate that one might be justified in denominating it an onyx. As the weather-god. the inscription is nevertheless exceedingly difficult to translate. who first described this axe-head in 1879. was believed This Sumerian axe-head measures 134. that believed to have been spoken by the founders of the Babylonian civilization.5 mm. cannot be determined with any finality. but whether the Shamash (the sun-god). The form of the inscription indicates that the from an earlier period than 2000 B. some now apparent are evidently due to the white splotches action of fire or that of some alkali. the axe-symbol would have been more especially appropriate to him in view of the usage. in length (5. It is an ancient Babylonian axe-head made of banded agate. in thickness (1. in width (1. and hence with the divinity who to have launched it toward the earth.C. and Prof. and presumably in the so-called Sumerian tongue. The French assyriologist. both divinity in question was god Adad. Frangois Lenormant.22 inches). 35. indeed. and 31 mm. or some other admit that it may have been consecrated to Adad. the thunderer.5 mm. Ira Maurice Price. or the member of the Babylonian pantheon. So regular. of the (Semitic Department of Chicago University.3 inches). of associating stone axe-heads or axe-shaped stones with the thunderbolt.RELIGIOUS USES OP PRECIOUS STONES 233 monial purposes in the pagan world is in the MorganTiffany collection. This axe-head bears an inscription in archaic cuneiform characters.

ii. "Montfaucon. The adornment was completed by four rings. for some time secretary of the College of the Propaganda in Borne. placed on the little were set of the latter. pp. about the neck was hung a necklace consisting of four rows of emeralds and pearls. "L'antiquite erpliquee. eighteen of the former and thirty-six Two circlets bound around the ankles contained eleven beryls and two emeralds. 326. two bearing emeralds.000 lire ($3000) to the Tyszkiewicz Collection. vol. the writer purchased it for the American Museum of Natural History in New York.234 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Cardinal Stefano Borgia (1731-1804). and a discussion of the meaning of the inscription. while two. William Hayes Ward. Bulletin of the Museum. and a hyacinth. From the cardinal's family it passed for 15. Pt IL 1719 nn* * ' FP 324. and. was found an inscription giving a list of the offerings dedi- At cated by divine command. 25 On the sandals were eight beryls. two emeralds. supposed to have been that of Isis. 1902. who probably acquired it from some missionary to the East. with diamonds. see "On the ancient inscribed Sumerian (Babylonian) axe-head for the Morgan Collection in the American Museum of Natural History. cut upon the pedestal of an ancient statue." by George Frederick Kunz. and when the objects therein comprised were disposed of at public sale." vol. Evidently the fond grandmother had given of her best and choicest jewels which were used to adorn the statue. with translation by Prof. In each ear of the statue was inserted an ear-ring bearing a pearl and an emerald. seven beryls. Ira Maurice Price and discussion by Dr. April 6. Plate 136. two rubies. 37-47. 1905. while two bracelets were set with eight emeralds and eight pearls. They consisted of a diadem set with a "unio" (a large round pearl) and srx smaller pearls. April 15 16. Alicante. 16 For a fuller description of this valuable relic. finger. . by a certain Fabia Fabiana in honor of her granddaughter. in Spain.

BELIGIOUS USES OF PEECIOUS STONES 235 notable instance of an antique votive offering is the necklace of valuable precious stones dedicated to the statue of Vesta. and finds a sort of poetic justice in the manner of her death. . tr. O King. to her having despoiled the image of Vesta of this costly ornament. be perfectly pure in his means of livelihood. earnest in effort." vol. should the strenuous Bhikshu. just so. And again. is the first quality of the diamond he ought to have. 128. The Byzantine historian Zosimus attributes the tragic end of iStilicho's widow. with the jewel treasures of the Arahats. Thus shall ye put an end to griefs. O King. from the Pali by T. King. is the second quality of the diamond he ought to have. And again. Bays Davids. King. never mix with wicked men as friends. should the strenuous Bhikshu. associate with those of the highest excellence. ii. just so. 18 Oxford. King. with men who have entered the first or second or third stage of the Noble Path. King. is the third of the diamond he ought to have. the god over all gods. 1894. since she was strangled by a cord which encir- A cled her neck. just so. Dwelling harmoniously wise. tian It is not only in the works of the Fathers of the ChrisChurch that we find precious stones used as similes of religious virtue. in Buddhist writings also we have ex" amples of this. as the diamond cannot be alloyed with other substance. W. earnest in effort. Serena. Kingy quality by the Blessed 18 one. of the recluses of the threefold wisdom. In the Questions of King Milinda. O King. or of the sixfold insight. should the strenuous Bhikshu. earnest in effort. This. p. as the diamond is pure throughout . This. O King. Ever in recollection firm. in the Sutta Nipata: Let the pure associate with the pure. This. 17 " The Questions of King Milinda. King. Buddha." as early as the third century of our composed perhaps 17 era. occur the following passages : Just. For it was said. just as the diamond is set together with the most costly gems.

it was ornamented with gems. Gandharas. and alighting the sky. II. told that the divine Krishna. the description in Eevelations we cannot fail to note the lack of definiteness. It had cross-roads decked with sapphires. . Seven ramparts surrounded Kusavati. 715. all. poetic description of the royal city Kusavati. each three or four times the 19 Surindro Mohun " Tagore. The city was high. to see Krishna and Valarama. beryl. 717. it measured a hundred yojonas. agate. Some descended from underneath the banyan tree. 1881. and was visited there by the various or- Here we are ders of gods and geniuses. and other gems. the matchless. took up his abode in the wonderful city Devaraka. diamonds. crystal. some from their cars looked on Dwaraka. and it was furnished with cupolas of rubies and diamonds. It blazed like the meridian sun in summer. one of and at each gate silver. the materials being respectively gold. in the Maha Sudassana Suttanta. Calcutta. Asuras. and over was decked in pearls. coral and (for the last) "all kinds of gems. rubies. the mystic Hindu city is simply a gorgeous mass of the most brilliant gems known in India. Instead of the well-ordered scheme of color as represented by the As compared with twelve precious stones dedicated to the twelve tribes of Israel." In these ramparts were four gates one of gold. 19 Gods. It contained endless temples. pp. and highways blazing with gems. and with court-yards of rubies. Eonnaras began to pour into Dwaraka. the eighth incarnation of Vishnu." Pt. may perhaps given have originated in some tradition regarding Ecbatana or The Babylon.236 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PKECIOUS STONES The description of the New Jerusalem in the book of Eevelations finds a curious parallel in the Hindu Puranas. Mani Mala. one of crystal and one of jade seven pillars were fixed. The city was square. silver. with emerald pillars.

. topaz. Comprising diamond. OR CHAIN OF GEMS. pearl.MANI MALA. cat's-eye. ruby. coral. sapphire. zircon. emerald.

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whose fruit and leaves were of coral. and the altars therein of single amethysts of enormous size. and coral palms. Sacred 1881. i." had leaves and fruits of the same description. the city of the Islands of the Blessed." 20 In Greek literature also there is a "gem-city. C. p. gems. the temples of the gods were formed of beryl. Rhys Davids. with leaves and fruit of agate.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 237 height of a man and composed of the seven precious substances that constituted the ramparts. 11. Beyond the ram- parts were seven rows of palm trees. 79. from Pali by T. the work was a raised platform blazing with the most gorgeous Although it contained no water. Leip20 zig. W. Mani Mala. the palms whose trunks were composed of "all kinds of . described 21 The walls of this city by Lucian in his Vera Historia. Jacobitz. " Bhuddist Suttas." namely. xi. then followed palms of beryl. The city itself was all of gold as a fit setting for these marvellous gems. were of emerald. Luciani Opera. II. the fourth rowhaving trunks of silver and leaves and fruit of gold. ex recog. vol. cap. Hindu mythology tells of a wonderful tank formed of of the god Maya. ii. Oxford. 1884. and charming and intoxicating. fresh water. Books of the East. trans. Calcutta. arose a sound sweet and pleasant." vol. 21 Lib. with leaves and fruit of beryl agate palms. 1881. the transparent crystal produced the illusion of water. lastly. Its bottom and sides were encrusted with beautiful pearls and in the centre crystal. p." Pt. 56. . and those who approached the tank were tempted to plunge into it and take a refreshing bath in what appeared to be precious stones. 22 clear. 23 Surindro Mohun " Tagore. "and when these rows of palm trees were shaken by the wind.

the uppermost part of cat's-eye. 1881.238 THE CmiOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES The Kalpa Tree of a symbolical Hindu poets as a offering to the gods. beneath whose spreading branches Gautama Buddha is said to have received his supreme revelation of truth. . and the ripe fruit consisted of rubies. sand and earth have comthe pletely covered the remained immovable. who visited India between 629 and 645 A. "Memoires sur les contrees occictentales/' French by Stanislas Julien. "Diamond Throne. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Heuen Tsang. had once stood near the Tree of Knowledge. The roots were of sapphire the base Hindu religion. is described by mass of precious stones. since the world has passed into the present and last age. Paris. 1857.D. 24 In the Kalpa Sutra.was contemporaneous with that of the earth. . "When the whole earth was convulsed by storm or earthquake this resplendent throne 5 . II. and its foundations were at the centre of all things it measured one hundred feet in circumference. This throne had been constructed in the age called the " Kalpa of the Sages' its origin. 461. Pearls hung from its glowing boughs and beautiful emeralds from its shoots. 645. Upon it the thousand Buddias of Kalpa had reposed and had fallen into the "ecstasy of the diamond." so that it can no longer be seen by human eye. the tender young leaves were corals. . the rivals of the Buddhists." However. it said that Harinegamesi. the divine commander of the ^Surindro Moliun Tagore. one of the sacred books of the Jains. of the trunk of diamond. is pp. "Mani Mala/' Pt. vol.. and was made of a single diamond. written in Prakrit. . tells of the wonder- ful "Diamond Throne" which. Heuen Tsang. i. p. Calcutta. while the section between was of topaz. according to the legend. 647. The foliage (ex23 cept the young leaves) was entirely formed of zircons. 24 trans.

the magic sword.C. Gaina Sutras. Thus we have the double gourd As engraved known as "Li with by magicians and as attribute of the most powerful of these demi-gods the Iron Crutch. emblematic of the virgin Ho Hsien-Ku. the chief of which was vajra. and a trembling pair of earrings. trans. The pure cup-like pair of her breasts sparkled. and rejecting their grosser particles. diffused a brilliancy. attribute of Lan Ts'ai-ho. of the Chow Dynasty (1122220 B. decoration of a fine Chinese vase of white with delicate crown markings." whose aid is sought astrologers. venerated somewhat as a patron saint by Chinese housewives. to call again to life the spirits of the departed. the basket of flowers. the royal fan used by Han Chung-li.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 239 foot troops. but the united beauties and charms of these ornaments were only subservient to the loveliness of her face. encircled by a garland of Kunda flowers in which glittered a string of pearls. composed jewels and precious stones. retained only the finer essence to aid him in his transformations. the diamond. pp. 233. She wore strings of pearls made by clever and diligent artists. yellow and red gold. strung with wonderful strings. and who acquired the gift of immortal life by the help of a powder of pulverized jade and mother-of-pearl. touching her shoulders. In the same sutra the fol- lowing glowing description On many is given of the adornment of the surpassingly beautiful goddess Sri: 25 all of parts of her body shone ornaments and trinkets. the patron of gardeners and florists. with which Lu T'ung-pin vanquished the spirits of evil that roamed through the Chinese Empire in the form of ter- rible dragons. jade each of which bears in its beak an attribute of one of the Eight Taoist Immortals. 1884. "Sacred Books of the East/' voLxxii. 227. Oxford.). from Prakrit by Hermann Jacob! . seized fourteen precious stones. the lotus flower. 35 . a necklace of jewels with a string of Dinaras. appear eight storks.

Those who give horses live conjointly with the sun." London. Han Hsiang-tzu. or Nirvana. if with a small ruby. will be secured. especially revered by Chinese actors. evoked the souls of the dead. and to will hereafter attain to Nirvana and Muskwa. At Multan. are high in Heaven. the Lord of Rubies. or Salvation. that treasures offered or shrines of the gods will bring good fort- said that light 1 and 'Givers "by giving gold the giver receives a life of 77 In the Samaveda Upanishad we read: glory. there was in the Hindu temple an idol having for eyes two great pearls. Offering emeralds will produce Gyana or Knowledge of the Soul and of the Eternal. 1909. Another text givers of clothes live in the moon. who owed his immortality to his craft in stealthily entering the Taoist paradise and securing a peach from the sacred tree of life. one of the most ancient cities of India. He who wor- ships Krishna with rubies will be reborn as a powerful emperor. The eyes of the rude image of Jagganath at Puri. are said to have ^Hendley. he will be born a king. givers of gold enjoy eternal life. p. The prevailing une to the images to the generous donor. in Bengal (Orissa).240 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the bamboo tubes and rods with which the mighty necromancer Chang Kuo. finds expression in many ancient and modern Hindu writings. patron of artists. the casta- nets of Tsao Kuo-chin." (Haiti Smriti) reads 26 : Coral in worship will subdue all the three worlds. he will get as much wealth as Kuvera. even the impassible. situated in the Punjab. . lastly. and. In the Eig Veda it is belief in India. If he worships with a diamond. the flute of the musicians' patron. that is Eternal Life in the highest Heaven. 33. "Indian Jewellery. 164 miles southwest of Lahore. If with a flower of gold a man worships for a month.

However. they are eagerly bought by pious Hindus. whence appears to have come the Orloff diamond. 33. including th'e cost of supporting the numerous priests and attendants.EBLIGIOUS USES OF PKECIOUS STONES 241 at one time been formed of precious stones. but also constitute one of the chief ings upon sources of income for the temples. 27 able talismans. 1909. such as the naoratna or the panchratna. In ceremonial worship the Hindus recogniz'e sixteen offerings. where Krishna says. to ten or twelve years for jewels. and pearl. . "Whatever is best and most valued in this world and that which is most dear to you should be offered to me. the ninth consisting of gems and jewelry. this is especially the case on the day celebrated as the birthday of the respective divinity. the prized and revered jewels. As the objects still retain their sacred associations. After the gifts have ceased to be worthy of use in the temples. diamond. and a divine assurance of adequate return to the giver appears in the Bhagavat Purana. varying from a month or more for garments and vestments. who undoubtedly regard them as valu- Thus they not only serve to bring blessthe donors. the gifts are believed to retain their sacred character as dedicated objects only for a comparatively brief period." On certain appointed days the holy images are decorated with the choicest garments and the richest jewelry in the temple treasury. ruby. sapphire. " Hendley. sists of gold. 34. pp. they may be disposed of to defray the expenses of the foundation. 16 " Indian Jewellery/' London. composed respectively of The panchratna usually connine and five gems. as were also those of the idols of Vishnu at Chandernagore and in the great seven-walled temple at Srirangam. and it will be received back in immense and endless quantity.

the "nine-gem" jewel It is mentioned in the old Hindu ratnagastras. in the Nararatnapariksha. sometimes associated with Mercury also. In the naoratna the five gems known to the Hindus as the maharatnani. differ in some cases from those selected in the West. and with the aspects known as the aseending and descending nodes. for example. the emerald is here assigned to Mercury. 29 although On the other hand. this description designed to combine The gems we learn that the jewel was the powerful astrological influchosen to correspond with the various all heavenly bodies. p. For instance. ." Valladolid. 1896. pearl. or treatises on gems. "De las piedras preeiosas. 16 verso)." the diamond.242 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES One of the oldest and perhaps the most interesting talismanie jewel is that known as the naoratna or nararatna. tion this stone it is instead of to the Sun as in the Western world. or " great gems. where it is described as follows 28 : Manner of composing In the centre the setting of a ring : To To To To To To To To the East the Southeast the South The Sun Venus The Moon Mars the Southwest the Rahu Saturn Jupiter West the Northeast the North the Northwest The descending node Cat's-eye Emerald Mercury Such is the planetary setting. 28 8 28 " Les lapidaries indiens/' Paris. (fol. 175. whereas in Western tradi- was usually the representative of Venus. 1604 Finot. Morales. the diamond is dedicated to Venus. The The The The The The The The The Ruby Diamond Pearl Coral Jacinth Sapphire Topaz From ences.

combining the favorable influences of all the celestial bodies supposed to govern the destinies of man. there are references to the seven ratnas. but it is possible that we may have here an allusion to some earlier form of talisman. and the descending node. The two last Jupiter. In modern times this talisman is sometimes differently composed. indicating the passage of the ecliptic by the Moon in her ascent above and descent below this arbitrary plane. and emerald. It is easy to understand that such a talisman as the naoratna. A specimen shown in the Indian Court of the Paris Exposition of 1878 consisted of the following stones : coral. as a source of unhappiness and misfortune. and Saturn. as we see. and we may well assume that only the rich and powerful could own this talisman in a form ensuring its greatest efficacy. flat diamond. cut diamond. ruby. In three somewhat obscure passages of the Eig Veda jacinth. Here the believed that the virtue of every .RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 243 ruby. topaz." not necessarily a precious stone. Mercury. These designations signify the ascending and descending nodes. were. associated with the Sun and Moon. emerald. and the five planets were represented. Whether these were gems cannot be determined. wMle the four lesser gems (uparatnani) namely. must have been highly prized. Rahu. since the primary meaning of the word ratna is "a precious object. Moon. the topaz. cat's-eye. Venus. For the Hindus gem depended upon its and they regarded a poor or defective stone perfection. sapphire. sapphire. amethyst. and coral represent Mars. named are very important factors in astrological calculations and are often called the Dragon's Head and the Dragon's Tail. and carbuncle. in which only the Sun.

the topaz. diamond and pearl should of honor is quite natural. third. or rock-crystal. cap. the amethyst. but the releoccupy places ^Philostrati. life of Apollonius of Tyana (first century A. the cat's-eye. Personal communication from Taw Sein Ko. and carbuncle take the placB of the jacinth. iii. the pearl. second. in the order of the week- We Although it is not expressly stated that the appropriate stones were set in the rings. amethyst. fifth. sixth. : Among the Burmese the value fourth. pearl. and cat's-eye. the ruby . one by one. 31 the emerald. Instead of uniting the different planetary gems in a single ring. 36. eighth. the nine for occult purposes of the naoratna. the sapphire. the diamond.D." lib. and ninth. the coral. days/ 930 NINE GEMS. the custom of the time makes it probable that this was the case. is gems composing strictly determined in the following order first. .) by Philo" Damis also relates that larchas stratus: gave to Apollonius seven rings named after the planets. 31 "De Vita Apollonii. That the ruby. and the latter wore these. they have sometimes been set separately in a series of rings to be worn successively on the days orig- read in tire inally named after the celestial bodies. or nararatna.244 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES cut diamond. seventh.

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s'eems to be a rather unfair treatment of this beautiful stone. semi-circular tablet. for that of Earth. 54. 1906. yellow jade was favored. Manchu dynasty were jade was selected for the ceremonies before the Altar of the Moon. place. trans. an octagonal tablet of yellow jade. the North with a black. It was published in 1176. . after coral and topaz. the gems were red corals." a catalogue divided into a hundred books and embellished with upward of seven hundred figures. Jade of different colors was used for the six precious tablets employed in the worship of heaven and earth and the four cardinal points. and the South with a 32 tablet of red jade. by Stephen W. The East was worshipped with a green pointed tablet. i. Bushnell. for a sacrifice on the Altar of the Sun.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES gation of tlie 245 sapphire to sixth. One of the treasures here described was a four-sided plaque of pure white jade over two feet in height and breadth. the West was worshipped with the white "tiger-tablet". The "Yushuo" of T'ang Jing-tso. The yellow the girdles worn by the Chinese emperors of variously ornamented with stones according to the different ceremonial precious observances at which the emperor presided. while white . p. For the services in the Temple of Heaven. For the worship of Heaven there was the dark-green round tablet. and lists the first magnificent collection of jade objects belonging to the emperor of the Southern Sung dynasty. the very appropriate choice of lapis-lazuli ornaments was made for the Altar of Earth. Of all the Chinese works on jade the most interesting and remarkable is the Ku yu t'ou pu or "Illustrated Description of Ancient Jade. vol. and 33 : it was 7 The Bishop Collection " Investigations and Studies in Jade/ New York.

and the plaque is said to have been washed out of a sacred cave in the year 1068. and who during their whole lifetime carry about with them a flat piece of jade as a protection against injury or annoyance of every kind. measuring nine by thirteen on three sides by magic wands toward guarded the Bast it is left unprotected. p. . whose members call themselves Pekdash. seated on a mat. as only good spirits are feet. black for North. 1910. blue for South." Stuttgart. 36. "The Bishop New Collection: "Investigations i. Each of the rain- gods carries suspended from his right wrist an elaborately decorated tobacco pouch. by a violent and mysterious current. The whole believed to dwell in this direction.246 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES regarded as of altogether exceptional value. is . bearing the figure of a stone pipe. and among the Turks they The are so highly prized as heirlooms that it is difficult to secure any of them. 26. p. 1906. There is an orthodox Mohammedan sect. in the midst of rocks enveloped in figure was an image of the Buddhist saint. and white for painting. and Studies in Jade. The Navajos believe that in this pouch the god places a ray of sunlight with which he lights his pipe . Samantabahadra. for on it was a design miraculously engraven. This was a figure.33 Jade talismans are very popular at the present day in the Mohammedan world. "Ein Edelstein der Vorzeit. These four gods are respectively colored to denote the four cardinal points. yellow for "West. with a flower-vase on its left and an alms- bowl on the clouds. "Egbert." York. right. East. vol. 34 The four rain-making gods are shown wearing necklaces of coral and turquoise in the ceremonial sand-paintings of the Navajos.

The image of this god was decorated with ear-rings encrusted with a mosaic of turquoise. and. or Ixgocauhqui." No one was allowed either to own or wear this as it was exclusively devoted to the service of the gods. or for the decoration of the divine images. almost as large as an ostrich egg was adored by This "emerald the Peruvians in the city of Manta. 323-326. unspotted and very clear. placed in the form of a cross on a plate of gold almost covering the shield. L c. Navajo Religious Ceremonials/ 7 Putnam New York. lib. Plate II. 1830. like a hazel-nut cut in half . others were broad and flat. 18. presumably that regarded as the finest and most attractive. He held in his left The god hand a buckler on which were five large green stones called chalchiuitl (jadeite). It was very speci- Some mens were of rounded shape. 297. ? At goddess" bore the name of Umina. rare and was brought to Mexico from afar. vol.RELIGIOUS USES OP PRECIOUS STONES when lie 247 scends. and some were pitted as 36 though in a state of decomposition. "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana. ? 1829." of fire. vol. presided the ceremony of piercing the ears of the young boys over and girls. Sahagun describes this turquoise as "fine. . 57 Sahagun. whether as a temple offering. which signified "tur- quoise of the gods.37 the time of the Spanish Conquest an immense 'emerald. p. 88 Sahagun. pp." Mexico. p. cap. i. xiii. 329. smokes. 1909. 85 like some of " Alfred Marston Tozzer. i. clouds form in the sky and the rain deIn the sand-picture representing the God of the Whirlwind this divinity also* wears ear-pendants and a of turquoise. bore the name teuxivitl. iii. Anniversary Volume. 35 necklace Of the turquoise in Aztec times we have the testimony of the missionary Bernardino de Sahagun that one variety. Xiuhtecutli.

supposing that the test of a true emerald was its hard blows. Amsterdam. when the Indians flocked to the shrine from far and near. He notes an interesting specimen found in Peru. by Jean Baudoin. In this who wonld be well pleased to way an immense store of em- eralds rewarded the efforts of the priests. p. was only exhibited on high feast days. pp. Many of the other emeralds were destroyed because of the ignorance and stupidity of some of their new owners. 347. laid the stones on an anvil and hammered them to pieces. 38 Ibid. and he believed that it gradually acquired its beautiful green hue. who. especially saying that recommended these the the were daughters of the goddess. 3S The remarkable jade 38 adze. and their companions. 255-257. generally known as the Gareilasso de la Vega. . " Histoire des Ineas.248 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the precious relics of the Christian world.. growth of the emerald in its mine to that of a fruit on a tree. had been so cleverly concealed by the priests of the shrine that the Spaniards never succeeded in gaining possession of it." Fr. half of which was colorless like glass. vol. trans. while the other half was a brilliant green. and on the conquest of Peru all these fine stones fell into the hands of Pedro de Alvarado. The old and enfalse notion that the genuine diamond could entirely dure this treatment may have suggested the unfortunate ability to withstand test. ii. this he compares with a half- Gfarcilasso likens the ripened fruit. 1715.38 Gareilasso de la Vega. however. that part of the crystal nearest the sun being the first to acquire color. donation The wily priests of emeralds. bringing gifts to the goddess. see her offspring. The mother emerald.

pp. 1890. may have served to hold in place small gold films. thick (4% inches) ." American Association for the Advancement of Science. artefact is 272 mm. and also of that worked into jadeite) ornaments by the Indians before the Spanish Conquest The source of the was long the subject of contention among mineralogists and archaeologists. In Germany this question was denominated the Nephritfrage.EELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 249 "Kunz adze/' was found in Oaxaca. and is now in the American of Natural History. Of a light with a slight tinge of blue. nearly sixteen pounds avoirdupois. In the fact that a large piece." New York. 278-280. . and the most notable contribution to the discussion was the great scienof America. In its mechanical execution this adze offers evidence of considerable skill on the part of the Aztec lapidary. prehistoric jade (nephrite and found in Europe.3 Troy ounces. 153 mm. Museum Eudely. long (10 13 / 16 inches). we can see a proof of the talismanic power ascribed to jadeite in Aztec times. New York. " Gems and Precious Stones of North 40 America. one under each eye and one near each hand. but no trace of gold decoration is now extant. shallow depressions. this jade greenish-gray hue. brought to the United States about 1890. but not unskilfully. which must apparently have weighed at least two pounds. has evidently been cut out of this implement by some one of Indian owners. carved upon its face is a grotesque human figure. for there can be little doubt that nothing less than a belief in the great virtue of jadeite coupled with the rarity of the material its could have induced the mutilation of what must have been 40 regarded in its time as a remarkable work of art. Four small. its weight is 229. Mexico. the polish equalling that of modern workers. wide (6 inches) and 118 mm. Kttnz. "A Remarkable Jadeite Adze.

According to this theory the prehistoric jade objects found in Europe must have had a similar source. 3" "Investigations and Studies in Jade/ "Jade as a Mineral/' by George Frederick 1906. Meyer. B. and recent discoveries have effectively disproved the theory in the case of Europe at least. 41 His conclusion was that as there was no evidence of the existence of these minerals outside of a few localities in Asia. Kunz. i. The largest mass of this material that has been taken from a European deposit is that found by the writer at Jordansmuhl in Silesia. the European and American supply must have been brought to these parts of the world from Asia. This view was strongly opposed by Prof. and that hence the presence of these jade artefacts in America clearly pointed to commercial intercourse at an early period between the American continent and Asia. 1899. iii. as they have already 41 " Nephrit und Jadite. vol. Collection. p. 42 The origin of American jade in the forms of nephrite and jadeite has not yet been definitely determined. . A. and which weighed 4704 pounds. 177. and would constitute a proof of the existence of traffic with remote points in Asia at a date long previous to that commonly accepted. pt. ^The Bishop New York. of Dresden. and might be regarded as offering a strong argument in favor of an Asiatic origin for an American civilization.250 tific THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES and scholarly work issued by Heinrich Fischer. but we have every reason to suppose that deposits of these minerals will eventually be discovered in various parts of the American continent. New York. in April. 1880." Stuttgart. for nephrite has been found there in situ in several places. This immense mass of nephrite which forms part of the Heber Bishop Collection loan of jade is now in the American Museum of Natural History.

at the present time.'' examined some years ago by the writer. one of serpentine. all parts of the world. in veins in that place . said by Sahagun to have come from quarries in the vicinity of Tecalco. Indeed. may perhaps have more ex. ornaments and beads were made by the ancient Mexicans. The term chalchihuitl clusively denoted jadeite. is to-day greatly valued as an ornamental stone. with much trans- parency. This is somewhat indefinitely described by Sahagun as being " white. and while the Western world has not the same belief in these matters as the Eastern world. "Mexican onyx" which is found and is an aragonite stalagmite. appears to have been identical with the so-called This material. something like Of eight ornamental objects of green stone jasper. which was regarded as the most precious variety. a more or less definite appreciation of what jade still signifies for many in the Orient. another of green quartz. An inferior kind of chalchihuitl. making objects of nephrite or jadeite highly prized everywhere and in almost A was indifferently applied by the ancient Mexicans to a number of green or greenishwhite stones quetzal chalchihuitl. The peculiar and characteristic qualities of these substances have made them favorite materials for ornamental objects from the earliest ages down to our own day. most important element contributing to the popularity of jade has been its supposed possession of wonderful talismanic and therapeutic virtues. continues to exercise an influence over both Americans and Europeans. four were of jadeite. and with a slight greenish tinge. the existence of nephrite in Alaska is already well attested.EELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 251 been in Europe. from which figures. and the remaining two of a mixture of white feldspar and green hornblende.

serpentine and also the "Tecalco onyx" or "marble" above mentioned. having at one extremity two ridges. specimens. foL 107 verso. in their pierced lips. "Gesneri. It is stated that the Brazilians of high rank wore these. 1565. assorted as to size and drilled for use in making necklaces. Johannes Ferrerius. it seems probable that the discovery will be made in the State of Oaxaca. from their youth. whence came the finest ancient mineralogists. In many cases these substances are of such rich green that they might easily be mistaken for jadeite by those who lacked the tests or the experience at the command of modern Should jadeite ever be found in situ in Mexico. the quality being 43 equal to that of specimens from Ceylon. xii. including the splendid votive adze. 108 No. might call these orna- finger." Tiguri. u Chalehiuitl : a note on the jadeite discussion/' Science. Moreover. G-esner describes one of the lip ornaments worn by the aborigines of South America in the following words the inhabitants of the 44 : A use. vol. these ornaments are removed from the <3 lips. 298. or whenever they so wish for any other reason. whence have been taken several rolled pebbles which the writer has identified as yellow and blue corundum. This stone was given me by a learned Piedmontese. "De figuris . green stone or gem which and West Indies They pierce their lips adheres to the hole and We ments oripenduU [mouth-pendants]. green plasma. and he wrote of it as follows " I send a cylindrical green stone. one of the few materials by which jadeite can be worked is furnished by the streams of this region. lapidum. recto." Kunz. one or more being worn according to the dignity of the wearer. Other green stones used at this time in Mexico were green jasper.252 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES The greater number of ancient Mexican jadeite beads appear to have been rounded pebbles of this material. While eating. as long as a man's middle and : insert this stone so that the thicker part the rest protrudes.

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according to a Eabbinical legend. Originating in this way the idea of adorn1 ment was a secondary impulse. However. and frequently neighboring tribes will employ stones or shells of the same or similar hue and appearance. 43. nasi et aurium.RELIGIOUS USES OF PEECIOUS STONES 253 Similar ornaments. induced primitive man to affix ornamental objects on or in the nose. nose and lips. mutilations. is not at all easy to determine* Some have conjectured that The reason for these strange by the ins-ertion of bright. curious theory was advanced by Knopf. or mouth. there is shown in the matter of color or no hard and fast rule in this matter. ear. who must be rendered favorable to man by some act on his part showing his unconditional submis- sion to them. Eve's ears were pierced as a punishment for her disobedience. Others find in this custom a religious significance and suppose that the mutilation represents a form of sacrifice to the spirits.45 He calls attention to the habit children have of thrusting small bright objects into their noses and ears. There may be more in this than we are willing to admit. members of the same tribe were enabled to recognize each other at a distance each tribe having selected a particular color. local preferences are material. are in the Kunz collection in the Field Museum of Chicago. good or bad." Gottingse. colored objects in the ears. but on the whole it seems 45 " De ornatu oris. made of a green quartz and of beryl. A coupled with the early-developed love of adornment. It is a fact that ancient peoples regarded the wearing of ear-rings as a badge of slavery. p. 1832. when she was driven from the Garden of Eden. which often cause serious discomfort to those who practice them. although certain . . and suggests that this indicates a natural propensity which. and.

indeed it was actually cast from the model. New York. executing a war dance.. Bock-crystal is included among the various objects used as fetiches by the Cherokee Indians. " green stone") weighing 7000 pounds. found in South Island in 1902. On it is placed a remarkable and. An enormous mass of New Zealand jade (punamu. a masterpiece of Chinese calligraphy.254 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES most probable that ceremonial and religious considerations gave rise to the custom. B. Esq. it was secured by the writer and was donated to the Museum by the late J. Pierpont Morgan. and winding pathways up to its summit. characteristics of which were a distortion of the features and a thrusting out of the tongue intended to express defiance and contempt of the enemy. or of which we have any record. serving as a type of old Maori life. the time or cadence of the dance was marked by slapping the thigh with the flat of the left hand. One owner of such a crystal kept his magic stone wrapped up in buckskin and hid it in a sacred cave. with groups of figures artistically placed at its base. This figure was executed from life by Sigurd Neandross. This shows a jade mountain. at stated intervals he would take it out of its re- . so that there can be no doubt as to its fidelity. in its own peculiar way. On the face of the rock is inscribed in beautiful Chinese characters the Epidendron Pavilion Essay of Wang Hi-che. an artistic decoration. is to be seen in the Museum of Natural History. This is the largest mass of jade known. and at the same time designating the geographic source of the jade in a striking and unmistakable manner calculated to appeal to the least intelligent visitor. This is a statue of a Maori warrior of the old days. This stone is believed to have great power to give aid in hunting and also in divining. of Minneapolis. One of the largest masses of sculptured Chinese jade is in the collection of T. Walker.

.. which were regarded as the rarely find the usage which cisco we highest divinities. 30. Naualpilli ("noble necromancer").RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 255 pository and "feed" it by rubbing over it the blood of a deer." ed." in "Bib. 1852. 1910. Smithsonian Inst. xxii. and Cintectl ("the god of harvest"). as a fetich. was considered to be a living entity and as such to require nourishment. or at thos'e of any one belonging to the family of a chief. I. p. Ethn. although we have abundant proof that pearls were offered in this way by the mound-builders of the Mississippi In this case great quantities of pearls were Valley. especially was remarked by Frande Gomara among the Indians of New Lopez Granada about the time of the Spanish Conquest. In ancient Mexico the lapidaries adored the four following divinities as their tutelary gods: Chiconaui Itzcuintli ("nine dogs"). A feminine divinity represented this sign 4e and to her was attributed the invention of the garments and the orna- " Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. 47 These natives "burned gold and emeralds" before the images of the sun and moon. "Historia de las Indias. However. p. This goes to prove that the stone. Bur. Bull. Pt. A festival was celebrated in honor of the three last-named divinities when the zodiacal sign calted chiconaui itzcuintli was in the ascendant. of Am. by Frederick Webb Hodg-e. 46 Precious stones have been everywhere regarded as appropriate offerings at the shrine of a for the worshipper naturally thought that what divinity. Certainly to use precious stones for a "burnt offering" was an original and curious idea. *T 458. 202. Macuilcalli ("five horses"). burned at the obsequies of the chiefs of the tribes." vol. de autores espanoles. was most valuable and beautiful in his 'eyes must also be most pleasing to the divinity he worshipped. Washington. Madrid.

4th rank. 5th rank. xvii. de las cosas de cap. 1829. was set with antique gems which had been plundered by French and Venetian crusaders from the treasure-house of the Greek Emperor in Constantinople. as well as of the making of labrets and earflaps of obsidian. u Historia general ii. 3d rank. . when that city was sacked in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade. 389-391. 2d rank. vol. queer attributions of the subjects engraved on Greek and Roman gems were made during A reliquary containing a tooth of the Apostle Peter. or amber. 48 The stones worn by Chinese mandarins as a designation of their rank were undoubtedly determined originally by religious or ceremonial considerations. ruby (and rubellite) Coral or an inferior red stone (garnet) 1st rank. Nueva Espana." Mexico. long preserved in a church. They are as follows it will b*e noticed that red stones are given the . was furnished by its Christian owners with an 48 inscription Sahagun. The knowledge among the ecclesiastics of the Middle of classical mythology was so slight Ages that some very this period. Blue stone (beryl or lapis-lazuli) Rock-crystal Other white stones . pp. Among these gems was one representing L'eda and the Swan certainly a curious subject for the adornment of a Christian reliquary. They also were the inventors of necklaces and bracelets. Another Greek or Eoman gem. rock-crystal. preserved in the Cathedral of Troyes. lib. The four gods of the lapidaries were looked upon as the discoverers and teachers of the art of cutting precious stones and of piercing and polishing them. preference Red : or pink tourmaline. ix.256 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES ments worn by women.

but the Greek engraver's intent had been to carve the figures of Zeus and Athena. attribution of a gem so engraved to the patriarch Joseph. saint Martial illustrates this idea. Still another gem was provided with an inscription signifying that the subject was the temptation of Mother Eve in the Garden of Eden. a design which appears on some Athenian coins at the feet of the divinities appears a serpent. for many pagan gems were worn by is An pious Christians." Altenburg. sprang out of tkeir settings and fell to the ground before the eyes of the onlookers. who reconciled their consciences to the use of these beautiful but scarcely religious ornaments by giving to the pagan symbols a Christian meaning. while in reality it was a representation of the god Mercury. ** Klot. standing before an olive tree. In a similar way the grainmeasure crowning the head of Jupiter-Serapis led to the gem . The gloves worn by this were studded with precious stones. Valentine. Valentine's Day. That precious stones had sense and feeling was quite generally believed in medieval times. Certainly. 57. 1768. it is by no tine. 49 engraved amethyst bearing the figure of a little said to have been worn in a ring by St. there seems something peculiarly appropriate in the design of the ring supposed to have been worn by St. and when on a certain occasion a sacrilegious act was committed in his presence. 17 . " Ueber den Niitzen und Gebrauch der alten geschnittenen Steine. means impossible. the gems.EELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 257 indicating that the figure engraved upon it was that of St. horrified at the sight. ValenCupid While this may be somewhat doubtful. Michael. in view of the time-honored customs con- nected with St. and a legend told of St. p.

The famous "Sacro Catino" preserved in Genoa was long believed to be made of a single immense emerald. but careful investigation proved that it was of no more valuable material than green legend still curglass. or dish. which is dark This is a like futurity. rent in the early part of the COLLECTED AND EDITED BY CONRAD GESNEK AT ZURICH IN is set 1565. LAPIDTB VS. with resents visible. typical popular tradition the is that member of a family or a household who is last to arise on that day will be the last to arise all the year around. figured The upper one of the two rings A century represented this cup. the lower one with a piece of amber enclosing an insect. Sylvester's Day. sixteenth . Sylvester or St. and stated that it was one of the utensils which King Herod ordered to be brought from Galilee to Jerusalem for the celebration of the paschal feast. TITLE PAGE OF A GROUP OF TREATISES BY VARIOUS AUTHORS. as having been used by Christ at the Last Supper. MT%tL IS^ V RERVM FOSSI* its known occurrences. James stone is a banded agate in two colors. LIVM GE"NERE. and the opaque side represents the new year. the one dark and the other light.258 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES The St. but his purpose having been with a natural pointed diamond. with a cat s-eye effect so that hoth colors are equally ? The light side repthe old year. stone for a New Year's present or for one born on St. G E MMIS. grouped around are twelve stones representing those of the Breastplate.

259 lie made other use 50 qneer story has been told regarding the Genoese emerald. . somewhat smaller. 113r. p. p. Gesner. or shallow cup. Wenceslaus. This is also mentioned by Gesner. 1565. m "Agrieolae. in St.EELIGIOUS USES OP PRECIOUS STONES changed by Divine Providence. they were much puzzled to learn that a half-dozen different persons claimed to have it in their possession. 289." Basileas." Tiguri. "De nattira fossilmm. the fact being that the Jew had fabricated a number of copies which he had succeeded in pawning for large sums. ff.000 crowns. At one time when the government was hard pressed for money. 27. France. may have been a present day many fine specimens this chrysoprase. Among the celebrated emeralds noted by George (1490-1555) was a large one preserved in a monastery near Lyons. However. Erfurti et LipsiiB. of it.. since they could not find a Christian who would make the loan. and when his Christian clients forced to accept it under threats of dire vengeance in case of refusal. when some years later the Genoese were ready to redeem this precious relic. like its 52 Another of Agricola's emeralds was rival at Genoa. who states that it was shaped as a dish. He was loath to take it. 50 where the walls are Erasmi " Stellas. he protested that they were taking a base advantage of the unpopularity of his faith. as at the of this stone can be seen inlaid with the ed. 112v. and was held to be the Holy Grail. Wenceslaus. 1736. but nevertheless measured nine inches in diameter and was in the chapel of St." 3d lib. "De figuris lapidum. Interpretamentum Gemmarum. as he probably recognized its A him spnrions character. 1546. vi. assuring the lender in each case that the redemption of the pledge was certain. at Agricola 51 Prague. the Sacro Catino was offered to a rich Jew of Metz as pledge for a loan of 100.

the emerald. In the convent-church of St. and was believed to have been the handle of Emperor Otho Ps knife. however. and the priests asserted that when the cross was laid upon the body of one seriously ill. Set in this cross was a white stone. in Persian Armenia. in 1847. " Les six voyages de Jean Baptiste Tavernier/' p. La Haye. liv. i.cred image has been the object of greater reverence than has been accorded to the rude No wooden carving popularly known as the "Sacro Bambino' or "Sacred Baby." in the old church of Ara Coeli in Borne. . for it was customary to pierce rubies. this stone would turn black if he were about his death. but would regain its white hue after jewelled sa. Possibly. this precious freight was miraculously prelittle 7 supposed to have been conveyed to its destination in some mysterious way.. Stephan. last larger than the named. The reverence of the thousands of pilgrims who in the course of time have is 83 served and vol. chap. out of a piece of olive-wood from one of the ancient trees growing on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem. i. since it was perforated. Voyages en Perse. 53 to die. golden green gem-stone. 1718. This figure was carved. if genuine. The carving was executed in the Holy Land and was sent thence to Italy. was set in the gold monstrance in Magdeburg. was an Oriental stone. and although the ship bearing it was shipwrecked. 48 . by a monk. emeralds.260 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES Still another. erected about the middle of the seventeenth century. etc. iv. in the East so as to string them for necklaces or attach them as pendants to a jewel. sapphires. it is related by the French traveller Tavernier that there was preserved a cross said to be made out of the basin in which Christ washed the feet of the Apostles.

BY SIGURD NEANDROSS.-m to Zealand judo from South Island.STATUE OF A MAORI WARRIOR. JPicrpont IVIor^. . weighing three tons. The base is a block of New donated by Mr. It. \vaa the Ainorit'an Museum of Natural History. J.

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It is described as being of almost pure gold and executed in the The crown [Renaissance style. was cut as a perfect sphere and measured about 40 millimetres. 54 If M we are to believe the following anecdote. who began his task in 1574 and devoted twelve years to its completion. A crown of gold adorned with precious stones rests upon the head of the olive-wood figure. which comprised rubies. upon that representing Faith rested the splendid emerald. Hope. 1870. "Estudio de las piedras preciosas/' Madrid. in diameter. . etc. or 1 j inches. the framework of the crown served as a magnificent background for the gems constituting its adornment. This precious ornament was still preserved in the Cathedral in 1865.. the em- Jose Ignaeio Miro. which is jealously guarded by the priests and only shown to the faithful as a particular favor. a row of angels and cherubs sustained the arches which bore at their summit the allegorical figures of Faith. and Oriental pearls. 136. including necklaces. except on the occasion of certain relig- ious festivals. Curiously chased in arabesque de- signs and enamelled in various colors. itself was the work of the Toledan goldsmith. of a rich green color. has found expression in the bestowal of a wealth of gems and jewels. This emerald. brooches. One of the most renowned emeralds in the world surmounted the elaborately jewelled imperial crown that was placed upon the head of the venerated image of theVirgen del Sagrario in the Cathedral of Toledo. rings. 135. and Charity. pp.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 261 gazed with veneration upon this quaint and curious work of art. emeralds. Don Diego Ale jo de Montoya. but was so carelessly guarded that it was stolen in 1869. with which the silken dress of the image is studded.

. p. to the astonished and horrified bystanders. among the former was the unfortu- Later. on one of which was the figure of the Blessed Virgin and on the other a portrait of the queen herself. "This belongs to me. 339. it was replaced by an imitation in glass. Marshal Junot visited this cathedral." Paris. who donated a golden heart-shaped jewel with the words "Jesus Maria' incrusted in diamonds. lc. and the emerald was pointed out to him as one of the chief glories of the shrine. remarking. II. p. coolly. and all trace of most of the magnificent ornaments has been lost.262 'erald THE CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES disappeared at an earlier date : It is said that in 1809. at Loreto. This jewel is described as being "as big as both a man's hands. and was valued Of the many at 40. nate Henrietta Maria. he plucked it from its setting. These represented the gifts of many crowned heads and titled personages.000 crowns. to the 55 number twenty thousand pearles in all. 344. an English In a seventeenth-century account by 56 traveller it is thus described: Its set thick with six rows of diamonds downe before. opened onto two leaves. As soon as the marshal's covetous glance rested upon the gem. during the French occupation of Spain." Then. Lassels? " The Voyage of Italy. to the number of three thousand.. he left the cathedral with the emerald safely ensconced in his waistcoat pocket. was plundered during the French occupation in 1797. smiling and bowing. The famous collection of jewels gathered together in the treasury of the Santa Casa. Pt. wife of Charles I. and its all wrought over with a kinde of embroidery of little pearle set thick everywhere within the flowers with great round pearle. Italy. 1670. 55 ' rich vestments for decorating the statue of the Virgin in the sanctuary. ^Lassels. the most splendid was the gift of the Infanta Isabel of Flanders.

set in gold. TO!. Pub. the gift of Philip II in 1595. and engraved with the image of the Virgin It seem$ probable that this was a jewel made of a baroque pearl. and one of the finest of those acquired by this monarch. St. size. Stcrtees Soc. pp. In 1740 the cross was valued at 50. was largely derived from the same 57 The "Whitby Scotto. in 680.58 The monastery of Streoneshalh. 229. jet. and value. 654. The pectoral cross worn in solemn processions by the and Child. From it hung a splendid pear-shaped pearl. in fulfilment of A. succeeded Hilda as abbess.000 crowns.B." There is also said to have been a great pearl. she died in 713." Madrid. five diamonds. 1747. 314. " Estudio de las piedras preciosas. and Oswy's daughter Aelfleda took the and eventually. 57 prior of the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial was adorned with eight perfect emeralds. *" Caxtularinm abbatfaise de Whiteby. 136. at the battle of Winwidfield. King of Northum- a vow made before his victory over the pagan king Penda. 137. Xvi-3X> . re Jose Ignacio Miro. the colors being so varied that this bordering formed "a rich Iris of several colors. Hilda was made abbess of this veil monastery." so popular and fashionable in the eighteenth century. 59 Tradition relates that at this early date crosses and rosaries were made for the inmates of the monastery from the jet found in the neighborhood. Philip 's great pearl not being included in this valuation. later Whitby Abbey. was founded about 656 bria.. and five pearls.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 263 The same writer tells us the niche in which the statue was placed was bordered with a row of precious stones of great number. " Itinerario d'ltalia/' Roma. pp. 1870. p. or pearls. by Oswy. completed by enamelwork so as to represent the sacred figures. fought in November.

Basileae. that these minerals were worn by th natives as a cure for diseases of the kidneys. constitute the Belucci pally Collection. in that city. v. in central and southern Italy. and quite that. by steel carved with glass and glass itself.ck amber. the back and front of which still offer the original polish given to the material centuries ago by the native American worker. 1560." lib. source. which must have been brought to Europe at the time of the Spanish conquest example shows us the utilization of a pagan celt to form a Christian emblem. whence the name lapis nephriticus. a talisman would be produced that would not only effect the possibly it may have been thought ing this object into the sacred 80 Cardani. later still." and Cardano states that in his time beads of this material were made up into rosaries. by transformform of the cross. the so-called onyx. very probably an invention of their own to enhance the value of their jade and jadeite. a perfect cross has been made. p. A very interesting each of the four corners of the jadeite celt. The superstitious belief propagated in Europe by the returning Spanish sailors. replaced by and. until black-stained chalcedony. collected princilittle town of Perugia. 60 Many are unaware of the fact that a number of ornamental objects made of nephrite and jadeite unquestionably of European origin are to be seen in the quiet These objects. De subtilitate. . 370. In the sixteenth century jet was popularly called "bla. He also says that curious figures made of jet were brought from Spain to Italy. This collection also contains other specimens of worked jadeite. By the removal of a rectangular piece from of Mexico and Peru. rendered the material exceptionally precious in the eyes of many.* 264 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES and since then has had several revivals.

Celt. This was and was divided into four pieces.I Cross originally a celt teenth century. Of Mexican origin and brought to Italy in six- . Belucci Collection. 2. tied over the bins. 3. Aboriginal. is said to have been worn as recently as fifty years ago by a Scottish gentleman as a cure made from a celt of jadeite (Mexican).small stone hatchet made of jade nephrite. Jadeite celt. of the kind believed by the peasants to bo thunderbolts. from Guatemala. bought from a peasant in Perugia. Mounted in silver to be worn as a charm. A . This specimen.

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onyx and others of less value.RELIGIOUS USES OF PEECIOUS STONES cure of a special disease. w . of the Imperial University of Tokyo." These peculiar ornaments were used to adorn the statues of the gods and were also employed as imperial insignia and distinctive marks of high rank. rock-crystal. encountered in so many different parts of the world. "They are generally perforated at the thick end. chrysoprase and nephrite (jade). Dr. such as garnets. carnelian. but would also by its 265 superior virtue guard the wearer from harm and danger of all kinds. made regarded as amulets. may have been conditioned by the shape of the materials originally used. in Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1904. agate. bered A At the present day they are numthe three emblems of sovereignty in Japan. superstitions in regard to stones. Baelz national believes that the swastika emblem. Certain curious amulets called magatama (crooked jewels) have been found in Japanese graves of the iron 01 they are formed of various materials. their peculiar form. pp. carnelian. or of boar's or wolf's teeth. the magatama are fre- and which is variously explained as a symbol. Dr. Here may also be seen some celts of European jade sewed up in little bags to be worn on the loins. among age. The magatama were evidently quently of horn. Baelz. 523-547. and were worn on a string. jasper. agate. others of steatite. belongs to the tribes of same order of ideas. In the shell heaps of a period preceding the iron age. rock crystal. chal- The Bghai Burma have many cedony. among green and a red magatama are combined in the emblem of Korea and a similar figure is used in China to symbolize the union of the masculine and feminine principles (Yang and Tin) in nature. together with beads and bugles of the same material.

Sophia.266 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES their repute not depending entirely or principally upon their quality as gem-stones. John the Baptist. by Clement E. 6S placed in the church of St. as this church was the most important one in the city. London. 38. 109. In almost every household is installed a stone fetish. and blood offerings are on question as to the reason for this offering elicited the following reply: "If we do not common belief give it blood to eat it will eat us. the most sacred and on the left-hand blessed Yirgin Mary. This he did. 110. St. 1860. and. as I said before. are not drawn or painted with any color. p. in Constantinople: In the wall." was that spirits good or bad dwelt in the stones. "Burmah. and as if there veil before them. very naturally. ** . Markham. Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour. Hakluyt Soe. there is a very large white slab. but the stone itself gave birth to this picture. on which. pp. and occasion to this. its People and Natural Productions. but the spirit was not to be denied. which may be clearly seen. These images. with his most glorious forerunner. that stone was deposited in it. Mason. other figures. was drawn. among any human side. 1859. or inlaid. without many artifice of sculpture or painting. and had even brought two companion stones with it 62 Buy Gonzalez de Clavijo. with its veins. Pub. this was sometimes laid to the charge of such a spirit. the workman saw these most wonderful and fortunate images on it. his widow commanded her son to throw away their magic stone. to be placed in this most holy place. who travelled in the East ! during the years 1403-1406. The father of a family having died. made A A in case a great misfortune befell a family." Rangoon. gives a description of a slab " and of stone bearing the outlines of a "natural picture. with our Lord Jesus Christ in her most holy arms. on one side. and they say that when this stone was cut. trans. The said was a thin 03 images appear as if they were in the clouds of heaven. for shortly afterward this very stone was found to have returned to its accustomed place.

RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 267 Many other examples of these "natural gems" are noted by early [writers. as is the mother. Mark. Upon this gem appeared the head of a king. the whole design being figured naturally by the veining of the agate. . Pet." Veronas. Another remarkable example is described by Kircher as follows 65 : In Rome. hanging from the Cross. 1665. Such a gem might well be looked upon as a Christian amulet and one that could be reverently worn by any * believer. divided by a zone. Subterraneus. Caleeolarium. and not owing anything to artifice. Around may be seen the figures of angels. p. were regarded as the work of higher powers. ^Kireher. in the Chapel of the Sacred Virgin. 36. could be seen the likeness of Our 64 Lord. Tabula IV. and holds in her arms the child. The red spots upon the bloodstone were said in Chris- tian legend to represent the blood of Christ. an image may be seen in which the Blessed Virgin of Loreto is so artistically depicted by Nature that it appears to be the work of an artist's hand. Fig. Among them was an agate gem in the treasury of the Basilica of St. Museum "Mundus 6. Such stones. She is attired in a triple garment. in Venice.er. whereon the thorn-crowned head of Christ is so placed that the red spots of the bloodstone figure the drops of blood trickling down the hair and face of the Saviour. p. " Chiocci. adorned with a diadem. In the same city. 1622." Amstelodami. 251. who is distinguished by a crown. upon a column in the church of San G-eorgio Maggiore. This idea has been beautifully utilized in some gems cut from this stone. near the organ to the right hand of those who enter the Church of St. with peculiar markings indicating the form of human heads and figures.

On this gem appeared two heads touching each other. 1834. The mineralogist is not disposed to see here anything more than coincidence. Bavaria. found on Mount Kopfel. but a freak Jesus. Nevertheless. Elizabeth of Marburg. striking instance of this was the celebrated stone over the figure of the Mother of A tomb of St. . of Atlanta. which overlooks the village. when the stone was held at a certain angle. while visiting the village of Oberammergau. It is in reality a fine onyx en- 66 graved with the heads of Castor and Pollux. Georgia. Eugenia Jones-Bacon.268 THE CURIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES The ignorance in the Middle Ages of the art of gem- engraving often induced the belief that engraved stones were the work of nature. not a work of art. or that of the Virgin Mary. and it was. u Antik gesekaittene Steine vom GrabmaH Elizabeth/' Leipsic and Darmstadt. Mrs. An oft-repeated legend tells us that a former Elector of Mainz offered the whole district of Amoneberg for this costly stone. might be disposed to regard rather sceptically the tales regarding wonderful stones bearing the image We of Christ. and having on its surface excrescences so disposed that. der heiligen p. which robber hands removed at Cassel. and we may be inclined to believe that the old accounts are exaggerated or distorted by the pious imaginations of the writers. a small stone composed of chert and limestone. 25. to witness the Passion Play. the shadows cast by them formed a striking likeness of the head of Christ as depicted in Christian art This peculiar freak specimen has been carefully examined by experts and has been pronounced to be entirely a work of nature. In 1880. in our own time we have a well-attested case of the discovery of such a stone. and 66 Creuzer. according to tradition. on the of the sculptress Nature.

in the case of the diamond (diamante). since the stone and the color were typical of love. lv. and hope. 1882. de la Soc. who sought to combine pagan with Christian types and figures. of the fourteenth century in the author's library." treatises on precious stones. truth. The love of Christ led him to make the supreme sacrifice and suffer the agony of the Cross. passion. especially if we are only looking or thinking of one object or subject. stones. and the Crucifixion was followed by w Barbier de Montault. The Bosicrucians. saw in the amethyst and the amethystine color a symbol of the divine male sacrifice. Ser. fol." a reason for regarding the brilliant gem as a sacred stone and one especially suitable for religious use. Sec." and the present writer feels disposed to add that it is remarkable how often we find what we are looking for.. just as Jesus illumined the depths of Hades when he de- or rhymed scended thither it was unconquerably hard. 106. d'Antiq. . "Le Tresor de FAbbaye de Sainte-Croix de Poitier". M Italian MS. As Max Miiller said. read the 68 This was phrase amante di Dio. 105. Just as it could discovered by night an old fancy so was the only be Incarnation a hidden mystery. suffering. in commenting on this strange discovery: "The chapter of accidents is much larger than we imagine. or "lover of G-od. and who can 67 resist the might of Grod? The mediaeval Italians who were fond of seeking some hidden and significant meaning in the names of precious . it gave forth a great light. in M6m.RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES 269 yet the most sceptical cannot fail to be impressed by the fact that such a stone was found at the time and place of the Passion Play. vol. 1881. pp. Poitiers. 41 b. de 1'Ouest. The favorite religious symbolism of the diamond was a theme with the thirteenth century "lapidaria.

less marked. California. the narrow end of one wedge being crossed by the broad end of the second filling in the balance of the square. and the crystal was naturally regarded as having a mystical and religious significance. until finally a black cross will appear. this effect being produced by the regular arrangement of carbonaceous impurities along the axes of the crystal. and the divine symbol it bore served to drive away evil spirits from the neighborhood of the wearer. When found. and. or made. All kinds of fevers were cured by this mineral if it were worn suspended from the neck. making a distinct cross with black markings. and are found in Massachusetts. This marking is often very striking in appearance. when polished. The white material is the result of two white wedges pushed point onward until the ends meet. If small segments are it will be found that the black outline will places. It was said to stanch the flow of blood from any part of the body if worn so as to touch the skin. This very interesting mineral occurs very frequently in mica schists. The name signifies a marking resembling the Gre'ek letter X (chi). whence came the hope of mankind to enjoy eternal happiness in heaven. The chiastolite. tapering slightly at each edge. and other broken off. it often shows a white cross with a veined outline of black. the crystals naturally form an become stronger. of these square crosses can thus ever be esactly alike. it appears about the thickness of a small finger. If broken near one end. with white markings. and it was also believed to increase the secretion of milk. and the white wedge. The crystals frequently measure from two to four inches in length.270 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES the Besurrection. and the black No two . shows the representation of a cross on its surface.

crystallized into the form of the cross. However. an elfin messenger winged his way through the air and alighted among them. He bore to them the sad tidings of the crucifixion of Christ in a far-off city. or The peculiar form of the mineral known as staurolite (from the Greek eraopdz cross) is due to the twinning of two crystals at right angles. the former name being used in Basel. a blue variety of calamine. when the fairies were dancing and playing around this spring. Fine crystals of staurolite have been found in Patrick County. a hydrous silicate of zinc.RELIGIOUS USES OF PEECIOUS STONES interesting stone that was cross-stone by the ancients. long. In Cronstedt's treatise on mineralogy. long ago. where the stone was employed as an amulet at baptisms. the lapis crucifer of De Boot appears from his description to have been the chiasIn Brittany these twin crystals were worn as tolite. So mournful was his recital of the sufferings of the Saviour that the fairies burst into tears. and these fairy tear-drops. 271 known as lapis crucifer. as they fell to earth. and the story goes that one day. colored blue by an admixture of copper. published in Stockholm in 1758. we are told that the staurolite was sometimes called Baseler Taufstein (baptismal-stone) or lapis crucifer. and local legends state that they had dropped from the heavens. There has been found in the southern part of New Mexico. and there is said to be a beautiful local legend in regard to their origin. Near where they are found there wells up a spring of limpid water. Virginia. These natural crosses are in great demand as charms. and in northern Mexico. and exPresident Eoosevelt is said to wear one of them mounted as a watch-charm. This stone has been cut into gem form . charms.

Essex. so that they may pay their devotions at this improvised shrine.272 THE CUBIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES lias and been sold to a certain extent as a cheap gem. give a good example of Near this class of inscription: 6d this a rare Jewell's set. . 1878. Cornwall. Let no sacrilegious hand Breake through 'tis y e strickte comaund) Of I'll the jeweller: 7 who hath sayd (And tis fit require it he be obey'd) safe and sound Both above and under ground. more opaque. p. although which is of a different composition. 110. England. In a churchyard at Prittlewell. England. It is translucent and is sometimes veined with white wavy lines. Clos'd up in a cabinet. the first of whom died in 1641 and the second in 1658. of a different shade of blue and it expression in likening the body enclosed in its narrow The following coffin to a precious jewel in its casket. In some epitaphs the hope of the resurrection finds does not resemble this latter stone. The Mexican Indians employed in the mines often set up a cross and a candle near where they are working. a rather whimsical treatment of the same idea is offered by some verses engraved on the stone marking the graves of two wives of a certain Freeborne. In Sonora and Western Chihuahua the Indians frequently place a piece of the stone to which we have alluded alongside the cross. at Fowell. They may be attracted by its beautiful blue color. or they may believe that it is a turquoise. " Antiente Epitaphs/' London. erected in 1655 to the memory lines from a tombstone of Mary Courtney. The bereaved hus""Bavenshaw.

. Virginia. Patrick County.STAUROLITE CRYSTALS (FAIRY STONES).

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Which should I chuse? Well." London. The Christian symbolism of colors has in many cases determined the use of certain colored gems for religious ornaments. for the the saints who were not martyred. is RED is TO Audsley. Symbolism. used at the feasts of the Exaltation and Invention of the It suggests and Cross. and in pictures of the Assumption of the Virgin she frequently clad in white." London. and as that of faith not sealed with blood. and the supreme symbolizes suffering and martyrdom fox the faith. since I know not whether.RELIGIOUS USES OP PRECIOUS STONES 273 band seems to have been perfectly willing to await the 70 Day of Judgment for the return of his lost spouses : Under this stone two precious gems do ly Equall in weight. virginity. 135-137. He'el pause. Yet here's my comfort. and therefore the following summary of their 71 principal significance is of interest here : WHITE is regarded as the first of the canonical colors. Which was't who knows? ask him : y* knew y601 well long enjoyment. For this reason it is used in the ceremonies of Easter and Christmas. 1865. n See "Handbook of Christian IS p. The tyme a comeinge cabinets shall ope Which are loekt fast: then shall I see My Jewells to my joy. lustre. Ravenshaw. As the color of virginity it is especially appropriate for the festival of the Virgin festivals of Mary. 113. and light. and at the Feast of Martyrs. as in those of the Circumcision and Epiphany of Our Lord. pp. "Antiente Epitaphs. my Jewells mee. . innocence. and as emblematic of purity. life. then answere truly both were best : By Were't in my choice that either of y e twain to Might be returned me to enjoy agayne. The heavenly host of angels and saints wear white robes. 1878. at Pentecost. worth. herein lyes my hope. If he thus be prest. sanctity: Yet perhaps one of them da excell. He mourne for the losse of both. but wish for neither. faith.

is appropriate for use on Septuagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays. Hence Judas is garbed in yellow of a dull hue. week-days. the Virgin and the saints and angels are often robed in blue. In Christian art. GREEN" is the canonical color for use on Sundays.274 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES of Christ sacrifice upon the Cross. a sorrow soon to be turned . The chastening and purifying effects of suffering find expres- VIOLET. Christ. and is a type of treachery and envy. Therefore it is only used in the Church on Good Friday. dull yellow. during Lent. but A garments of this shade when they were condemned to the stake.. of a golden hue is emblematic of God's goodness and of it is not a canonical color. and ordinary festivals. BLACK. has the opposite signification. Hope and joy and the bright promises of youth are signified by green. however. another canonical color. as this is not one of the five canonical colors. also* a canonical color. celestial regions BLUE virtues. sion in this color. however. and heretics wore faith and YELLOW good works. is an emblem of the and of the celestial Nevertheless. and on Advent Sunday. to symbolize the sorrow and despair of the Christian to joy community at the death of by His glorious resurrection. is a symbol of death and of the mourning and sorrow inspired by death. it is not employed for the decoration of churches or for ecclesiastical vest- ments. Divine love and majesty are also typified by this color.

a sheep for wool. FHONTLSPIECK OF THE "VESTITUS SACERDOTUM HEBR^ORUM. Thi other vignettes show wepuratc parts of the high-priest's attire. each garbed in different sets of vestments. gold-thread. . 1680. .BKA PAL ATINO POHANNK ." OF JOHANN IUIAUN. etc source of the cochineal insect. linen. Tyre and the purple mures.i AMSTERDAM. The visnottos a. and in the centre appear two figurn of the high-priest. as the nopal the top illustrato the source of the materials of the vestments.

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and the gems contributed for the tabernacle by the Israelites in the wilderness. instead of the simple grandeur of these biblical comparisons. describes the Great White Throne as surrounded by a rainbow like an emerald. . the religious nature of man led to the use of precious stones in connection with worship the most valuable and elegant objects being chosen for sacred purposes. ? in the Apocalypse. of the breastplate of the High-priest. Another religious association of use to symbolize ideas of the Divine glory. writings. the Koran. however. and in a brief allusion to of Eevelation. the similar appearance of the G-od of Israel in Exodus xxiv the throne of Jehovah. and the Apostle John. Of this mode of thought we have a striking instance in the accounts given. traces of which appear in the Talmud. is compared to a sapphire. have become associated with all manner of religious gems fancies and superstitions. and very naturally.VIII t^e ERY early. and similar writings they have also been dedicated to various heathen deities. give us many fanciful ideas. some trace of the same ideas remains in the ecclesiastical jewelry and its supposed symbolism. or the pavement beneath his feet. Even in modern times. 26. In the vision of Ezekiel i. The stones of the breastplate are here represented as sacred to twelve mighty angels who guard the gates of 275 The Rabbinical . in the book of Exodus. as illustrated in the visions of the prophet Ezekiel and in the description of the New Jerusalem in the book such objects is their Apart from such legitimate uses.

of gold. And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel. And upon the thou shalt make two rings of gold. and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row. they shall be set in gold in their enclosings. every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes. like the engravings of a signet . thou shalt set in it And the first settings of stones. of blue. the second row shall be an emerald. an agate. Foursquare it shall be being doubled. a sapphire. thereof. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold. And diamond. and wondrous tales are told of the luminous gems in the tent of Abraham and the ark of Noah. became interwoven with a host alchemistic. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt thou shalt sbalt put the And fasten in the two ouches. and in the Middle Ages these religious ideas of astrological.276 THE CUEIOUS LOBE OP PRECIOUS STONES Paradise. and an amethyst. and a And And the third the fourth row a ligure. a topaz. and two rings on the two ends of the breastplate. make upon the breastplate two rings of gold. row a beryl. a span shall be the length and a span shall be the breadth thereof. even four rows of stones : row shall be a sardius. and thou shalt put them two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof. 15-30) And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work. of the breastplate : The following is the description given in Exodus (xxviii. which is in the side of the ephod inward. and of purple. and of fine twined linen shalt thou make it. Mohammedan legend represents the different heavens as composed of different precious stones. and of scarlet. and put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod before it. according to their names. after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it. and medical superstitions. twelve. . And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate. and an onyx. and a jasper.

101. called the pectoral Uyw> or oracle. And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart. viii. toward the forepart thereof. since it is known to all). and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. not yet in motion. as often as God was present at the sacrifices. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue.. that God announced victory' in battle by means of the twelve stones worn by the high-priest on his breast. for a memorial before the Lord continually. since they could not deny this.D. and I hold it superfluous to describe their nature. 100. I am about ta relate something still more wonderful. pp. over against the other coupling thereof. i. out of contempt for religion. that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod. above the curious girdle of the ephod. cap. set in the For such a splendor shone from them when the army was pectoral. allow themselves to be led away by a pretence of wisdom. vol. However. However. And cer- wonder of all those who do not. the And thou shalt put in the breastplate of Judgment the Urim and Thummim. because God was the displeased at the transgressions of Law. Opera. the the stones worn by the Jewish historian Josephus (37-95 (these were A.) says I : From the stones which the high-priest wore sard- onyxes. 1845. 9. the pectoral and the onyxes ceased to emit this radiance two hundred years before the time when I write this. that which was worn on the right shoulder instead of a clasp emitting a radiance sufficient to give light even to those far away. although the stone previously lacked tainly this in itself merits the this splendor. Dindorf. and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath. Parisiis. Of the miraculous quality of high-priest. 'Flavii Josepbi. there emanated a light. when he goeth Lord: and Aaron shall in before the bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually. and they shall be upon Aaron's heart. "De Antiq.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE 277 And two other rings of gold thou shalt make. iii. present solemnities." lib. Jud. that all the people knew that God himself was For this reason the Greeks who reverence our to aid them. namely. . ed. when he goeth in unto the holy place.

cap. 5. they also possessed wonderful and miraculous powers. Pentecost.278 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES This writer. the stone assumed a dusky hue. or else it became the color of blood. and the shamir was then passed over them. vii. a decoration not easily to be acquired." c. JucL. Edited by Conrad Gesner from a unique MS. who showed himself to the people. If.D. . Evidently the ttr w\> (oracle) of Josephus has become the d^fam? (declaration). then the people recognized that they had not sinned. Basilese. 1566. which portended death by disease. 'Sancti Patri Epiphanii. 75. says that the breastplate adorned "with twelve stones of exceptional size and beauty. Bishop of Constantia. The names were first traced in ink on the stones. and hastened to celebrate the festival. "De XII Gemmis. If the people were sinful and disobedient. 3 There seems to be little doubt that this account is nothing more than an elaboration and modification of the passage in Josephus. iii. Writing about 400 A. at the feasts of Pascha. and This adamas was termed the &jWc? or Tabernacles. arrayed in all his gorgeous vestments." lib. by its appearance. St. Epiphanius. the result being that s ' "Ant. signifying that the people would be slain by the sword. Mavii Josephi Opera. 12-14. the stone shone like the driven snow. "Declaration. however. in his possession. seen the high-priest wearwas ing his elaborate vestments." because. p. tells of a marvellous adamas which was worn on the breast of the high-priest. "When Moses wished to engrave on the stones of the breastplate tire names of the twelve tribes of Israel. " 2 However these gems were not who must have merely rare and costly. 1544.. Tiguri. on account of its enormous value. it announced to the people the fate that God had in store for them. he is said to have had recourse to the miraculous shamir.

" Amsterdam. 1680. 822.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE 279 THE HJSBftEW HIGH-PIUEST ATTIRED WITH HIS VESTMENTS. p. .) M (From Joharm Braun's Vestitus Sacordotum Hebracorum. opp.

4799-4812. pp. As we shall see. "emery. trans. no par4 The ticles of the gems were removed in the process.280 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the traced inscriptions became graven on the stones. the emerald. 1909. We must also bear in mind that in those periods perfection was not so great a requisite as rich color. vol.. Myers in the "Encyclopaedia Biblica/' vol. 34. It is highly improbable that in the time of Moses precious stones like the ruby." argument against the use of especially rare and costly stones in the decoration of the breastplate has been found in its probable size. In the first place. The difficulty of engraving very hard stones with really designates name An the appliances at the command of the Hebrews of this period must also be taken into consideration. Phila. however. there is good reason to believe that after the Babylonian Captivity a new breastplate was made. and at that time it may have been easier to secure and work precious stones of great value and a high degree of hardness. i. and 4 Ginsburg. these dimensions do not seem excessive. In this case the stones themselves might have measured two by two and a half inches. L. . Cornelius a Lapide (Cornelius Van den Steen) discusses the question of the diamond in the high-priest's breastplate. or the sapphire would have been available in these dimensions. In his commentary on Exodus xxviii. and this would indicate that its length and breadth were each from eight to nine inches. p. 5 "We are told that when folded it measured a span in each direction. B See J. and. he notes that the diamond was very costly. In proof of the magical character of this operation. iv.. "Legends of the Jews/' Eng. in view of the number of characters required to express some of the tribal names.

1680. D. rings for attachment to Ephod. rings through Ephod. "Whence could I. II. lower fold. that it would have marked too great a distinction between the . bands to pass through rings in Ephod. From the poor Hebrews have obtained such a sum of money. He considers that a stone of the requisite size would have cost a hun- dred thousand gold crowns. C. of which pass bands of Breastplate. EPHOD WITH BREASTPLATE FOLDED AND ATTACHED. G. <?. THE BREASTPLATE UNFOLDED. and he asks. E. " He and where could they have found such a diamond? still proceeds to give another reason for doubting that the diamond was in the breastplate. Bettings. H. H. namely. D t S. B. A." Amsterdam. t B III. the twelve gems in their hooka for attachment to shoulder. E. bands Johann Braun's "Vestitus Sacerdotum Hebraeorum.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE 281 that a large stone would have been needed to bear the name of Judah or that of any other tribe. B.

Moses Gaster.C. the only definite connection with the Hebrew ornament is the number of the figures this suggests. conjectures have been the breastplate with the mystic Many made as . which has been discovered by Dr. 402. the high-priest of Memphis wore this ornament as early as the fourth Dynasty.282 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES being that the tribe to which the diamond was assigned would have been puffed up with pride. Ueberlieferung. the result gems. as figured in an Egyptian relief. or crosses. That an Egyptian origin should be seems most probable.. 4000 B. approximately.). after acknowledging the great difficulty of interpreting the 'See Gimma. intended Egyptian hieroglyphics. "Aegypten.to the origin of Urim and Thummim en- it. the mysterious oracle of the ancient Hebrews. a common origin. "Delia storia naturale vol. As it cannot be determined that these figures were cut from precious stones. Achan steals a golden image from a heathen temple in Jericho. consists of twelve small balls." Tubingen. St. but fails to prove.D. p. delle gemme/' Napoli. " Altisraelitische . A breast-ornament worn sought closed within by the high-priest of Memphis. or. i. According to this version. while the others would have been filled with hatred and envy. pp. 208. The high-priest's breastplate reveals his guilt. 1730. sqq. Augustine (354-450 A. pp. 'Hommel. The monuments show that to represent ." Erman. 7 Of the Urim and Thummim. for the stones lose their light and grow dim when his name is pro- 6 nounced. 1885." The use of the breastplate to reveal the guilt of an offender is testified to in a Samaritan version of the book of Joshua. 209. 281. chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in England. "for the diamond is the Queen Gem of all the tribes.

on the occasion of the Vandalic triumph of Belisarius.. 637. the express statement of Procopius that "the vessels of the Jews" were carried through the streets of Constantinople. ii. 333. p. cd.THE HIGH-PBIEST'S BREASTPLATE meaning of the 283 words and the character of the oracle. still he thought it possible that merely the letters of the words Urim and Thummin were inscribed by Titus in 70 A. "Opera Omnia. i. xxxviii. Sophia. 445. p. C. " Natural History of Precious Stones. and we learn from Josephus that the breastplate was deposited in the Temple of Concord. in 534. adds that some believed the words to signify a single stone which changed color according as the answer was favorable or unfavorable.." London. in 455. 10 vol. while the priest was entering the sanctuary. Some time later. the treasures of the temple were carried off to Rome. breastplate. may be taken as a con- firmation of the conjecture that the Vandals had secured 10 possession of the breastplate and its jewels. Latin. the emperor is said to have heard of the saying of a certain Jew to tire *Aureli Patrologise * Augustini. Dindorf. . lib. however. col. ed. It must.D. 1833. Bonnae. W. 1870. vol." vol. iii. which had been erected by Vespasian. After the capture of Jerusalem upon the 8 although Eev. Part I. 9. Idng of the Visigoths. Here it is believed to have been at the time of the sacking of Borne by the Vandals under Genseric. Vandalico/' cap. King thinks it is not improbable that Alaric. when he sacked Eome in 410 A." It appears that this part of the spoils of Belisarius was placed by Justinian (483-565) in the sacristy of the church of St. Migne.D. be carefully noted that Procopius nowhere mentions the breastplate and that it need not have been included among "the vessels of the Jews. 1864. "Be bello Procopius. 9 However. Paris. might have secured this treasure.

Dindorf.D. vol. Moved by such considerations. (< Seventh Great Oriental MonSa'ad.284: THE CUKIOUS LOBE OF PEBCIOUS STONES " sacred vessels' to Jerusalem. an account of the lib. in 615. under on this occasion. If we admit that Khusrau took the sacred relics of the Temple with him to Persia. although King. pp. ed. namely. 9." London.. the capture and sack of Jerusalem by the Sassanian Persian king.000. and they might well lay claim contingent. 1876." fact which has generally been overlooked by those who have embarked on the sea of conjecture relative to the fate of the breastplate stones is that a large Jewish A numbering some twenty-six thousand men. and the overis Temple were restored to Jerusalem. he effect that. p.000. and the capture and sack of Ctesiphon. they would bring misfortune upon 11 If this story be any place where they might be kept. archy. 445. 1833. . until the treasures of the said to have sent the 7 throw of the Sassanian Empire by the Mohammedan 12 Arabs." immense booty taken by the Arabs. who has ingeniously endeavored to trace out the history of the breastplate jewels after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A. belreves that they may be still "buried in some unknown treasurechamber of one of the old Persian capitals. in 637. Bonnae. have felt that the fate of Rome was true. This brings us to the last two events which can be even plausibly connected with the mystic twelve gems. Justinian may a lesson for him. The total value has been placed as high as $125. see Rawlinson. we may be reasonably sure that they were included among the spoils secured by the Arab conquerors. and they were placed in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. u 1J Procopius. Khusrau II. For cap. i. and that Constantinople must be saved from a like disaster. 564-566. formed part of the force with which the Sassanian Persians captured Jerusalem. " De bello Vandalico. ii.

D. In this case. and especially Moses. We must also bear in mind that the to fit would have been necessary gems may not have been so great as many suppose. the victorious Arabs who overran the Sassanian Empire. and involving a great loss of size. However.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BEEASTPLATE TO 285 any Jewish vessels or jewels that may have been secured by the conquerors. although filled with religious zeal. were no students of archaeology. very likely that the enthusiastic statements of Josephus in this connection were dictated by national pride. their financial were quite restricted. Certainly. however. or arose from the tendency to exaggeraIt is tion so if common among the Oriental writers. since all of them were probably of the less perfect forms of the precious and semi-precious intrinsic value of tire varieties. a process not easily accomplished. and . the inscription being probably in the older form of Hebrew writing. it is still probable that these precious objects fell into the hands of the Mohammedans who captured Jerusalem in the same year in which they took Ctesiphon. Admitting as a possibility that the Arabs may have secured possession of the breastplate. Hence. recutting them for use as ornaments. the breastplate known to Josephus was made not long after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian Capresources at the time of its fabrica- tivity. how would they have regarded it? The heroes of the Old Testament. which was used in the coinage even as late as the last revolt in 137 A. One circumstance which may have contributed to the preservation of these gems in their original form after they fell into the hands of the Romans is the fact that each one was engraved with the name of one of the Jewish tribes. were such sacred personalities in the eyes of Mohammedans that this relic would have been as tion precious for them as for us.

not long before the date of the Arab invasion. in 637.D. only Mohammedans when that city was taken by the Arabs under Omar. Hence. on the conclusion of a treaty of peace between the Eastern and Sassanian Empires. and believed to be the very cross on which Christ died. the most precious relic of Christendom. have valued these stones no higher than others in the Persian treasure. There is a bare possibility that other objects of religious veneration. therefore. such as Tabari. This cross was one of the sacred objects borne away to Persia from Jerusalem by Khusrau in 615 A. was surrendered to the Greek Emperor Heraclius by Kobad II.286 THE CURIOUS LORE OP PKECIOUS STONES would have been quite unable to decipher the strange characters engraved on the stones. son of Khusrau II. taken from Jerusalem. may have been given up by the Persians at the same time. since their own Zoroastrian faith had no con- nection with it. and would. mother of Constantine the Great. In 628. and that the unique char- acter of the most important relic so overshadowed all others that historians have failed to note the fact. Mohammedan who treat We may be sure that the Persians themselves would have accorded no special honor to objects connected with the Hebrew religion. They would most probably have supposed them to be Persian characters. of the overthrow of the Sassanian Empire. it would probably have shared the same fate. The cross was restored to Jerusalem by Heraclius in 629. Khusrau's Christian wife. It is said to have been guarded carefully through the influence of Sira. to fall into the hands of the . This can serve as an explanation of the fact that no allusion to the breastplate with its adornment can be found in the works of those writers. if the jewelled breastplate had also been surrendered by Kobad. the cross discovered by Helena.

2. Henry Draper. (S(-pa K c 271.sixteenth century.) In the author'n library Rome.SILVER CROSS WITH QUARTZ CAT'S KYE.'{S. Collection of Mrs.i Vul. SPECIMENS OK CUIASTOLITK (LAPIH CLUTCIFRR). 1710. Russian. .icunu" of Moniatua. p. From tho "Metullothcc. .

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to each combination a prearranged meaning is given. historically at least. for the unforgotten and unforgettable gems that were worn by the Hebrew high-priest. who are disposed to prize gems and jewels for their symbolic significance. this significance. Me. has its root in the veneration felt by early Christian writers.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE 287 "We have here a wide field for conjecture. Still. three of to come stones that reveal themselves. for. ingenious utilization of the reputed of Aaron's breastplate comes to us in a book powers 13 The writer assumes that printed in Portland. but the U C. when they were shaken to rest. rather the A Urim and Thummim enclosed in the folds of the breastplate consisted of twelve stones. The signification of the oracle is given by the various combinations of color offered by the three that. as far as concerns natal stones and the case of all spiritual interpretation of the qualities of the heart and soul symbolized by the color and character of the prin- cipal precious and semi-precious stones. H. and so disposed to and fro and then allowed them would become visible through an aperture in the ephod just beneath the rows of set stones. in the absence of any definite and trustworthy information. 1911]. That anything of the kind could have been true of the original ITrim and Thummim is scarcely worthy the trouble of refutation. unfortunately. duplicates of those engraved with the names of The tribes. . nothing more. but. Maine.. " Psychocraft [Portland. there is a kind of romantic interest in viewing the various possible relations of the mystery surrounding the fate of the most precious gems. that have ever exMore especially is this interest justified in the isted. as we have shown. Emerson. beginning with the author of the Apocalypse.

this color corre- .288 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES practical result of this modern experiment is a clever oracle which will probably enjoy a certain vogue. instead of vice versa. In Gren. As a general rule. from the In the Midrash Bemidbar. with the late lamented Lieutenant Totfren." raim and Manasseh as tribal designations. and his seed shall become a multitude of it : this protest Jacob answers: he also [Manasseh] shall shall be great: "I know it. While not pretending to be able to follow all the intricate and certainly most ingenious and interesting speculations of this school of Biblical exegesis. 17-20. in spite of Joseph's blessing protest that it should go to the eldest son. and he also but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he. the tribe of Levi being assigned as priests to the care of the sanctuary. the Rabbinical commentary on Numbers. I know Certainly the very composite population of the United States perfectly merits this description. maintained the twelve-fold division of the people. the text more speculations. and who look upon George V as the king who sits upon the throne of David. xlviii. by substituting these tribes for Joseph and by dropping the name of Levi list. my son. when using the names Eph- nations. with the stone appropriate to each and the color of the tribal standard pitched in the desert camp. see in the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim the Anglo-Saxons of England and the United States. the tribes are given in their order. and not participating in the division of the Land of Promise. Manasseh. For those who. we cannot help expressing some astonishment that Ephraim should be thought to prefigure England and Manasseh the United States. the Hebrews. Jacob's bestowed upon Ephraim. these symbolical stones of the breastplate acquire an added significance. To is especially referred to in these become a people.

B. as adorning the breastplate of the high-priest. the most trustworthy indications re14 " Der Midrasch Bemidbar Rabba. 19 pt. iii. and brought by Titus to Home after the capture of Jerusalem in 70 A. 15. we must bear in mind that this "breastplate of Aaron" and the one described by Josephus.back to at least the twelfth century and possibly mnch earlier than that. 23. 16. pp. transl.THE HIGH-PEIEST'S BEEASTPLATE 289 spending in each case with that of the tribal stone.. it is Wiinsche. although we may not accept it without some reserves. are in all probability en- The former. 1885. on the other hand." Vilna. Aug. must have been composed of the stones known to and used by the Egyptians of the thirteenth or fourteenth century." p. Hebrew text in "Sepher Midrash Rabba. in the ideal world of the authors of the Priestly except Codex. tirely distinct objects.D. black and red Sky-blue Black (like stibium) Jophek Sappir Judah Issachar Yahalom Leshem Shebo Zebulun White Sapphire-color Dan Gad Naphtali Assher Gray Wine-color Pearl-color (?) Ahlamah Tarshish Shoham Yashpheh Joseph Benjamin Very black Colors of all the stones In the attempt to determine the identity of the stones enumerated in Exodus xxviii and xxxix. hence its value should not be underestimated. perhaps.C." German II. if it ever existed. set in the "jewels of gold and jewels of silver" borrowed by the Israelites from the Egyptians just before the Exodus. Leipzig.. Parasha Of the tarshish said the color resembled that of "the costly stone with which women adorn themselves. 1845. This list represents a tradition dating. by Dr." possibly the pearl is signified. . "Sepher Bemidbar. 14 Odem Pitdah Bareketh Reuben Simeon Levi Red Green White. some of them being.

Anna ' Shows the figure of the High-priest and the names and tribal attributions of twelve stones of the Breastplate. and seems to have been applied indiffer"Antiquities.Theophrastus. most carnelian. 5. as well as Josephus. The Nat.290 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES garding the stones of the breastplate of the Second Temple.C. and in the treatise on precious stones by A K A TJ T3/*Yr"V A TT'T . CALLI CAENOMAN.-'-' <---rea t storehouse of fjkat g MAKJBiJJL/AJbl --*- datu.nafti -"---* -----." nate red stones. all translate sardius.. probably the We that in ancient know Egypt from hieroglyphic texts the Book of the Dead upon this were amulets 'Coloniaracudebar Hkf d AlopeciU?. 1539.fed& fchohjs foilluflrttu p AlardiAEn^drcdamu f ancient knowledge. and other early writers.l/>Tlism PvllTirlprq lt>man CyiUlQeib. teTKj The I.E'NSIS DE J-L t wiai Jjistorv of Plinv j j. Josephus renders . made perhaps in the fifth century B. and Epiphanius.C. the ancient designation of carnelian. and TITLE PAGE OP THE EDITION OF MAR.used for early BabyBODUS ON PRECIOUS STONES. in his of the "Wars Jews" odem by"sardThe Egyptian word chenem was used to desigonyx. Fine LISHED IN COLOGNE. 7). who wrote about 300 B. Specimens of CaTHelian f TOTTX WJ*A obtained Arabia. The Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate. in the (V. PUB. may also be used with profit. etymology of this word clearly indicates that we have to do with a red stone. gcinmaraml^|iidani^fp^tioforambnnfff. Odem. engraved it made from was also stone. "however. should be sought in the early Greek and Latin versions of the Old Testament.

legend related by Pliny gives as A the place of origin an island in the Eed Sea. W. [n Here the Septuagint. called Topazos. and the Vulgate agree in translating smaragdus. and was often used for amulets. The name of is said to have been engraved on the odem stone.C. M. Egyptian. the Hebrew pitddh appears to have been derived from the Sanskrit pita. probably influenced by this Sanskrit etymology. However. first apsardius. it was perhaps This was called meh in the light green serpentine. Flinders Petrie. while for the fifth century B. There seems to be little doubt the topazius of ancient writers. that this is t-l place on the breastplate. or peridot.D. It is. perhaps our topaz. P?.^l phus. Bareketh. nevertheless. we admit that a light green stone occupied the second place on the Mosaic breastplate. JoseIII. This modern name of the flesh-color ed" stone. On this second stone was engraved the name Simeon. for signified Pliny and his successors describe the topazius as a stone of a greenish hue. signifying the pears in the Latin translation of a treatise by Luca ben " Costa. probable that in Mosaic times odem signified fed jasper. If. have originally signified a yellow stone. from topazein. indeed." because it was difficult to find.THE HIGH-PEIEST'S BREASTPLATE 291 ently to red jasper and red feldspar as well as to carnelian. therefore. "yellow. first which occupied the II Pitdah. sees in it the yellow serpentine used in ancient Egypt. who wrote Beuben in the tenth century A. therefore." and should. not our topaz. "to conjecture. which usually our chrysolite. "carnelian" would be the better rendering. and as we know that emerald mines were worked at . the first-named material was more freely used in early Egyptian work than the carnelian. In the case of the later breastplate we may substitute the peridot.

since it confuses the prismatic effects of light which has traversed the crystal with the crystal itself. The Authorized Version makes "the carbuncle" the third instead of the fourth stone. there does not seem to be any reason for rejecting the usual translation "emerald. since there is absolutely no proof that this stone was known in ancient Egypt. The suggestion has been made (by Myers and Petrie) that the passage in Kevelation iv. freely used in ancient Egypt for amulets. was the third stone of the proto-breastplate. like rock-crystal. ft?>l This name is rendered ZvOpaS by " carbimculus " the Septuagint and Josephus. indicates that the writer used this name for rock-crystal. signifying literally "a glowing coal. and it seems rather more likely that green feldspar. Hence we are inclined to believe that in the thirteenth century B. Whether the Mosaic breastplate already contained the emerald is another question. This designation. the name nophek designated ." was used for certain stones distinguished by their peculiarly brilliant red color. such as the ruby and certain fine garnets. There can be little doubt that a stone of brilliant coloration. like the emerald. Upon the bereJceth was en- graved the name Levi. and known as uat. before the beginning of our era.C. in Nubia. not a colorless one. would be used as a simile of the rainbow. and that the emerald was known and used in Egypt.292 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Mount Zabarah. where the rainbow is likened to the smaragdus." Still it must be admitted that smaragdus often designates other green stones than the emerald. but this conjecture is scarcely satisfactory. Nophek. 3. and by the Vulgate. While it is quite possible that the Oriental ruby may have been in the breastplate seen by Josephus. it is almost certain that it could not have been in the original breastplate of Mosaic times. IV.

. of the troumire discovered in 1S5S tit Cluarruziir ia Spain. 10 THIS GOTHIC Forming part IK! t'itfht.D.). Now in The CTONB proper is wet with fine sapphires cut on enboohoii UH^O Clviuy. ATTACHED AS PKNDANT TO Til CROWN OF KINO RKCCIOSVINTIIUS (Ul9-t>72 A. lar^e pcurlH.CROSS. Puriw. Natural ai/o.

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and obtained from the oldest mines in the world. was too Although Pliny writes (xxzvii. "a stone/' and lajuward. This is rendered sapphirus in [TfiD. Sappir." dye derived from that this stone it. 15 The stone cannot have been our sapphire. this fact need not have prevented use in the breastplate. In this connecits 15 tween the There are two evident transpositions in the text of Josephus befifth and sixth and the eighth and ninth stones respectively. the Goddess of Truth.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE the almandine garnet. . which is often spotted with particles of pyrites having a golden sheen. V. 293 some similar variety of that The Authorized Version has "emerald" here in- stead of in the third place. and was highly prized by them. thus showing that they meant the lapis-lazuli. a quantity of lapis-lazuli often appearing as an important item in the lists of tribute paid to Egypt and among the gifts sent by Babylonia Egyptian monarchs. and the Egyptian high-priest is rial said to have worn. or stone. since the stones set therein were not intended for use as seals and hence were not subjected to any wear. 39) soft for engraving.] all the old versions. On this fourth stone of the breastplate was engraved the tribal name of Judah. because of its beautiful color and the valuable ultramarine is also derived our " azure. This stone was named chesbet by the Egyptians. From this word In ancient times the lapis-lazuli was the blue stone par excellence. and still are worked to this day. suspended from his neck. The name is composed of the Latin lapis. From this mateto the amulets and figures were made. an image of Mat. These were worked at a period 4000 B. for both Theophrastus and Pliny describe the sapphirus as a stone with golden spots. made of lapis-lazuli.C. the latter name of the stone in Persian. many of which have been preserved for us.

in place of yahalom. tuagint version and of Josephus is the green jasper." and this seems to be the most probable equivalent of the Hebrew Some Hebrew sources. These consider- mond was ations induce us to prefer the traditional interpretation of yahalom. or smite. as the engraved figure or letters . as well as our own Authorized Version. smite. purpose the emery corundum.C. THE CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES however. and was still much used as an ornamental stone in Greek and Eoman times. however. for ' < ' However. The diathis in^ certainly not used in this way in very early times. was most likely used." thus making the name of the stone signify "the smiter. because of its extreme hardness. but also in that of a later Upon this fifth stone the name Issachar was age. which. or smiris-point shamir. The fact that the lapislazuli was greatly esteemed in ancient Egypt. ' all other stones. although it is possible that the stone was employed engraving in the fifth century B. has the power to cut. inscribed. This rendering is based upon the derivation of the word yahalom from a verb meaning "to yahalom. renders it probable that it was set not only in the original breastplate. or jade. VI. mentioned in Zechariah." and Luther in his German version of the Bible. translates it thus. Yahalom." In this case "the smiter" could be explained as the use of the en- denoting graved onyx for sealing.294 tion. it is somewhat strange that the Hebrew word sappir appears to indicate a stone especially adapted to receive inscriptions. render it "diamond. The twelfth stone of the Greek version is the fobpov or "onyx. and translate it "onyx." a designation not inappropriate for the diamond. and this has probably been assumed to show that in the original Hebrew text yashpheh was the sixth stone.Sepfaants. te^ny The sixth stone of the .

which was later changed to lyncurion. The original form of the name was evidently ligurion. and the Vulgate all translate ligurius. even in the name ligurius. however. [Dp-bj No the other engraved stones. the name ligurion appears to have been applied later to a variety of the jacinth somewhat resembling amber in color. electron. was the solidified urine of the lynx. stone in the breastplate is more difficult to determine than this one. an appellation sometimes applied to amber. this name being used because Liguria. was the chief source of supply for Greece and the Orient. some justification for accepting the rendering hyacinthus. since he lays especial stress upon the coldness of this substance. Hence. about 400 A. the Greeks had another name for amber. urine). The term lyncurion. 20. Whether JiyacintTius should be rendered "sap- . etymology gave rise to the story that the ligurios. As. in northern Italy. Bishop of Constantia. and then to other varieties of the same stone. and also of the still denser jacinth. yahalom. as used by Theophrastus. amber which had been gathered on the shores of the Baltic being brought by traders to Liguria and forwarded thence to other lands. may possibly have included the sapphire as well as the jacinth. and was then explained as meaning the urine of the This fanciful lynx (from xfyg. or rather lyncurius. and <>/v. and already proposed by Epiphanius. it appears that we have. Probably the original significance of ligurius was amber. Josephus.THE HIGH-PKIEST'S BREASTPLATE 295 were struck upon some soft material to make an impresZebulim was the tribal name inscribed on the sion.D. The Septuagint. a substance quite unfitted for use in the breastplate among VIL Leshem. a quality characteristic of the sapphire. suggested by the list of foundation stones in Eevelation xsi.

agate would have been the seventh stone in the original Wendel gives very strong reasons for neshem in this way. as 7 were believed to have many talismanic and therapeutic virtues. as Pliny notes (xxxvii.no lack of conset in the proto-breastplate . The etymology of the word shebo suggests that it designated more especially a banded agate. [va^J This is uniformly rendered in " the ancient versions and in Josephus by agate.' a composite stone highly esteemed in very ancient times. and hence worthy of a place among the stones of the breastplate. and that was most probably one with and white bands. There would have been . The leshem bore the tribal name Joseph. at a later period. perhaps. where the sapphire does not seem to have been introduced at an early date. the leshem stone of the Second Temple. and therefore a reddish or a yellowish brown agate may have been used. reputed virtues. 54). served to make them favorite objects. The sapphire was engraved in Greek and Eoman times and is. The color designations rendering were very freely used in Egyptian. Shebo. For the Mosaic breastplate we are forced to seek for some stone known in ancient Egypt. a brown Egyptian neshem stone. as this name seems to have been used indifferently for both stones with the Arabs. under the form yakut. it became a generic term for all the varieties of the corundum gems. and the curious figures and markings displayed by many of them. VIII. If we could accept the suggestion of Brugsch that the to have wonderful magic was the same as the Hebrew leshem. as this variety often appears in gray Egyptian work. Nevertheless the fact that the various kinds of agates breastplate.296 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES " " phire" or jacinth is not easy to determine. the great variety of coloration observable in these stones. it became so common that it was but little regarded. .

as is well known. In the Authorized have already Version. all the was believed to possess the virtue of inducing dreams and visions (cf." where it is used in the description of the breastplate. and the name "chrysolite" appears to have been used to designate our topaz. The Hebrew name shows that this fa^na. or peridot. of . but a dark blue or purple variety of quartz. For the later breastplate we may choose any one of the many kinds of banded agate. Tarshish. Upon the ahlamah was engraved the name Dan." The tarshish received its name from Tartessus. however. while. and render ahlamah by This was not. in Spain. Both Arabia and Syria furnished a supply of amethysts. as does Josephus also." thyst.THE HIGH-PKIEST'S BREASTPLATE trast between this stone 297 brown and the reddish or yellowishof uniform color. This is indeed We indicated by the literal meaning of the word. the seventh place. IX. halom "dream"). an important commercial station of the Phoenicians. hwynn] The Septuagint renders this word "chrysolite. we may safely assert that it was set in both the first and second breastplates. In the Book of the Dead a heart made of hemag is mentioned. This it stone had engraved upon the name Benjamin. "beryl" is the rendering. stone and two such heart-shaped amulets of amethyst are preserved in the Boulaq Museum. a variety of corundum. the Greek name characterizes it as an enemy or preventive of inebriety. the Oriental ame"amethyst.] authorities are in agreement. As to this stone also. As the amethyst retained its repute as a stone of beauty and power through the Greek and Roman periods. that the topaz of the ancients was usually our stated chrysolite. The amethyst was known in ancient Egypt and probably was named hemag. which may have occupied agate. Ahlamah. X. The stone derived from this source was not. "goldenstone.

our Oriental topaz. possibly. the so-called Douai Version. the topaz was probably not known there earlier than 500 or 600 B. we choose the topaz. nor was it the true topaz neither is it at all likely that the name tarshish signified. [DIW] The Septuagint translates "beryl. for whatever the quality of the yellow stone originally brought from Tartessus. This is originally black. the word is invariably rendered "onyx. This Egyptian name signified pri" marily a "yellow stone. by the geographical which might seem to confine us to a offered Spanish origin for the stone. The tarshish was en- graved with the name Naphtali. frequently mentioned as a material from which amulets were made. the name may well have been applied to the genuine topaz when that stone became known to the Jews.. but is decolorized by heating to a deep brown. the probabilities favor the selection of the yellow jasper as the tenth gem in Aaron's breastplate." Diodorus Siculus and Dionysius are the first classical Periegetes. and might designate either the topaz or the yellow jasper. at least originally.C.298 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES course. . or after their return to Palestine." but in our Authorized Version and in that used by Roman Catholics. the genuine . either in Babylonia. a fine specimen of the genuine topaz. and if the heating be prolonged the stone becomes paler and eventually entirely transparent. indeed. in spite of the tlielien is unquestionable difficulty name tarshish. XL Shoham. a variety of corundum. known and used in Egypt at a very early date. authors who use the name beryl. For that made with pious zeal by those who labored to renew the glories of the Old Jerusalem.C. writing in the first century B. topaz most probably it denoted a variety of quartz which occurs in Spain. The ancients were familiar with this property* In ancient Egyptian records a stone called . Hence.

he evidently includes the beryl among his smaragdi. each engraved with the names of six of the tribes. Myers. of the breastplate the On the shoham name Gad was engraved. seems to have much in its favor. for this material was known to the ancient Egyptians and appears to have been often used for amulets. the con.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BKEASTPLATE While this 299 not appear in the treatise of Theophrastus. as well as for other green stones. this . at a later period in Egyptian history. the supply being derived from mines in the Sinai Peninsula.. was mafek. we believe that the stones worn by the high-priest of the Second Temple were aquamarines (beryls). indeed. the high-priest wore on his shoulders two shoham stones. In view of the fact that the tur- quoise was unquestionably known to the Egyptians at a very early date. After from carefully weighing the evidence. Besides the specimen set in the breastplate. mafek may also have denoted the beryl. all the ancient versions agree XII. the true emerald is simply a variety of the beryl. In our endeavor to determine the sholiam stones used in Mosaic times. The light blue or blue-green of Sinai would the specimens of this stone found on make an even better contrast with the neighboring jade Mt than would the bright green malachite. tain. The Egyptian name for malachite. and a ring of mafek is mentioned in an Egyptian text undoubtedly. L. The finest beryls were brought India. jecture of J. and owes its beautiful coloration to a slight name does admixture of chromium. we have no very definite information to guide us on the whole. that they were malachites. as appears almost cername originally occupied the sixth place in the original Hebrew text. . we might be tempted to suggest that the shoham stones were turquoises. which were rediscovered by Macdonald. Yashphek [na^j If.

Of all the so-called jaspers none were The talisso highly valued as those of a green color. " An Assyrian form of the Tell el name was yaslipu. letters in the manic and therapeutic qualities of the "green jaspers" are often noted by ancient writers.300 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES it in translating " jasper. as is shown by the Amarna cuneiform writing dating from not long before the Exodus. the material jade (nephrite or jadeite). was much jadeite. for and was easily distinguishable. writing in 1820. and. recently only Turkestan. the writer does not claim to have finally solved In the following the problem presented by the Hebrew accounts of the high-priest's adornment. possibly in the later breastplate green jasper may have been the tribal employed. the Chinese yu-stone. Very terize jade likely the powers supposed to characwere later attributed to green jasper. These minerals were used both in the Old and the New World. the great French Orientalist. Until quite translucency. but he hopes that the distinc- . and were everywhere believed to possess wonderful virtues. lists This stone was inscribed with name Assher. Burma and New Zealand have supplied jade and most of that used in other lands came from prehistoric relics or from sources unknown to us. of the precious and semiprecious stones contained in the earlier and later breastplates. It seems highly probable that the yashpheh which adorned the breastplate made for Aaron was a piece of nephrite or rarer. Abel Eemusat. but there it is every reason to suppose that the true jade was always more highly prized than its jasper substitute. these stones were recommended for remedial use by Egyptian writers on medicine. by its from jasper of a similar color. was one of the first to see in the yashpheh of the Hebrews and in the green jasper of the Greeks and Eomans. according to Galen.

Red jasper Light-green serpentine Carnelian Peridot II III IV Green feldspar Almandine garnet Lapis-lazuli Emerald Ruby Lapis-lazuli V VI VII VIII Onyx Brown Onyx agate Sapphire or jacinth IX Banded agate Amethyst Yellow jasper Malachite X XI XII Banded agate Amethyst Topaz Beryl Green jasper. may serve to clear up some that of the of the difficulties encountered in the treatment of this subject. The Breastplate of the Second Temple.THE HIGH-PEIEST'S BEEASTPLATE tion established here between the 301 Mosaic breastplate and Second Temple. separated from each other by an interval of eight centuries. The Breastplate I of Aaron. or jade Green jasper. or jade The following lists show the variations of the different ancient authorities in regard to the names of the gems in the breastplate : .

that is. holy Jerusalem. The text in Eevelation (xxi. even like a jasper-stone. according to the he measured the wall thereof. three gates. talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city. The names are in some cases not identical with those given in from various renderings of the Hebrew names in the Targums or in the Greek Exodus. and the wall thereof. and talked with me. the and high moun- tain. and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed. and names written thereon. and at the gates twelve angels. clear as crystal. and on the west. 9-21) is as follows: And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues. quite that these stones are described in the book of Eevelation as the foundation stones of the New Jerusalem. three gates. an hundred and forty and four measure of a man. Come hither. on the north. as described in Hebrew tradition. it was of jasper: and the city . I will show thee the bride. And And And was pure cubits. three gates. and had twelve gates. therefore. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal. On And names of the wall of the city the twelve apostles of the And he that had twelve foundations. which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel : the east. the building of the wall of gold. of the angel. twelve thousand furlongs. descending Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious. and the stones set in it were believed to be emnatural blematic of many things. like unto clear glass. the city lieth foursquare. but this may arise versions. was regarded by the Jews with peculiar reverence. saying. It is. and the gates thereof. and showed me that great out of heaven from God. and in them the Lamb. And had a wall great and high. the Lamb's wife : And he carried me away in the spirit to a great city. three gates.302 THE CUEIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES The high-priest's breastplate. on the south.

but fourth in Mark and the same lists Matthew. every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold. and to the brothers James and John. sardius. Mark. for instance. the third. It is easy to trace in this description the substitution of the twelve apostles for the twelve tribes in connection with the precious stones enumerated. sardonyx. the twelfth.THE HIGH-PEIBST'S BREASTPLATE And all 303 manner of precious the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with stones. besides this. and. and Luke. single stone. The fifth. The first foundation was jasper. as it were transparent glass. being placed second in Matthew and Luke. beryl. the And the twelve gates were twelve pearls. associated at a later date with the months and the signs of the zodiac. in some later arrangements Paul occupies the last place. Of the twelve foundation stones the Eevelation of St. a chalcedony. the tenth. These was not always assigned to a given apostle. sapphire. the seventh. we also have the twelve angels. the ninth. and whose name as an apostle the Acts. the eighth. an emerald. John expressly states that they had "in them the names of the twelve ment of each stone apostles of the Lamb. the second." The assignto the respective apostle was made in later times according to the order given in the lists of the apostles contained in the so-called Synoptic Gospels. Frequently the list was modified by the addition of the stone apostle Paul. Matthias. the sixth. chrysolite. a topaz. Peter. the "Sons of Thunder/ 7 was assigned a St. place of Judas first appears in . really the thirteenth apostle. the fourth. In this ease he was usually given the second place immediately after St. eleventh. a jacinth. after St. are not quite identical Andrew. a chrysoprasus . who was chosen to take the Iscariot. an amethyst.

" voL iv. . 594. have given many different explanations of the symbolic meaning of the similes employed here. he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine there was a rainbow round about the throne. 19. ness of God and his justice. for we read in chapter iv. p. 20. Mark Luke 16-19. Pt 2. x. a throne was and one sat on the throne. Matthew 2-4. "The Greek Testament. instead of prismatic: "the form is that of the covenant bow. 1G * ' 16 Alford. Some have seen in the two stones a type of the two judgments of the world. vi. Peter Peter Peter Andrew James John Philip James John Andrew James John Philip Andrew Philip Bartholomew Thomas Matthew James the Less Thaddeus Simon Zelotes Judas Iseariot Bartholomew Matthew Thomas James the Less Thaddeus Simon Zelotes Judas Iscariot Bartholomew Matthew Thomas James the Less Simon Zelotes Judas Judas Iscariot The passage in Bevelation xxi. Gospel of St. in sight like and unto an emerald. 2. The commentators. 14-16. the color even more refresh- ing and more directly symbolizing grace and mercy. Gospel of St. by fire and by water others find that they signify the holi. behold. Gospel of St. Of the rainbow "like nnto an emerald/' Alford says we should not think it strange that the bow is green. iii. 3 : And And stone: set in heaven. immediately I was in the Spirit: and. is not the only one in that book treating of precious stones.304 THE CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES LISTS OF THE APOSTLES. both ancient and modern.

v. Lastly. In the emerald is expressed the strength of faith in adversity. is accompanied by miracles. and not comforted. Pati*ologico Lat. the perfect operation of prophecy. were used to fill out and com" Rabani Mauri. and "agates. the ardent contemplation of the prophecies. and their : use for windows indicates that they must have been transparent* It is easy to understand that in later times the twelve stones of the breastplate. 19. The origin of the foundation stones named in Bevelation xxi. as the Hebrew word (Jtodkodim) signifies shining or gleaming stones. the flame of inner charity. col. and lay thy foundations with sapphires. only three stones are mentioned by name the sapphire. in the sapphire." This ]ast rendering is quite doubtful. indeed. in the chrysoprase is demonstrated the work of the blessed martyrs and their reward." 20 vol. in the sardonyx. I will lay thy stones with fair colours. the celestial rapture of the learned in their high thoughts and their humble spiritual preaching shown true descent to human things out of regard for the weak. in the following words 17 : In the jasper is figured the truth of faith. And I will all make thy windows of agates. in the sard. the humility of the saints in spite of their virtues.THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE 305 The significance of the twelve Apocalyptic gems is given by Babanus Maurus. the venerable blood of the martyrs. In the chrysolite. in the chalcedony. vol. 12. the constant thought of the heavenly kingdom in humble souls. 1864. Isaiah liv. in the topaz. in the beryl. dedicated to the twelve tribes of Israel. 11. and thy borders of pleasant stones. As we see. the height of celestial hope. . and thy gates of car- buncles. may be found in the text. 470. Archbishop of Mainz (786856 ). in the amethyst. " Opera Omixia. 20. behold. where we read: thou afflicted. cxi 7 Parisiis. in the hyacinth. tossed with tempest. the carbuncle.

1902." ed. v (xiii). the reply was. Batra. following the indication given by the " " general terms stones with fair colours and "pleasant stones. and trans. vol. "The Holy One. will place them on the gates of Jerusa- lem/' 18 18 "New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud. There may be in this some reminiscence of the Apocalyptic foundation stones. sceptical disciple said to the Eabbi. p. and when he asked for what they were designed. 210. blessed be He. when this same disciple was sailing in a boat on the sea." But not long after- A ward. Rodkinson. Baba .306 THE CUKIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES plete the picture. New York. by Michael L. he saw angels sawing stones as immense as those described by Eabbi Johanan. " In commenting on this text Eabbi Johanan is quoted in the Babylonian Talmud as saying that God would bring jewels and pearls thirty ells square (twenty ells in height and ten in width) and would place them on the gates of Jerusalem. "We do not ever find a jewel as large as the egg of a dove.

the belief in the special virtues of the stone and of was paramount. we have no instance of the usage of wearing such stones as natal stones until a comparatively late date indeed. In other words. in the first century of our era. was long before the mystic bond between the stone the month and the person born in that month was it fully realized. Both these authors distinctly proclaim the connection between the twelve stones of the high-priest's breastplate and the twelve months of the year. it more especially the therapeutic virtues. Strange to say.IX origin of the belief that to each. in spite of this early testimony. as well as the twelve zodiacal signs. according to the disease from which the person was suffering. and to those of St. have been that the virtues attributed to each particular stone. The order in which the foundation stones of the New Jerusalem are given in the book of Eevelation cleter307 . rendered necessary to recommend the wearing of one or the other. Jerome. The reason for this seems to . it appears that this custom originated in Poland some time during the eighteenth century. month of the year a special stone was dedicated. for his natal stone might not have the power 'to cure his particular ailment. in the early part of the fifth century. or might not bring about the fulfilment of his dearest wish. and that the stone of the those born in that month was endowed with a peculiar virtue for month and was their natal stone may ? be traced back to the writings of Josephus. however.

1773. each one during the respective to which it was assigned. however. with the Hebrew gem traders. There is some evidence in favor of the theory that at the outset all twelve stones were acquired by the same month of its person and worn in turn. Peter and to the month of March.308 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES mined the suecssion of natal stones for the months. the third to May. Braunscli- . Perhaps the fact that this entailed a monthly change of ornaments may rather have been a recommendation of the usage than the reverse. p. In modern times the turquoise has become the stone for July while the ruby has been as- signed to December. many centuries later. the ruby for July. to the leader of the apostles and to the month of the spring equinox. the second to the month of April. probably in Poland. or during the ascendancy zodiacal sign. were those of in this order substituted for certain of these. as aid of the rabbis or the of natal stones we have stated. 1 It seems highly probable that the development of the belief in natal stones that took place in Poland was due to the influence of the Jews who settled in that country shortly before we have historic notice of the use of the twelve stones for those born in the respective months. 358. certain changes had been and some stones not mentioned among the breastplate. " Abhandlung von Edelsteinen/' 2d ecL. notably the turquoise for the month of December. The stone of the month was be- lieved to exercise its therapeutic or talismanic virtue to the fullest extent at that period. The first stone was assigned to St. etc. the many and various commen*Bruckmann. The lively interest always felt by the Jews regarding the gems of the breastplate. or of the New Jerusalem. When. and the diamond for April. the wearing made became nsnal.

2 This runs as follows his or her personality than .BIETH-STONES taries their learned 309 men have written upon this subject. vol. ed. p. v. Jud. 97." 3 signifies the earth. however beautiful or costly it may be. ii. and the fact that the well-to-do among the chosen people have always carried with them in their wanderings many precious stones. paragraph 7. Alexandrinus that (lib. adding the four rows in which the gems were disposed signified the four seasons of the year. the great Napoleon is quoted as saying that it ruled the world. the vestments of the high-priest being made of linen being like lightning in its pomegranates. the blue denotes* the sky. I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are to be enlightened. Parisii. iii. : Moreover. 7. . the fashion once started became soon quite general and has as many votaries to-day as ever before. whether this conjecture be correct or erroneous. "by Flavius Josephus. Clemens lib. all this seems to make it likely that to the Jews should be attributed the fashion of wearing natal stones. and as for the gold interwoven in it. And as for the ephod. 6) repeats this idea of Josephus. for that occupies the middle place in the world. 1847. There can be no doubt that the owner of a ring or ornament set with a natal stone is impressed with the idea of possessing something more intimately associated with any other stone. Antiq. cap. If it be objected that this is nothing but imagination due to sentiment. However. cap. and resembling thunder in the noise of the bells. Probably the very earliest text we have in which the stones of the breastplate are positively associated with the months of the year is to be found in the " Antiquities of the Jews. and the girdle. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod to resemble the earth. it showed that God had made the universe of four elements. In the second century. Dindorf. " Flavii Joseph!. we must bear in mind that imagination is one of the most potent factors in our life indeed.

and a mine of mystical suggestions. both uses are indicated by the passage of Josephus. or for an astral or zodiacal stone for one born under a given zodiacal sign. Epistola Ixiv. we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. That the foundation stones were inscribed with the upon the much earlier list of the stones . 14). . if not all. it. for the twelve stones. which was of a blue color. it was not until the eighth or ninth century that the c commentators on Revelation busied themselves with Saneti Hieronymi. col. 1S77. Migne. it seems to me to. as the book of Revelation. three hundred years later.310 THE CUEIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES which encompassed the high priest about. Jerome.mean heaven. but names of the apostles is expressly stated (Rev. In the later centuries. or the twelve signs of what the Greeks call the zodiac. the twelve foundation stones (Rev. xxi. 3 and undoubtedly laid the foundation for the later custom of wearing one of these stones as a natal or birth-stone for a person born in a given month. which was generally less favored at the outset than the other parts of the New Testament. And for the cap. became a subject of devout study. indicate to us the sun and the maon. 19) of the New Jerusalem largely took the place of the stones of the breastplate. in his letter to Fabiola. of these differences may be due to textual errors or to a transcription from memory. signifies the ocean. is because of the splendor with This passage was adapted by St." ed. 616. That it was also adorned also. paragraph 16. and that of gold which God is pleased. As we see. whether we understand by them the months. Parisiis. for that goes about everything. for otherwise the name of God And would not have been inscribed upon with a crown. xxi. vol. this list of foundation stones is While unquestionably based adorning Aaron's breastplate. And the two sardonyxes that were in the clasps on the high-priest's shoulders. "Opera Omnia. i. the ordering differs considerably and there are some changes in the material possibly many.

The fact that this part of the tradition was rather of pagan than of Christian origin probably contributed to render it less attractive to the early Christians. as were some of the pagan ceremonies in the Christian religion. 964." Lueke.in die Offenbarung Johannes. 19. cols. their natural beauty became more and upon from a purely . as one who so bore Christ's death in his inmost nature that his love for * Him was always vigorous " Versuch einer Eiuleitung. as was weakened and. p. . Migne. Parisiis. the virtues of the stones were made prominent. cvi. which like the emerald is of a greenish hue. At the outset. the symbolism of the stones was looked Few of the religious standpoint. chief jasper. and certain parts of these superstitions were retained. 'Patrologiss GKOCJC. so that it was not until Christianity had become practically universal in the Greek and world and the opposition to pagan traditions. their supposed virtues came to the fore. This author was at one time assigned by critics to the fifth century A. Bonn. and the symbolism was strengthened and emphasized by a reference to their innate qualities and also to their peculiar powers. probably of the apostles. John in Kevelation xxi. Peter. One of the earliest writers to associate directly with the apostles the symbolism of the gems given as foundation stones of the New Jerusalem by St. or knew much of them but. His exposition reads as follows The signifies St.D. 1863. indeed. 433-438. is Andreas. early fathers we may except Epiphanius thought or cared much for the stones themselves. largely forgotten. bishop of C&sarea. in time. that such. 1852./ but Eoman more recent investigation has 5 : shown that he probably belonged to the last half of the tenth century.BIRTH-STONES 311 finding analogies between these stones and tlie apostles. ed. vol. more highly developed as the lapidarian art demanded better cut and choicer material.

where his soul was firmly fixed. and not unlike the jacinth. He. of whieh no mention is made here. is nourished with oil. indeed. and revived it. The beryl. we believe that James that he bore death. denoted. stops the discharge of the milky fluid with which those having eye-disease suffer. more brightly tinged with a golden hue than . however. This seems to denote Matthew. can be likened to the carbuncle. soothed the souls dejected by sin with a divine oil. imitating the colors of the sea and of the air. that they might like new-born children drink of the milk of the faith. By the sardonyx. It may well be. since he was illustrious for his divine preaching and his store of virtues. and it possesses the virtue of healing tumors and wounds inflicted by iron. resembling somewhat the carbuncle. for Christ before all others. his blood being fired because of Christ.312 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PBECIOUS STONES By his fervent faith he has and fresh. then. for his virtue. and. sent by God to preach salvation to the peoples of that region. that the author designated the carbuncle by the name chalcedony. The topaz. The emerald. gleaming with the splendor of gold. and by the grace of his excellent doctrine lends constant strength to our faith. leader. The clirysoprase. we conceive this stone to signify John the Evangelist. The chalcedony was not inserted in the high-priest's breastplate. hence I consider that it designates the beauty of virtue characterizing the apostle Philip. animated by the fire of the Holy Spirit. which is of a green color. since he was splendidly illumined by the fire of the Spirit. that its transparency and beauty may not change. The sardius with its tawny and translucent coloring suggests fire. whieh is of a ruddy color. Paul. for it may be cut off without any sensible pain. since he was caught up to the third heaven. may symbolize Bartholomew. showing with a certain transparency the color of the and purity human nail. I conceive it to mean St. seeing This the nail by its is color indicates. become our shepherd and As the sapphire is likened to the heavens (from this stone is made a color popularly called lazur). The chrysolite. cured the soul of the wounds inflicted by the wiles of the devil. he was found worthy to enlighten by his Gospel those whose heart was blinded. Andrew. but instead the carbuncle. for he was animated by a divine zeal. especially as he made a long journey by sea. and even reached the Indies. seems to suggest the admirable Thomas. Thither he seeks to draw all those who may he obedient to him.

1902. to euro ailments of mothers. in shown on St.s of chalcedony. Agatha's Day. . . May (5. This cord and facsimile* of ring acquired by the author :it Perugia. The original rin^.FACSIMILE OF THE BETROTHAL KING OF T1IK VIRGIN IN THE CATIIEDKAL OF PERUGIA. July 2t>. whifh i.

.

Thaddaeus.green Beryl. 1728. Thus. and the prassius. perfection. the strength of spiritual life the red Sardius. Andreas of Csesarea freely recognizes his indebtedness to the much more ancient source. and who wrote a short but very valuable treatise on the " Nauwkeurige onderzoek van de goddelyke "Georgius Vitringa. Amsterdam. St. Apostels Johannes. one writer. Openbaxing Gargon. readiness to shed His blood for the Church. p. finds that the greenish Jasper denotes satisfaction. applying all the to made meanings to Christ. the color of the stone often guiding the commentator in his choice of ideas denoted by the different gems. ii. bishop of Constantia in Cyprus. theologians were opposed to the assignment of the foundation stones to the apostles. uprightness.BIRTH-STONES gold the itself. the bright-red Chalcedony. Epiphanius. the amethyst.D. kindness and goodness. Hence the symbolism of these stones was Some apply to Christ alone. celestial he preached to Abgar. . lastly. moderation and the control of the passions . the harsh-colored Chrysoprase. is who in the gift of tongues was so filled with celestial that he and with fervent zeal to serve and please God. who had chosen him. 313 kingdom of symbolizes St. was found worthy to take the place of the apostate Judas. the nail-colored Sardonyx. 681.. with a touch of red. zeal for truth. King of Edessa. the soul. royal dignity. of Latin by M. sternness towards sinners. the excellence of His divine nature the sea. By fire signified Matthias. the transparent green Emerald. . who died in 402 A. the 6 purple Amethyst. for they held that only Christ himself could be regarded as the foundation of his Church. the gold (chrysos) symbolizing Christ. and. both of which Zelotes. The jacinth. . der H. signifies Simon zealous for the gifts and grace of Christ and endowed with a prudence. which is of a celestial hue." Dutch trans. vol. the glass-green Topaz (chrysolite?). which shows to the onlooker a fiery aspect. Christ's death. the sky-blue Sapphire. the violet or purple Jacinth. the yellow Chrysolite.

noting in several cases the therapeutic and talismanic virtues of these stones and giving his opinion as to the order in tribes which the names of the were inscribed upon them. 8 Eabaiii Mauri. 1864. Gad Ephraim Manasseh Benjamin Scorpio Sagittarius Dan Naphtali Capricorn Aquarius Pisces Asher For Eabanus Maurus the nine gems of the king of Tyre named in Ezekiel xxxviii. the Jews of medieval times definitely associated the tribes with the zodiacal signs in the following order stones : Judah Issacliar Aries Zebulun Reuben Simeon Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo . 1565. at the place and time where and when these stones were first utilized for birth-stones. carefully gathered from It is evident. quae erant in veste Aaronis/' od. col. "Opera Omnia. This will be apparent when we compare the following eight lists.314 THE CURIOUS LOBE OF PEECIOUS STONES stones of the breastplate. in Patrologise Migne. vol. that." as well as that of astral stones. are types of the nine orders of angels. the year must have begun with the month of March. Gemmis. ." so those of the breastplate merit the designation of "tribal stones. 13. 7 As the foundation of Eevelation are rightly called "apostolic stones. v. Paris. 8 from early ajid later usage. Tiguri. xvi. Latinse. ed." vol. indeed. just as the twelve foundation stones of Eevelation signify the twelve apostles. . Sancti Patris Epiphanii episcopi Cypri ad Diodomm Tyri epis"De XII.Libra . Gesner. 465. various sources 7 : eopuni.

BIBTH-STONES 315 .

wished to wear rings set with the stone appropriate cient writers. earnelian 1. Topaz 8. opal 1. pearl 1. 3. Amethyst Jasper 5. 1. pearl 1. . the first that for choices March and so on. where we have the instead of the jacinth. March April hyacinth 1. Beryl. more especially of the fair sex. Euby bloodstone 1. . agate 4. . writing in 1762. the first With are practically identical with the foundation stones. November December . chalcedony turquoise 1. . 1. and of December. which garnet gives us the ruby instead of the chrysoprase. moonstone 1. hyacinth 8. 3. Emerald emerald 4 ? chalcedony 4. turquoise 1. eat's-eye 1. Of the assignment of the natal stones to the different months of the year or to the zodiacal signs. Carnelian sardonyx ruby 1. and unknown to anit soon became popular. August September October . bearing in mind that the eleventh stone is that for January. 8. chrysoprase 1. sardonyx 2. 7. alex- andrite 1. states that in his opinion this fashion started in Germany others say in Poland some two centuries before his time. turquoise 2. 6.316 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES It may be interesting to show in these eight lists the stones which are most favored in each month in the following way. carnelian 1. Poujet fils. and many. sardonyx 5. and he adds that. 2. the exception of January. May June July Agate 5. 1. though this arrangement was purely imaginary. Chrysolite 6. the twelfth that for February. aquamarine 5. ^ . seeing in it an element of mystery. Sapphire diamond 2. the numerals indicating the number of lists in which the stones appear (including the alternate : stones) January February Garnet 7. pearl bloodstone 4. topaz 1. Onyx 5.

which has offer a satisfactory its importance not only from a commercial point of view. quite wrong in believing that the serial arrangement of the stones and their assignment to months or signs was purely imaginary. Two hundred years later this girdle is stated to have been in the possession of a M.BIRTH-STONES to the 317 month of their birth. Poujet I. Kansas City August. it can scarcely be said to solution of the question. d'Ennery. . of wearing a series of twelve stones denoting (or bearing) the zodiacal signs seems to have existed in the sixteenth century. Though the substitution of a new schedule for the time- honored in of birth-stones has received the approval of the National Association of Jewellers at the meeting list 1912. the stone 9 the appropriate zodiacal sign.e. 10 It is not. as we have already shown. but none the less real significance. p. which were certain onyxes as large as crownamong pieces. may be regarding the period at which the fashion of being engraved with However correct Poujet wearing natal rings was introduced. for it is unquestionably based on the list in Revelation. 1762. fils. he is. has long been present and still exercises a spell over the * Poujet 10 " fils. which in its turn goes back to the twelve stones of the high-priest's breastplate. 4. certain that the twelve stones Catherine's girdle were those attributed to the zodiacal of signs both at an earlier and later period. upon which talismanic designs had been engraved. however. but also because the idea that birth-stones possess a certain indefinable. whose collection of antique medals was regarded as the finest in Paris at the time. for Catherine de' Medici is said to The fashion have worn a girdle set with twelve stones. TraitS des pierres precieusas/ 7 Paris.

10-13).318 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES all are gifted with a touch of imagination. 19) or upon that of the gems adorning the breastplate of Aaron and enumerated in Exodus (xxxix. true sentiment. For convenient reference. we give the latter according to . according to the momentary interest of dealers. and have been in the past. or romance. but all are based essentially either upon the list of foundation stones given in Eevelation (xxi. it must not be Quite true it is that there are now. against the assertion that minds of who there is nothing in heaven or earth but what we can defi- nitely apprehend through our senses. The longing for something that appeals to this sense is much more general than is commonly supposed. It is this persuasion that should be chiefly considered in any attempt to tamper with the traditional attribution of the stones to particular months or to the zodiacal signs. and is a not unnatural reaction against the progress of materialism. Sentiment. "While if darkened by fear it may lead to pessimism. several lists of these stones. sentiment neglected. Once we allow the spirit of commercialism pure and simple to dictate the choice of such stones. if illumined by hope it gives to humanity a brighter forecast of the future. if you will. reason. Thus. with all the evils which such a state of mind implies. differing slightly from one another. is one of the best things in human nature. and nothing is more likely to dethan the conviction that it is being constantly stroy For this exploited for purposes of commercialism. there is grave danger that the only true incentive to acquire birth-stones will be weakened and people will lose interest in them. an optimism that helps people over difficult passages in their lives. the interest as well as the inclination of all who are concerned in this question of birth-stones should induce a very careful handling of the subject.

January February Garnet Amethyst Bloodstone March April Aquamarine Diamond Emerald Pearl May June July Moonstone Ruby . The list suggested and adopted in Kansas City reads as follows: Month. In the eventual association of the foundation stones with the months. Authorized Version. and the former according to the Authorized Version. For chalcedonins. Later Correction. Birth-stone. the sapphire was the lapis-lazuli. the jacinth (sapphire) is probably the "ligure". we should probably read carchedonius. Alternate Stone. and sardius is equivalent to carnelian.BIRTH-STONES 319 the Authorized Version of the Scriptures. the first. sardonyx is the onyx of Exodus. with which month the year was reckoned to begin. which for some reason has substituted the agate. Foundation Stones. and also as corrected by later research. the stones are nearly identical. Authorized Version. the jasper. I II III Sardius Carnelian Chrysolite (peridot) Topaz Carbuncle Jasper Sapphire Emerald IV Emerald Sapphire V VI VII VIII Ruby Lapis-Iazuli Chalcedony Emerald Sardonyx Sardius Chrysolite Beryl Diamond Ligure Onyx Sapphire IX XII Agate X Amethyst Beryl Agate Amethyst Topaz Chrysoprasus Jacinth XI Topaz Beryl Jasper Onyx Jasper Amethyst While the arrangement differs in Revelation. Breastplate. was assigned to March. a name of the ruby. There thus remains only the chrysoprase.

while in the heat of summer nothing is more grateful than coolness. simply a return to the ordering of these stones in the Polish list. for it is in winter that we seek for warmth. is true. one apparently for the better. is made the birth-stone for September. it will be noted that the ruby is transferred from December to July. and makes of it an alternate for August. Alternate-stone. undesiiraJble it with the sardonyx. August September October Sardonyx Sapphire Peridot November December Opal Topaz Turquoise Tourmaline Lapis-lazuli Among the many changes in this list from that habit- ually followed. This suggested radical change or violation cannot be permitted. is liable to disturb the popular confidence in those who are supposed to be familiar with the subject. The time-honored ordering is familiar now are interested in the matter. The contrary. however. which may perhaps have become popular in Europe in the eighteenth century through Marie Leczinska. there should be no to all who even if . while the sapphire. while the paler turquoise was best suited to a winter month. which Angler change takes the chrysolite (perihas always occupied as the gem dot) from tHlTplace of September. properly the gem for April. while for June we should prefer the asteria to the moonstone as a substitute for the pearl. Birth-stone.320 THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PEECIOUS STONES Month. when the sun's rays are feeble. Above all. turquoise. changing places with the became the gem of December. in effect. This has on the ground that the warmer-colored gem been favored was best adapted for a July birth-stone. For October neither the tourmaline nor the opal is as appropriate as the beryl. the queen of Louis XV. and any change. This transposition is.

as a gem only known in modern times or since the eighteenth century. but it can be worn in some device suggesting a sentiment. would it not perhaps be better to omit the diamond from the list of the stones of the months. an emblem of As to the ancients purity.BIRTH-STONES 321 duplication or triplication of birth-stones for any given month. for instance. may easily be used as accessories to other stones. covers the period from January 21 to February 20. like gold and platinum. that of Aries. "While these signs constitute a twelve-fold division of the year just as do the months. "Astral stones " or "zodiacal stones " are terms used to designate those gems which were believed to be peculiarly and mystically related to the zodiacal signs. for instance. and as diamonds. that of Pisces from February 21 to March 20. the choice between a birth-stone or an astral or zodiacal stone or the combination of these affording all the variety that is necessary or should be desired. and so on down to Capricornus. the diamond does not appear to have been known and is not given in any of the lists of birth-stones before the last century. The tourmaline. which is not a stone in any sense of the word. which begins at the winter solstice. so that the sign Aquarius. which ought only to comprise precious or semi-precious stones which have been known and worn from ancient times. as. from March 21 to April 20. etc. the spring sign. should not appear in the list at all . seems out of place in the list of birth-stones. Thus. but overlap them. and rather use these gems as a bordering or other ornate addition to the stone of the month? The pearl. they do not exactly coincide now reckoned. every neceswith the latter as sary opportunity is afforded for enlarging the selection of natal stones while preserving the traditional order of 21 .

322 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES those appropriate to the months. differing from either of those mentioned above. Then." or can have them combined in an artistic jewel so as to profit by all the favorable influ- . LEO AND CAPRICORN IN THE CENTRE A SIX-RAYED STAR. THE FORM OF ONE OF THESE RAYS DENOTING A COMET. (See p. from the close relation with the sacred gems of the Scriptures. one set over all those born in each month. ENGRAVED WITH THE ZODIACAL SIGNS. so that. Parrenin. it seems almost sacrilegious to violate by arbitrary changes." or the stones of the twelve guardian angels. Here we have another time-honored list. 274. in addition. 341. each person has the choice between three different stones as "birth-stones. p.) . in almost if not quite every case. opp." Paris assassination of Julius Csesar. 1770. Referred to the nativity of Augustus and to a comet which appeared shortly after the From De Mairan's "Lettres au R. CARNELIAN. an order which in its origin dates back to the early Christian centuries and which.P. we have the "talismanic gems. TAURUS.

Arizona California. . Where found. . Kunzite October Aquamarine November. fall. Wyoming. spring. Montana. the ruby the gem gem of . the following list was some time since prepared by the writer. rhodolite Montana. California. Of course where the stone in question is really that traditionally recommended. Amethyst Calif ornite North Carolina. not in any sense as a substitute for the real birth-stones. Connecticut. Yirginia California March April May June July Sapphire Green tourmaline Moss-agate Turquoise Golden beryl Montana. Eubellite . but as possible accessory gems (when they were not identical). Maine. summer. The emerald is the gem of the spring. . . and quasi-religious belief in the special virtue of one particular stone for each month. the fact that it is at the same time an American gem-stone is an added argument in its favor. Arizona. Maine Montana divided into four seasons or cycles. As it might seem appropriate that one born in the United States should wear a gem from among those which our country furnishes. California.BIRTH-STONES 323 ences promised by the old authorities. and each season has its particular gem. gems which might be worn from a spirit of patriotism. Arizona August Mexico. Thus. Idaho Lake Superior California. New Mexico.Garnet. there is absolutely no excuse for playing fast and loose with an ancient. is The year of summer. North Carolina.Topaz December. Stones. January. North Carolina California New September. North Carolina February. and winter. and that one the gem long prescribed by usage. Georgia. California Utah. and the diamond the gem of winter. popular. Month. the sapphire the autumn.

she has selected a background by which a contrast is made for the flowers that come in the spring and summer and ripen into fruit and seeds of autumn. the gem which Job valued three equatorial countries produce the of large size are always rare. it typicalm and tried affection. it is therefore appropriate to the autumn season. To be a seasonable gem it must be rare. These are sister gems. and the emerald is rare. whether mined in ancient times at Zabarah in Egypt. the pomegranate-red in Ceylon. fies Less vivid than its sister gem. no precious stone is more appropriate than the emerald. it the pigeon's-blood ruby in Burma. Whether found in the mines of Bogota. is the gem of summer. Its beautiful color is that of Nature. The sapphire the gem of autumn. It is softer in color than the ruby and less hard in structure. . when the declining sun no longer sends forth the fiery rays of summer but shines with a tempered brilliancy. due to a slight difference which some scientists think is not even dependent upon the phire. Having decked herself with green of the various tints and colors. the blue of the autumn sky is a symbol of truth. structurally alike. yet varying in complexion.324 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES For spring. in composition. the ruby. and in every way. and this is Those these although garnet" may perhaps be a better rendering. ruby. and the more garnet-hued type in climates. The ruby. sincerity. in crystalline structure. although as a natal stone it belongs to December. or in the past century in the Ural has never been found in abundance. not ardent passion. coloring matter. It is born in the hot Mountains. for Nature clothes herself with green when she awakens from her long rest of winter. and constancy. with the sap- " more highly than any other. It is on an equal plane in hardness. Siam.

and said: "Let this be something that will combine the beauty of all. " He yet it must be pure. as the icicle sparkles in winter.000. etc. It is hundred times more rare than gold. emerald. and one which it took an entire country to give to that ruler who sways his sceptre over countries in which the world's greatest diamonds have been found. etc. such as the He took one of each. for if one part in 250. and by combining all these gives us white. he compounded them. so has a diamond been discovered large enough to make the greatest ruler pause to pay its price. and it must be invincible. The diamond. he found them to be of all tints. yes. the diamond was made rare. it can scarcely be worked while the diamond can be worked to advanwhen found only one part in 10.000. and of varying hardnesses.000.000. like gold. he crushed them. spoke and lo the diamond was born. Like light. Like gold. gives us all known colors. typifying the sun. it illumines them just as the sun does the plants of the earth. like light itself when broken into a spectrum. As great nuggets of gold have occasionally been found. and it combines and contrasts with all known gems. and the stars on a cold winter night. When the Grod of the Mines called his courtiers to all bring him colors and known gems. it sometimes spurs the searcher on to wealth or to ruin. is Its color is that of ice. pure as the dewruby.000 and. given area thirty to a gold occurs with profit. : ! . and as the dew- gem drop or the drop of water from a mountain stream sparkles in the light of the sun. the gem of light the 325 of winter.. so the diamond sparkles. the gem of light. and the mines and deposits contain less of these two substances in a colors it than of any other known materials. so that it must be searched for.BIRTH-STONES The diamond. even tage one part in 25. sapphire.

create one that shall be the greatest and for her he created the pearl. for my queen I will it was made. drop and invincible in hardness but when solved in the spectrum. .326 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES . it its ray is re- displays all the colors of the gems from which "Mine." Gems of Spring Zircon Gems Summer Amethyst Green diamond Chrysoberyl Spinel (rubicelle) Garnet (demantoid and ouvarite) Chrysoberyl (alexandrite) Spinel Pink topaz Olivine (peridot) Pink topaz Ruby Tire opal Emerald Gems of Autumn Hyacinth Gems of Winter Diamond Rock-crystal Topaz Sapphire Jacinth White sapphire Turquoise Cairngorm Adamantine spar Tourmaline Oriental chrysolite Quartz Moonstone Pearl Labradorite SENTIMENTS OF THE MONTHS JANUARY Natal stone Garnet. Jasper. "must be the gem of the universe. Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Onyx Simon Peter." said the god. Flower Snowdrop. gem of of the sea. His gem Zodiacal sign Aquarius. Gabriel.

Carbuncle. Aries. MARCH Natal stone Guardian Angel Jasper. Freedom fr-om passion and from If she an amethyst will wear. Emerald. The February-born may find Sincerity and peace of mind. Malchediel. In days of peril firm and brave. James and John. violet. Zodiacal sign Flower Ipomosa. be life short or long. Wears she a bloodstone Who wears Will meet all a jasper. They will insure her constancy. Andrew.BIRTH-STONES No gems save garnets should be worn By her who in this month is born. True friendship and fidelity. 327 The gleaming garnet holds within its sway Faith. care. His gem Zodiacal sign Flower Primrose. bloodstone. constancy. and truth to one alway. Let her an amethyst but cherish well. And strife and care can never with her dwell. Barchiel. Who on this first In March world of ours her eyes opens may be wise. Pisces. Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Jasper. dangers brave and wise and strong* . FEBRUARY Natal stone Amethyst. to her grave. His talismanic gem Special apostles Their gem Ruby.

Innocence. Cancer. Muriel. His gem Zodiacal sign ^ . And wears an emerald all her life. Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Emerald. MAY Natal stone Emerald. sapphire. . Topaz. Taurus. lest bitter tears For vain repentance flow. No happier wife and mother in the land Than she with emerald shining on her hand. Flower . . Thomas. is This stone Emblem of innocence known. Shall be a loved and happy wife. Ashmodei. repentance sun and shower The diamond or the sapphire is her dower.328 THE CUEIOUS LOEE OF PBECIOUS STONES APRIL Diamond. Philip. . Beryl. His gem Zodiacal sign Gemini. Flower Hawthorn. JOTE Natal stone Agate.Honeysuckle. Who first beholds the light of day In spring's sweet flow'ry month of May. Natal stone Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle His gem Zodiacal sign Carnelian. Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Bartholomew. flower She who from April dates her years Diamonds should wear. Carbuncle. Daisy. Amriel. Chrysolite.

2. uJito.1. A. MOHH MOHM UKiito mocha nionc. T . liruKil. S.

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Guardian angel Special apostle Yerchiel. 'Tis said. For those they'll be exempt and free From love's doubts and anxiety. His talismanic gem His gem Zodiacal sign Sapphire. Thro' the moss-agate's charm.Virgo. Flower The heav'n-blue turquoise should adorn All those who in July are born. Flower Poppy. Water-lily. James. long life. alone. Leo. and wealth command. Topaz. No Can other gem than turquoise on her breast to the loving. . doubting heart bring rest.BIRTH-STONES "Who comes with summer to this earth. if wise. .. Matthew. must live unloved. the son of Alpheus. for thee The August-born without this stone. She. His gem Zodiacal sign Sardonyx. loving once and always. AUGUST Natal stone Carnelian. . 329 JULY Natal stone Turquoise. Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle HamatieL Diamond. And owes to June her hour of birth. Wear a carnelian or No conjugal felicity. the happy years Ne'er see June's golden sunshine turn to tears. Carnelian and her home is paradise. wears. With ring of agate on her hand Can health.

(Zelotes. longer NOVEMBER Natal stone Guardian angel Topaz. Follies and dark delusions flee afraid. Sagittarius. need she fear misfortune's peril. born for woe.330 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES SEPTEMBER Chrysolite. Simon. A If chrysolite upon her brow is laid. Tsuriel. And life's vicissitudes must know. Chrysoprase. breast. Natal stone Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Jacinth. But lay a beryl on her And Hope will lull When fair October to No those woes to rest. Flower October's child is Hops. Matthias. Lebbeus Thaddeus. Guardian anfyel His talismanic gem Special apostle Agate. His gem Zodiacal sign Flower Morning-glory. her brings the beryl. AdnaehieL Amethyst. Libra. Jacinth.) His gem Zodiacal sign Seorpia. . OCTOBER Natal stone Beryl. maid born when September leaves Are rustling in the autumn breeze. A chrysolite on brow should bind 'Twill cure diseases of the mind. His talismanic gem Special apostle His gem Zodiacal sign Amethyst. Flower Chrysanthemum. Bariel.

with Taurus and the emerald. with the sign of Cancer and the moonstone. for Monday. Here we have Diann. with Sagittarius and Pisces and the earnelian. for Friday. with the sign Capricorn and the jasper. for Thursday. Venus. und Saturn. with Gemini and the rock-crystal. with Capricorn and Aquarius and the turquoise for Saturday.THE FIGURES OF THE PLANETS WITH THEIR SIGNIFICANT STONES. Old print showing the Roman typos of the days of the week and also the stones and zodiacal signs associated with each day. Mars. . Mercury. for Tuesday. Jupiter. for Wednesday.

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.Beryl. pp. December gives her fortune. Success will bless whate'er you do. DECEMBER Natal stone Guardian angel His talismanic gem Special apostle Ruby. .BIKTH-STONES Who first 331 comes to this world below With drear November's fog and snow Emblem Should prize the topaz's amber hue of friends and lovers true. Flower If cold December give you birth The month of snow and ice and mirth Place on your hand a ruby true. Paul. A HINDU LIST OF GEMS OF THE MONTHS " April May June July Diamond Emerald Pearl Sapphire August September October Ruby Zircon Coral Cat's-eye November December January February Topaz Serpent-stone Chandrakanta March 11 The gold Siva-linga Surindro Mohun Tagore. and she bears True love beneath the topaz that she wears. Firm friendship is November's." Pt. 621. 619. love and fame If amulet of rubies bear her name. Holly. " Mani Mala. II. Humiel. 1881. Calcutta. Capricornus. His gem Zodiacal sign Sapphire.

the Hebrew characters designating the sign (or at least the initial When character) were often cut upon the gem. happy and gay. a peculiar sanctity was often ascribed to these Hebrew characters.332 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES the zodiacal signs were engraved on gems to give them special virtues and render them of greater efficacy for those born nnder a given sign. As the letters in which the earliest of our sacred writings were written. gem: the pearl. and hence possessed a certain air of mystery for them. Monday : Pearl crystal. HEBREW NAMES OF THE Libra Scorpio Sagittarius SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC Moznayim Akrab Keshet Gedi Deli Capricormis Aquarius Pisces Dagim Taleh Shor Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Te'omim Sartan nn Aryeh Betulah GEMS OF WEEK DAYS Sunday : Topaz diamond. which were perhaps the more highly valued that they were unknown to the owners of the gems. The bairn that is born Of Monan's sweet race Is lovely in feature And fair in the face. The subjoined may list of the signs with the Hebrew equivalents be of interest on this account. . Monday's talismanie gem: the emerald. The bairn that is born On Sonnan's Is blithe sweet day Is Sunday's talismanie and is bonnie.

For if born on Thor's day Thou hast far. No gems have afforded more interest to the Oriental . or the quartz cat's-eye. a class represented by the . peoples than those that are known as phenomenal gems that is.BIRTH-STONES Tuesday : 333 Ruby emerald. But if Woden be there. The bairn will be born With a soul full of grace. Jove's presence at birth Means a long swath to mow. diamond. far to go. Many tears will he sow. Friday's talismanie and giving. such as exhibit a phenomenal quality. And the bairn will be born But for sadness and woe. Thou shalt bless many For Friga's bairn truly Is loving living. either as a moving line as in the chrysoberyl cat's-eye. shall Saturday : Turquoise Seater-daeg's bairn In sweat be striving. Wednesday's talismanie gem: the turquoise. Wednesday : Amethyst loadstone. Thursday's talismanie gem: the sapphire. or as a star. If Yenus shall bless thee. assists If Tuisco And at birth keeps apace. Thursday : Sapphire carnelian. Saturday's talismanie gem: the amethyst. Friday : Emerald eat's-eye. Tuesday's talismanie gem: the topaz. gem: the ruby. For Saturn has doomed it To work for a living.

in addition to its chatoyant effect. the line is no wider than the thinnest possible silver or platinum wire. This is due to a chatoyancy produced by a reflection caused by certain cleavage planes present in feldspar of the variety to which the moonstone belongs. with a trans- lucent or transparent space at one side. 106. The alexandrite variety of chrysoberyl is colored by chromium and is dichroitic. this smooth band of white light. .334 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES star-sapphire and the star-ruby. then Prince Constantine. If the light is very bright. an apparent striation in the stone produces the cat's-eye effect. by the Greeks of America. and possesses the property that when cut straight across. with its moonlike. changes on the surface as the light varies. the green color is lost and the red alone becomes apparent. The quartz cat's-eye. is also found in the East. shows itself as a with a dome. 107. less distinct than the chrysoberyl cat's-eye. when Easter gift to the gem is cut. in another . that is. a" The star-sapphire lias already been described on pp. the line varying in sharpness and in breadth as the illumination becomes more intense. Then there is the alexandrite cat's-eye which. silvery-white light. however. on Easter Day 1913. 12 This ornate and beautiful sword was made by Tiffany & Co. showing its natural color by day and glowing with a ruddy hue by artificial light. splendid is in the hilt of the sword presented as an star-sapphire A King Constantine of Greece. The moonstone. appearing green when viewed in one direction and red in artificial light. The cat's-eye effect here is caused by a twinning of the crystal. changes from green to red. but the material is not so rich or brilliant nor is the gem as beautiful as is the true cat's-eye. across the twinning line. all these being considered to bring good fortune to the wearer.

light red garments and coral ornaments are favored for Tuesday. 13 This work gives elaborate directions as to the manner in which the " Magus " should proceed to perform his magic is Our age rites. striped stuffs and jewels set with the cat's-eye are considered the proper wear for Wednesday. 18 Eliphas Levi. " Rituel de la haute magie. In Siam deep red silks and rubies are appropriate for Sunday wear white fabrics and moonstones are prescribed for Monday. In spite of this there seems to be a growing tendency to revive many of the old beliefs which appeared to have been definitely discarded. not satisfied with the marvellous progress of science. green materials and emeralds are decreed for Thursday silver-blue robes and ornaments set with diamonds are chosen for Friday. . 1861." Paris. written precisely in the spirit that animated an Agrippa or a Porta in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. .BIRTH-STONES 335 PHENOMENAL GEMS FOE THE DAYS OF THE WEEK Sunday Monday Tuesday Sunstone Moonstone Star sapphire Star ruby Cat's-eye Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Alexandrite Labradorite Fashion in some parts of the Orient dictates the use of special colors for raiment and jewels to be worn on the different days of the week. therefore we need not be surprised that the nineteenth century offers us a work on the magic art. phires of a similar hue. which has rendered possible the realization of many of the old magicians' dreams. and on Saturday those who obey the dictates of fashion are clad in dark blue garments and wear sap.

when a black or a brown robe is worn." . when a green robe is worn and a necklace of hollow glass beads. long to Saturday. upon the forehead of the operator is bound a plate of tin. the ring placed on the finger of the operator should be of gold and set with a chrysolite or a ruby." and on Tuesday is assigned to the the color of fire and blood. the day of Venus. from the neck of the operator hangs a leaden medal. the ring bears either an emerald or a sapphire. and bear in the 5 A Hebrew monogram of Gabriel. " day of the "Works of Divination and Mystery. this day the robe must be red. . with a belt and bracelets of steel the tiara should have silver characters the . white robe with silver stripes is to be worn on Monday. Thursday.' and selenites. is On naturally dedicated to the and the celebrant wears a sky-blue robe his ring shows a turquoise. "Works embroidered in orange-colored silk with mystic characters." a scarlet robe is worn. the triple necklace of pearls. and on his finger is a ring set with an onyx. as " Cornelius Agrippa in his Occult Philosophy. upon which a . and his tiara is set with The "Works of Mourning" belapis-lazuli and beryl. and the high-priest of the mysteries wears over his robe a " crystals. of Love." given by " Works of Wrath. Friday. engraved with the symbol of the planet Jupiter and various mystic characters. The " day for the Works of Science" is Wednesday. filled with quicksilver the ring is adorned with an agate* a circlet of iron.336 THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Each day has its special and peculiar ritual Sunday " Works of is the day for the Light/' and on this day a purple robe should be worn and a tiara and bracelets of gold. . appointed for the "Works of Religion or Politics. tiara should be covered with yellow silk. and a sword or a stylus is to be used in place of a wand the ring is set with an amethyst. bearing the symbol of the planet Saturn.

yellow 65 Star sapphire. gray* 16 Topaz 17 Amethyst 18 Garnet * 67 Star sapphire. and for the succeeding multiples of thirteen. the believed to counteract the malign influence of the number. bins 30 Pearl 35 Coral 39 Cafs-eye* * 7 Floral 8 Leather 9 Straw 40 Ruby 10 Tin 12 Agate 13 Moonstone* 14 Moss agate 15 Rock-crystal.BIRTH-STONES 337 double-faced Janus has been engraved while Saturn was in the ascendant. purple 75 Diamond For gem is this number. glass 45 Alexandrite 50 Gold 52 Star ruby* 55 Emerald 60 Diamond. GEMS OF THE HOURS HOURS OF THE DAY 7 Chrysolite 1 2 Jacinth 8 9 Amethyst Kunzite Emerald Beryl 3 10 11 12 Sapphire Garnet 4 5 6 Topaz Ruby Opal Diamond HOURS OF THE NIGHT 7 Sardonyx Chalcedony Jade Jasper Loadstone 1 2 3 Morion Hematite Malachite Lapis-lazuli 8 9 10 4 5 6 11 12 Onyx Turquoise Tourmaline WEDDING ANNIVERSARIES 1 Paper 2 Calico 3 Linen 19 Hyacinth 20 China 23 Sapphire 4 Silk 5 6 Wood Candy 25 Silver 26 Star sapphire. 22 .

the star. and the other . and hence the nature of the iron and the magnet also in both polar stars. the man. is and since they are Martian. and the nature of the in the magnet. the metals of the sun . movement of the heavens. so do both iron and magnet belong to Mars. As an explanation of the peculiarly intimate relation between stars and precious stones we read. and the object will constitute a triplicity of great utility. and the nature of both polar stars is in both iron and magnet. Therefore. The author then. reflection This they obtain through a stars in the manifold also. and shows that. with the star beneath which the on page 12 : down Metals and precious stones usually lie with their first seeds deep in the earth and require continuous moisture and a mild heat. that is to say. their region belongs to Mars. and precious stones are nearest related to the planets 338 . relation between a man and any natural proceeds to describe an analogous object or product to which his imagination draws him. if this object be one that stands in a sympathetic relation man was born. In an old work on the occult properties of gems we read : The nature of iron is the magnet is in the iron. .X attti &tral Snfluejtceg of CHE talismanic influence of the stones associated with the planets and also with the signs of the zodiac is closely connected with the early ideas regarding the formation of precious stones.

by several planets in conjunction.PLANETAET AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES and the stars." Newheusern. " Coronas Gemma Nobilissima. it was supposed to attract his influence and to provide a medium for the transmission of his The same beneficent force to the wearer. A tion of several different stones. whether consciously or unconsciously. rested on the idea of harmony. but. the color and appearance of the stone was not merely emblematic of the angel. true of the stones dedicated to the guardian angels. was believed to have an influence similar to that exercised that is. either those of the visible light of the stars and planets or the purely psychic emanations from the spiritual "powers and principalities. by its sympathetic quality. since these influence 339 their peculiar qualities. for they are enduring show therein their concordance [with the stars them most potently and pro'duce and unchangeable and and the planets]. 1621. 1 Wilhelmus Eo. 38-9. . The whole theory. The same was true of the stone of the saint who ruled the month and that of the holy guarthetic ences. pp. and to afford a sympa- medium for the transmission of the stellar influThe gem was thus something more than a mere symbol of the sign. 1 Hence it is that the influence over Iranian fortunes ascribed by astrology to the heavenly bodies is conceived to be strengthened by wearing the gem appropriate to certain planets or signs. of the accord of certain ethereal vibrations. each partaking of this special quality. grouped in the same "house" or division of the is heavens. for a subtle emanation has combinapassed into the stone and radiates from it." The wearing of the appropriate zodiacal gem was always believed to strengthen the influence of the zodiacal sign upon those born under it.

Der Aberglanbe des Mittelalters." Hamburg!. act of respect and veneration on the part of the The old writers are never tired of insisting upon the idea that. In addition to this. had been exposed to the planet's rays. * * After they have been extracted these vir- Gaff arelli. reflections from a mirror which lets. " Curiositates inauditse. 146. during the process of engraving. 1706. pp. In each and every case the material form and color of the stone was believed to attract the favor and grace of the saint or angel.2 In the production of engraved stones to serve as amuthe influence of the respective planet was made to enter the stone by casting upon the latter. 13L . a generally recognized antidote for all sorts of poisons. p. the influence of the stars during whose ascendancy the work had been executed communicated to the inert material talismanic qualities and virtues which it before lacked.340 CUEIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES dian angel set over those born in the month. it was held that the scorpion's bite could be most effectually healed by a bezoar upon which this creature's figure had been cut during the time when the constellation Scorpio was in the ascendancy. ScMndler." Breslatu 1853. and the design was emblematic of it. With these combined influences the gem was believed to be thoroughly impregnated with the planetary virtue. Even in the case of the bezoar stone. who would see in the selection of the appropriate gem an wearer. 147. while the image graven upon a stone was in itself dead and inactive. 3 An old writer finds in the hardness of precious stones a reason for their retaining longer the celestial virtues they receive. the work was executed while the planet was in the ascendant. In these instances the images could be regarded as outward and visible signs of the planetary or zodiacal influence.

and lion are the symbols of the zodiacal signs Aries. the first-named sign referring perhaps to the death of Caesar on the Ides. " Lettres an E. P. 275 sqq. " De vita 6 9 eoelit.4 planet. . in Paris. 45 . 199. and each stone is peculiarly sensitive to the emanations from a certain 7 ' the earth." Argentorati. carnelian gem engraved with comet at different dates. Mairan. and Mars and Mercury standing on either side of the central figure. 13. is described by M.. p. said to have been used only during the reign of Domitian (81-96 6 A. or a design consisting of a star surrounded by the images of a ram. star. pp.' the virgin and a unicorn. and a lion. which penetrates the matter of the stone. 1770." cap. In the Cabinet dti Eoi.D. emerging from the sea. citing Fiend. or fifteenth of March. I.. pp. Taurus. according to Suetonius." Paris. and which. Separated from the gods of the tipper air by a bow.e. 1676. there was an engraved carnelian. bull. and Leo. Mairan. probably representing the arch of the sky. the design showing Jupiter enthroned. Virgo being of an unusual type.)4 " Eeichelti. while the other two signs may allude to the position of the A fine group of stars. with thunderbolt and sceptre. Mairan. 5 He sees in the star the emblem of the splendid comet which appeared shortly after the assassination of Caesar. 211. Parrenin. The border of the 'design is formed by the twelve signs of the zodiac. De amuletis. a bull.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES 341 tues persist in them and they keep "the traces and gifts of mundane life which they possessed while clinging to These "gifts of mundane life signify the stored-up energy derived from the stars and planets. the ram. appears the bust of Neptune. was believed to be the soul of Caesar newly received into the sky.

0. King states that this was the earliest horoscopical gem known to him." Metropolitan Handbook No. It is said to have been offered by Francis I of France to Pope Clement VII. 7 ceus . 9. The " Collection of Engraved Gems. This commemorates the Pannonian triumph of Tiberius. and Taurus. and above the figure of Augustus appears the sign of Capricornus.342 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES choice examples of astrological gems may be seen in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. dated 1246. sometimes called the Apotheosis of Augustus. Some Capricorn. which has been acquired for the Museum.D. This gem is from the collection of the late Bev. in Toulouse. 54. . the constellation of his nativity. This celebrated cameo. Sernin. on the occasion of their meeting in Marseilles in 1535. among these is a green jasper bearing symbols of Luna. Still another gem of this collection is a sard bearing the symbol of Aries carrying a long caduthis type appears on the coins of Antioch. The Austrian Imperial Collection in Vienna contains the celebrated G-emma Augustea. of the owner. 13 A. the work of the famous gem-engraver Dioskorides.. however. New York. under which that emperor was born. and is described as figuring the horoscope In the same collection is a banded agate with Sagittarius as a centaur. King. pp. as the gem only reached Marseilles two days after the pope's departure. because that city was founded in the month over which the sign Aries presides. Francis decided to retain possession of it. beneath the figure of Tiberius is engraved the sign of Scorpio. surrounded by engraved the stars of this constellation in their proper order. is mentioned in an inventory of the treasury of -St. 53. T Museum of Art. W.

.THE ZODIACAL STONES WITH THEIR SIGNS. and through their power by the stones associated with them. This belief often determined the administration of special precious-stone remedies by physicians of the weventeenth and earlier centuries. Old print illustrating the influence believed to be exerted on the different parts of the body by tho respective zodiacal signs.

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" Leipzig. Accord- ing to Morales (De las piedras preciosas). the ruby and the diamond were both under the influence of the sign of Taurus. says he. His attribution proves at least that the stone of the Pleiades was a colorless one. another 8 All these desig"fire. In Sanskrit the diamond is called vajra. by Emperor Eudolph II. PO." and also indrdjudha. for the sum of 12.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES 343 royal treasure at Fontainebleau was plundered in 1590. In ancient Babylonia the sign of Taurus was regarded as the most important.000 ruby called sandastros is described by Pliny as containing stellated bodies which he compares to the A Hyades. and Winckler believes that the presence in this sign of the five stars of the Hyades and the seven of the Pleiades was brought in into connection with the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. that the Pleiades were associated with the diamond. "thunderbolt. and the stone was offered for sale. "Indra's weapon". in 1619. the same writer informs us that the Hyades and the sun were supposed to have a potent effect upon the ruby or carbuncle. while the Pleiades It seems probable typified the seven invisible signs. 8 Garbe. 1882. The Hyades signified the five signs visible Babylonia at the summer solstice." nations are probably suggested by the brilliant flashes of name is agira. they are the objects of great devotion with the Chaldasi or Assyrian Magi. although Morales. ducats. " Naharari/s Eaj . and was purchased. Yarga XIII. attributed the crystal to this group. p. hence. Moorish astrology who was very familiar with current among the Spaniards of the his time." or "the Sun. Die indisclie Mineralien.

that only the appropriate stone should be worn by the members of each caste. The same distinction is made in the case of the diamond. " Die indische Mineralien/' Naliarari's Rajanighantu. it seems quite appropriate that she should be adorned with the most brilliant of precious stones. Venus was not unworthy of the honor. corresponding to the four castes Brahmins. and they often serve to win the good graces they are presented." that was supposed to be the 9 Garbe. and if we substitute the Goddess of Love for her planet. 83. for Saturn's influence was generally supposed to be unfavThe Hindus distinguished four classes of orable. The respective sapphires were light blue. Vaisyas. as the topaz is the "yellow stone par excellence. As a talisman the Hindus believed that the sapphire rendered the planet Saturn favorable to the wearer. as the most brilliant of the planets. and dark blue. signifies 77 "blue. yellowish blue. Leipzig. sapphires. p. : Kshatriyas. nila. and Sudras. In of the divinity to The Sanskrit whom name both cases the name indicates a variety of corundum. and a like rule applies to both stones. in order to profit by the virtues inherent in the sapphire or diamond. Yarga XIII. for the sapphire. the jewel dedicated to the mysterious "dragon.344 CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES by tMs stone. an important consideration from the astrological point of view. namely. light emitted It is not easy to determine the reason that induced the Hindus to dedicate the diamond to the planet Venus rather than to the Sun or to the Moon. . Certainly these sparkling are often enough offered at the shrine of Venus in gems our own day. the sapphire is the blue stone (nilagman). reddish blue.9 One of the Sanskrit appellations of the hyacinth (zircon) is rdhuratna." so that. distinguished merely by the coloring matter. that is. 1882. However.

" " Naharari's Rajanighantu. Leipzig. was destined to enjoy immeasspirits of evil as urable wealth. this gem of warmest hue The garnet. 10 As the stone was sacred to this malevolent influence." Pt. for nothing was so effective against the lesser an evil genius of great power. . 20. 1881. after first looking at the moon on the pratipada (the first day after new-moon). we need not be surprised that it was believed to avert misfortune. II. From Shall Pisces passion and from care kept free 7 children ever be all Who Aries. Who on this world of ours his eyes In Aries opens shall be wise If always on his hand there lies A 10 bloodstone. 84. should cast his eyes upon a turquoise. If you would cherish friendship true. p.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES 345 cause of the periodic eclipses of the Sun and Moon. 1882. In Aquarius well you'll do To wear Pisces. February ^1 to March 21. wear so the world may see The amethyst. 11 ZODIACAL GEMS Aquarius. According to the Hindu mystics it was very lucky to have a turquoise at hand at the time of the new moon. Garbe. Hani Mala. Calcutta. March 21 to April The Bloodstone. p. Varga 11 XIII. for whoever. 883. to February 21. Surindro Molmn Tagore. The Amethyst. January 21 The Garnet. " Die indische Mineralien.

And Cancer. July 22 to August 22. April 20 to Tlie Sapphire. Through Virgo's sign. If you take with you on your way An emerald. Success will bless whate'er you do. lorn Under Leo and lone 'Twill have lived but for this stone. . all the ills of age withstand. September 22 to October 23. May in 21. Libra. The onyx. Who wear their rings on either hand Of June 21 to July The Emerald. The 21 to June 21. You Gemini. Gemini's children health and wealth command. if only you Place on your hand her own gem true. Yirgo. Taurus born will find 'Twill cure diseases of the mind. When youth to manhood shall have grown. Carnelian. to September 22. they say. Tour life will joyful be alway. August 22 Carnelian. The chrysolite. May The Agate. For in her gem surcease doth dwell. 22. agate.346 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Taurus. The Onyx. The Chrysolite. If on your band this stone you bind. Through Libra's sign it is quite well To free yourself from evil spell. Leot If born in Cancer's sign.

Ancient Persian. lioads of curnehau artificially necklace of banded and variegated agates.1." The marking is produced by uc application of potash and soda. First Century A. . marked ior "good luck.D. onyx. carnelians and sards. A 2.

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live in Capricorn No trouble shall their brows adorn If they this glowing gem have worn. 15b. "Rantzau. December 21 to January The Ruby. topaz. The ruby. Those who 21. 1633. November 21 The Topaz. 46-55. to December comes 21. The Sagittarius. 15a. 347 October 23 to November 21. and probably represents Crystal Arab tradition: Aries Libra Scorpio Taurus Ruby and diamond Sapphire Jasper Garnet Agate and beryl Leo Topaz Virgo Magnet Gemini Cancer Sagittarius Emerald Chalcedony Capricorn Aquarius Pisces Amethyst Of planetary stones 13 there is assigned to the sun the jacinth and the chrysolite. The Beryl." Francofurti." Valladolid. . Through Scorpio this gem so fair Is that which every one should wear. " De las virtudes y propiedades marvillosas de las piedras preeiosas. Who first to this world below Under Sagittarius should know That their true gem should ever show A Capricorn. when this latter name 12 Morales. beryl. An differs old Spanish list of the 12 gems of the zodiacal signs from those given above. 1604. "Traetatus de genethliacorum thematum judieiis. pp.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES Scorpio. Or tears of sad repentance bear. fols.

the rock-crystal and also the tial sapphire unites the influence of Venus and Jupiter. usually the emerald is the stone of Venus. the share of Venus fall the sapphire and carbuncle as well as coral and pearl. Alfonso X. belonging to the first degree of the sign Taurus. jacinth. so that this planet has the richest assortment of gems it will be remarked that the celes. there was. and 14 Lapidario del Rey D. 101-109. moon To to the yellow Brazilian chrysoberyl. and Moon). and ruby. codice original. by Jupiter. for the influence of this cold and distant planet was always regarded as baleful. Lastly. fols. Madrid. Thus the diamond. show that the same stone was influenced in " many or most cases by more than one of the seven planets" (including the Sun. The red jargoon was influenced by Mars. was dominated by both Saturn and the Sun the emerald .348 CURIOUS LORE OF PEECIOUS STONES was applied the pearl. 14 controlled also . Coral belonged both to Venus and to the moon. The planetary controls of precious stones as given in the Lapidario of Alfonso 5. the last-named stone according with the ruddy hue of our neighbor planet. . black. the two especially propitious planets. amethyst. 1881. and turquoise. while controls the beryl. Under the control of Jupiter are placed the emerald. came as well under the influence of the Planet of Love. far-away Saturn must be content with all dark. little inducement to wear a Saturnian stone. indeed. sapphire. Mars lays claim to the diamond. and brittle stones. although more especially a sunstone. The carnelian received virtue from the Sun and from Venus. The ruby. while lapis-lazuli and chalcedony only owed allegiance to Venus this planet also lent virtue to the beryl. the yellow variety by Jupiter and the white jargoon by Venus. was by Mercury and by Venus. according to "Chaldaic" tradition.

" We are then told that these stones were attributed to the seven planets by the Chaldaeans. London. and within appeared the moon in form and motion such as she is in the heavens. the sixth column was of agate. . liv. and the seventh of trans" with a splendor like that of Hymettian parent selenite. the The seventh fifth. the fourth. was of shining light. to which is added the pearl. account for the absence of this king of gems. 16 was of sapphire. 1833. 15 Here we have the three precious colored stones. of emerald. and highest heaven. ia Pantagruel. by Stanley Lane-Poole. p.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES Among the 349 Mohammedans. full and new. The scarcity of the diamond in early times. describing the temple of the oracle of the "Dive Bouteille. "more brilliant and glistening than were those which were set in place of eyes in the marble lion stretched before the tomb of King Hermias"." ed. waxing and waning. of large white pearls. of red gold. however. v. of the "male" balas-ruby. honey. . 98. "dyamant". p. of jacinth. of jacinth. "Arabian Society in the Middle Ages. the second. as first of follows : Sapphire Jacinth Saturn Jupiter Diamond Ruby Sun Mars "Lane. Paris. of white silver the . the third." says that of its seven columns the Kabelais. of ruby. ruby. third. and the sixth. chap. 1883. the fifth. six of the seven heavens were supposed to be made of precious substances: the first was of emerald the second. and sapphire (jacinth). xlii. emerald. and its comparative lack of brilliancy before the invention of rose and brilliant cutting. the fourth. 341.

Annena Garnet Mercury and Venus. Mars and Venus. . Sun.in. Venus and Mars. Mercury and Venus. ^ "Morales. Venus and Mercury. 1604. Sun.350 CUBIOUS LORE OP PEECIOUS STONES Emerald Agate Selenite * Venus Mercury Moon usually Some of these attributions differ from those made and may represent another tradition. Jupiter. Venus. Jupiter. Saturn and Mars. Moon and Mars. Amber Jet Lyncurius Crystal Suu. 1T Emerald Chalcedony Sardonyx Chrysolite Beryl To^paz Chrysoprase Jacinth Amethyst Pearl Carbuncle Venus and Mercury. Mars and Jupiter. Mercury. Saturn." Valladolid. and Saturn. Jupiter. - Bezoar Armenia * - - ' - . Diamond Agate Aleetoria Venus and Mars. Turquoise Chelidon Aetites Venus and Mercury. Sun. PLANETARY INFLUENCES OF STONES Jasper Sapphire . Jupiter and Mercury. Venus and Mercury. Mercury and Venus. "Do las Piedras Preciosas. Saturn and Mars. Sun. Dlonesia Hematite Lapis-lazuli Mercury. Jupiter. Mars and Jupiter. Saturn. Jupiter.

Amethyst. De las piedras preciosas. Scorpion 3 of Sagittarius. The Pleiades 24 of Taurus. Jupiter. Hyena Androdamas Pyrites: Moon. Saturn. Halcyon Asbestus Sarcophagus Arabian. Jupiter. Tail of the Great Bear 8 of Scorpio. 1S : Caput Algol 18 of Taurus. Jupiter. green Moon. white Arabian. Venus. Mars. Morales. Sirius 10 of Cancer. Magnet Judaica. J Saturn and Mars. Moon. ^ \. Magnet. Topaz.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES Selenite 351 Moon. Jupiter Sun. Chrysolite. 16a- . Crystal. a Emerald and Jasper. Sun. Mercury. pp. Spica Virginis 17 of Libra. Hyades. also the Ruby. Garnet. Venus. Venus. 18 Tortoise 8 of Capricorn. Hegolite or Cogolite Iris Mercury. Mars. Tin-colored Ash-colored Calatia Stalactite Moon. Sun. Aldebaran 3 of Gemini. Saturn. Sun. Copper-colored Gold-colored Silver-colored Moon. Beryl. 16b. Sapphire. Heart of Lion 23 of Leo." Valladolid. carbuncle. Moon. Eight and left wing of Raven 8 of Libra. Fixed stars associated with precious stones Diamond. also the Pole Star. Thenarcus Cornelian Opal Sun. 1604. The Goat 15 of Gemini.

the Great Bear in the upper and the Lesser Bear in the lower folds. and augments wealth. every constellation belongs to one or more CORONA BOREALIS. HERCULES. wearer victorious in CYGNUS. signs. Mars and Venus. Tail of Capricorn 15 of Aquarius. thus. f . signs. 18 Camilli Leonardi. sometimes a man with a lion's skin in his hand or on Scorpio. " Speculum Lapidurn. Chalcedony. and fever. The boundary lines of the various signs are earned up to the pole. Images and virtues of the on gems I0 : constellations as engraved URSA MAJOR. Both bears are represented in the folds of a serpent. all Mercury. neck. Renders the wearer popular. AND DRACO. Nature Ursa Ursa Minor. Sign: Nature: Venus and victory. Kv-lvi . 1502. A royal crown. with many stars. cautious j versatile. Engraved on a stone that brings like the agate. Renders the wearer wise.352 GUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Jacinth. A In the North. Sardonyx. A man with knees bent." Venetia. Saturn. Pearl. and powerful. Nature: Venus and Mercury. Cures gout. URSA MINOR. In almost all the Major. Engraved on the stone of one who is fitted for honors and knowledge. increases knowledge. holding a club in his hand and killing a lion. Same as Topaz. it renders the conflicts in the field. sometimes the crowned head of a king. Shoulder of Equis Major 18 of Pisces. Sign : Sagittarius. : Draco: Saturn and Mars. it gives him great favor with kings. paralysis. Umbilicus Andromedse 20 of Aries. his shoulder and hold- ing a club. and any constellation that is within these lines is considered to belong to the respective sign. swan with outstretched wings and curved Nature: Venus and Mercury.

holding a sword in his right hand and Sign: Taurus. and' bold. Restores the sickly. and makes the wearer swift. Sign A : flying eagle with Cancer. a sword and holding his hands and arms extended. If this enAquarius. Jupiter and Mercury . A man girt with. adds new ones. : : A eases. Nature is arrow. cautious.PLANE TARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES 353 CEPHEUS. Nature: Saturn and Venus. Taurus. Sign: Nature: Mars and Jupiter. young girl with. from lightning and tempest. Dissolves enchantments. tunate in fishing. man in the folds of a serpent and holdSERPENS. gives quiet and calm after labor and procures pleasant and tranquil sleep. Sign: Taurus. an arrow beneath his feet. Guards the wearer from misfortune and protects. 23 . not only the wearer but the the Gorgon's head in his left. Some represent the half of a winged horse. ing its head in his right hand and its tail in his A left. Nature Saturn angle on her head. dishevelled hair. Nature: Saturn and Venus. Causes pleasant visions if placed beneath the head of a sleeping person. Nature: Sign: Venus. and protects the human body from many dis- A . Sign: Aries. and it renders the wearer forPEGASUS. Sign: Figured in relief (?) Nature: Saturn and Mars. graved gem be attached to nets it causes them to be filled with fsh. the of Mars and Venus. others the whole figure and without a bridle. A man place where it may be. Sign and Venus. woman seated in a chair and with hands CASSIOPEIA. Preserves : former honors. ANDROMEDA. PISCES or DELPHOTUS. in the field. PERSEUS. AQUILA. extended in the form of a cross sometimes with a triTaurus. and helps to victory. worn body to health. Reconciles husband and wife. strengthens love. Antidote to poisons and to the bites of venomous creatures. and hands hanging down. however. Nature: Saturn and Jupiter. Gives victory Aries.

CANTS MAJOR. Figure of a hare with ears pricked up and the feet represented as though in swift motion.354 CUBIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES CETUS. sometimes with and sometimes without oars. Sign: Cures Mercury. Sign: Cancer. With or without armor. Sign: Cancer. Nature: Saturn and Venus. Gemini. : over his enemies. Saturn. Half-figure of a bull. restores lost ORION. HYDRA. NAVIS. Guards from dropsy. pestilence. and demoniacal possession. Cures lunacy. In his right hand the man holds a small. Gives conleft shoulder rests stancy and perpetual health. and to command them. Figure of a dog. its tail. A serpent. Nature: Jupiter and Mars. CANIS MINOR. An altar with burning incense. having an urn at its head . Figure of a large fish. Leo. Gives riches and all good gifts to the wearer and makes him cautious and prudent. Sign: Sagittarius. sitting. insanity. Nature JupiGives the wearer victory ter. bearing a man on whose a lance. neither can he be injured by water. with curved tali and ca- pacious gullet. to converse with them. Renders the wearer fortunate on the sea and makes agreeable. wearer fortunate in his undertakings. cury. Figure of a dog for coursing. at and a raven Sign: Cancer. Nature: Venus and MerGives the wearer power to recognize spirits. also confers chastity. Nature: Jupiter. SACRARIUS TURUBTTLTIS (ARA). supine animal with a vessel attached to it. Sign: Taurus. and the bites of dogs. It also him prudent and articles. LEPUS. and Mars. Sign: Renders the Nature: Saturn and Jupiter. frenzy and protects from the wiles of demons. he runs no risk on sea or water. Sign : Libra. Sign : Gemini. Nature: Saturn and CENTAUR.hares. from which depends a hare. Nature: Saturn. with Nature: Venus. A ship with prow curved back and spread sails. a curved tail. man holding a sword or a scythe in his hand. The wearer cannot be hurt by a malignant spirit.

Gives handling affairs and usually brings them to a successful issue. and this occasionally is surrounded by the signs of the zodiac. sometimes in a chariot. Represented sometimes with a banner and sometimes with a lance or other weapon.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES CORONA AUSTRALIS. He will be raised to honors and dignities. Sometimes as the solar disk with rays. and he easily gains what he wishes. enabling them to acquire wealth. Sign: Libra. It renders the wearer fortunate. Increases knowledge and confers eloquence. this Renders the wearer powerful and a 1 VENUS Many forms. MERCURY. He is. victor. gem is prized by hunters. VEXILLUM. A seated figure. boldness in war. but sometimes without. Makes the wearer successful in hunting. Sign: Gemini. bearing a goat on his left shoulder. usually with a beautiful beard. tory in the field. Nature: Mercury. especially if engraved MARS. Gives victory. It aids merchants. Nature: 355 An imperial crown. An old man holding a curved scythe in his hand and with a not very heavy beard. Figure of a slender man. power continually. engraved on an appropriate stone. indeed. Saturn and Mars. He has winged feet and holds the caduceus. it renders the wearer powerful and his augments JUPITER. volumi- nous dress and a skill in holding a laurel in her hand. removes the fear of drowning. especially if SUN. on a Kabratis stone. Engraved on a stone of the nature of Saturn. Augments wealth and makes the wearer gay and happy. always armed and at times mounted on a horse. holding a staff in one hand and a spear in the other. sometimes as a man in a chariot. . especially from priests. among them that of a woman with a stole. and success in everything. AURIGA. : A flag flying Sign Scorpion. A man in a chariot. Gives from the extremity of a lance skill in war and confers vic- FIGURES OF THE PLANETS SATURN.

not only concerned those actually present in a material form. to be of favorable significance only for women. but also those that were seen in dreams. To make them thrive in law or trade. 1502. " " Many Oneirocritica. n And be victorious in love. as well as of precious stones. and the birth 20 '* Camilli Leonardi. In wit and wisdom to improve. Canto 11. Is said to confer speed and facility in under20 takings and a happy issue. and interpretations of such dreams are given by old writers. mystic Engraved in planetary hours. Among these were Several constellation stones.356 MOON"." Venetia. m. Aids the fortunes of those who are sent on an embassy. sometimes as a young woman in a chariot and holding a quiver. That over mortals had strange powers. Hzi " Butler. Every object seen in a dream was given a special meaning. f . " Speculum Lapidum. CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES Yarious forms. were written or compiled in the early centuries of our era. one of the most noted being the work of Artemidorus. he rifled the latter 's pockets of treasures. These manifold influences exerted by the stars and planets through the medium of the gems. Such dreams indicated marriage for unmarried women. and enables them to acquire wealth and honor thereby. And stab or poison to evade. . and at others as a woman with a quiver and following the chase with dogs. or dream-books. When Hudibras attacked and overcame the sorcerer all his Sidrophal. and it is interesting to note that Artemidorus believed dreams of rings or other ornaments. Sometimes as a crescent. who flourished in the second century AJ>. 1096-1103. Hudibras/'' Part II.

and among these are visions of crowns that appear to kings.D. For men. on the other hand. If a woman was both wife and mother when she saw sparkling jewels in her dream. p. 22 Arternidori Daldiani et AehametLs Sereimi Oneiroeritica. Regaltius. to dream of jewels was an ill omen. ed. but this depended upon the color and character of the jewels which adorned the crown. "this color in precious stones is universally accepted as signi" 23 fying good-faith and religious devotion to God.. usually portended increased power and success for the sovereign. Artemidorns here sagely remarks that women are by nature devoted to riches and passionately fond of ornaments. Lutetiaj. Such a dream. probably because it foreshadowed the necessity of buying them for a good friend or a faithful wife.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES 357 of children for those already married.. it was a bad omen. Many of the interpretations in this book are referred to a Hindu source. If the stones were of a light green hue (the color of the leek). 22 Another of these dream-books. 228. 80. 38 Ibid. the dream indicated that the king would have great joy and good fortune and would be more feared by his enemies than before. pp. appears under the name of Achametis and is of Arabic origin. foreshadowing the loss of part of his kingdom. . for. but if he saw blue gems in the crown. the king would gain a great name in the world. then the vision portended the acquisition of great wealth. in itself. For example. both by his good faith and by the greatness of his kingdom. probably composed in the eighth century A. we read that if the gems were red and of the kind known as lychnites (carbuncles or rubies). the writer adds. 1603. 87.

Freedom from harm. Acquirement of wisdom. CatVeyes Chalcedony Chrysoberyls Chrysolites A time of need. store. Escape from danger. Unexpected guests. shall befall. * Sardonyx Topaz Tourmalines Turquoises Love of friends. Sorrow. Prosperity> If precious stones be so combined in a ring. Impending misfortune. Much to look forward to. or other jewel that the initial letters of their names words spell . J fi t Lapis-lazuli Moonstones Moss-agates Impending danger. A Porphyry Rubies Sapphires happy marriage. Agates journey. New Happiness in Distressing news. Jasper Love returned. Treachery. Hyacinths Jacinths A heavy storm. Freedom from enemies. * A voyage. Death. Long life. . No harm An accident. Faithful lore. Friends rejoined. Recovery from illness. Faithful friends. friends. Diamonds Emeralds Garnets Heliotropes The solution of a mystery. An unsuccessful journey. Victory over enemies. Coral Crystal Necessary caution. Amber Amethysts Aquamarines Beryls Bloodstones Carbuncles Carnelians * .358 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES There is signified by dreaming of A. Great possessions. Success.

scini-prccioiin (luting from pious offerings of those whose priiyers have been answered. crystal \V:IH cs find engraved with precious un<l . Probably Hoekcrystal balls adorning the seat are said to renlaee golden doves. KRANCK."> ctn. hilly dedicated to the moon . TNT TIIF. ABiuov-(niuiu u AT CONQUKS. lies) hi^h und is of tfold in u core of wood. DKPT.KNOWN It irt AS THAT OF RATNTR FOY. AVKYRON. i Htudd< ( I various c is S. The of the tenth eentury.

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Ruby. bracelets. Olivine.. Hyacinth. Hematite. Topaz. Feldspar. lolite. Heliotrope. Idocrase. etc. Yellow sapphire. Hyacinth. FAITH Fire-opal.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES significant of 359 a tender sentiment or implying good fortune. Alexandrite. Pearl. were often set with gems the first letters of which. this is also supposed to strengthen their astral or planetary influence and to render them more potent charms. . In the following examples the gems in the first column are the more expensive. Topaz. Essonite. Idocrase. Carbuncle. The following is a list of those The choice of stones that may be used in this way. HOPE Hyacinth. Amethyst. rings. afforded here brings these pretty devices within the reach of all. Amethyst. ACEOSTICS FORMED WITH STONES In France and England. Pyrope. Hematite. Yu (Jade). during the 18th century. Aquamarine. brooches. combined. CHAEITY CatVeye. Emerald. those in the second column being comparatively inexpensive ones. or else the name of someone dear to the giver of the jewel. Tourmaline. lolite. formed a motto or expressed a sentiment. Tourmaline. Opal. Rose quartz.

Diamond. Zonochlorite. Moldavite. Emerald. Dendiite. Garnet. Amethyst* Rock-crystal. Diamond. Asteria. Rubellite. Essonite. Ruby. Vermeille. Idocnxse. Urallan emerald. Indicolite. Pyrope. O Irvine. Kunzite. Rubellite. Demantcid. Hyacinth. Rutile. meaning Zircon. Cat's-eye. Krokidolite FOREVER Fire-opal. Labradorite.360 CURIOUS LOEE OF PBECIOUS STONES GOOD LUCK Golden beryl. Sapphire." Emerald. Essonite. Lapis-lazuli. Carnelian. TTnio pearl. Garnet. Peridot. Opal. Rose REGABD Ruby. Epidote. Zonochlorite* Essonite. Sard. Hematite. MIZPAH Moonstone. Alexandrite. Fleches d'amour OpaL Ruby. ZES Greek. Onyx. Zircon. . Essonite* Verd antique. Emerald. "Mayest thou live. Obsidian. Onyx. Aquamarine. Garnet.

Epidote. Indicolite. Almandine. Nephrite. TTralian emerald. lolite. Sapphire. Epidote. Nephrite. 361 Ruby. Hematite. Sapphire. Opal. Bloodstone. Essonite. Ruby. Moonstone. Uralian emerald. Emerald. Nephrite. Sunstone. Utahlite. Idocrase. Spinel. Demantoid. Vermeille. . Idocrase. Indicolite. Emerald. Nephrite. BONHEUR Beryl. Nicolo. Diamond. Amethyst. Opal. lolite. Rock-crystal. Epidote. Indicolite. Rock crystal. Essonite. Pyrite. Verd antique. Alexandrite. Emerald. DEAREST Diamond. AMITIfi Alexandrite.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES FRIENDSHIP Filches d' amour Feldspar. Onyx. Rubellite. Topaz. Sard. Hematite. Nephrite. Ruby. Emerald. Hyacinth. Idocrase. Turquoise. Topaz. Indicolite. Onyx. Rhodonite. Esaonite. Tourmaline. Emerald. Utahlite. Essonite. Idocrase. Ruby. Hyacinth. SOUVENIR Sapphire. Moonstone. Pearl. Diopside.

Between the rays are set the stones emattractive An central blematic of the zodiacal sign. Vermeille. Emerald. Moonstone." "eternity. and two. Indicolite. number that is. an attempt is here made to give a charcteristic stone for each counIn the case of the United States the various gemtry. Emerald. Moonstone.362 CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES LOVE ME Lapis-lazuli. Essonite. since the nifies composed of three. . according to the old fancy. Onyx. Almandine. Epidote. which typifies the balance. Idocrase. five is stability. AEI Greek. of the guardian angel of the month. Opal. Essonite. Labrador spar. meaning "forever. which sigcreative power. engagement ring can be formed of a diamond from which extend the rays of a fivepointed star. This ring is in the form of the mystic the grand symbol of constancy and durability. As." Alexandrite. or from the combination of the stars in a zodiacal sign. Pentagon. would have a peculiar and more or less intimate connection with the fate of one country rather than of another. the influences due to the light emanations from the planets or fixed stars. Verd antique. stones found within the boundaries of each of the States That this special influence was in regard to those born in the counexceptionally potent tries in question was also taught and hence a national of the Union are given. Essonite. of the planet control of the hour and also the two stones indicating the initial letter of the two Christian names.

and who may perhaps also have a trace of superstition hidden away in some part of their consciousness. For those who may feel a certain degree of sympathy for time-honored fancies.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES gem would have a 363 greater talismanic power than any other for the natives of each separate country. Opal Crystal Garnet Lapis-lazuli Bokhara Bolivia Brazil Lapis-lazuli Tourmaline (Brazilian emerald) Burma Canada Ceylon Chili Ruby Socialite Cat s-eye Lapis-lazuli 7 China Jade Dioptase Congo Denmark Egypt England France Agate Peridot Diamond Pearl Germany German West Africa Greece * * Amber Diamond Sapphire Holland Diamond Opal Pearl Precious serpentine (Connemara) Coral Rock-crystal Hungary India Ireland Italy Japan Korea Abalone pearl . one of our State gems would have a similar significance. GEMS OF COUNTRIES Alaska Algiers Garnet Coral Pearl Arabia Austria-Hungary Belgium Bohemia.

garnet. morganite. Arkansas California Rock-crystal. agate. peridot. The most important are enumerated below: Alabama Arizona Beryl. diamond. nova/- Agate. Agatized wood. smoky quartz. turquoise. smoky quartz. tourmaline. diamond. . abalone pearl. benitoite.364 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Morganite Obsidian Coral Madagascar Mexico Morocco New England New South Wales New Zealand Norway-Sweden Tourmaline Opal Jade Carnelian Panama Persia Agate Turquoise Peru Philippines Emerald Pearl Portugal Chrysoberyl Roumania Russia Amber Rhodonite Olivine Sandwich Islands Scotland Servia Cairngorm (smoky quartz) Coral Siam Sicily South Africa Spain Switzerland Ruby Amber Diamond Emerald Rock-crystal Turkestan Jade Turquoise Turkey United States Sapphire Uruguay Amethyst UNITED STATES STONES Precious. semi-precious. calif ornite. azur-malaehite. culite. kunzite. blue and yellow. or gem stones are found in nearly every State of the Union. ehrysoprase. gold quartz.

gold quartz. ruby. Beryl. pearl. Beryl. rose quartz. Pearl.. fresh-water pearl. smoky quartz. Opal. Fossil coral. fluorite. prelmite. Fowlerite. pearl. cyanite. smoky quartz. agate. Chalcedony. . rhodolite. chalcedony. agatized wood. rock-crystal. Beryl. beryl. gold quartz. brown tourmaline. Aquamarine. topaz. Tourmaline. North Carolina . Chalcedony. amethyst. pyrope garnet. obsidian. obsidian. rock-crystal. sapphire. Turquoise. hid- denite. amazonite. Obsidian. rose quartz. . almandite garnet. obsidian. pearl. 365 Beryl. Maine Maryland Massachusetts Chalcedony. Beryl. rock-crystal... Oregon . pearl. hydrolite. hematite. beryl. chalcedony. Chlorastrolite. willemite. garnet. garnet. amethyst. phenacite. clam-pearl. . Missouri Pearl. . North Dakota Ohio Chalcedony.. Indian Territory. Indiana . Nevada Gold quartz. chondrodite. agate. Georgia Idaho Illinois Ruby. amethyst. rutile. yellow and green . Agate. thomsonite.. beryl. pearl. chalcedony. beryl.PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES Colorado Connecticut . Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Agate. agate Pearl. clam-pearl.. pyrite. garnet. amethyst. rose quartz. rock-crystal. Fossil coral. smoky quartz. peridot. smoky quartz. garnet. obsidian. New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Beryl. tourmaline. Fluorite. aquamarine. Pearl. agate. Delaware Florida agate. . Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Chalcedony. pearl. emerald. agate. Montana Nebraska Sapphire.. conch pearl. diamond. Pearl. rock-crystal. pyrite. .

almandite garnet. staurolite. sunstone. rock-crystal. amazonite. Utah Virginia Topaz. pearl. beryl. agate. pearl. Pennsylvania* Bhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Hornblende in quartz. moonstone. Beryl. rutile. beryl. Amethyst. Pearl. Quartzite. tourmaline. beryl. Pearl. Moss-agate. pearl. agate. agate. pyrope garnet. Texas Beryl. garnet. smoky quartz. amethyst. allanite. rock-crystal.366 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Amethyst. Rock-crystal. Wyoming . spessarite. Agate. moonstone. garnet. Vermont Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Beryl.

It dates from ubout 1(500 a c .ives direetioilH for .INSCRIPTION ON A SMALL TIKCH OF LIMMSTONK. IN CURHIVK KCJYPTIAN WRITINCJ. and |u. the period <>f the labors PnijyruH.

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or of some by engraving their virtues and Later object symbolizing certain of the activities of nature. and. most highly devel- oped in Assyria and Babylonia. Little by salves. it appears that in early Egyptian times the chemical constituents of the stones were much more rationally considered rather points to Egypt than at a later period in Europe. however. indeed. whence many of the stones were Nevertheless. superstition associated certain special virtues with the color and quality of precious stones. the science of astrology. still. an iron oxide. so that the image was believed to have much greater efficacy if the engraving were executed when the sun was in a certain constellation or when the moon or some one of the planets was If we exclude certain fragmentary notices in Egypin the ascendant at the time. as ingredients of eye- and hematite. little. for instance. were thought to be greatly enhanced on them the image of some god. The Ebers Papyrus. recommends the use of certain astringent substances. India. was used for checking hemorrhages and for reducing inflammations. such as lapis-lazuli. 367 . was brought into combination with the various superstitions above indicated.XI C^erapeutf c medicinal use of precious stones may be traced It has been conjectured that their employment for such purposes was introduced back to very ancient times. to Europe from derived. the earliest evidence we have as the source.

it is only just to call attention to a fact been often ignored namely. Pliny yielded so far to the taste of his time as to preserve for us many of the statements of earlier writers on the subject. Never- comparatively easy to see that either the color or constitution of the stone originally indicated its use for this or that disease. for the wider the reading of the author the greater became the number of virtues attributed to each separate stone. it is A distinction is often made between the talismanic . the loss valuable elements of popular belief came more and more into the foreground. writers. With add something new on much at last. theless." as he calls them.368 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES notably the statements in the Ebers Papyrus and the very uncertain sources in Hindu literature. the earliest authority for this branch of the subject is the Natural History of Pliny. for certain quite recent authorities still credit amber and a few other mineral substances with therapeutic effects other than those which can be explained by the known action of their chemical constituents. naming them in most cases and so enabling. and the old superstitions were freely copied by successive authors. In this connection. This explains of the confusion that reigns in regard to the attribution of special virtues to the different stones. he seems to have been almost as sceptical in his attitude as many modern . Still. howwhich has ever. of the character of this pseudo-science in world in the first century of our era. that Pliny himself had very little faith in the teachings of the "magi. each of whom felt called upon to his own account. we might almost say that each and every precious stone could be used for the cure of all diseases.us to form some idea the Eoman the gradual decay of ancient learning. until. in regard to the superstitious use of gems for the tian literature prevention or cure of diseases indeed.

When we read to-day of the various ills that were supposed to be cured by the use of these gems. The belief in the curative properties of precious stones was at one time universal among all those to whom gems were known. reserving for the chapter on the talismanic use of gems only their employment to avert misfortunes other than those caused by disease. apparent effect. and they pass through the system without producing any fectual remedies. we find it difficult to understand what process of thought could have suggested the idea of employing such inefIt is true that the constituents of certain stones can be absorbed by the human body and have a definite effect upon it. As. and also because it was believed that certain spiritual or 24 . while in the latter case they were reduced to a powder. however. but the greater part of the elements are so combined that they cannot be assimilated. was dissolved as far as possible in water or some other liquid and then taken internally. long held sway among those who practised the medical art.ON THEKAPEUTIC USES OF STONES of disease 369 qualities of precious stones for the cure or prevention and the properly medicinal use of them as mineral substances. honors. and hence of the therapeutics of disease. and the primitive animistic conception of the cause of illness. which. and happiness for their wearers. In ancient and medieval times. other than chemical agencies were supposed to be efficient in the cure of diseases. it seems more logical to treat of both these methods of therapeutic use together. the end to be attained is the same whether the stone be worn or taken internally as a powder or liquid. and their influence in the procuring of wealth. however. Remedies were prized because of their rarity. In the former case the effect was attained by merely wearing them on the person.

In the same way yellow stones were prescribed for the cure of bilious disorders. These gems were usually looked upon as emblems of chastity. as well as for all inflammatory diseases. Here we are told of the beneficial effect exercised by the emerald upon the eyes. The verdant emerald represented the beautiful green fields. spinel. for jaundice in all its forms and for other diseases of the liver. who wrote in the third century before Christ. probably the very earliest reference in Greek writings to the therapeutic value of gems. the symbolism of color played a very important part in recommending the use of particular stones for special diseases. The use of green stones to relieve diseases of the eye was evidently suggested by the beneficial influence exerted by this color upon the sight. with a hue resembling the blue of the heavens. The red hue of these stones was supposed to indicate their fitness for such use. upon which the tired eye rests so willingly. upon the principle similia similibus curantur. the lapis-lazuli. These were thought to be sovereign remedies for hemorrhages of all kinds. and other blue stones. and which exert such a soothing influence upon the sight when it has been unduly strained or fatigued.370 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES planetary influences had aided in their production and were latent in them. etc. One of the earliest. garnet. were believed to exert a tonic influence. and for this reason the sapphire came to be . appears in the works of Theophrastus. and were supposed to counteract the wiles of the spirits of darkness and procure the aid and favor of the spirits of light and wisdom. carnelian. The sapphire. This may be noted in the case of the red or reddish stones. Besides this. they were also believed to exercise a calming influence and to remove anger and discord. such as the ruby. bloodstone.

Kurly ChriHtlun. the Kvil lOye.<>f euruclmn heads of onyx heads.st. ol lime ar-d Used \ . The deoorntion IH made with oarlx ChnrniH uguin. firing. Pernuin.

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It is not from unlikely that a fancied resemblance between the prevailing hue of these stones and that of certain kinds of wine first gave rise to the name $nd to the idea of the peculiar virtues of the amethyst. Only the condition and perfection of the gems are made the criterion of their worth. a tendency to attribute the virtues of one gem to another. if perfect. from an early period. or one lacking the proper lustre or color. marked in the old Hindu Lapidaries. . since there is practically limit to the correspondences that may be found between sensuous impressions and ideas. was destined to be a source of untold misfortune to the owner. Any given stone. have mentioned only a few of the more obvious analogies suggested by the color of gems. so that no part of his stock should This tendency is especially fail to find a purchaser. the name thus signifying the " sobering' 7 gem. probably owing to the commercial instinct which urged the dealer to praise his wares in is We no every possible way. One great difficulty which besets any one who is trying to find a clue to guide him through the labyrinth of the medical affinities of gems is the fact that there was. was a source of all blessings to the wearer and possessed all remedial powers. and we might be tempted to cite many others were it not that symbolism always treacherous ground." and the privative a. wherein it is almost impossible to find any differentiation of the stones in respect to their curative or talismanic virtues. while a defective stone. Among purple stones. the amethyst is parThe well-known belief that this ticularly noteworthy. counteracted the effects of undue indulgence in ingem toxicating beverages is indicated by its name.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES 371 regarded as especially appropriate for use in ecclesiastical rings. derived " to be ftsofo intoxicated.

1602. as being the abode of the greatest possible number of curative properties. Indeed. " the simple and effective means of removing the patient to a better world. silver stones. thirty-four ingredients. " white the ruby "putrefaction of the air or water. white and red coral. but rather upon 1 the quantity used. emerald.372 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES The European writers on . while the jacinth was a mercurial stone." This illustrates the custom of combining an inefficacious material. Paracelsus (1493-1541) affirmed that the emerald was a copper stone the carbuncle and the jasper were golden . and amber. unhappy Treating of the metallic affinities of preciouvS stones. many of the most highly recommended electuaries contained all kinds of stones. topaz. ruby. the name of the stone appealing to the popular superstitions regarding its thera1 Venice. . the medical properties of precious stones were influenced by quite different considerations their chief aim was to represent each stone. It would indeed seem that a good dose of such a mixture should have provided a cure for "all the ills that flesh is heir to. In Arnobio's "Tesoro delle Gioie. garnet. p. sapphire. regarded simply as a mineral substance." by electuary of jacinth. pearl." we have a receipt for the composition of "the most noble This contains jacinth. or class of stones. The sapphire" (corundum) was a stone of Jupiter. as though the effect to be produced did not depend upon the qualities of any single stone. and the chalcedony. in all. 254. with another possessing genuine remedial virtue. such as the powder of a precious stone. as well as many animal and vegetable substances. Powdered mixed with an equal quantity of laudanum was jacinth recommended as a remedy for fevers resulting from stones .

pp. Middle High German didactic poem on precious stones. cols. 264r~ca." cap. says 4 : He less and held that the varieties of stones so greatly admired were useineffective things. . 349). and thus rendering the preparation acceptable. This had been given to Pericles by the women of his household. by Arthur Edward Waite. appears to have been written as a rejoinder to a satirical poem. 339. he was in no wise opposed to their use simply as ornaments by his subjects. 218. p. The Hermetic and Alchemical writings of Aureolus Philippus Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim. Pericles. he showed to one of his friends. I. II. 38. in Eusebii. 1884. in his oration on the Emperor Constantine the Great (272-337). and hence no efficacy to hold evils aloof. the work of a writer called the Strieker (rascal) What chiefly aroused Volmar's wrath was the fact that this irreverent personage dared to assert that a piece of ' ' ' . Eusebii Pamphili.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES peutic powers. It is related 2 373 more by Plutarch that when Pericles was dying of the plague. about 1250. vol." ed. for what power can such things have either to cure disease or to avert death? Nevertheless. " De laudibus Constantini. Lipsise. London. who was an amulet suspended from his neck. 14. v Parisiis. * a " Vitas. 225. 3 There were sceptics in ancient times who put no faith in the popular superstitions as to the curative powers of precious stones. 1337. 1857. or Volamar. called Paracelsus the Great. influence of superstition. Vol. " "Plutarchi." Migne. p. "Opera Omnia. although he well knew this. 1894. ed. Patro- xx. Eusebius (ca. composed by Volmar. Graecffi." trans. They possessed no other qualities than their natural ones. 1340. Sinteris. . and Plutarch cites the instance as a proof that even the strongest minds will at certain times yield to the visiting him. Vol.

: : B The Travels of Sir Jerome Horsey. One daye the prince heckoned me to follow. his natur arr orient coullers. 200. Horsey says 5 . The load-stone you all know hath great and hidden vertue. Told ihe prince and nobles present before and aboute him the virtue of such and such. the Percians profit. and do pray I may a littell degress to declare for ray own mernorie sake. . nor the bounds nor circles of the earth cannot be knowen. Writing Carried every daye in Ms chair into his treasure. Beach* owt my staff roiall. While we can scarcely recommend such drastic action. rubies.374 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES colored glass set in a ring looked just as well and possessed the same virtues as a genuine precious stone of the same color. I put them on poisoned with disease you see they shewe their virtue the " of my am by diainge of their pure culler into pall declares my death. and heard him call for som precious stones and Jewells. hanged all one by the other." a graphic recital of an interview with Ivan just before the latter s death in 1584. Hakluyt Society. without which the seas that eompas the world ar not navigable. He Travels. Mahomett. London. his tombe of steell hangs in their Bepatta at Darbent most miraculously " Caused the waiters to bringe a cbaine of nedells towehed by his load-stone. of Ivan. who was entrusted with messages to and from Elizabeth of England and Ivan the Terrible of Russia. Volmar does not mince matters. most interesting item recording one phase of a great tyrant's character is reported by Sir Jerome Horsey. hand and arm. take in your hand. an unicorns horn garnished with verie fare diomondes. pp. which I observed. we must admit that we feel a little sympathy with the medieval champion of genuine stones against imitations. I strode emonge the rest venturously. in his 7 A " luyt publication from the original manuscript. "We retain the archaic spelling as it is reproduced in the Hakgives. 199. " Tins faira currell (coral) and this faire turcas you see. 1856. and roundly declares that whoever should Mil the man who wrote thus would do no sinful act.

much more a man. 7 " Francofurti et amtiletorum Curiostis scrutator. " The natur of the reyn-bowe this precious stone is an enemye to uneleanness. Some believed that when precious stones were worn to relieve or prevent disease. marekes sterlings of David Grower from the f owlkers Seek owt for som spiders." . yt preserves and increaseth courage. the jacinth should be on the neck. and yet revells [reveals] them to mans use and eontemplacion. clears the sight. putt within it one spider and so one other and died. Lipsise. Johannes Lloff." Wolffii.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES sapliiers. 70). on the left arm. little index-finger or the little finger. The saphier I greatlie delight in. the least parcell of it in powder will the ruby. on the ring-finger the emerald. That precious stones not only appealed c to the eye by The Fuggers of Augsburg. to scrape a circle thereof upon the tahell. pleasinge to all the vitall sensis. p. however. 1692. Behold these precious stones. poysen a horse geaven to drinck. braine. . This diomond is the orients richest and most precious of all other. 375 emeralls and other precious stones that ar rich in vallew. as frendes to grace and vertue and enymies to vice. clarifies congelled and corrupt bloud. and some other without that ran alive apace from it. it was important that the different stones should be worn on different parts of the body. ." Poynts at " Oh this is most comfortable to the hart. on the index-finger and the ruby or turquoise. secreats in natur. citing Eodolphus Goclenius (De peste. I fainte." Caused his phiziccians. "All these are Gods wonderfull guifts. I never affected it. carie me awaye till an other tyme. "It is too late." Then takes the ones in hand. the jeweller bankers of the 15th and 16th centuries. or the jacinth. the diamond. takes awaye bloudshott and streingthens the mussells and strings thereof. on either the 7 There is. 363. it will not preserve me. vigar and ! memorie of man." Then at the emerald. cost 70 thousand of Ousborghe. yt restreyns furie and luxurie and abstinacie and chasticie. reason to assume that these rules were generally known . joies the hart. p. According to one authority. precious and verie soveraigne for the eys. the sapworn phire. and observed.

he first crushed them a in a well-polished iron mortar. the belief in its efficacy in this respect was coupled with the idea that the stone in itself was a deadly poison. I gave him an entire month in grinding some of these stones. were wounded by tlie sharp points of the crystals. . afterward he employed a pestle and mortar of glass. resembled that of March three days. sapphires. 338. they must be so fine that it will not pulverized until they are reduced to a powder in the words of (Men. Strangely enough. 8 Olaus iv. The origin of this latter fancy must be sought in the tradition that the place where wherein the diamonds were generated "in the land it is six months day and six months night" was guarded by venomous creatures who. I begged a medical student." be as impalpable trituration is not usually operated with sufficient care by the apothewho was lodging with me. an ounce of each kind. violets. jacinths. At the end of about three weeks. became redolent with a perfume.376 CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES their beautiful colors. If we could believe the following circumstantial account. in the Collection Aeademique. emeralds. Paris. 1757. or. able both from its variety and sweetness. which was rather large. was one of the many fanciful ideas regarding them. devoting several hours each day to this work. rubies. this was once experimentally proved: 8 " Since this as that which is blown into the eyes. agreelittle When precious stones are to be used in medicine. which much room for more than it. lingered in the This odor. in passing over the stones. his room. to pass caries. tome Borrichius. p. and pearls. certainly proceeded There was nothing in the room to produce from the powder of precious stones. but also possessed a fragrant odor. this powder must grate under the teeth. As these stones were rough and whole. one of the most noteworthy is that of an antidote for poisons. using a pestle of the same metal . so that it 2Diamonti Of the many medicinal virtues attributed to the diamond.

p." The Hindus believed that it was extremely dangerous R. 8. " Lobon 53. 1859.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES 377 and thus embued the stones with some of their venom. The diamond was also believed to afford protection from plague or pestilence. and when a sick man looked upon it he was cured. or possibly a pearl. 10 1( l)e lapwlilwfl. 1881. that this stone should be used only in desperate cases. 79. it adds. v (xiii). and trans. f. common with other precious stones. New York. Simeon. to 8 Lapidario del Rey T). This was perhaps a diamond. the accounts vary. who could in afford to adorn themselves with diamonds. f. Baba Barat. 3d. by Miclm^l L. In the Babylonian Talmud we read of a marvellous precious stone belonging to Abraham." The following version represents it to be a diamond u : 1 " A diamond was hanging on Abraham's neck." Fribur^i. sparing the rich. 1531. and a proof of its powers in this direction was found in the fact that the plague first attacked the poorer classes. The Lapidario of Alfonso X recommends the diamond for diseases of the bladder. vol. 1002. this brilliant gem was supposed to cure many diseases. Abraham's. edition of the Babylonian Talmud. 9 The attribution of curative properties in case of poisoning arose from association of ideas." Leipzig. ben Johanan said : use diamonds of inferior quality for curative purposes. but might cause lameness. the Lord sealed it in the planet of the sun. Oodice Original. as they would not only fail to remedy the disease for which they were prescribed. cd. p. Alfonso X. Madrid. Naturally. See also Boor. and the same word is often used to designate "precious stone" and "pearl. And when Abraham passed away. Hodkinsoii. Marbodus 10 tells us that it was even a cure for insanity. however. "Nmv .

12 An Austrian nobleman. proves that the effect supposed to be produced was not altogether magical." Napoli. pleurisy. In the morning it was to be immersed in cow's urine and again subjected to fire. of good quality. 139. energy. naturale delle gemme. 141. beauty of complexion. general development of the body. As to the use of diamonds given. 13 The fact that in this case. 137. voL i. of certain leguminous seeds to longevity. M Ft I. We are told that when Pope Clement VII was seized by his last illness." pp. strength. p. " Mani Mala." giving an adamantine strength to the limbs. so that the stone came in contact with his skin. his physicians resorted to "Surindro Mohun Tagore. 208. 1730. was would "conduce immediately cured by wearing a small diamond set in gold on his arm. the potion purified. These processes were to be repeated for seven days. Calcutta Andrea Spigello. at the end of which term the diamond could be regarded as After this the stone was to be buried in a paste mixed with asafc&tida and rock salt. very explicit directions are as auspicious for the the stone was to be dipped in the juice of the operation. Herein it was to be heated twenty-one successive times. as in many others. Delia . "De semitert". in 1534. hut in the nature of a physical emanation from the stone to the body of the wearer. who for a long time had not been able to sleep without having terrible dreams. and even leprosy.378 CUKIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES jaundice. kantaJcdra (Solanum jaguiri) and subjected for a whole On some day regarded night to the heat of a fire made by dried pieces of the dung of a cow or of a buffalo. the stone was required to touch the skin. when it would be reduced to ashes. cited in Gimma. and happiness. If these ashes were then dissolved in some liquid.

Italian MS.^ lib U* -? u ucttUc co Ci ^ niNtv ct ti^mnC^i ptvlan dV bcttc-^tn tufkinc^ n intvttqua CfV mbAftL n* * put h: | i]lht )^ u- moUv U*il<nini*t '^ r:t Ctiiutw -t am*! ^^f KtiU 4 C fblt itiTtun ^ cft- uc lotto ^i Inaiu ..7 UjftllV c!. (Jurn C'hjiloodony. Coral. hiima J." hcinc * o 'p^ tt^'* 1 ia*t'niti 91121 *i fc mftm ti ofi*:ci molrc t. >tmiUtnT inlitfo ii* tU-MKnv "hoii .*' of Itnliun vellum 1 ^~Mwl iruuniHcnp . Tuniuoirto. y f. Jacinth.Futtrfi'ciiih TrfuUn^ Century in uuthor'M libniry. .nv -. t.iii . tin.tlniu t }>l Jin.v o>i*iUiii. tcmo^*intutllo uuolft n>ma fi IcKnix tndv7poztzi |. .11 atxnu > i- pictia H ^ct gtTinCv i <" im ^^l^u nu nutnoiia ^7 ben ncruv i*i* _ txUuntx i uicUut ^t* U\tt . ? ucmi >4tio cotrrtv Ai \< II -j lomcntp . lie it 7 vmn mot ? c . atna ctic 1tt> . nucttm ^ I '>n*mniMxiTnm .in t umiciuv ^[Tfiim unite ii0twilfitni UtiituU" L 4 j.fib > MMU Ttyuno jto$Mttu cdtte iVtcnia . 11! flu. -^ piM ^* UClTliIV- uuulti Ct"raiiu. nilhn ^ c\' tTinlLt ni4](h> IV Cuv aHnr im ' tomnv b * ttuotit .n^iuul' pnp . n . of TojtHJ!. trcatiso of the virtues of KOIHH. Itook-cry-stal.14 tin 4.Unflinu * .i\C i^ibtC o lrxk n^*tx* nopuo I'.NUu Itcwnc tn vlo:i ntitv Ulttvpicnx'. ucttvli l mn4ti Ac.

.

thus producing a superficial The diamond. 370. Madrid. But this elaborate explanation of a phenomenon which never existed except in the imagination of those who discoloration. pp. accumulated on the surface. without the help of his disease. Unfortunately. 1702. and. have condensed moisture from the body. and the one may suffering from the poison may have emitted exudations. 1881.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OP STONES 379 powders composed of various precious stones. this lavish expenditure was of no avail. n Joseph! Uoneili. f . 77. indeed. The most costly remedy of all was a diamond administo tered to him at Marseilles. 15 related it is Cmerata The emerald was employed as an antidote for poisons and for poisoned wounds. Alfonso X. *L llislorLsehes 7 Taschenbucli/ I Ser. . as well as against demoniacal If worn on the neck it was said to cure the possession. 76. Codice Original. according modern science. a single dose costing as much as three thousand ducats. vi. . 7 1835. sou de gemmis/ Neapoli. "Thesaurus plulosophicus. impinged upon the surface of the diamond. In the space of fourteen days they are asserted to have given the pope forty thousand ducats' worth of these stones. ? vol. unable to penetrate its dense mass. who was always ready to elucidate in some similar way any of the marvels recounted in regard to precious stones. characteristic of Gonelli. w Lapidario del Key 0. u KauiMr. Leipzig. being a cold substance. the remedies might have sufficed our to end the pope's life. xv. p. 14 The old fancy that the diamond grew dark in the presence of poison is explained by the Italian physician Gonelli as caused by minute and tenuous particles which emanated from the poison.

!. the dose would save his life. 48. Alluding to serts 18 its powers as an antidote for poisons. "Rueus. written in the third century B. it gained renewed strength by viewing an emerald. asserts that he had often tested the virtues of the emerald in cases of dysentery and with invariable success. adding that when the vision was wearied by gazing intently at other objects.380 CUEIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES "semitertian" fever and epilepsy. he placed an emerald in his mouth and applied another to his stomach. Rueus as- powder that if the weight of eighty barley-corns of its were given to one dying from the effects of poison. 101. las piedras preciosas. in "Wiirtemberg. The Arabs prized emeralds highly for this purpose. Andreas Bacei. pp. having once taken a poisonous herb. 36. Michaele Paschali.. in the early centuries of our era 17 So general was the persuasion that Marbodus. 90 1. A a learned Spanish physician of the sixteenth cen- tury. and Abenzoar states that. c.. p." Valladolid. "De "De gemmis . declared that he had effected a cure of the disease by means of the emerald in the case of Juan de Mendoza. 20 a little for the beauty of the emerald that so good a judge of precious stones as Pliny should have pronounced this gem to be the only one that delighted the It speaks not eye without fatiguing it. writing in 1603. of Calw. f. 64 (annotation of Gabeleliover to his Latin version)* ^Morales. 19 whereupon he was entirely cured. et lapidibus pretiosis. 63. and Wolfgang G-abelchover.C. f. a Spanish grandee. 1604. certain cure for dysentery also was to wear an emerald suspended so that it touched the abdomen and to place another emerald in the mouth. 1603. 17 The use of the emerald to rest and relieve the eye is the only remedial use of a precious stone mentioned by Theophrastus in his treatise on gems. c." Franwfurti.

1541. it promoted bodily health and destroyed demoniacal influences. were believed to ward off and prevent epilepsy. 363. 24 Hindu physicians of the thirteenth century the emerald was considered to "be a good laxative. p. Naharari's Rajanighantu." AmsteL.. 659. xiii. 23 Hermes Trismegistus says the emerald cures ophthalmia and hemorrhages. If. xxxvii. "Pie inclische Mineralien. *Johaiinis Braunii. p." 25 school the emerald was "cold and was a Teifashi (1242 " 33 A. however. cap. a "De Vestitu sacerd. 32. as they . 76. Do lapidum lib. They were especially commended for use as amulets to be hung on the necks of children.D. 7 1745. Norimberghe. "Oarba. 1882. In short. The great Hermes must have had a special preference for this stone. 16. the latter would break. diminished the secretion of bile. It cured By the dysentery. ." " Psollus. the violence of the disease was such that it could not be overcome by the stone. p.) believed that the emerald Plinli t " Naturalis historia.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES 381 the pure green hue of emeralds aided the eyesight. p." Leipzig." Lug-. Heb. virtutibus. *From an old book the title-page of which reads: "In hoe volumine do Alchemia. so as to be able to look at the stones from time to time and thus by close application to their relieve the eye-strain caused delicate task. that gem engravers are said to have kept some of them on their work-tables.. Bat. since his treatise on chemistry (peri chemeias] is said to have been found inscribed on an emerald." etc. 1680. In the curious phrase of the sweet. and stimulated the appetite. 21 Pselhis says that a cataplasm made of emeralds was of help to those suffering from leprosy he adds that if pulverized and taken in water they would check hemor22 rhages.

emerald. the newly discovered substance. 1818. to cure gastric troubles.. since axe-heads and other artefacts of jade have been discovered in many lands both of the ince of Khotan old and new world. really possesses the active properties ascribed by old writers to precious stones. and evil spirits were driven from 20 The direction to the place where emeralds were kept. " Pior di by Antonio Rameri. ruby. for. in pretimes the stone must have been found In many historic different localities. etc. a recommendation place the stone on the affected part." Firenzi. Furthermore. A ized is stone the therapeutic quality of which was specialthe jade or nephrite. sulle pietre preziose. p. Probably enough. shows that these were believed to send forth emanations of subtle power. pension.382 CUEIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES cure for haemoptysis and for dysentery if it were worn over the liver of the person affected. the Spaniards discovered and explored the southern part of the American continent. 20. ItaL trans. the stone was to be laid upon the stomach. Strange to say. they came across numerous native ornaments and amulets made of jade (jadeite) and brought many of these -with them to '* When Teif aslri. although there are very few places where this mineral can now be obtained. curative energy. although it is altogether fanciful in the case of the diamond. often met with in the treatises on the therapeutic use of ornamental stones. the chief sources of supply being the provin Turkistan and New Zealand. the wearer was protected from the attacks of venomous creatures. the brilliant play of reflected light which proceeds from many of these gems suggested the idea that they radiated a certain. This theory need not surprise us. radium. .

1848. . * ** Gratefully acknowl- The Discovery of the Large. which the Spaniards call Piedras Hijadas. Treating of a people of "Amazons" said to dwell in the interior of the country. and we use for spleene stones and for the disease of the stone we also esteeme them: of these I saw divers in Guiana. piedra of the flank/ which is said to have been bestowed on the stone because the Indians used it for all diseases of the 7 The name jade kidneys. from a Mademoiselle 7 Paulet. Bich. An early notice of jade as a remedial agent appears in Sir Walter Baleigh's account of his travels in G-uiana. chiefly for a kinde of greene stone. By the middle of the seventeenth century the curative powers of jade for the various forms of calculi was very singular instance is offered us in generally admitted. He was a great sufferer from A "the stone' and he had received. and commonly every King or Casique hath and they esteeme them as great jewels. p. or whether they only suggested this special and peculiar virtue in order to give an enhanced value to their jade ornaments. and many ingenious conjectures have been advanced as to the connection between this belief and the form of some of the prehistoric upon as a great aid made of this material. The name nephrite owes its origin to the same In ancient times jade appears to have been looked in parturition. ono of Voiture's letters. 29. Hakluyt Pub.ON THEEAPEUTIC USES OF STONES Europe. 383 is derived from the Spanish " stone de hijada. 1506. meaning literally designation. one. Kaleigh says 2T objects : These Amazones have likewise great store of these plates of golde. and Beautif ul Empire of Guiana*" London. which theire wives for the most part weare. which they recover by exchange. a beautiful jade bracelet. idea. is a question not easily answered. Originally published in. Whether the Spaniards learned from the Indians that the stone was espereally cially adapted to cure renal diseases.

sou pp. p. 66. But mine do mark days full of pain and gloom. To build a palace." Upon ^Lettres de Voiture.384 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES edging the receipt of this peculiar gift. Paulet was a fellow sufferer. or a temple fair. Well do I know that Death doth whet has these stones. Thesaurus philosophieus. Stones should be used. and that the marble white That grows in me is there to form my tomb. Voiture writes: "On this occasion the jade had for you an effect you did not expect from it. 1702. 1SS1K vul. <Io poli. ^t*nnniwj y Kea- . and its virtue defended your own. and it seems to me that I ought not to complain of my colic. but mine do serve To wreck the fleshly temple of my soul." The name used for jade by Voiture. and. Josephi Gonnelli. 158. Letter 20 v. appears that Mile. they will at least make me bear my sufferings patiently. and they were disposed to regard it as a token of love until he assured them that it It the Spanish hijada. ed. 157. some was only a remedy. XXIII. he expresses himself in the following frank way. a mixture of indelicacy and gallantry that seems strange to us: "If the stones you have given me do not break mine. by Octave Uzannc. received by Voiture. Paris. alluding to this." 2 * have much in common. but the following lines freely rendered from an old Italian poem on the subject by Ciri do Pers show that even this unpromising theme is susceptible of poetic Eenal calculi and poetry do not seem to treatment 20 : "Other white stones serve to mark happy <lays. "Vejade" supplied a missing link in the derivation of our name jade from When the lady's gift was friends chanced to be present. since it has procured me this happiness.

" cd. and prolonged life. ix. . An old Chinese encyclopedia. it was very naturally accorded wonderful medical virtues. the resultant liquid being carefully filtered. This mixture was said to strengthen the muscles and make them supple. and to purify the blood. contains many interesting notices of jade. "Engraved Gems. in 1596. Lipsiao. therefore. p. G. more and silver were added to the jade powder. 1912. to calm the mind. to enrich the Whoever took it for a flesh. C.. Kiilm. xii. 138. for I hung a necklace composed of them about my neck so that they touched tlio navel. 139.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OP STONES As 385 jade was and still is the most favored stone in China. this stone aids the stomach and engrave on navel by contact. and dewwater were put into a copper pot and boiled. the heart. " De simplic. according to what King Niu'hopsos has transmitted to posterity in the fourteenth. cap. vol. etc. 207.) wrote thus of the green to jasper : w Some have testified to a virtue in certain stones. and I received not less benefit from them than I would had they borne the engraving of which Neehepsos wrote. m " Clatulii Galoni. that is to say.. pp. I myself have thoroughly tested this stone. although never found within the boundaries of China proper. and this is true of the green jasper. set the stone in rings and it a dragon surrounded by rays." To concoct this elixir equal parts of jade. was to drink what was enthusiastically called the "divine liquor of jade. long space of time ceased to suffer from either heat or cold and no longer felt either hunger or thirst. ca. 130 A. the work of Li She Chan. and the vocal organs. 19. "When reduced to a powder of the size of rice grains it strengthened the lungs. medicament. Another. 1826. Indeed. And some. Galen (b. especially if gold harden the bones. and presented by him to the emperor TVan Lih of the Ming dynasty." New See York.D. rice. and certainly a pleasanter way of absorbing this precious mineral. Opera Qnmia. also DuiMd 25 Osborne." lib. book (of Ms works).

Trimmed with fur. Walter W. by Eev. M Adorned. p. as such remedies were generally said to have been made by some secret and mysterious process. 1882. M Purfiled with pelure e finest vpon erthe. lines 8-15. ** 84 Passus II. Y-erowned with a corone i>e kyng hath none better. by William Langley (or Langland). " ^Garbe. contains a mention of the sapphire as a cure for disease 32 : I looked on my left half as fee lady me taughte And was war of a woman wortlieli yedothed.386 CUKIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES Sanskrit medical literature as represented by Naharari. Nahararfs Hajanigkantu. William Langley's " Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman" (written about 1377). an elixir of great potency understood the emfrom rubies by those who properly ployment of precious stones in the compounding of medicines. 31 This famous "ruby elixir" may have had little in common with the stone except its color. ** The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman. "Die indische Mineralien". in the course of which all material evidence of the presence of any precious stone or stones completely disappeared. 16. Ed." Varga XIII. finds in the ruby a valuable flatulency and biliousness. p. One of the earliest specimens of English literature. aside remedy for from these could be made special uses. Moreover. Handsomely. 6xford t 1881. Skeat. Leipzig. 8* M Petislich hir fyngres were fretted with gold tvyre. . who wrote in the thirteenth century. a physician of Cashmere. 70.

he himself became bishop of London. 40 " Albert! Ma#ni. 44. 40 This was probably not so much to make the stone colder to the touch as to cleanse it. which was richly embellished during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377). and his shrine. Poisons. . 1C. 387 Among the rich gifts offered at the shrine of St. received valuable donations. vol. "* * Dngdak.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES And And 85 >ere-on red rubyes as red as any glede. pp. St. "a citizen and grocer of London. 37 38 Orientales and ewages ennenyraes to destroye. who writes that he had seen it employed for this purpose. 15. Opera omnia." He stipulated that the stone should be kept at the shrine for the cure of diseases of the eyes. Bor#net. Erkinwald was the son of Offa. His body was interred in the cathedral. p. being the third to attain that rank after the death of Melittus. He adds that when a sapphire was used in this way it should be dipped in cold water both before and after the operation. In 675 A. v. i. was a sapphire given in 1391 by Eichard Preston. diamants of derrest pris. 1890. Burning coal. and double manere safferes. Erkinwald. certainly a very necessary proceeding when the same stone was used by many persons suffering ** 37 from contagious diseases of the eyes. vol.D. and that proclamation should be made of its remedial virtues. Aquamarines. First edition published in 1658. " History of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London/' Lon- don. the first bishop of London. 1818. King of the East Saxons." ed. in Old Saint Paul's. 80 many The usefulness of the sapphire as an eyestone for the removal of all impurities or foreign bodies from the eye is noted by Albertus Magnus. Paris. and was converted to Christianity by Melittus.

388 CURIOUS LOBE OF PRECIOUS STONES Bichard Preston's sapphire appears to have been only one of a class regarded as having special virtue to cure diseased eyes. . set in a band of gold. was later substituted because of its greater intrinsic value. No. 2937." Possibly the fact that a particular gem of this kind was used remedially. and which might be used to advantage in certain morbid conditions of the eye. This ingredient is believed to have originally been the oxide of copper sometimes called lapis Armenus. and the curious transformations through which an originally reasonable idea may pass in the course of time. in medieval times. the name sapphire came to signify the blue corundum gem known to us by lazuli this designation. Lapis-lazuli. the special curative virtues of the lapiswere transferred to this still more valuable stone. That the sapphire should have been regarded as especially valuable for the cure of eye diseases serves to illustrate the wide-reaching and persistent influence of Egyptian thought. 308. p. "Labarte. a material possessing marked astringent properties. its similarity of color rendering it equally efficacious according to primitive ideas on this subject* When. It is not very easy to determine the precise reason if there be one which rendered any single sapphire more useful than another in this respect An entry in the inventory of Charles V notes "an oval Oriental sapphire for touch- 41 ing the eyes. We have already noted that the sapphire of the ancients was our lapis-lazuli. may have been the only cause for a belief in its special virtue." Paris. and was not set for wear as an ornament. "Inventaire du mobilier de Charles V. however. and in the Ebers Papyrus lapis-lazuli is given as one of the ingredients of an eye-wash. 1879. another blue stone. as is shown by the existence of various other similar sapphires in different parts of Europe.

" London. favorable symptoms would appear. provided the malady were not too far advanced. so that this moisture lightly touched the eyeball. through touching the plague sores with a topaz which had belonged to two popes. p. Migne. 1650." 42 The use of a topaz to cure dimness of vision is strongly recommended by St. the wine could be used for five 43 days. col. written originally by Joh.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES The proper method plague boils is fine. Lat." in Pat. ed. This Von Helmont attributes to a magnetic force in the sapphire by means of which the absent gem continued to extract "the pestilential virulency and contagious poyson from the infected part. Parisiis. Bapt. Van Hiilmont and translated. the patient would feel but little alleviation. 1855. vol. and amplieated by Walter Charleton. cxcvii. To attain the desired end the stone was to be placed in wine and left there for three days and three nights. Clement VI and Gregory II. During and immediately after this operation. . "When retiring to sleep. "Opera crania. 389 gem of a of applying a sapphire to cure given at some length by Von Helmont. 17. 1255. A Koman physician of the fifteenth century was reputed to have wrought many wonderful cures of those stricken by the plague. The fact that this particular topaz had been in the hands of two supreme pontiffs must have added much ** to the faith reposed in the curative powers A Ternary of Paradoxes. After the stone had been removed. deep color was to be selected and rubbed A gently and slowly around the pestilential tumor. illustrated. " **& Hildegardae. Hildegard. the patient should rub his eyes with the moistened topaz. by J. but a good while after the removal of the stone. P.

On a certain occathe painter Luca Signorelli (1439-1521) was placing one of his pictures in a church at Arezzo. A historical instance of the use of the bloodstone to check a hemorrhage is recorded in the case of Giorgio Vasari (1514r-1578). when and fainted away. " II fetieismo in Italia/ 7 Perugia.390 CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES of the stone by those upon whom it was used. a missionary to the Mexican Indians." Venice. Antverpi. Bellucci. 1602. This seems a very appropriate form for an object used to check hemorrhages. 51. 1907. but the connection with the heart vanishes in the direction to place the stone in the right hand. and Monardes notes that they often cut the material into the shape of hearts. the author of the lives of the Italian painters of the Renaissance period. note.46 friar Bernardino de Sahagun. The 45 hemorrhage is said to have ceased immediately. 1579. "Monardes. shortly after the Spanish Conquest. 21. p. Semplicinm inedieamentoram ex novo orbe delatorum 40 The Franciscan historia (Latin version by Clusius). Of course the application of any cold object would serve to congeal the blood. Signorelli took from his pocket a bloodstone amulet and slipped it down between Vasari 's shoulder-blades. Vasari. The bloodstone was used as a remedy by the Indiana of New Spain. who was present. writes that in 1576 he cured many natives who **Arnobio. and this 44 faith may really have helped to hasten their recovery. p. 91. Monardes states that both Spaniards and Indians used the bloodstone in this way. The best effect was attained when the stone was first dipped in cold water and then held by the patient in his right hand. was seized with a violent hemorrhage sion. "II tesoro delle gioie. . Without a moment's hesitation. p.

iS^fiBlS** iifgi$f&!i -tiff 3ttj*g3l$>'3f* - ^ B p w H O O oo PI* 8p .

.

ad. in his "Essay about the Origin and Virtues of Gems " (London. vol. It recurred. 177-78). Tt may have been that the cold of the stone congealed the blood. 1830. 47 Eobert Boyle. 300. cle las cosas de viii. Nueva Espana. the flow of blood was checked.ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF STONES 391 were at the point of death from hemorrhage. Mexico. tells of a gentleman of his acquaintance who was "of a complexion extraordinary sanguin. . directing and from the time he put it on he was no longer troubled with his malady. 301. his friend disposed of his objecresult tion by relating the instance of a woman to whom the stone had been applied when she was unconscious from loss of blood. iii. stone. or that the flow was checked by exhaustion. By this means he claims to have saved many lives. by causing them to hold in the hand a piece of bloodstone. 1672. 4T Salmon. Nevertheless. When Boyle objected that this might be a of imagination. " Ilistoria general lib. Boyle states that this stone did not seem to him to resemble a true bloodstone. pp. as soon as it touched her. the stone. pp. however. cap. if he removed bleeding of the nose. a result of the plague." and was much afflicted with A gentlewoman sent to him a bloodhim to wear it suspended from his neck.

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359Alexandrite. vi. of seven stones. 39 Egyptian. 230 attraction of astral influence to. 130 &l t 55 39 393 . 372 with initials naturally marked. 243. 348 of Pisces. 141 Agrippa. 157. 226-229 etymology of word. 102. 335. Adam's Peak. 37. 310. 39. 277. 293 .. 362 Adamas (diamond?). 55. 249. W5. 305. 57. 304 Allanite. 236. 318 Abdul Hamid. 296 coral. Matthias. AlnhorfUT. 219. Hist. 145. 164 Aelian. stone of breastplate. Alarlr. 22 for heart. 349 in breastplate. AK\'n<if*r 125 H of five stones. 34 Agalmatolite. 377 luminous stones in his city." 149 hoi!. 237. 54 banded. from Maine. 48 Agate. 303. cut in Idar and Oberatein. 161 ^Btites. 2S. rito. 119. 139 Abraham. 227-229 for horses. 336 Alihimah. St. of UuHsia. 17. 7. 276 Abrasax (Abraxas). 58. 376 Alford. 54 amulets of. for an air-ship. 269 Amulets. Petit. 266 canon on. 297. 55-58 in deposits of Stone Age. 181. 43 68. 96. 77. 134. 132." Gnostic. 52. 25 in Russo-Japanese War. 276 gem legend of. 300. 241. at Council of Laodicea. 297 Air-ship. 313 of Jupiter. 254 Amethyst. Valentine. Alexandrian. 42 Chinese. 38. 242-245 origin of. 278 Amazonite. 95. 125-129 Assyrian. 130 "Albert. Cornt'IiuH. 78. 265. 345 in breastplate. 39. Sultan. in Austro-Pruasian War. 346 of Mercury. 53 eye-agates and "Aleppo Stones. 296. 365 34. 58. rin.. 57 origin of. from Virginia. 51-54. 350 of Venus. poncharatna. 18 MagmiH. 75 Adelbert. 336 as antidote to drunkenness. with coral agate. 37. 19-24 sailors'. 63. 267 Agathareules. 336 amulets in the Soudan.H :*f>. Henry. 234. Georgiua. 57 in Mycenae." troatisfH A!H<*rttiH I W. 163 of high-priest. 334 " . 161. 126-130 meaning of name. 56 therapeutic effect of. 54 1*20. 348. 150 gem of Gemini. 3t> 340 Burmese. of five stones.. 125-129 68. gems from. 149." " 39. 233. cat s-eye. 38.Snbex Aaron. 53 of Nat. 276 with veinings figuring diadem. Amber. 237. 25 Japanese. naoratna. Alfonso X. 55. 66 Agrirola. 305. 371 as symbol of St. 149 Al<wnl<*r the Orwit. 366 Almandine garnet. 257 symbolism of. diamond of. 241 of nine stones. 265 Jewish. "Lc Grand. 62 American Museum vii. Lapidario of. called 7nagatama 1 4S "Al**ppoSfonos. Ceylon. . 59. 244. 40 directions for preparing.58 Amboin. 127 Acrostics expressed with stones.$S7 Attrifv." "Le on Htones. 59 ring of St.

121-123. 143 Anthrax (carbuncle)^ 162 Apocalyptic gems. images of constellations on. 353 Aristotle. from California. 289. 129 Basilidian gems. emerald in ring of. 299. 244 Apostles. 300 Asteria. 320 therapeutic effect of. stones dedicated to. Thomas. pseudo-. 32 Black opal of New South Wito. 80 "Azoth" of Paracelsus. St. 58. Roger. Pierre Eugene Mara-Hin. 1S3 Baelz. 320. of Scorpio. of. Giuseppe. 339 Athene of Phidias. 313 1 on Andromeda. image of. 236. from Arizona. 48 Azchalias of Babylon. zodiacal sign.394 INDEX Baccio. 299. 265 Bajazefc II. W. 313. opal. 160. 196 Augustine. &it> symbolinm of. 340 nine orders of. 76 Baltic Coast. Prof. fl therapeutic effect of. 126. see NcUnl ftfanf* Black. 9 Bartolomaius Anglicus. 264 Belucci. 77. 150 Bela IV of Hungary. zodiacal sign of. 312 gem of the moon. 347 MS 352 352- 355 influence of stars on. 237. 107 Astral stones. amber of the. 67 Berlin Museum. 204 Bacchus and Amethyst. 322 "Anne of Geierstein " and the opal. 174 Beryl. 311. 336 as symbol of St. Dr. 303. 276 Bes. t vii Bleasington. 107 Aubrey. 3 Aventurine. 357 Ashmole. 387 Aquarius. 353 Aquinas. 349 Ball. stone of breastplate. 92 Belisarius. Dr. !f>2 W. Rabbi. wife of Ptolemy II. 321. 282 Augustus. 292 guardian of the months. vii Benitoite. 131 Amymone. 351. 370. St. 342. image Angels. 158 Bacon. 212 Artemidorus. 339. 345. 56 Bareketh. 140 Balas-ruby. 305. 167 Assher. Valentine. 59 gem of Aries. 126. 275 of. 234. 143 Countess of. 126-130 Batman. image 140 of. 134. Christian symbolism of. 17 Aragonite. bishop of Caesarea. 91. 391 Blue. mother of Ptolemy II. 36 Berthelot. 345 in Leyclen papvruf. 163 Arsinoe. 234 cylinders.. Andrea. jet in cave deposits of. Elias. Envin. Barium sulphate. Andalusite. 305 Apollonius of Tyana. 364 Bloodstone. 304 stones of. Thomas. 106. god. 338. on gem. Stephen. 289. seven rings of. 39. 291. 251 Aries. 338^363 fixed stars controlling. 150 Basalt. 93 Artemisia vulgar is. in emerald. 340 Birth-stones. 390. apostles stones. 6 in breastplate. 133. 48 Axinite. 154 Amulets. with head of Alexander the Great. 326-332 guardian. 67. 297 Benoni. 78 Belgium. 227 Basilides. 341. 356. 133 causing temptwts. 314 twelve. 119. John. 64. 233. 59. 342 Auto-suggestion. 94. 139. 72 Berenice. vcr#e& on Azur-malachite. 303-306 Aquamarine (beryl). 364 Benjamin. Christian symbolism 2/3 . lists of the twelve. 60. 104. 36 Bezoar. 00 checking hemorrhacx^ 2H figuring blood of Canst* 267 B Babylonian axe-head. 273 in occult ritual. 345. Blake. 2S3_ Belucci collection of worked jade at Perugia. 303 twelve guardian. 1S2. significance of. 47 Andreas.

78. 34. 160. 243. 310. 124. 226. breeding pearls in. 234 Borneo. vii.INDEX Blue. opals Cethel. 16.. 65. 264 52. 270 Childeric. 63 engraved with zodiacal signs. Sir Richard Francis. renal. 56. 388 Charles of Germany and the turCharles V V quoise. 62 identified with octem-stone of breastplate. 297 Book of Wings. 357 significance of. 43 Cardano. girdle of. 319 stones of. iSan Francisco. from Minnesota. 335 Bologna stone. 347 " water of precious Chalchiuhatlj stones. 276 Carcinia. 272 Caleuluw. names of. 109. by Israelites. 297 Calamine. Ernest A. 342. 231. luminescence of. 86. Bonderoy. dark for Saturday. 271 Borgia. 229. 391 Braddock. 65. 134. 40. of loadstone. 31 silver. 317 Cat's-eye. 39. Geoffrey. 301 Breastplate of Judgment. 173 Chelonites. 251 Charles I of England. Stefano. 341 CaglioHtro (Giuseppe Balsamo). Dr. 219-221 Chinese amulets. 134. 247. starsapphire of. 6. 110. 61 brought by serpent. 348 Goethe's praise of. 25 Cantnnpre". RagieFs. 154 148 Celonite. 38. 262 of France. 334 chrysoberyl. 372 as symbol of Christ's sacrifice. 265. 65. 70. 291. 243. worn in Siam for Friday. 227. 174. 357. 57 Cancer. Mus. 343. 38. John G. 365 Chlorophane. 333 quartz. 62 gem of Venus. Julius. 71. 84-87 Chin T'sang Km". 133. 372 Caesar. 229. 301 probable modern names of. 172. Wallis. 341 figures engraved in. 5 of the Dead. 290. 252. 312 gem of Capricorn. 201. Andrew.. zodiacal sign. 162 Cernowitz. 44 Burke. 348 In breastplate. 346. 17. 290. 171. 305. 227 Burgh. 34 Chalcedony. 64 Oriental use against envy. 42 Boyle. 165. 244 alexandrite. Marshal. Dr. Hungary. 168 395 Carnelian. 120. 308. 292. in 319 Arabic inscription on. zodiacal sign. 36. 120 Mohammed's seal-ring of. 271. 134 Ceraunia. 346 of the Sun and Venus. 334 Cellini. 93 Chlorastrolite. Hubert de. Robert. 313. vii Book Breastplate of high-priest. gems in dreams. 307. 227. 165 Chaucer. 132 Boot. 34 (made) as religious symbol. vi Californite. 08. 238 Buddhabhatta. 33. 198 Cairo Museum. 37. crystal ball of. 95 Chirocrates. 169. 34 Charles XII Chau Ju-Kua. 202 Burma. 266 Burton. 309. Capt. vii 7 Catherine de Medici. 324 Chalazia (rock-crystal). laith in amulets. Charles. 265. 108 323 as symbol of St. 106 Benvenuto. set with talismanic stones. Card. Anselmus de. 64 Napoleon's seal of. 242. 65. 305. amulets of. 145. Hereward. 40 Chakhiuitl (jadeite?). Ceylon. 225. 384 California Midwinter Mem. religious use of. 162. 59 Capricorn. 16 Buddha. 275-302 ancient lists. Chiastolite . 24 of Sweden. 151. 228. 270 therapeutic effect of. 75. Collate." in Aztec. 170. 140 of. 370 Carrington. 303. 83. 122. Jean de la Taille de. Girolamo. 119. 106. 120 gem of Virgo. curious poem on. 168. 39. 354 Canrobert. 63 therapeutic effect of. 54. Thomas de. 347 Carbuncle. 238. 73 Budge.

297 Days of the week. 16 Greek treatise on Damigeron. gem of. 219-222 Japanese. 2 IS of Childeric. " Currahmore Crystal/' 223 from Madagascar. 0. starsapphire in sword-hilt of. 334 Constantine the Great. Assyro-Babylonian. 266. Christian symbolism of. 29-33 of Damour. 246 10. 33 worn 336 therapeutic effect of. 347 in Cologne Cathedral. 274 foundation 313 stones symbols figured of. John. 319 as symbol of St. Constantine. sack of. head of. naturally in 280 Corundum. 44. G. 49 Dendrite. 243. 29. 123. 2S5 "Currahmore Crystal. 286 Crusades. 217. 269 sacrifice of. Crystal ansata. 281. 217 in Grtine Gewdlbe. 121- Cleandro. 234. 137 Cologne. Council of Laodicea. 269 oxide. 34B. 360 Diamond. 27-29. Dr. 266 219-221 Crystal gazing. 11. 236. 243. 242. 71 (?}. 160. A. 31 Claudian. 269 280. 15. 297. 230. explained. 66 statue of Arsinoe in. 241. 66 Color. de. 344. John. 140. 69. 273. Ruy Gonzalez. 313 cat's-eye. 335 symbolism of. 172 Cross. 313. Coral. 333 Chrysolampis. 136 of Christ. symbols of. 348 superstition in regard to. 66 Crux 312 from the "Serpent Isle. jade. 40. gems of the. 344. 54. found by St. 305 as symbol of St. 267. his daughter's emerald. 240. Sir William. 284. Helena. 176-224 Ctesiphon. 37.396 Christ. 104. 303. 291. 372 quartz. canon on amu- 42 symbolized by ame- Chromium thyst. 72 combustion of. 245. monpgrammatic. 133. 69-76. 265. 308. 125 Cicero. 67. Bartholomew. 389 Clement VII. 268 natural images of. 370 Confucius and musical 45 Dee. "Diamond Throne. 165. 312 of Alexander the Great. 87 Consecration of precious stones. 286.. 360 Cronstedt. 289. 67 Chrysoprase. 316. 94 Clavijo. vii Dan." 66 gem of Libra. 309 Clement VI. 141 274 gems and vestments for each day of the week in Siam. Dr. 239. 68 Chrysostom.ems in occult ceremony. 364 Crocidolite (Krokidolite). 189-196 Delhi. 135 called ball. 10 Countries. in engraved gems. on amulets. the. King of Greece. 252. gem red. 363. Dresden. 65. 267. Thaddeus." 238 elmeshu in Assyrian 231 . 342.. 238. 39. 320 breeding. 303. 90. 372 Clemens Alexandrinus. Axel Frederic. 375 as natal stone. INDEX blood of. of Venus. 136. 305. 244. figured in bloodstone." 223 Cyanite. 372 Cornelius a Lapide (Van den Steen). 332. in stones. Arnobio. 294. 352-355 Coral. 378 Clerc. 32. 242. 346 of the Sun. 223 in sepulchres. 164 Chrysolite. 132. ritual p. 28. 41. lets. 68. 204 "Cyrianides. 79 Demantoid. 268. 33. 271 Crookes. 373 Constellations. Chrysoberyl. 49 CyanuSj 119 Cylinders. chrysolites in cathedral of. 237. 161 therapeutic effect of. 267 colors symbolical of his sacrifice. vii Cock." stones.

235 talismanic effect of various shapes 154 of. medicinal use of. 303. Chicago. 343 secured by birds. 372 Farrington. 15. 324 of Otho I of Germany. 51. 298 Dioptase. gem of the Congo. 107. 229. 237. 66 . 115-142 Envy. Dr. 167 of Isabella da Este. 275. 247. 158 engraved. of. 349. Greek gem-engraver. 47 Didius Julianus. ISO. 242. 373 Evax. 368. 357 meaning of precious stones seen in. 326. 72. Emperor. Paracelsus. 356-358 one adored by ancient Peruvians. 56 Essonite. 33 Eusebius. 313 Epitaphs illustrating symbolism of gems. 157 Sanskrit names of. 164 Elsuolitc. 313. 31 of Mt. 312 blinding of serpent by. 75. in tomb of Hermias. in Revelation. Zabara. Talmudic legend 74 therapeutic effect of. 295. 348 of Spring. 39.. 138. 387 Edward VI of England. 347 of the Sun. gem of reconciliation. 19. Oriental use of carnelian against. 292. 178 Diodorus. Nubia. vii vii Feits'ui (Imperial jade). 305. W. 73 paleness sign of infidelity. 349 of Winter. Mrs. 341 Donnerkril. 276 397 Emerald as burnt offering. 162 Draper. 346 of Jupiter. Henry.. 154-156 "Diamond Throne. 146 Edward III of England. 59 Diaspore. St. 311. vi. 356. 259 therapeutic effect of. 132. names of Hindu 71. 298 Dionysius Periegetes. 240. 370. Queen of England. 139. 231. 37 Field Museum of Natural History. 273 Erasmus. 336. 176 276 304 luminous. Bishop of Tyre. 170. 59 Evil Eye. Desiderius. 145. 280. 148. A. 28. 31 symbolism of. 20. 66. 34 Eridanus. 16 Diodorus Siculus. 248 (supposed) cup in Genoa. 314 E Ebers Papyrus. 68 Europa. 139. 268 luminous stone in shrine of. 24 Engraved gems as talismans. 70 of Taurus. 288. 33 Fetichism. 150 Eye-agates. 277 Ephraim. 236. 165 Emerald. 37. 106. Mons du. Fay. 47 Euphrates. 165 ring of. 323. 42. books of. 47 Klcctrum. 83. 234. 379-382 Emerson. ancient. 278. 34.. 375. 289 Epidote. 5 Dolce Ludovico. 258. 137. 292 Ferez.INDEX Diamond. 149. 153 castes given to. Sir Thomas Overbury. 327 in breastplate. Oliver C. of Ismenias. 386-389 used as poison. 150. 63 Ephod of high-priest. 342 Disease in precious stones. 272. St. 54. Dr. 324 in breastplate. 295 Elizabeth. 39. 255 as symbol of St. 34 Edda. 67." 238 Diana and Amethyst. luminous stone of. 363 Djoskoridcs. 367. 374 Elizabeth. 360 Epiphanius.. John. vii Dreams. Bajazet II. 98 Kgrnund Abbey. 359 Euclase. 85 Feldspar. 276. 90. Cellini. 157. 238. 293. 68. 150 Ezekiel. Ralph Waldo. 140 gem of Cancer. 171 Feavearyear. 16. 18 Domitian. 323. 76-79. Paul. 260 of Tullia. 388 Echites.

ring of. 33 engraved. Mme. 44 Henry II of Franco. 49 Gagates.. SO. 123 Garcias ab Orta. Earle. or "mouth jade/' 86 Hardouin. 374 Horus. from Oregon. in amulet. Miss Belle Gregory II. 354. zodiacal sign. vii Fluorescence. 227 Henrietta Maria. 122. 299 Gadolinite. II. 167 Garnets. 55 Heliodor. from New Jersey. Hoernes. 7. 289. 135 Hollenzwang of Dr. 209 Gratacap. amber 57 Iliad. 227 stones. 28 gems in dreams. 49 Hauffe. therapeutic effect of. 381 Hiddenite. 342 Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia. 273 curative effects of. 345 therapeutic effect of. 293 as bullets. Heliades. 236 described by Lucian. 82. 8. 350 the. 29 Glanvil. 59. 314 Fowlerite. 49 Heliotrope. 34 Hirth. Conrad. 40 Gad. 30 Hei-tiki of of. 187 Gomara. 30 Horsey. 166. Moriz. 70. 307. Abbess of Whitby. 31. 49 Hyacinth. as scarab. 1. 87-90 Helena. 385 New 286 Zealand. 342 Genlis. 33 . 86 INDEX Green. 379 Gonzaga da Este. Isabella. 55. image Hector. 218." 105 of England. 158. 343 Hyde. 47 Da Costa. Dr. 226. 49 Galen.. 237 Gemini. lection. 169-174 Fluorspar. Homer's Odyssey. St. Faust iw.. Sir Jerome. Helmont. 236 of Kusavati.398 Fire-opal. Gyges. 252.. 3-5 Huntilite. 47 Flint. 265. 67 Foundation stones. Dr. 133 gem of Aquarius. St. from North Carolina. 79. Joseph. 337 Human sacrifice. 38. 81. Giuseppe. 126-130 Goethe. 47 Cretan seals. 9 G Gabelchover. 17 Gesner. 300. 370 Gem-city of Dwaraka. eye of. Frederick. of. 316 almandine. 310-314. P. emerald of. 113 Hydrolite. 380 Hecate. 117 Hours of the day. Christian symbolism of. Dr. 346. 16. de. 303-306 with Twelve Tribes. 49 Galactides. 365 Hilda. 197 Gnostic gems. 208. 316. 65. 389 Hematite. Wolfgang. Giacinto. 49 370 335 Hypnotism. 389 Grossularite. 9. 35 Gimma. 355 "Gemma Augustea" of Vienna ColGalopetrce. SO H Han-yil. Miss. 238 Heraclius. Frederike. St. 153. gems of Hudibras. 160 Heouen Tsang. 357 significance of. 317 associated with apostles. vii "History of Jewels/' old gem-treatise. 62. 7 7 Gypsum. 280 Hermes TrismegistuH. 128 Harlequin-opal. 263 Hildegard. Dr. 31 Goodrich-Freer. Francisco Lopez de. 259 Gesta Romanorum. 6. of "Le Saphixe veilleux. L. Von. Wolfgang von. two of rod. 262 Henry III of England. 37. BQQ jacinth Hyades. 3Stt "Hind Horn and Maid Rimnilti " ballad. 254 Gonelli. vii Green. Jean. worn in Siam for Thursday.50. Major. 57 SO "lucky stones' 10. 365 Francis I of France. 365 Hydromantii) ISO Hypersthene. 376. 288 George Mer- 157 V Geranites.

375 as symbol of St. 314 Issachar. natural. 91 of Whitby. 142 Indersoen. 234. St. 68. Jessen. 302. see jacinth Jasper. Peter. 238 Kazwini. 182 Jargoon. 83 Jade. 319. 229. 266-269 World. in stones. 282. 90. 298. Moscow. amber from. 303. 291. Germany. 300 called. 346 green. 141 Koran. 83. 307. 54 Idocrase. 249-252. 313. 59 Israel. St. 291.INDEX Jade. 236. 252 Jadeite. Silesia. from Jordansrauhl. 289. 310 82 to induce sleep. 354. 305. twelve tribes of. 296. Norway. 242. 305.. 134 Ivan the Terrible and his curative stones. 353. 84 Chinese vase of. 249. 243. 342 Knopf. 83 hei-likis of New Zealand. 45. 1907. 294. 100. 133. 263. 284 King. 33. 6. 297. 133 Isaiah. 245 of New Zealand. jewels of. 342 in breastplate. 311 gem of Libra. with other green stones. Flavius. 264 313 electuary of. 92 Jacinth (hyacinth). 120 stone. John.. 283 talismans of. 341 planet. 92 in burials of Pueblo Bonito. image of with eyes of precious stones. Marshal. 249-251 adze. 38. 307.. 305. 83-90. 264 Jagganath. 47-50 359 Adze. 239. 283. 66 Judah. 355. 295. 234 image signifying blood of. 251 Chinese amulets of. 122. 372 Justinian. 247." 248. 294. 301. 250 objects of in Chinese emperor's collection. 135. Ibn. Dr. 372 as symbol of St. 9 Idar. 227. where found in 399 New the and Old Iceland spar. 316. 277. 381-384 Kaldoun. known as "Kunz Imperial Academy. Al. 288. 91. 240 derivation of name. 319. 303. 252. 37 Jerome. largest mass of European jade found at. 289. 17. 226. C.. Simon Zelotes. Silesia. 300. 292. 250 Joseph. 289. W. 348. Peter. 296. 87-90 large mass of. lines in crystal mirror. 372 gem of Jupiter. 226. 265. 349. 382 Juba. 359 Images. ckalchihuitl by Mexicans. vi 124. 39. Jupiter. 265. symbols. 348 of Mars. '283. at Perugia. 77. medans.. J&mi. Iris. 130. 285. 382 cross made from celt of. lolite. 155 Jamestown Exposition. 264 objects of. 275 Fourth Heaven of carbuncle in the. 246 therapeutic uae 239. 243. 344. 29. 74 Khusrau II. described. 290. 70. 275. in palaeolithic remains. 81-83. 248-254. Rev. 305 Ishtar. 122. engraved with zodiacal 288. 132. vii 375 Ivory. among Mohamof. 14th cent. 231 Isidorus of Seville. 289. 336. 181 Kalpa Sutra. 294 Italian MS. gem-cutting at. Initials of 360 names figured by precious stones. 303. and the emerald. 57 Indicolite. 385 310 Jet. god. 32. 91. 276 of King Nechepsus. 349 . 294. 61. 293 262 Junpt. 253 Konrad of Megenberg. 111. 383 form of Chinese character for. 240 James I of England. 276. 295 Josephus. 348 to dissolve magic spells. 309. 295. 278. 300. 311 Jordansmiihl. 374. 278.

Elizabeth's shrine. 37. 205 Los Cerrillos. Santa Cana di. 228. 230. 320 "Lunar-stone. 241 Kunzite. 38. Ark." poem on gems. N. 226. 221 Luca ben Costa. M Macon. 263 Lorraine. 341. 205 61 Libra. Sir John. Venus. 29. 229. 215 Lorenzo del Escorial. 346. 62 of Noah in the Ark. 288. 42 Magncs. San. 93. of St. gods ico. jet from. 294. 58. 18. 245. 166 of Henri II of France. 51. 210 Lapidaries. 51. 271 Lapis-lazuli. 96 Magical influences of atones. King of Wales. 72. 112 Louis XIV. 163 Lyncurius. Martin. 93 statue of Venus of. 214. reputed discoverer of loadstone. 296 Levi. 357 Lydian stone. 166 . by Aelian. 134 court decision in regard to. 132 Leopold I of Germany. 137 to protect from falls. 149 Lenormant. 162. 177. 6. from 255 Niagara Falls. 36. 262. 227. 63. 336 276 of.400 Korea. 103. 295. 237 "Lucky stones" Lang. gems in. 319 "Lithica. 161. Andrew. 221 Lepidolite. E. 70 Magatama amulets of Japanese. 71.. northern. of Alfonso X. 93 Magnet Cove. 319. 181. 46 Lychnits or lychnitis (a spinel?). 174. 252-254 Lane. 348 image of Ma (Truth) 229 293 gem of 122. 94 symbolical names for.. M. monastery of. 7. 360 Labrets. 45. Marie. 103. praise of bloodstone in. 10. 370. in breastplate. INDEX 265 Loadstone. 3> 5. 291 Lucian. zodiacal sign. Ill. 166 of King of Siam. 92. 161. Dr. 233 Leo. 212. 290 as a child's amulet. national emblem Krishna. 376 of Marbodus (in French). 37. 276. 90. where first found.. Sir Oliver. 289. zodiacal sign. Ga. 346. 56. 5 Ligure. 354. court decision about loadstone. 93 Lodge. 109 Luminous stones. Francois. 348. Ioadtom from. 81. 92 Loreto. W. 16 Llewellyn. L&ishmania tropica. 71. 165 tale of. 07 to protect from Evil Eye. turquoise from. 354 163. 264 Laufer. 355 Life in precious stones. 294 tale of amulet vendor by. 163 of Egmund Abbey. stone of breastplate. 15 of Philippe de Valois. five chief gems of the naoratna. 8. 97 Manassah. of. 267 Labradorite. 101. 44 Loadstone. 94. 161. 388 Lapis nephriticus (nephrite)." 168 Luther. 276 of Astarte. 292 Leyden papyrus. 48 Leshem. SO Lapidario. throne of. 178 Litteromancy. 288. jLv/y Manuel. experiments in crystal gazing. 180. 289 Mandeville. in ancient Mex- (gypsum). Mine. 119. Emperor. 96 Maeterlinck. 242 Malachite. 93-97. vii Leczinska. 323 of. Berthold. 163.. 07 mines of. Lapis Armenus. 72. 96 statue of Arsinoe to be held suspended by. 102 of Sir John Mandeville. 171. Camillo.. 95 used as charm by Alexander the Great. 164 of Emperor Manuel's throne. 388 Lapis crucifer (staurolite). 295 Leonardo. 96 Maltaratnani. 295. 162 therapeutic effect of. 174 in Abraham's city.

275. Thomas. 249 Neptune. de.. 364 Nuttall. Paris. N. 164. atone of breastplate. 236. 123 Necklace. 124 242-245 names of. 8ein of Madagascar. Hist. 307. list of. 66 Morgan-Tiffany Collection. 94. 348. 144-146 Nopkek. Max. 93 Nicias. 50 Mithridates the Great. 309 III. image on seal. A. on talisman. Mme. 56 Nicols. 342 Meyer." 251 Meyer. 302-306 foundation -stones of. 218. 352. 233 Morganite. Y. 260. 123. Prof. 354. 168 Mercury. Fyncs. figured by prec- ious stones. see jade Nephrilfrage. 286 MosN-iigatc. 196 . 47-50 Naoratna. from Arkansas. image on cylinder. 386 Marguerite de Valois. 235 Nephrite. 64 Moldavite. 56 Catulle. Martial. 54 Novaculite. 315 proposed new listing of. 140. 50 Navajos. 86 ' 239 Myewia*. 98. 227 Medusa. Consul General. Dee. therapeutic use of New New South Wales. Zelia. 310-314. J. Dr. 276 Nodes. 226. 219 Obsidian. 35 Noah. B. vi. 360 Monardes. 269 Multan. Hist. 254 Nebo. 54. 152 Zealand jade. 97 98 waxing and waning with moon. mirror of Dr. Christian. 64. 257 Microcline. 48 Mttllor. 130. black opal of. 243 Nonius. 86. 7. 243. amber at. 331 natal stones of the. 326-333 list rain-making gods 'of the.. 220 of gems of the. god. 292. 250 Michael. 36-38 of Vesta.. 299 "Mexican onyx. the god. 257 Matrix-emerald. 257. Bernard Month. head of. 106. Am. 292 Baron Nils Adolf Nordenskjold. 317 320. 241. 242. idol of temple at. 161. 317321 selected from precious stones produced in the United States. god. Mohammed's carnelian seal-ring. A. Egyptian. 354. Am. 246 Neandross. 1. 390 Montfaucon. St. vi. the god. Antoine. 57 gemw from. on gems. opal of. 401 N Naharari. vi.INDEX Marbodus. god. 343 Morgan. 323 National Museum. 80 Mizauld. luminous stones of.. 166 from various sources. St. J. 341 New Jerusalem. viii. Mus. 348. 316. 51.. 8. Washington. 338. 64. Maori warrior by. 240 Mutttfe d'Histoire Naturelle. 104. gem-cutting at. B. viii Meyers. 142 Ninib. Naphtali. Nat. 87-90 Nicandcr. 355 typical of green. Mus. Gent. 174 MoBor. 26 Mentzel.. 298 Napoleon's carnelian seal. 341 Mendes. 64 Napoleon Napoleon Natal planet. Hindu Moonstone. 280. 187. L. in India. Pierpont. nine-gem jewel. 142 stones. 254 Morgan Collection. 70. 364 Moryson. 244 occult use of gems in. 231. 81. adorned with coral and turquoise. 352. 31 Metropolitan Museum of Art. 334 as gift for lovers. in various tongues. 59. 204 Oberstcin. initials of. 377 15. 5 Mars.. ascending and descending. 353. 355 Names. vi Mother-of-pearl. India. 341 planet. vii Moses. Erik. 307-337 I. Nat. in the Ark. 278. vi Natrolite. Mrs. 353. Germany. 244 Meleager.. jeweled gloves of. Sigurd. 98 Morales.

Oregon. 156 Alfonso X. 356 Onyx. 336 breeding. 373 Porphyry. 334 Philip II. zodiacal sign. 148 Pliny's praise of.' 252 Opal. of Spain. 296. 69. figuring serpent. Elizabeth's tomb. emerald of. 292 Phaethon. 290. stone of breastplate. 364 collected by birds. 293. green. sapphire of. 335 Portland. 380 Plutarch. 256 Petrie. 240 as offerings to Hindu god**. 107 in breastplate. stone of breastplate. 238. 365 Phenomenal gems. 167. 108. 386 Pisces. 237. 144 of Nonius. Philippus Aureolus. imitation in Scott's '145. 239 as eyes of idols. George H. 338-363 controls of. 308 tooth-relic of. 260 Overbury. 92." of. of New South Wales. 363. 159 provoked discord. 93 Pleiades.. 39 Ophthalmius-stone (opal?). see chrysolite Perugia. 303. 150 natural. 50 Otho I of Germany. in Lapidario of fear of the. 263 Philippe Egalite. 303. 152 Cardanus. 333. 100." 137 Pearls.t21 Hungarian. 143-152 black. 348 consecration of. Flinders. 41 gem of the moon. 337 for natal months . 264 Peter. 241. 276 " Mexican onyx/' 251 of St. 143-161 Oneirocritica (dream-books). 55 "Pharaoh's eggs. 38 Porta. 177 "Peacock stonee. 291 Planetary gems. 184. 30. 291. 155. 107 Odem. 244. 151 J 373 Peridot. 343 Pliny. 21 by aeala. 80. 162. set with gems. 230. 244 Duke of Orleans. 107. 27 October's gem. 5 for hours of tin* day. Phosphorescence. 204 Oculus Beli. 241 Paracelsus. 349 of Venus. 348-351 figured on engraved gema. 39 Orphanus-stone (opal?) 146-148 Orthoclase. 356 Plasma. 145 "Anne 143 in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. St. W. 236. 22 320. Mexican mirrors of. from Colorado. 112. 332-335 wedding anniversaries* 337 . 146. 68 Precious stones. 244. 154. 345 Pitdah. 45 disease in. 106 Philostratus." SO Phenacite. 146. 31 Pepper. Sir Thomas. 240. 179 311-314 as symbols of various countries. Pancharatna. 291. 348. 355. 372 Pellegrmus. 346 ill-effects neutralized by sard. 107 Oculus mundi. 148 Opsianus. vl Poujet fils. 241 as symbols of the Apoatle^. 233. or patron of thieves. five-gem jewel. 13. Obsidian. 8. 234. 367.148 of Geierstein.. 336 gem of Leo. 291 Ominous gems. 6. M. Giovanni Battista. St. 67.. 242. Exposition. 290. 66. 144-146 patronus furum.402 INDEX Pericles. 348 Planets of various planets. as adornment of goddess Sri. 267 ominous quality of. 113 week day**. 128. 240.teti-331 for for therapeutic effect of.185 Pausanms. 265. 169-174 "Piers the Plowman/' curative gems in. 316 "Prase" of Alexander. 7. 98 "Tecalco onyx. 145 Ophiokiolus. collection of jade artefacts at. 92. 143. 252 Plato. 306. Fulvius. Patrick.

242. Ira Maurice. 33. found in various States of the Union. used 12. 347 of Mars. 280. vii RSmusat. 273 gems in dreams. 254 "Roman de la Rose. 292. 302. 241. Valentine. combining all favorable influences. 233 by^ Chinese mandarins of elmeshu-stone. 257 Rings set with scarabs. New Zealand jade. 387. Read." extract from. 291 Revelation. used by Shelley. 217. 349 of Summer. 5-8. 236. 365 Preston. 231 engagement. 336 as religious symbol. 237 humorous tale of. 388 Price. 101 used as fetich by Cherokees. 347 383 in dreams. Prof. 376 principal. 12 of Mohammedan heavens. 93 Pueblo Bonito. 30 stones. 87-90. 42 symbolizing initials of names 47-50 therapeutic effect of. individuality of. 40. 81. 101 temples of. 320. 41. life in. 13 used in typography. 254 Puranaa. 343. 244. 316. 370 worn in Siam for Sunday. Christian symbolism of. 112. therapeutic effect of. 303. 256 Prehnite. 159 . lost Book of. 275. 165 St. Sir Charles Hercules. 265. 349 T gem Radium. chrysolites from island in. 364 Ridgeley. 381 as natal stone. 307. 305. 203 Rig Veda. 308. 235-306 5 magical virtue of. 43 Rosicrucians. 403 26 in high-priest's breastplate. 145. 360 Ruby. Philadelphus. 243. 334 Questions of King Melinda. 99 "fools' gold. 40. 236. of Capricorn. curative sapphire of. 304." 99 Pyropc. of seven ratnas. 372. 269 Rostand. 283 gem 381 Ptolemy II. 343. 359 Rock-crystal. 101-103. 122. 335 curative effects of. 81. 132 357 and regained brilliancy. 364366 religious use of. 28 embedded 103 in flesh by Burmese. 113 Pueblo Indians. 381 Rtih'igh. 365 Rhodonite. 292. 234. 44. 323. 92. 34 Psellus. 235 10.. 67. 238. Rassiel. Q Quartz. 336 significance of. gem of Russia. relics from. 26. 235-274 sex of. 241 PyritoH. 362 Gyges. Salomon. vii Red. 349 perfume of. 101 Procopius. Elizabeth. of Aries. 357 in occult ritual. 359 Reinach. 45 meaning of. Richard. Prof. 240.INDEX Precious stones. Edmond. 236. Sir Walter. from North Carolina. 244. 314 Rabelais. 348. 122. 375." magic stones in. 300 Reuben. 324 of Taurus. 119 seven. Abel. 124. 100. 347 of the moon. 367391 to express acrostics. book of. seen in dreams. 311. W. of Apollonms of Tyana. 13 as adjectives. in China. 236. 133. 92. 335 Sea. R Rabanus Maurus. 7 St. 310. 100 Aztec skull of. 348 god Maya's tank of. Dr. 289. 133. 298 " cai's-eye. 138 Rubellite. 244 with initials. 319. 243 Ring worn to designate rank. 318 Rhodolite. Aztec mirrors of. 10. 112 Punamu. 295. 66 356-358 names of.

13 great star-sapphire of MorganTiffany collection. 354 Sahagun. 243. 278. preeknw Htonen Sophia. 294 Sheard. 346 Venus. John. luminosity of. 348 Sex in gems. 123 one of Napoleon. 59 Scaraboeus sac&r. 260. 21)1 Sodalito. 340. 323. 352. 303 in breastplate. 101. 227. 305 as symbol of St. 336. 102. 301 Serapis. 247. 276. 228. James. 258. 62 Ruskin. 107. 244. 390 Sailors amulets. 189. Philip. 9 for each day of week. 349 Taurus. 116 Scaraboid seal. 344 star-sapphire of Sir Richard Burton. stone of breastplate. stone of breastplate. of King of Ceylon. 324 "Seeress of Prevorst. 57. 313. Paul. luminouw carbuncles of. 62 Siegstein. 122. 252. 208. 320 as symbol of St. 108. Saturn. 371 castes. 229. 291. 347. King. 259 Sagittarius. zodiacal sign. 233 Shamir (emery). 352. 41. 184 "Speculum lapidum" of Camillo Leonardo. 42. 229 Schliemann. 50 Scarabs. 106 tables of the Law of. 375 as antidote for poisons. Bernardino de. 347. 344. 298 105 gem of of of of of Autumn. on crystals. 261 "Sacro Catino" of Genoa. Ruby. Assyrian moon -god. 150 Shamash. 183. 325 348 Saturn. 305. 312 called "Le Saphire Merveilleux. 32ti-33Z Septuagint. planet. 344 Sanskrit names of. 370. 390 Simeon. 343 Rumphius. 124. 5. 330. 166 of Pegu. 245. 276 in ecclesiastical rings. 355 Scott. 105 as symbol of St. 12 Shebo. 54 Sources.404: INDEX 165. 370 Rudolph II of Germany. 1S3 Seals. 296 Shelley. 312 ! 283 Sophocles. 292. 115-119. 3ft3 Solomon. 165 names of Hindu castes given to. Assyrian sun-god. 72 Shakespeare in "Twelfth Night" of opal. 344 God's throne. Percy Byssho. 355 Saxo Arnoldus. 312 a foundation stone. 243. 132. in of. 107 in breastplate. 289. 104. 159 . 275 procures favor of Saturn. 165 of St. 46 Rutile. 78 therapeutic effect of. 143. 32. 353. 38 Salisbury. agate amuletn in the. 133. 140. 104 named from Hindu pavement of Siam. zodiacal sign. 290 Sardonyx. 342. 241. 354. 349 Sendal. 75 "Sleeping-stone/' !B3> 104 Bmaragdus (em oral d)." 66 Serpentine. 342. 336. John Jacob. 386- Constantinople. Babylonian. 251. 40. St. Heinrich. Luca. 121. 115." "Serpent Isle." 9 Selenite. gem of Canada. 64. Sir Walter. image of. 124 "Sacro Bambino" of Rome.. 31. in talisman. 122 102 ominous. 58 Sentiment. 293 Sard. 319. John of. 280. 290. 293. 323. 57 Scorpio. Egyptian. King of. of Gabelchover. 32. Georg Eberhard. or "Victory Stone/' IDtJ Signorelli. literary. 158 therapeutic effect of. 142 Seasonal gems. 296. 183 7 Sapphire. 291. Jupiter. 200. 348. 297. Virna. 236. 303. 40. 102 luminous. 313. 104-107. 305. 178 Specularii. 303. 13-18 Spartianus. 290. 389 Sappir. Elizabeth. 56 Soudan. 104. 332-335 for each month in connection with natal gems. 291 Sin. 320. 121-123 Cretan. 242. 02 Sindbad the Sailor and diamonds. 8. IB Spener. Nathaniel.

246 sec arnukt. 109. 104. 354 sign. 42. 275 therapeutic effect of. 23 from Pueblo Bonito. 73. from Los Muertos. 258 doctrine Sympathy and of. 23 11 Stone of Destiny. 171 Spinel. 337 of the months. N. 111 . alexandrite found in the. 75. 135. 334 Staurolite Fairy Stones. 31 Turquoise.." 107 "S tone of Forgetfulness . 181 Trocade"ro. 313. 1-5. 26. 114 from Los Cerillos. 52. plate Staurolitc. 353. 120 Tiberius.. 320. 242. 172 Tiffany Collection. Russia. 232 Kalpa tree. Lieut. jet of. 366 Sphalerite. vii therapeutic effect of. stone of breastplate. Arizona. 299. 24 Tabari. 16 Thothmes II. 341. Abbot. 334 Star-sapphire." 252 Spodumene. turquoise in ruins of Los Muertos near. 107 in sword-hilt of King of Greece. 312 gem of Sagittarius. 111 talisinanic virtues of. 317 of the hours. 265 Thayngen. and separate stones tcmplft gifts as. 23 from New of jade favored by Mohammedan*. 113 112. 183 Stones with natural images. 345. island of. 219 Titus. talisman of. 344 as symbol of St.INDEX Spessartite. 8. Jean Baptiste. St. daughter of Cicero. 37. 291. 381 Tempe. 271 Steatite. 298. 322 of Catharine de'Medici set with. stone. 341 Sumerian magic formula. 305. from Virginia. 133. 347 in breastplate. falls... 17th century. 105 Triboluminescence. 6. emerald of. 293. 26. 91 Theophrastus. 71. 243. 182 Teifashi. Caledonia. Paris. v. 108-114. 265 Stone Age. zodiacal 346." 35 "Stone of Memory. 238. 245. 112 Tetragrammaton. 110 fading of. 288 Tourmaline. M. 260 Sien Ko. N. antipathy. 35 Sunstone. 336. ruthloaaness of. 48 Star-ruby. 110 strikes the hour. 113 as natal stone. 377 Tamerlane. 286 Tagoro. Ill Sylvester. 366 Superstition. gircile 1. 109. 297. 308. religious symbolism of. 162 Suetonius. 112 gem of Jupiter. 106. 173 Tritheim. 320 De Boot's tale of a. 370 Thomas. 343. 40. 238 Trevisa. 332. 289 Topaz.. 326-331 of the week. on Hebrew tribes. 275. 290. 172 Tiffany & Co. 124. 64. 32 TarMsh. amber in deposits of.. N. 99 Tullia. 364 Trees bearing precious stones. 55 idols of. 102 405 Taw Tavernier. Charles L. Ahmed. 372. Switzerland. 10. 370 "Tecalcoonyx. 348 Persians' praise protecting from of. indicating illness." 35 "Stones of Power" in Scottish regalia. 375 Apache name for. 24. 365 Thoth. M. 158. 389 Topazos. Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohun. 266-269 titorchstein." 35 "Stone of Hate. 303. 180 Thomsonite. 8. via Takowaya. 283. 321 gem of New England.. 333 Talismans. 297." 35 "Stone of Love. etymology of word. John of. 67 Totten. 9 Swastika emblem. 106. 241 Talmud. 114 usually worn by men in 298 Taurus. 342. 306. 111 24. W. Matthew. 342 Tiffany. 54 Taliamanic gems. 244. Arizona.

290. 346 Vishnu. 257 "Valley of Diamonds. 310. vii Walker. 360 Zircon (hyacinth). necklace of. Dr. 109. 295 Zeehariah. 267. 32 of. gems for. four minor gems of the naoratna. Dr. taken by Serena. Christian symbolism of. 10 "the thunderbolt. 291. Thomas. by Chinese emperors. ring of. 30. Virgin Mary." 74. 266. 51 Wright. "Steinbuch" of. 75 Varro. T. 262. vii U Umina. emerald dedicated to. 245 in occult ritual. Alfred. vii Witherite. 301 IVrlve Tribes. goddess. 239. 31 Verrall. 384 345-347 Zodiacal signs tuwncuittti with th Volmar. 294 Zenochlorite. Dr. 294. 171 Wissler. Mrs. 344. 352. J>14 c. Clark. 9. 337 Urim and Thummim. 364366 Uparatnani. at Loreto. 336 significance of. 175.. 355 represented by blue. 124. Toledo. Christian symbolism of. Wenceslaus. 268. Horace. in Hebrew." Sanskrit of diamond. 277. 146 Yaskpeh. 241 Voiture. 332 . 341. supposed emerald in chapel of. 283.406 Turquoise with Aztecs. 3&H-$t>3 stones of the various mgarf. 28 Vajra. 354. 29 stones. A. 289. 29D Yellow. 361 231.. 236. emerald of. 343 Valentine.. 292. planet.. 287 Utahlite. emerald goddess of Peruvians. 30 worn in Siam. 91 vi. 370 Violet-blue. 273 Vespasian. 336. 262 Virgo. "68 Violet. W. 261. 261. 247 with Navajos. 273 rich decorations of statue of. 273 significance of. 295 Yarkast&in. Dr. jet deposits of. 335 "White sapphire" (corundum). 50 World's Columbian Exhibition. stone of breastplate. 50 "Victory Stone. his letter on curative use of jade. 282. zodiacal sign. 211 Yahalom. 353. St. W. 273 symbolism of. 1. 221 Wiirtemberg.. 235 Vesuvianite. 130. stone of breaHtplate.f. 321 322. 28 girdle worn of. 263 White. 263 Virgen del Sagrario. 22 Vasari. 247. 254 Walpole. for Monday. 373 Vulgate. 259 Whitby Abbey. St. 67. Hayes. 121 Willemite. principal gem-stones found in various States of the. 390 Venus. 234 INDEX W Wada. 243. B. 348. 283 Vesta. 72 Wiedemann. curative effects 33 Zebulun. 248 United States. 195 Ward. Christian symbolism curative effects of. 383. Lll. 238 Zodiacal gems. T. 243 Wedding anniversaries. therapeutic effect of. 262. name Wood-opal. 246 Tyszkiewicz Collection.

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