MARK & SPENCERS (case study) Q1: what are the factors which lead m&s to internationalize? ANS: Company had worked upon the two factors to be in international Internal factors & external factors. 1- company moved to the international market due to the prevailing saturation in the domestic market . Hence company decided to move to the overseas market for further expansion 2- the labour party suggestion is also one of the reason for the m&s to move internationally 3-In order to meet the need for diversification company also moved to global market 4- In order to meet the franchisisng relationship in the global market, since franchising was allowing the company to achieve the global presence with minimal economic and political risks 5-In order to acquire the global customers along with domestic customer in to meet the expansion of the m&S. 6-In order to target the customers at global level so that the company can also move to the the global market all together in order to widen the scope of the m&S. 7- The internationalization of M&S is also due to the explanations of service firm internationalization Q2-What is the sequence of country entry & why was that sequence selected ? ANS:- M&S entered the countries through acquisitions and franchising but the company did that in sequence, M&S saw Canada as a good country to invest in because of its high incomes, solid infrastructure , large middle class , low political risk, and use of English language but that did not last for long, than came after the entry into Europe ( France ) exactly after two years from the entry into Canada and entered after the lot of market research adapt the store French life styles and from there after went to Belgium than after the company entered into the usa in1988 using a similar strategy it used in canadathrough


acquisitions than after the company enetered in tha market of the far eastv through the purchase of brooks brothers (1988), which co owned in affiliates in japan.

Q3- What are the modes of entry used in the various countries aqnd why? ANS- The internationalization of M&S resembles the theoretical explanations of service Firm internationalization .These theories suggest that service firm become increasingly international as they gain experience, willing to commit more company resource and take additional risks. Retailers used relatively less risky modes of entry, such as exporting and Franchising, in markets where market and political risk are high, Retailers shared Ownership where sole ownership was prohibited or restricted. In markets, such as the US and the EU, with significant purchasing power, large population and developed infrastructure, retailers enter through high-control high-risk modes of Entry, such as sole-ownership and acquisition. The company believed in opening its own stores and expanding through acquisitions in major economies. On the other hand, M&S expanded through franchise agreements into countries where a partner¶s local expertise is viewed as beneficial (M&S Annual Report 1998). The company owns stores in Belgium, Canada, France, German,Hong-Kong, Ireland, Spain and Netherlands; and franchises in the rest of the countries including the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canary Islands, Cyprus, The Czech Republic, Gibraltar, and Israel (De Nardi-Cole 1998). Whitehead (1991) proposed That the company had used franchising in countries that have relatively small population size or low per capita incomes, but sufficiently large to support a small number of stores.

Q4-Which host country factors M&S seems to value and which do they don¶t? ANS- When entering into a market the M&S sees following factors as favorable ones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High income Low political risk Culture affinity Large middle class population Investment friendly policies


The unfavorable conditions are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High political unrest Low income Low investment friendly policies Less culure affinity Less presence of organized retailers

Q5- Describe and explain the adaptations to M&S business model in different countries? ANS- The first major round of acquisitions M&S made was in 1973 of Canadian People¶s Department Stores and Walker¶s store, Since they perceived little cultural distance, they transferred their business formula almost unchanged from the United Kingdom to Canada. They quickly found that even Canada requires some modifications. The Canadian stores required customization to local needs including the use of Canadian merchandise, enlargement of food departments, restructuring of inner city store, and opening of suburban stores much of which the company had little experience with. M&S entered the European market in 1975. This was two years after the less than successful Canadian acquisition. France was chosen as the gateway country, and Paris the gateway city, to the rest of Europe. The Europe report of M&S includes Eastern and Western Europe including some states in the Middle-East. The company hoped to have 60 stores in Continental Europe by year 2000, It was taken as increase customization to local and ational tastes by establishing additional brand names to the already successful St. Michael brandstil but about 80% of the stock sold in continental Europe was the same as the UK home market, while the other 20% reflects differences in culture, size, climate and local preferences, M&S entered the US in 1988 using a similar strategy it used in Canada, trough acquisitions. It bought Brooks Brothers. To market its clothes and Kings Supermarket to sell its food line. Unlike M&S ,which bought its supplies, these companies owned manufacturing facilities. Brooks Brothers and Kings Supermarkets are similar in format to M&S two store formats. The entry into the Far East was twofold. M&S first exposure to business in the Far East occurred indirectly through the purchase of Brooks Brothers (1988), which coowned affiliates in Japan. In recent years, Brooks Brothers Japan was adversely affected by recessionary conditions in the economythe 1997 Asian crisis has


seriously stalled retail sales in the region, and M&S stores were not an exception. Both franchised and non-franchised outlets have been adversely affected by the crisis. The company¶s expansion coupled with the adverse conditions created by the Asian crisis have hampered sales and profitability in asiatherefore, no new development is planned in the near future.


Is M&S multinational or global retailer? Explain and defend your answer.

M&S is a multinational company as it it is customizing its merchandise as per the need of the country in which they enter. For example it enters into Canada transferred their business formula almost unchanged from the United Kingdom to Canada and then they quickly recognize that even Canada requires some modification. The Canadian stores required customization to local needs including the use of Canadian merchandise whereas global retailers have their standardized merchandise all over the globe.

7 Where is M&S on the internationalization life cycle? Explain how you formed your answer. M&S is in the growth stage on the internationalization life cycle. As we can see that in this case study M&S has its evolution from Britain and going abroad to be multinational with customizing its merchandise according to the country it is entering. As the company is entering in the markets of different countries, it is finding that how it can retain in the market and satisfies the needs and wants of the customers of that particular country.

Q8 Should the company standardize more of their international operations? Compare Europe and Asia.


No, the company should not be standardized, it should be multinational. As we can see that M&S entered the European market in 1975. This was 2 years after the less than successful Canadian acquisition. France was chosen as the gateway country, and Paris the gateway city, to the rest of the European. M&S believes that Asia will be a major market for Brooks Brothers because of the region¶s receptiveness to US culture and brand¶s aspirational value.


What should be the future strategy of the firm?

The company should adapt the multi nationalization because in multi nationalization the company should customize its merchandise according to the need of the customers of the country in which the company is entering. If the company will adapt globalization then it should have to adapt the standardization all along the globe which is difficult for the company as compared to the multi nationalization. Q10. Evaluate top management¶s response to crisis? ANS: M&S was reorganized into three profit centers: (1) UK retailing. (2) overseasretailing, (3) financial services. Stores were reclassified from geographi division to four store types: (1) department stores, (2) regional centers, (3) high street, (4) small stores. This the firm hopes will help it (1) develop specific management skill associated with different store types, (2) tailor merchandise more accurately, (3) reduce administration, (4) improve staffing and training. The total cost of restructuring is estimated at about L40 million, leading to a L40 million cost savings associated with redundancies starting fiscal Year 2000-2001 A new marketing department was set up to help create improved (1) competitive Analysis,


(2) information gathering, (3) proactive communication, (4) advertising Clarity, (4) customer targeting . The department will increase marketing research, develop a coherent brand strategy, and increase The level of advertising. Its marketing thrust will be to cut prices, put more staff on The shop floor and improve visual merchandising . The company will Attempt to develop a more balanced sourcing policy to its domestic and

International outlets and will review global logistics to streamline distribution and Lower costs . The company will continue to develop their e-commerce web site. A property Division has been set up to assess use of real estate. Market cost of assets will be Charged to individual stores to better assess performance. Accountability has Increased as each profit center is judged individually against its cost of capital, And resources will be allocated to increase shareholders equity value. Q11:Evaluate M&S CROSS-CULTURAL Skills. Ans: The M&S do not master in cross cultural skills but they have shown on various occasions that they have got the cross cultural skills for example: They effectively used the experience of Brooks Brother with their entry in Asia. As we have read the Brooks Brother had 19 years of business experience with Japan Secondly as we can see in every market which they enter, they try n find an experience retailer by which they are able to gain foothold in the market, we can easily see this by seeing the example of Australia, China and India. Thirdly they maintain a good quality of their product worldwide , due to this they are able to make good image and goodwill among the customer. But in part of working they lack cross cultural skills as: 1. They have prevalent European culture 2. They do not go by local manufacturing method 3. Due to their top down hierarchy they are less able to get the exact ground situation of the real time customer 4. Due to their dependence on European market they are resistant to the other markets for their needs which leads their goods to be higher priced


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful