Biblical Hebrew

A Student Grammar

Ruth 1, the Aleppo Codex (10th c. C.E.)

John A. Cook
Robert D. Holmstedt

Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (Draft Copy)
© 2009 by John A. Cook and Robert D. Holmstedt
All rights reserved.

This textbook is intended for a university classroom. It is divided into thirty lessons,
corresponding to the typical thirty-week academic year. Following the sequence of lessons will
provide the average student with a cutting-edge understanding of ancient Hebrew grammar and
will enable the student to read both prose passages and less complex poems from biblical and
non-biblical texts. Additionally, the textbook introduces the student to the standard Biblical
Hebrew lexicon1 and includes an appendix on the Masoretic “accents,” which may be
incorporated into the sequence of lessons at whatever point the instructor desires.
Because of the variety of first-year biblical Hebrew textbooks currently available, it is worth
briefly noting what this textbook is not: it is not a reference grammar; it is not meant to be used
without supplementation from the instructor; it is not meant for self-study; it is not theologically
oriented. What this textbook does not do represents fairly well the character of almost every
other available textbook, and thereby indicates that there exists a significant lacuna in the world
of Hebrew textbooks. This textbook is intended to fill this hole.
The genesis of this introductory textbook for ancient Hebrew lies in the experience of the two
authors in teaching first-year biblical Hebrew at the University of Wisconsin as graduate
instructors, from 1996 to 2002. The desire for “something different” was born early in this
period, after dissatisfaction with the out-datedness of Weingreen2 (which, in many ways, has yet
to be surpassed in terms of pedagogy as a classroom textbook) and outright frustration with the
lack of pedagogical awareness in Kelley,3 Seow,4 and Kittel,5 to name the most prominent
textbooks then on the market. “Necessity is the mother of invention,” as the proverb goes, and, as
in the case of most textbooks, eventually we decided that it was time to develop “something
different” ourselves. As we continued to teach Hebrew after Wisconsin, we clarified the focus
for our project and we identified two primary objectives: classroom pedagogy and a firm
linguistic foundation.
Design Objectives
Our concern for classroom pedagogy is based on the simple observation that many of the
textbooks on the market provide the student with entirely too much information. We found
ourselves instructing our students to skip entire sections in some of the textbooks we used. Not
only is this frustrating for instructor and student alike, it both establishes an underlying tension
between the instructor and the textbook and creates a sense of distrust in the often expensive
textbook the student was required to purchase for the course. Clearly, we needed a textbook that

Brown, F., S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs. [1906] 1979. The New Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew-English
Lexicon. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
Weingreen, J. 1939. A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. Oxford: Oxford University. [2nd edition,
1959 and 1967]
Kelley, P. H. 1992. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Seow, C.-L. 1987. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Nashville, TN: Abingdon. [Revised edition, 1995]
Kittel, B. P., V. Hoffer, and R. Abts Wright. 1989. Biblical Hebrew: A Text and Workbook. New Haven, CN.:
Yale University. [Revised edition, 2005]

was created for the classroom and no more. In other words, we felt that the desire of many
textbook authors to present, essentially, “mini-reference grammars” was an obstacle in the
effective presentation of the material and quite often resulted in information overload. It is
difficult to count the number of people who have recounted to us their experience of learning
Hebrew with anguish in their voices and a traumatic look in their eyes, and a little sensitive
digging almost always turns up one overriding reason: poor pedagogy.
To address the pedagogy issue we established an approach to each lesson that was based on three
simple criteria: (1) what can we accomplish in the classroom in one week and still have fun? (2)
what must the students learn? and (3) what do the students not need to learn? The result was the
thirty-lesson structure that moves the students quickly through the necessary but often less
engaging introductory material to get to issues more salient for interpreting the ancient texts,
such as clause structure and verbs. This enables us to introduce our students to stretches of
biblical texts as early as the fourth week of the course. And since understanding texts is the
motivation of the overwhelming majority of students in our courses, it only makes sense that this
would both please them and reduce the dreaded mid-year attrition rate.
It is important to note a critical feature of our textbook at this point: since it presents no more
than is necessary, it does not itself introduce students to long stretches of Hebrew discourse.
Moreover, we do not introduce students to the features of either the Masoretic codices or the
modern printed Hebrew Bibles, including the critical apparatus of the Biblica Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. A number of student-oriented introductions to these issues already exist and are
likely in the nearest library; thus, we saw no good reason to reinvent the wheel, as it were. What
this means is that the texts and the history of the Hebrew Bible must be covered within the lesson
planning external to the textbook.
As with many modern language textbooks, even those with vibrant color and snazzy drawings or
photographs, it is worth remembering that the textbook is a means to another end, not an end in
and of itself. This explains why we eschew defining every language term we use (for example,
“pharyngeal”): it is the instructor’s responsibility to have a basic competence in Hebrew
grammar and grammatical terminology. Whenever it is necessary we do briefly define the
linguistic terms we use (i.e., “valency” with regard to the binyanim, “focus” with regard to word
order). For the items we do not define, we suggest using Gary Long’s handbook,6 which can (and
probably should) be used as a supplemental text. Combining our textbook with Long’s handbook
achieves comprehensiveness without needlessly bloating the lessons.
The second objective for our textbook is to build the lessons on a firm linguistic foundation.
Both authors do research on the grammatical features of ancient (biblical and non-biblical)
Hebrew within explicitly linguistic frameworks, mostly typological and generative, and our
conclusions have often been at odds with the consensus described in standard reference
grammars and introductory textbooks (for example, you will find no reference in this textbook to
the so-called waw-consecutive imperfect and perfect verbs, but instead will find the labels pastnarrative and modal perfect, respectively). Hence, we desired a textbook that communicates our
linguistically-grounded views to a first-year Hebrew audience. While we try to avoid enmeshing

Long, G. A. 2002. Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew: Learning Biblical Hebrew Grammatical
Concepts through English Grammar. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

Finally. we use more modern. and pragmatics in mostly this order. or “second language acquisition. Acknowledgments The detail and complexity of writing a introductory language textbook exceeded our wildest dreams. Additionally. semantics. the glosses were initially based on a combination of information from the two primary Hebrew-English lexica. we are most recently thankful of the proofreading and general feedback that John Hobbins (Madison). we encourage instructors who use this textbook to plan accordingly: additional activities will be required for the first-year students to learn Hebrew and. John A. KY Robert D. It is intentionally limited. Certainly. and Brauna Doidge (Toronto) have provided. (For interested parties. and Tim Mackie for their numerous lists of typos and other infelicities. It is entirely possible that if we had not begun this project as ambitious. Finally. James Kirk. ON June 18.) Note to the Reader: the glossary is currently undergoing revision. the student is moved through the linguistic categories of phonology. their queries helped us to formulate more clearly our design objectives. we did not write this textbook for every task of the language classroom. Although each lesson does contain a diversity of categories for easier learning. Kent Reynolds. morphology. Cook Wilmore. Holmstedt Toronto. we invite requests for sample syllabi and other teaching materials. syntax. we might never had begun it at all. Additionally. energetic doctoral students. Again. critically. this textbook is what some might call “traditional” in its essential organization and presentation. we are indebted to the eagle eyes of numerous instructors who followed us at UW and who willingly accepted the challenge of using a draft textbook. Laliv Clenman (Toronto). a third set of glossing choices was motivated by simplicity and pedagogy rather than the often awkward English glosses given in either of the two lexica. for them to enjoy the process. 2009 . We are also indebted to Cynthia Miller.iii the first-year student in the complexity of linguistics and typical linguistic description. With that said. BDB and HALOT.” teaching techniques in the classroom. we are grateful to Michael Lyons. and in light of this. who endured the many drafts and yet remained willing to have the textbook used at UW. In particular. we also take a high view of our audience’s capacity to process basic linguistic concepts and to see how they apply to both Hebrew and English.

..2...9....2............4.................. Masculine and Feminine Plural and Dual Nouns 5... Qal Perfect Conjugation ............... The Article –• ‫ַה‬ 3...........3...2.....................................38 5.. Simple Sheva ְ 2..... Vocabulary #4 Exercises Lesson 5.................3..... Construct Relationship..1...5.....................3...... and sometimes ‫) ִמן‬ 3................ Inseparable Prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬............ Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns 6....iv Table of Contents Lesson 1..2.............. Dagesh Qal and Dagesh Chazaq 2............. Guttural Consonants 2.. Vocabulary #5 Exercises Lesson 6.. Vocabulary #1 Exercises Lesson 2......................................... Introduction to Verbs 4...... Vav Conjunction (................................. Compound Sheva 2.... Objects in Biblical Hebrew 4.................... Vocabulary #3 Exercises Lesson 4...1. Definiteness 3......5...............2.......... Vocabulary #2 Exercises Lesson 3............ Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew 3.. Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words 3.8.43 6..........1.............4..........................3....... Vocabulary #6 Exercises ........3..................... The Biblical Hebrew Alphabet 1......ְ‫)ו‬ 3....... Open and Closed Syllables and Word Stress 2.6......19 3................ Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ 5....................7........8 2...............................1 1............ Qal Perfect Conjugation ........ Verbless Clauses 2............ Masculine and Feminine Singular Nouns 4........................... The Biblical Hebrew Vowel System 2. 6............6..... ‫ ְכּ‬..............5............... ‫ ְל‬..............2..........................................1...........7......1....4.................Singular 4.Plural 5.....................4.................... Independent Personal Pronouns 2.............29 4...1...............

.........80 12......................... Vocabulary #10 Exercises Lesson 11.................... Vocabulary #12 Exercises Lesson 13.......2..............................2.................................................92 14.................... Vocabulary #11 Exercises Lesson 12.............................................1.......................3....................... Vocabulary #14 ..62 9............ Qal Passive Participle 10............1........................................1...............4....... Suffixed Pronouns 7...... Vocabulary #13 Exercises Lesson 14.............2................2.......... Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations 11.... Introduction to the Binyanim 11..3.................... Vocabulary #9 Exercises Lesson 10...................... Qal Active Participle 10............. Infinitive Construct 14...................3........................49 7................74 11.............................3.. Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System (Jussives and Imperatives) 13............................1..........................5............... Piel and Hifil Participles 12.....3. Past Narrative Conjugation 8..............................................3...........1................................. Infinitive Absolute 14.....................2............................. Modal Use of the Perfect Conjugation 7....1................ Adjectives 9.4................................................... Vocabulary #8 Exercises Lesson 9..68 10...86 13..2........ Demonstrative Pronouns 9.......... Qal Imperfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ 8......... Segolate Nouns 7........57 8................... Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations 12.1..........3.................................... Qal Imperfect Conjugation 8...2.................................4...................... Vocabulary #7 Exercises Lesson 8...... Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations 12.........................................3......... Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System 13.......v Lesson 7.. ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬ 8...............1.....2......

.................137 21..................................................4....... Vocabulary #21 Exercises .1.......... Using a Lexicon 16.......... Vocabulary #20 Exercises Lesson Exercises Lesson 15...... ‫ָה ַלְך‬ 21... Vocabulary #15 Exercises Lesson 16..3... Vocabulary #19 Exercises Lesson 20.....................3...............2...................1.......2.................127 19..................3....................................2............113 17.........2................... II-Guttural Verbs 17.1..... Dynamic and Stative Verbs 16............2.....................3............................................ I-Nun Weak Verbs 20.............. Introduction to Guttural Verbs 17. Participles in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15.................3................... Vocabulary #18 Exercises Lesson 19.....2.............................................. Introduction to the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15..................................1................... Introduction to Weak Verbs 18. I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs 21............106 16........................ III-Guttural Verbs 17........ Infinitive Construct and Absolute in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15....... I-Alef Weak Verbs 19............1.. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs 18.......................133 20.....................................................1......................7.......................3............... ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬ 20.... Perfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15.6....................98 15.. III-Alef Weak Verbs 19............................... Imperative and Jussive in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15........................................ Vocabulary #16 Exercises Lesson 17.............. Vocabulary #17 Exercises Lesson 18..5.. I-Guttural Verbs 17...............4..............2....1............................... Imperfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 15....................120 18........5.

....................1.................. Vocabulary #28 Exercises Lesson 29..............1. Introduction to Pragmatics in Biblical Hebrew 29................142 22.....................................1...1.................................... Vocabulary #24 Exercises Lesson 25...... Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1 26... III-He Weak Verbs 22............................................4...............1.......................................................... Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information Structure 29.................................vii Lesson 22......173 28........... Doubly-Weak Verbs 25..........................2......165 27............186 30...................2..............2................ Vocabulary #27 Exercises Lesson 28..159 26... Information Structure 29.....................3....................... Vocabulary #29 Exercises Lesson 30........... Vocabulary #26 Exercises Lesson 27.............................. Vocabulary #25 Exercises Lesson 26..........................146 23.. II-III Weak Verbs 24............. II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs 23................................2....... Complements and Adjuncts 26..................179 29..3.......... Lexical Semantics 28........1.....151 24.... Main and Subordinate Clauses 27.................................. Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2 27.2................4............ Vocabulary #22 Exercises Lesson 23... Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs 25..... Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Discourse ............................................. Case Roles in Biblical Hebrew 28....3..........................3...............3....................1............. Biblical Hebrew Word Order 27..................................2....................4..................................................... Vocabulary #23 Exercises Lesson 24...2................155 25.........1....1.............. Introduction to Semantics in Biblical Hebrew 28............................................................................................2......................................3....................................................................... Argument Structure 26.................

................... I-Guttural 2.... I-Alef and III-Alef 5........ Noun/Adjective Inflection 2. Discourse Topic Exercises Appendices..... Strong Verb Paradigms 1....... Demonstrative Pronouns 5....... Frequent Irregular Nouns 3....3...219 Hebrew Songs.... Adjective. Noun.............231 ........................................viii 30..... II-III D........................ and the Object Marker B.... Personal Pronouns 4......... and Pronoun Paradigms 1..... III-Guttural 4. Parsing Flow Chart C....................... Prepositions.................... II-Guttural 3....................... III-He 8......... Numerals E.. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs 3..191 A....... I-Nun 6............................... I-Vav/Yod 7... The Foreground and Background of Narrative 30............. Suffixed Pronouns on Nouns................................... Strong Verb 2...............2.......................................... II-Vav/Yod 9... Masoretic accents Glossary..... Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms 1.....

Lesson 1 Lesson Summary: • The Hebrew Alphabet 1. • It consists of 23 consonants read right-to-left. Regular form: ‫כ מ נ פ צ‬ Final form: BeGaD KeFaT letters ‫ְך ם ן ף ץ‬ e. ‫שׁמים‬ • It has six letters. ‫ בּ‬like b in Boy BUT ‫ ב‬like v in Voice ‫ כּ‬like k in Keep BUT ‫ כ‬like ch in BaCH ‫ פּ‬like p in Pie BUT ‫ פ‬like f in Fish ‫ גּ‬AND ‫ ג‬like g in Give ‫ דּ‬AND ‫ ד‬like d in Dog ‫ תּ‬AND ‫ ת‬like t in Tide .g.1 The Hebrew Alphabet The Hebrew ‫בּית‬-‫ף‬ ֵ ‫( ָא ֶל‬alphabet) is composed of the following. ‫( בּ גּ דּ כּ פּ תּ‬mnemonically referred to as the BeGaD KeFaT). ‫←אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשׂשׁת‬ • It has five letters with alternate final forms that are used when the letter occurs at the end of a word.. which can appear with a “dot” in them called a dagesh qal. Three of these letters have two pronunciations: one with the dagesh qal. and one without it.

Lesson 1 Hebrew Alphabet Name (Final) Form álef ‫ָ֫א ֶלף‬ bet ‫ֵבּית‬ gímel ‫ימל‬ ֶ ‫֫ ִגּ‬ dálet ‫ָ ֫דּ ֶלת‬ he 2 ‫ֵהא‬ vav ‫וָ ו‬ záyin ‫ַ֫זיִ ן‬ chet ‫ֵחית‬ tet ‫ֵטית‬ yod ‫יוֹד‬ kaf ‫ַכּף‬ (‫)ך‬ lámed ‫֫ ָל ֶמד‬ mem ‫ֵמם‬ (‫)ם‬ nun ‫נוּן‬ (‫)ן‬ sámech ‫ָ֫ס ֶמְך‬ áyin ‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬ pe ‫ֵפּא‬ (‫)ף‬ tsáde ‫ָ֫צ ֵדי‬ qof ‫קוֹף‬ resh ‫ֵרישׁ‬ sin ‫ִשׂין‬ shin ‫ִשׁין‬ tav ‫ָתּו‬ (‫)ץ‬ ‫א‬ ‫בּ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫גּג‬ ‫דּד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫כּ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פּ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫שׂ‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫תּת‬ Pronunciation glottal stop or silent like b in Boy like v in Voice like g in Give like d in Dog like h in Hat like v in Voice like z in Zip like ch in BaCH like t in Tide like y in Yellow like k in Keep like ch in BaCH like l in Letter like m in Mother like n in Noon like s in Sit pharyngeal or silent like p in Pie like f in Fish like ts in caTS like k in Keep like r in Race like s in Sit like sh in SHin like t in Tide .

not normally included in the “alphabet. we have included both forms of the three BeGaD KeFaT letters that change pronunciation with or without the dagesh qal – we’ve put the second of the pair. 2.” in subscripted position. 3. Quiz yourself with the cards. Exercises 1.Lesson 1 3 • Notice that the Hebrew alphabet has several letters which are pronounced the same. Traditionally pronounced a-do-nai ‘Lord’ or ha-shem ‘the Name’. Make flash cards: Hebrew on front. Put aside those that you know. ‫ א‬and ‫ע‬ ‫ ב‬and ‫ו‬ ‫ ח‬and ‫כ‬ ‫ ט‬and ‫תּ‬/‫ת‬ ‫ כּ‬and ‫ק‬ ‫ ס‬and ‫שׂ‬ Similar sounding letters silent like v in Voice like ch in Bach like t in Tide like k in Keep like s in Sit 1. writing the vocabulary words on the cards will help you learn them).) ‫שׂשׁת‬/‫צקר‬/‫עפּפ‬/‫מנס‬/‫זחטיכּכל‬/‫←אבּבגדהו‬ . which might have meant ‘El/God (who) makes hosts exist’. Practice singing the Hebrew alphabet to the English ‘ABC’ tune (Note: for the sake of the song’s rhythm. Vocabulary Learning Tips: 1. return to the pile those that you do not know and continue quizzing until you know them all. Review the words regularly and keep up with new ones. It is possible that this name was originally pronounced yah-weh.2 Vocabulary #1 ‫יהוה‬ PN YHWH (often ‘the LORD’ in translations of the Bible). and was the middle word of a longer epithet El yahweh tseva'ot. English on back (in addition to practicing with the cards.

g. ‫ת‬ ‫מ נ‬ ‫ח‬ __ __ ‫( ר‬j __ __ (k __ __ __ (l __ ‫( ח ט י‬g ‫פ צ ק‬ ‫ו‬ __ __ (h ‫גד‬ (i ‫שׂ‬ ‫נס‬ ‫ז‬ ‫( צ ק‬d __ __ __ ‫( ל‬e ‫( ד ה‬f ‫נ‬ ‫שׁ‬ __ ‫( כ ל‬a __ ‫( ק ר‬b __ __ __ ‫( א‬c .. e. ‫א ב ג ד‬. Write out a full line of each consonant of the Biblical Hebrew alphabet (use the following letters as a guide). Fill in the blank with the missing consonant according to the order of the alphabet (ignore the absence/presence of the dagesh).Lesson 1 4 2. 3.

‫ ג‬as in _______ (m ‫ דּ‬as in _______ (a ‫ ז‬as in _______ (n ‫ ה‬as in _______ (b ‫ ח‬as in _______ (o ‫ ו‬as in _______ (c ‫ ט‬as in _______ (p ‫ ס‬as in _______ (d ‫ י‬as in _______ (q ‫ פּ‬as in _______ (e ‫ כּ‬as in _______ (r ‫ פ‬as in _______ (f ‫ כ‬as in _______ (s ‫ צ‬as in _______ (g ‫ ל‬as in _______ (t ‫ ק‬as in _______ (h ‫ שׁ‬as in _______ (u ‫ ר‬as in _______ (i ‫ ת‬as in _______ (v ‫ שׂ‬as in _______ (j ‫ מ‬as in _______ (w ‫ בּ‬as in _______ (k ‫ נ‬as in _______ (x ‫ ב‬as in _______ (l .1): e. ‫ בּ‬as in boat. Write an English word for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet which has the sound of the Hebrew letter in it (do not use the words given in the chart in 1.Lesson 1 5 S4.g..

Lesson 1 6 5. ‫שׂין‬ ‫שׁין‬ ‫תו‬ ‫עין‬ ‫פא‬ ‫צדי‬ ‫קוף‬ ‫רישׁ‬ ‫כף‬ ‫למד‬ ‫מם‬ ‫נון‬ ‫סמך‬ ‫וו‬ ‫זין‬ ‫חית‬ ‫טית‬ ‫יוד‬ ‫אלף‬ ‫בית‬ ‫גימל‬ ‫דלת‬ ‫הא‬ . ‫ישׂראל‬ ‫משׁה‬ ‫יהודה‬ ‫אדם‬ ‫יעקב‬ ‫לוי‬ ‫פּלשׁתּי‬ ‫פּרעה‬ ‫אברהם‬ ‫שׁדרך‬ Judah Jacob Levi Israel Philistine Shadrach Abraham Adam Moses Pharaoh ‫יוסף‬ ‫כּנען‬ ‫חזקיה‬ ‫שׂרה‬ ‫נבוכדנאצר‬ ‫תּמר‬ ‫עשׂו‬ ‫רחל‬ ‫שׁלמה‬ ‫לאה‬ Tamar Esau Rachel Hezekiah Joseph Canaan Solomon Nebuchadnezzar Leah Sarah 7. Draw a line from the Hebrew proper name to the English equivalent. Draw lines to connect each letter with its corresponding final form: ‫ץ‬ ‫ְך‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ 6. Find the names of the letters of the alphabet in the puzzle (no left-to-right or backwards ones).

or shed innocent blood in this place.’ (Ezek 38:12) . And do no wrong or violence to the alien. Follow the directions for each of the following verses. who are acquiring cattle and goods.’ (Jer 22:3) b) Circle the letters which are final form. . and the people who were gathered from the nations. and the widow. the orphan. ‫כה אמר יהוה עשׂו משׁפט וצדקה והצילו גזול מיד עשׁוק וגר יתום ואלמנה אל־תנו‬ ‫אל־תחמסו ודם נקי אל־תשׁפכו במקום הזה‬ ‘Thus says YHWH: Act with justice and righteousness. to assail the waste places that are now inhabited. ‫לשׁלל שׁלל ולבז בז להשׁיב ידך על־חרבות נושׁבת ואל־עם מאסף מגוים עשׂה‬ ‫מקנה וקנין ישׁבי על־טבור הארץ‬ ‘. to seize spoil and carry off plunder. and deliver from the hand of the oppressor anyone who has been robbed. a) Say aloud the names of the letters in the following verses. . who live at the center of the earth.Lesson 1 ‫ן‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫שׂ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ף‬ 7 ‫ט‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫מ‬ 8.

or following the consonant .Lesson 2 Lesson Summary: • Hebrew Vowels and Vowels Signs • Simple Sheva: ְ • Compound Sheva: ֲ ֱ ֳ • Independent Personal Pronouns • Verbless Clauses • Dagesh Chazaq and Dagesh Qal: ‫ִדּ ֶבּר‬ • Gutturals: ‫( ע ח ה א‬and ‫)ר‬ • Open and Closed Syllables.1 The Biblical Hebrew Vowel System Vowels Sign Name ַ pátach ָ qámets ‫ָה‬ ֶ ֵ ‫ֵי‬ ִ ‫ִי‬ ָ ֹ ֹ‫ו‬ ֻ ‫וּ‬ Pronunciation Class & Length short a in Father a-class qámets-he ségol tsére tsére-yod long long short e in Met ey in They long i-class long chíreq i in Sit short chíreq-yod ee in Seen long short qámets-chatuf chólem chólem-vav qibbuts shúreq long o in Go u-class u in Rude long short long The Biblical Hebrew vowels have the following characteristics: • The vowels appear under. over. Word Stress: ‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ 2.

E. or ‫ י‬are used in this way they are called vowel letters.) required that every consonant have a vowel sign. i-class.2). If a syllable ended in a consonant or began with two consonants in a row it still required a vowel sign. 2. pronounced like the “hurried” a as above and transliterated with ǝ: ‫[ ְבּ ִרית‬bərit] In other places it is a silent place marker. 500 C. ‫ו‬. ְ The sign is not properly a vowel. but in some places it is vocal. For this purpose they used the sheva. When ‫ה‬. For example. showing that the preceding syllable is closed: ‫[ ִמ ְד ָבּר‬midbar] A sheva is vocal: • at the beginning of a word: ‫מוֹ‬-‫[ ְשׁ‬shə-mo] .2 Simple Sheva Simple Sheva The vowel system created by the Tiberian Masoretes (c. or u-class) and length (short or long). Distinguishing which vowel it represents in a given instance depends on knowing in what type of syllable it occurs (see 2. They are not consonants in these cases! • ָ represents both long a-class qamets and short u-class qamets-chatuf.Lesson 2 9 they are pronounced after. • The vowels in Biblical Hebrew are categorized by class (aclass. except at the end of a word. which means ‘nothingness’ (‫)שׁוָ א‬. ‫ יָ ד‬is pronounced [yad]. • Some long vowels are written as a vowel point and a consonant.

the first is silent and the second is vocal. you. he/she. Biblical Hebrew has independent personal pronouns that are used as subjects of clauses. they. an i-class. • following a long vowel: ‫כם‬ֶ ‫ס‬-‫סוּ‬ ְ [su-sə-chem] Compound Sheva 2.Lesson 2 10 • at the beginning of a syllable: ‫ ְמ‬in ‫רוּ‬-‫מ‬ְ ‫[ יִ ְשׁ‬yish-mə-ru] Note: If two sheva are adjacent in a word. These correspond to English I. There are three compound sheva: an a-class. we.3 Compound Sheva A compound sheva (also called composite sheva) is a ‘half vowel’ that appears under guttural consonants in place of a simple sheva.4 Independent Personal Pronouns Independent Personal Pronouns Like English. They are pronounced the same as their full vowel counterparts but for a shorter duration. ‫יוֹסף‬ ֵ ‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I (am) Joseph’ (Gen 45:3) 3MS ‫‘ הוּא‬he’ 3MP ‫ ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬/ ‫‘ ֵהם‬they’ 3FS ‫‘ ִהיא‬she’ 3FP ‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬/ ‫‘ ֵהן‬they’ 2MS ‫‘ ַא ָתּה‬you’ 2MP ‫‘ ַא ֶתּם‬you’ 2FS ‫‘ ַא ְתּ‬you’ 2FP ‫‘ ַא ֶתּן‬you’ 1CS ‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I’ 1CP ‫‘ ֲא ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬we’ . and a u-class. Sign Name Pronunciation Class ֲ chátef pátach a in Aríse a class ֱ chátef ségol e in Excúse i class ֳ chátef qámets o in Omít u class 2.

‫כ‬. by a word) in Hebrew.Lesson 2 11 2. A dagesh qal appears in a BeGaD KeFaT letter wherever there is not a vowel (or vocal sheva) preceding it: • at the beginning of a word: ‫[ ָדּ ָבר‬davar] • at the beginning of a syllable following a closed syllable ‫[ ִמ ְד ָבּר‬midbar] Dagesh Chazaq The same dot can represent another type of dagesh called the dagesh chazaq (“strong” dagesh). A dagesh chazaq can occur in any consonant (except gutturals and ‫ )ר‬and lengthens it.5 Verbless Clauses Verbless Clause The present tense of the verb ‘to be’ is not expressed lexically (i.e. [k]. Thus.e. this dagesh also makes the pronunciation of ‫ב‬. it must be supplied in English.6 Dagesh Qal and Dagesh Chazaq Dagesh Qal In 1. [ch]. 2. [b]. [v]. and ‫ פ‬marks their pronunciation as a stop (i. ‫ֹלהים ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬ ִ ‫‘ לֹא ֱא‬they are not gods’ (2 Kgs 19:18) These types of clauses are called verbless clauses. [f]. [p] in which the air flowing through the mouth is stopped) instead of the corresponding continuant (i. In addition to lengthening the consonant. A dagesh qal in ‫ב‬. ‫בּן = ַה ֵבּן‬-‫בּ‬ ֵ ‫[ ַה‬habben] . ‫כ‬..e.2 you learned about the six consonants (‫ )ב ג ד כ פ ת‬called BeGaD KeFaT letters. ‫קשׁ = ִבּ ֵקּשׂ‬-‫ק‬ ֵ ‫[ ִבּ‬biqqesh] The BeGaD KeFaT letters can also have a dagesh chazaq... in which the air flows through the mouth continuously). Only these six consonants can have a dot called a dagesh qal in them. and ‫ פ‬a stop just like the dagesh qal.

i. Four characteristics of gutturals are notable: 1) Gutturals (and ‫ )ר‬cannot be lengthened. 2. 3) A dagesh in a BeGaD KeFaT letter not preceded by a vowel is a dagesh qal. they cannot have a dagesh chazaq. 2) A dagesh in a BeGaD KeFaT letter preceded by a vowel is a dagesh chazaq.Lesson 2 12 Here are three principles for telling the two types of dagesh apart: 1) A dagesh in a non-BeGaD KeFaT letter is a dagesh chazaq. are grouped together under the label guttural consonants: ‫ע ח ה א‬.e. and ‫ ע‬at the end of a word following a long vowel take an a-class ‘helping’ vowel called a furtive patach (this is the only instance where two vowels occur in a row). ‫'[ ֲא ֶשׁר‬asher] (instead of *‫) ְא ֶשׁר‬ . that is. A sheva under a consonant with a dagesh chazaq is always vocal. ‫[ יַ ֲעמֹד‬ya'amod] 3) Gutturals ‫ה‬. before or after.3). 2) Gutturals prefer a-class vowels nearby..7 Guttural Consonants Gutturals Several pharyngeal and laryngeal consonants.6) instead of simple sheva (2. ‫רוּח‬ ַ [ruach] 4) Gutturals usually have a compound sheva (2. pronounced in the back of the throat. ‫ח‬. Note: A dagesh chazaq affects the syllable structure: ‫ִבּ ְקּשׁוּ‬ is ‫שׁוּ‬-‫ק‬ְ ‫[ ִבּ ְק‬biq-qə-shu].

or a consonant (CVC = closed). Note: The vowel letters (‫ה‬. ‫ו‬. Words that are not stressed on the last syllable in the lessons and exercises have an accent mark over the stressed syllable. called a mappiq. • Open syllables usually have long vowels (as –‫ ָדּ‬in ‫ָ)דּ ָבר‬ Closed syllable unless stressed – then they may have short vowels (as –‫ֶ֫מ‬ in ‫)מ ֶלְך‬. ‫ )י‬and ‫ א‬do not close syllables! However.8 Open and Closed Syllables and Word Stress A syllable begins with a consonant (C) and ends with either a vowel (CV = open). ‫ הּ‬at the end of a word does close a syllable. ֶ֫ • Closed syllables usually have short vowels (as ‫–לְך‬ ֶ in ‫)מ ֶלְך‬ ֶ֫ unless stressed – then they may have long vowels (as ‫–בר‬ ָ in ‫)דּ ָבר‬.Lesson 2 Syllable 13 2. The dot. . Word stress ‫מה‬ָ ‫[ = ָח ְכ‬chochma] A syllable is either stressed or unstressed: in most words the last syllable is stressed. written as ֫ . ָ Note: The vowel ָ represents the short u-class qamets-chatuf if it is in a closed. indicates that the ‫ ה‬is a consonant and not a vowel letter. otherwise it is the long a-class qamets. ‫ ָדּ ָבר‬has two syllables: an open –‫( ָדּ‬CV) Mappiq Open syllable and a closed ‫–בר‬ ָ (CVC). unstressed syllable.

ֹ ‫ ַא ָא ֶא ֵא ֵאי ִא ִאי ָא‬. P ‫ָבּנִ ים‬ ‫ִעיר‬ F ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ M word. P ‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬ ‫כּ ֵֹהן‬ to. b) Pronounce aloud the combination of consonant and vowel as you write them. P ‫נָ ִשׁים‬ ‫מ ֶֹשׁה‬ M day. a) Write each of the Biblical Hebrew vowels with each of the consonants. land ‫ִא ָשּׁה‬ F woman. gods ‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ ‫ַמ ְל ָכּה‬ ‫ֶ֫א ֶרץ‬ F earth. P ‫יָמים‬ ִ PN M Israel priest ADV no. wife. . ‫א אוֹ ֻא אוּ‬ 2. towards ‫לֹא‬ PN God.. not M king F queen PN ‫ֵבּן‬ M son. ‫ ֳא ֱא ֲא‬. e.g. thing ‫ַעם‬ M ‫ָדּוִ יד‬ PN Moses city people David Exercises 1.. e. b) Pronounce aloud the combination of consonant and vowel as you write them. a) Write each compound sheva with each of the guttural consonants. P ‫ָאבוֹת‬ the LORD ‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ man.Lesson 2 14 2.g.9 Vocabulary #2 ‫ָאב‬ M ‫ֲאד ֹנָ י‬ PN (EPITHET) ‫ִאישׁ‬ M ‫ֶאל־‬ PREP ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫ֱא‬ ‫יוֹם‬ father.

‫‪Lesson 2‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪3. Find the names of the Biblical Hebrew vowels in the puzzle (no left-to-right or‬‬ ‫‪backwards ones).‬‬ ‫‪(k‬‬ ‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי יוֹד‬ ‫‪(f‬‬ ‫‪(l‬‬ ‫שׁוּ֫ ֶרק‬ ‫‪(g‬‬ ‫ִחי֫ ֶרק יוֹד‬ ‫‪(m‬‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬ ‫‪(h‬‬ ‫֫ ַפּ ַתח‬ ‫‪(n‬‬ ‫חוֹ ֶלם‬ ‫֫‬ ‫‪(i‬‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ְסגוֹל‬ ‫‪(j‬‬ ‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬ ‫ִחי֫ ֶרק‬ ‫‪(o‬‬ ‫ְשׁוָ א‬ ‫‪(a‬‬ ‫ִקבּוּץ‬ ‫‪(b‬‬ ‫חוֹ ֶלם וָ ו‬ ‫֫‬ ‫‪(c‬‬ ‫ְסגוֹל‬ ‫‪(d‬‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ֫ ַפּ ַתח‬ ‫‪(e‬‬ ‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי‬ ‫‪4. Read aloud the name of each vowel and write the correct sign under the‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫שׁוּ֫ ֶרק‬ ‫֫ ַפּ ַתח‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ֫ ַפּ ַתח‬ ‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ ָחטוּף‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬ ‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ְסגוֹל‬ ‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי‬ ‫ִקבּוּץ‬ ‫חוֹ ֶלם‬ ‫֫‬ ‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬ ‫ְשׁוָ א‬ ‫חוֹ ֶלם וָ ו‬ ‫֫‬ ‫ִחי֫ ֶרק‬ ‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי יוֹד‬ ‫ִחי֫ ֶרק יוֹד‬ ‫ְסגוֹל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫צ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ .

. ‫ = ָכּר‬car. Identify a similar sounding English word for each Hebrew word. ‫קוֹסס וְ יָ ֵבשׁ ָכּל־‬ ֵ ְ‫ת־פּ ְריָ הּ י‬ ִ ‫יה יְ נַ ֵתּק וְ ֶא‬ ָ ‫ת־שׁ ָר ֶשׁ‬ ָ ‫ֱאמֹר כֹּה ָא ַמר ֲאד ֹנָ י יְ הוִֹ ה ִתּ ְצ ָלח ֲהלוֹא ֶא‬ ‫יה‬ ָ ‫אוֹתהּ ִמ ָשּׁ ָר ֶשׁ‬ ָ ‫ם־רב ְל ַמ ְשׂאוֹת‬ ָ ‫וּב ַע‬ ְ ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫א־בזְ ר ַֹע גּ‬ ִ ֹ ‫יבשׁ וְ ל‬ ָ ‫ַט ְר ֵפּי ִצ ְמ ָחהּ ִתּ‬ ‘Say: Thus says YHWH God: Will it prosper? Will he not pull up its roots.’ (Ezek 17:9) . Spell these English words with Hebrew consonants and vowels. Practice reading the following verses until you can do so smoothly and then identify each sheva as silent or vocal. e. cause its fruit to rot and wither all its fresh sprouting leaves to fade? No strong arm or mighty army will be needed to pull it from its roots. _________ = ‫( ִלין‬q _________ = ‫( ִדּין‬i ________ = ‫( פּוּשׁ‬a _________ = ‫( לֹא‬r _________ = ‫( ִעיר‬j _________ = ‫( ֵבּין‬b _________ = ‫( ֵפּן‬s ________ = ‫( הוּא‬k _________ = ‫( ֵרד‬c _________ = ‫( אוֹר‬t ________ = ‫( ִשׂים‬l _________ = ‫( ִמי‬d ________ = ‫( ִהיא‬u ________ = ‫( ֵעת‬m _________ = ‫( ֵכּן‬e _________ = ‫( ֵאם‬v _________ = ‫( ר ֹב‬n ________ = ‫( בּוֹר‬f _________ = ‫( רוּץ‬w _________ = ‫( ַרק‬o _________ = ‫( ֶפּן‬g _________ = ‫( ִשׁיר‬x ________ = ‫( שׁוֹר‬p ________ = ‫( פּוּר‬h 6.g. e. bed = ‫בּד‬.Lesson 2 16 5. ֶ a) shed = _________ i) hot = _________ q) tar = _________ b) sheet = _________ j) near = _________ r) sew = _________ c) keep = _________ k) say = _________ s) name = _________ d) sight = _________ l) peet = _________ t) cave = _________ e) road = _________ m) key = _________ u) cots = _________ f) ooze = _________ n) ray = _________ v) red = _________ g) root = _________ o) vote = _________ w) doze = _________ h) soup = _________ p) soap = _________ x) give = _________ 7..g.

e. set it on fire.’ (Jer 32:29) 9. with the houses on whose roofs offerings have been made to Baal and libations have been poured out to other gods. to provoke me to anger..g. Divide the following words into syllables: mark the syllable as open (CV) or closed (CVC) and the vowel in each syllable as long (L) or short (S). and burn it. Practice reading the following verses until you can do so smoothly and then identify each dagesh as a dagesh qal or dagesh chazaq. ‫פוּה‬ ָ ‫וּשׂ ָר‬ ְ ‫ת־ה ִעיר ַהזֹּאת ָבּ ֵאשׁ‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ִעיר ַהזֹּאת וְ ִה ִצּיתוּ ֶא‬ ָ ‫וּבאוּ ַה ַכּ ְשׂ ִדּים ַהנִּ ְל ָח ִמים ַע‬ ָ ‫אֹלהים ֲא ֵח ִרים ְל ַמ ַען‬ ִ ‫יהם ַל ַבּ ַעל וְ ִה ִסּכוּ נְ ָס ִכים ֵל‬ ֶ ‫גּוֹת‬ ֵ ַ‫וְ ֵאת ַה ָבּ ִתּים ֲא ֶשׁר ִק ְטּרוּ ַעל־גּ‬ ‫ַה ְכ ִע ֵסנִ י‬ ‘The Chaldeans who are fighting against this city shall come.Lesson 2 17 8. CSC/CLC ‫ ָפּט‬/ ‫ִמ ְשׁ‬ __________ ‫( ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬j __________ __________ ‫( ֫ ַליְ ָלה‬k __________ ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫( ֱא‬b __________ ‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ‫( ִל‬l __________‫( ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬c ‫( ָח ְכ ָמה‬a __________ ‫( ָה ֲא ָד ָמה‬m __________ ‫( ִק ְדּ ָשׁנוּ‬d __________ ‫מוּאל‬ ֵ ‫( ְשׁ‬n __________ ‫( ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬e __________ ‫( ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬o __________ ‫( ְצ ָד ָקה‬f __________ ‫( ַחיִּ ים‬p __________ ‫( ִל ְפנֵ י‬g __________ ‫( יַ ְח ָדּו‬q __________ ‫( ַא ָתּה‬h __________ ‫רוּח‬ ַ (r __________ ‫( ִא ָשּׁה‬i .

Translate the following phrases into Hebrew.Lesson 2 18 10. a) I am a man f) I (M) am a king b) He is a father g) We are a people c) You (P) are not gods h) He is the Lord d) She is not a man i) I (F) am a queen e) They (FP) are not sons j) It is Israel 11. and then practice saying them with a classmate or friend. Form five of your own phrases using independent personal pronouns and the items from the vocabulary list. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ .

Definiteness is a grammatical category (like gender. and articles. do carry semantic content. Lexical Words Lexical words. or tense) that represents a noun’s identifiability. phrases. and words. ‫ ְכּ‬. Grammatical Words Grammatical words are words that do not carry semantic content. number. conjunctions do not have meaning apart from the relationship they signal.1 Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words All items within the lexicon of a language can be separated into one of two categories: grammatical words and lexical words. 3. grammatical words do not refer to something in the real world. For example.2 Definiteness Definiteness A further basic classification of nouns is whether they are definite or not. Consider the following English example: I want to buy the book. and actions / events. nouns. respectively. and verbs are lexical words—they refer to people / places / things. adjectives.Lesson 3 Lesson Summary: • Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words • Definiteness • Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew • The Article: – •‫ַה‬ • Inseparable Prepositions: (– ‫ ְבּ‬. by contrast. prepositions. ‫ ְל‬. in other words. Thus. Other examples are pronouns. . qualities / quantities. the item to which it refers is identifiable by a reader/listener. When a noun is definite. However. conjunctions signal the syntactic relationship between clauses. and ‫) ִמן‬ • Vav Conjunction: (– ְ‫)ו‬ 3. but rather they signal grammatical relationships.

we will find that this is not always the case. such specific. and aspect. the precise book) should be identifiable by the reader/listener. Consider the following verse: ‫וּבא ַה ַבּיִ ת וְ ָס ַמְך‬ ָ ‫וּפגָ עוֹ ַהדּ ֹב‬ ְ ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר יָ נוּס ִאישׁ ִמ ְפּנֵ י ָה ֲא ִרי‬ ‫ל־ה ִקּיר וּנְ ָשׁכוֹ ַהנָּ ָחשׁ‬ ַ ‫יָ דוֹ ַע‬ ‘just as a man flees from the lion and the bear meets him and he enters the house and leans his hand upon the wall and the snake bites him’ (Amos 5:19) In Amos 5:19. and was met by a bear. In Biblical Hebrew.. such noun phrases are often definite. ‘the house’.e. its referent (e. I want to buy a book. the definite noun phrase the book signals to the reader that the ‘real-world’ referent (i. and ‘the snake’ denote an arbitrary member of the class described by each (e.g. For example.’ While definiteness in Biblical Hebrew and definiteness in English often correspond.3 Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew Definiteness. However. that of the phrase a book) is unidentifiable until it is identified by sight. whereas in other languages. Languages express and use definiteness differently. such noun phrases are overwhelmingly indefinite. an arbitrary member of the class ‘bear’).. like other grammatical categories such as gender. often takes on a morphological form. whereas in English.g. when a noun phrase is not definite (as below). Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew 3. Some languages have both a . ‘the bear’. or went into the house and rested a hand against the wall. in some languages noun phrases referring to specific (but unidentifiable) items are definite (as in Biblical Hebrew).. This is accomplished by means of grammatical words referred to as definite (and indefinite) articles. the noun phrases ‘the lion’. ‘the wall’. number. Compare the English translation given above (which directly reflects the Hebrew) with the English translation given below from the New Revised Standard Version: ‘as if someone fled from a lion. unidentifiable noun phrases are indefinite (as in English). and was bitten by a snake.Lesson 3 20 In the clause given. etc. description. tense.

Lesson 3


definite and indefinite article (so English: the versus a/an), whereas
many others have just one or the other.
Biblical Hebrew only has a definite article (•‫)ה‬.
ַ However, noun
phrases in Biblical Hebrew are also marked as definite by other
Biblical Hebrew nouns are marked as definite in one of four ways:

• If it is inherently definite (e.g., names, appellatives, pronouns)
‫‘ ָדּוִ יד‬David’ ‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ֱא‬God’ ‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I’
• If the article is prefixed to the noun:

‫‘ ַה ֵלּב‬the heart’

• If it is in a construct relationship with a definite noun (see 6.1):
‫ר־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫‘ ְדּ ַב‬the word of the king’

• If a possessive pronoun is suffixed:
‫‘ ִל ִבּי‬my heart’
Note: Nouns may only be marked as definite in one of these
ways; Biblical Hebrew nouns may not be doubly-marked for
definiteness. In other words, inherently definite nouns, nouns in
construct, or nouns with suffixes cannot take the article since
they are all already definite! The only “exceptions” are those few
proper (i.e., inherently definite) nouns whose origins were as
common nouns, such as ‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ָה ֱא‬God’.

The Hebrew

3.4 The Article (– • ‫) ַה‬
The definite article takes the form of ‫ ַה‬prefixed to the word it
modifies and a dagesh chazaq in the first letter of the modified

‫ ִמ ְד ָבּר = ַה ִמּ ְד ָבּר‬+ • ‫‘ ַה‬the wilderness’
However, this basic form may be modified. The form of the article
is as follows:

Lesson 3


1) • ‫ ַה‬before non-guttural consonants: ‫‘ ַהסּוּס‬the horse’
2) ‫ ָה‬usually before ‫א‬, ‫ע‬, or ‫ר‬: ‫‘ ָהרֹאשׁ‬the head’
3) ‫ ַה‬usually before ‫ ה‬or ‫ח‬: ‫יכל‬
ָ ‫‘ ַה ֵה‬the temple’
4) ‫ ֶה‬before ‫ ָה‬, ‫ ָח‬, or ‫( ָע‬unstressed!): ‫‘ ֶה ָה ִרים‬the mountains’
5) ‫ ָה‬before ‫ ָ֫ה‬or ‫( ֫ ָע‬stressed!): ‫‘ ָה ָהר‬the mountain’
BUT before ‫( ָ֫ח‬stressed!) it is ‫ ֶה‬: ‫‘ ֶה ָ֫חיִ ל‬the valor’
Summary of the article before gutturals:


‫ָה ָעז‬

‫ֶה ָע ָפר‬


‫ָה ָהר‬

‫ֶה ָה ִרים‬


‫ֶה ָ֫חיִ ל‬

‫ֶה ָח ָכם‬




‫ָה ָאב‬
‫ָה ִעיר‬


ָ ‫ַה ֵה‬
‫ַה ֫חֹ ֶדשׁ‬

Note: There are a few nouns whose first vowel changes when the
article is added to them:

‫ ֶ֫א ֶרץ ← ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the earth’
‫ גַ ן ← ַהגָּ ן‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the garden’
‫ ַעם ← ָה ָעם‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the people’

3.5 Inseparable Prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬, and sometimes ‫)מן‬
Prepositions are another type of grammatical word; that is, they
serve only to relate a noun, noun phrase, or clause syntactically to
other words in the sentence.
For example, the English preposition into in the following clause
relates the immediately following noun phrase the store to the
preceding verb phrase they ran:
They ran into the store.

Thus, prepositional phrases serve to specify the location, direction,

Lesson 3


manner, means, time, possession, etc., for other constituents such as
verb phrases, noun phrases, and clauses.
The most common prepositions in Biblical Hebrew are clitics, i.e.,
words that cannot stand on their own. There are three ‘inseparable’
prepositions, which may be prefixed to nouns, adjectives,
infinitives, and participles (thus, they are proclitic):
–‫‘ ְבּ‬in, at’ –‫‘ ְכּ‬like, as’ –‫‘ ְל‬to, for’

The principles of vocalization for the inseparable prepositions are:

• ‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬before a consonant with a full vowel.
‫‘ ְל ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬to/for a king’
‫‘ ְבּ ַ֫ביִ ת‬in/at a house’
• ‫ ִבּ‬, ‫ ִכּ‬, ‫ ִל‬before a consonant with a simple sheva, ְ .
‫‘ ִבּ ְב ִרית‬according to a covenant’
BUT before ְ‫ י‬the vowel becomes ‫ִ י‬.

ָ ‫הוּדה ← ִל‬
ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬to/for Judah’
• The corresponding full vowel before a compound sheva.
‫ ֲא ֶשׁר ← ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ ‫‘ ְכּ‬like that which’
‫ ֱאדוֹם ← ֶל ֱאדוֹם‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬for Edom’
• The article vocalization before a noun with the article (i.e., the
article’s consonant ‫ ה‬is replaced by the inseparable

‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ← ַל ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬to/for the king’
• Some special cases:
Quiescent ‫א‬: ‫אֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ֵל‬to/for God’ ‫‘ ַלאד ֹנָ י‬to/for the Lord’
‫ ְָבּ‬, ‫ ָכּ‬, ‫ ָל‬before a stressed syllable in some words: ‫‘ ָבּזֶ ה‬in this’

Lesson 3


The preposition ‫‘( ִמן‬from’) is mostly written as a separate word; in
such cases it is connected to the noun with a maqqef (‫)־‬. This is its
usual form before a noun with the article.

‫ן־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫‘ ִמ‬from the king’
The preposition ‫ ִמן‬may also be inseparable. In this case, the
vocalization is:

• •‫ ִמ‬before non-gutturals (the assimilation of ‫ ן‬into the following
consonant is marked by a dagesh chazaq).

‫ ָשׁם ← ִמ ָשּׁם‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from there’
BUT before ְ‫ י‬the vowel becomes a ‫ִ י‬.

ָ ‫הוּדה ← ִמ‬
ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from Judah’
• ‫ ֵמ‬before gutturals (the vowel lengthens because the guttural
cannot be lengthened, i.e., they do not allow dagesh chazaq).

‫ ִאישׁ ← ֵמ ִאישׁ‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from a man’


3.6 Vav Conjunction (– ְ‫)ו‬
As mentioned above in 3.1, conjunctions are a type of grammatical
word, like the article. Conjunctions serve to connect words, phrases,
clauses, and sentences to each other syntactically, e.g., and, or, but.
The basic Hebrew conjunction (and, in fact, the most frequent word
in the Hebrew Bible) is the vav conjunction: – ְ‫ו‬. Like the article and
the inseparable prepositions, it is attached to the front of a word.
The vav conjunction has two functions:
1) It connects words and phrases together, signaling a
coordinating relationship (it may be translated with ‘and’,
‘or’, or ‘but’).

‫‘ ָה ָעם וְ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬the people and the king’

‫ֹלהים יְ ִהי אוֹר‬ ִ ‫אמר ֱא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֫יּ‬ ‘(and) God said. This may be mnemonically referred to as the BuMP-Sheva Rule. ‫מ‬. ‫‘ וְ ָדוִ יד‬and David’ Note: The definite article remains when the conjunction is added. ‫‘ וֶ ֱאדוֹם‬and Edom’ ‫‘ וַ ֲאנִ י‬and I’ • ‫ וּ‬before ‫ב‬. “Let there be light!” (Gen 1:3) The vocalization of the vav conjunction: • ְ‫ ו‬normally. ‫פ‬. ‫וּביִ ת‬ ַ֫ ← ‫ ַ֫בּיִ ת‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and a house’ ‫וּפנִ ים‬ ָ ← ‫ ָפּנִ ים‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and a face’ ‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ‫וּמ‬ ִ ←‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ‫ ִמ‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and from Judah’ ‫דוֹלים‬ ִ ְ‫דוֹלים ← וּג‬ ִ ְ‫ גּ‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and great (things)’ Note: This is the only case in which a vowel begins a syllable! • Some special cases: Quiescent ‫א‬: ‫אֹלהים‬ ִ ֵ‫‘ ו‬and God’ ‫‘ וַ אד ֹנָ י‬and the Lord’ ָ‫ ו‬occasionally before a stressed syllable: ‫וָ ֫בֹהוּ‬ ‘and emptiness’ . ‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ִ‫הוּדה ← ו‬ ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and Judah’ • with the corresponding full vowel before a compound sheva. ‫‘ וְ ָה ִאישׁ‬and the man’ • ִ‫ ו‬before ְ‫י‬.Lesson 3 25 2) It marks the beginning of a new clause and is untranslatable (the type of clause and the context determine the type of connection required for English translation). or simple sheva (other than ְ‫)י‬.

‫ ְכּ‬. self ADV F to. 4. for there year. more than life. Add the preposition ‫ ִמן‬to five nouns from your vocabulary. Add one of the inseparable prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬. ‫ַ֫איִ ן‬ ‫ְבּ‬ M ‫ְל‬ master.  ‫ ) ְל‬to your results in exercise #1 (i. with. 2.e. by ‫ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬ M/F way. as ‫ֶ֫נ ֶפשׁ‬ ‫ָשׁם‬ ‫ָשׁנָ ה‬ PREP M heart. Add the definite article (•‫)ה‬ ַ to ten nouns from your vocabulary and translate (remember that proper names cannot have a definite article).  ‫ ) ְל‬to ten nouns from your vocabulary and translate. lord EXST ADV PREP there isn’t/aren’t ‫ ֵל ָבב‬. Add one of the inseparable prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬. at. 3. mind. inseparable preposition + the definite article + noun) and translate. road •‫ַה‬ DET the ְ‫ו‬ CONJ and ‫ְכּ‬ PREP like.7 Vocabulary #3 ‫ָאדוֹן‬ ‫ ֵאין־‬.. making it inseparable where possible.Lesson 3 26 3. PL ‫ִלבּוֹת‬ PREP F from. ‫ ְכּ‬. . and translate. P ‫ָשׁנִ ים‬ Exercises 1. ‫ֵלב‬ ‫ִמן‬ in.

6. e.Lesson 3 27 5. Add the vav conjunction to ten nouns from your vocabulary and translate. Translate the following sentences.. ‫ ַה ִאישׁ‬correct to ‫ה ִאישׁ‬. ‫( וְ ֵאין ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬a ‫( ֵאין ִעיר ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬b ‫( ָה ָעם וְ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ָבּ ִעיר‬c ‫( ָכּ ָאדוֹן ָכּ ֫ ֶע ֶבד‬d ‫( ָל ִא ָשּׁה ֵאין ִאישׁ‬e ‫ֹלהים ַכּיהוָ ה‬ ִ ‫( ֵאין ֱא‬f ‫( ֵאין כּ ֵֹהן ָל ָעם‬g ‫( וְ ִאישׁ ֵאין ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬h ‫( ֵאין ַעם ָשׁם‬i ‫( ֵאין ִעיר ַבּ ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬j . Correct the vocalization of these definite articles and/or inseparable prepositions. ָ ‫( ָה ֶמ ֶלְך‬k ‫( ִמ ַביִ ת‬f ‫( ִבּ ָשׁלוֹם‬a ‫וּכבוֹד‬ ָ (l ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫( ֶל ֱא‬g ‫( ַכּ ָשׁלוֹם‬b ‫( ֱב ְב ִרית‬m ‫ן־מ ְצ ַריִ ם‬ ִ ‫( וְ ִמ‬h ‫הוּדה‬ ָ ְ‫( ִלי‬c ‫מוּאל‬ ֵ ‫( ְל ְשׁ‬n ‫( ֱבּ ֱא ֶמת‬i ‫( ָה ָה ִרים‬d ‫( ִב ֱאדוֹם‬o ‫ן־ה ִעיר‬ ֶ ‫( ִמ‬j ‫( וִ ְמ ָל ִכים‬e 7.g.

yet there is no end to all their toil. ‫וְ ַעל־יָ ָדם ֶה ֱחזִ יק ְמ ַל ְטיָ ה ַהגִּ ְבעֹנִ י וְ יָ דוֹן ַה ֵמּרֹנ ִֹתי ַאנְ ֵשׁי גִ ְבעוֹן וְ ַה ִמּ ְצ ָפּה ְל ִכ ֵסּא ֫ ַפּ ַחת ֫ ֵע ֶבר‬ ‫ַהנָּ ָהר‬ ‘Next to them repairs were made by Melatiah the Gibeonite and Jadon the Meronothite--the men of Gibeon and of Mizpah--who were under the jurisdiction of the governor of the province beyond the River.Lesson 3 28 8. “For whom am I toiling. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ . and vav conjunctions in each verse.’ (Qoh 4:8) 9.’ (Ezra 7:28) ‫א־ת ְשׂ ַבּע ֫ע ֹ ֶשׁר‬ ִ ֹ ‫ם־עינָ יו ל‬ ֵ ַ‫ל־ע ָמלוֹ גּ‬ ֲ ‫יֵ שׁ ֶא ָחד וְ ֵאין ֵשׁנִ י גַּ ם ֵבּן וָ ָאח ֵאין־לוֹ וְ ֵאין ֵקץ ְל ָכ‬ ‫טּוֹבה גַּ ם־זֶ ה ֶ֫ה ֶבל וְ ִענְ יַ ן ָרע הוּא‬ ָ ‫וּמ ַח ֵסּר ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִשׁי ִמ‬ ְ ‫וּל ִמי ֲאנִ י ָע ֵמל‬ ְ ‘There is the case of solitary individuals. inseparable prepositions. and before all the king's mighty officers. . for the hand of Yhwh my God was upon me. without sons or brothers. . I took courage. “and depriving myself of pleasure?” This also is absurd and an unhappy business. be sure you can explain why they are vocalized as they are. and their eyes are never satisfied with riches. a) Practice reading aloud until you can do so smoothly. b) Circle the definite articles.” they ask. and I gathered leaders from Israel to go up with me. and who extended to me steadfast love before the king and his counselors. Form five of your own phrases using prepositions and the items from the vocabulary list.’ (Neh 3:7) ‫ל־שׂ ֵרי ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ַהגִּ בּ ִֹרים וַ ֲאנִ י ִה ְת ַח ַ֫זּ ְק ִתּי ְכּיַ ד־‬ ָ ‫וּל ָכ‬ ְ ‫יוֹע ָציו‬ ֲ ְ‫ה־ח ֶסד ִל ְפנֵ י ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ו‬ ֶ֫ ‫וְ ָע ַלי ִה ָטּ‬ ‫אשׁים ַל ֲעלוֹת ִע ִמּי‬ ִ ‫ֹלהי ָע ַלי וָ ֶא ְק ְבּ ָצה ִמיִּ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָר‬ ַ ‫יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ‘.

Masculine Singular noun In Biblical Hebrew masculine nouns do not have an overt gender inflection (alternatively. Thus. That is. nouns are lexical words. Gender Nouns in many languages are inflected for the grammatical category gender.. ‫‘ ִאישׁ‬man’ is masculine. pronouns.g. prepositions. whether real or hypothetical. ‫‘ ָאח‬brother’ ‫‘ ֫ ַנ ַער‬young man’ In contrast.1 Masculine and Feminine Singular Nouns Unlike grammatical words like the article. and conjunctions (discussed in Lesson 3). the noun book refers to a concrete object (a group of pages bound between a cover). (e. and verbs) in Biblical Hebrew are morphologically marked as either masculine or feminine.Lesson 4 Lesson Summary: • Singular Nouns: ‫סוּסה‬ ָ ‫סוּס‬ • Introduction to Verbs • Qal Perfect Conjugation . Feminine Singular noun • Many feminine nouns end in ‫ָ ה‬. ‫ִא ָשּׁה‬ ‘woman’ is feminine).Singular: ‫ָפּ ַקד ָפּ ְק ָדה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ • Objects in Biblical Hebrew: ‫ ֶאת־‬/ ‫ֵאת‬ 4. that marks them as masculine). indicated by Ø. grammatical gender is essentially a syntactic agreement property of language. nouns have semantic content—they refer to an entity in the external world. they could be considered to have a null suffix. . Though the ‘natural gender’ of animate objects often corresponds to their grammatical gender. most feminine nouns are overtly inflected for gender. Biblical Hebrew is such a language—nouns (as well as adjectives.

but do not have an overt grammatical gender inflection.. Masculine ‘stallion’ Feminine ‘mare’ The Hebrew Verb Binyan Singular Plural Dual (Ø marking) ‫סוּס‬ Lesson 5 Lesson 5 ‫סוּסה‬ ָ Lesson 5 4. prefixes. and number (PGN). ‫‘ יָ ד‬hand’ ‫‘ ֫ ַעיִ ן‬eye’ ‫‘ ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬foot’ Note: Some nouns. .g. reflexive. and person. Each binyan has a pattern of affixes and vowels. verbs can be derived from a triconsonantal root (see 1. the simple active binyan. each noun’s gender should be learned with its meaning. ‫) ָ ה‬. ‫‘ ְבּ ִרית‬covenant’ ‫‘ ַמ ְלכוּת‬kingdom’ ‫‘ ַח ָטּאת‬sin’ • Nouns referring to paired body parts are feminine.2 Introduction to Verbs Like most words in Biblical Hebrew. gender. or infixes) and/or vowel patterns to indicate its binyan. For example. or causative. are grammatically feminine even though they do not have a morphologically feminine gender marking (e. The gender of each noun in vocabulary lists is marked by M or F. suffixes. called Qal (‫‘ ַקל‬light’). • Binyan (P binyanim) (‘building’) indicates the valency of a verb’s action—whether active. This information is called a verb’s ‘parsing’.. like ‫‘ ֵאם‬mother.Lesson 4 30 ‫‘ ֲא ָד ָמה‬ground’ ‫‘ ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬cattle’ ‫תּוֹרה‬ ָ ‘teaching’ • Some feminine nouns end in ‫ת‬. Therefore.’ or body parts (above).1).g. passive. A triconsonantal verb root is modified by affixes (e. conjugation.

Perfect Conjugation Imperfect Conjugation Inflectional Affixes ‘whole’ view aspect (perfective) ‘in progress’ view aspect (imperfective) usually past time reference usually non-past time reference • Inflectional affixes mark a verb’s agreement features: person (1st. which uses inflectional suffixes ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ Prefix Pattern. Conjugation • Conjugation in Biblical Hebrew determines the aspect.. F. like English conjugations do (e. . or 3rd) gender (M. which uses primarily prefixes ‫יִ ְפקֹד‬ Note: The form by which Hebrew verbs are listed in a lexicon or dictionary is the Qal 3MS Perfect form. However.g. the Perfect is predominantly used to describe past time events..Lesson 4 31 is characterized by a qamets--patach vowel pattern in the Perfect conjugation: ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he attended’ (3MS). The conjugations do not signify tense. are based on two morphological patterns: Suffix Pattern. except the participle. The Qal binyan is introduced in this lesson. whereas the Imperfect is predominantly used to describe non-past time events (i. or view of a verb’s action: the Perfect conjugation views an event as a whole (perfective). the other six primary binyanim will be introduced in subsequent lessons. present or future). the Imperfect conjugation views an event as in progress (imperfective). All of the conjugations. 2nd.e. Simple Past). or C = common) number (S or P).

The noun phrase ‘the rock’ is also the complement in that without it the clause ‘Moses struck’ would be ungrammatical (i. it is useful to distinguish between two types of objects. the noun phrase ‘the rock’ is the object in that it is affected by the action of the verb ‘struck’. while others select oblique objects as their complements. an object noun phrase functions as the complement of a transitive verb—the presence of an object is necessary for a transitive verb to be ‘completed’ (see Lesson 26). direct and oblique (not to be confused with an ‘indirect’ object). For example. Syntactically.. whereas oblique objects are always preceded by a preposition. ‘touch’. The use of these two types of objects is completely dependent upon the verb—some verbs select direct objects as their complements. What distinguishes direct and oblique objects from each other is that direct objects are either preceded by the function word ‫ ֵאת‬or nothing at all.3 Qal Perfect Conjugation .Singular The Perfect is the only conjugation built on the Suffix Pattern. the transitive verb would not be ‘completed’). For instance. Precisely which preposition used depends on what is selected by the verb being modified. in Moses struck the rock. Conjugations built on the Prefix Pattern are introduced in Lesson 8. often takes as its complement an oblique object manifested as a prepositional phrase with the . Direct and Oblique Objects Oblique Objects and Prepositional Phrases For Biblical Hebrew. the verb ‫נגע‬. 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS Objects 32 — ‫ה‬-ָ ‫ ָתּ‬‫ ְתּ‬‫ ִתּי‬- → → → → → ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ ‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‘he attended’ 3CP Lesson 5 ‘she attended’ ‘you attended’ 2MP Lesson 5 ‘you attended’ 2FP Lesson 5 ‘I attended’ 1CP Lesson 5 4.4 Objects in Biblical Hebrew Object refers to the grammatical function served by a noun or pronoun that is the ‘receiver’ or ‘goal’ of the action of a verb.Lesson 4 Qal Perfect Conjugation Singular 4.e.

the vowel is a segol. ‫ָה ָעם‬ ‫ֵאת‬ ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬He visited the people’ the people [object he visited marker] Direct objects preceded by ‫ ֵאת‬are usually the semantic patients of their verbs.e. they are effected or affected by the verbal action.5 within the discussion of ‫.”’ (Gen 3:3) Note: Oblique objects. are always preceded by a preposition.. “you shall not eat from it and you shall not touch it.)מן‬ ִ in this case.e. i.. ‫ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫‘ ָשׁ ַפט‬He judged Israel’ Israel [object he judged marker] 33 . ‫אכלוּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫ֹלהים ל ֹא ת‬ ִ ‫תוְֹך־הגָּ ן ָא ַמ ר ֱא‬ ַ ‫וּמ ְפּ ִר י ָה ֵע ץ ֲא ֶשׁ ר ְבּ‬ ִ ‫ן־תּ ֻמתוּן‬ ְ ‫ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ לֹא ִתגְּ עוּ בּוֹ ֶפּ‬ ‘“and from the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden. lest you die. if they are strongly characterized as distinct entities or individuals—which means that they are also often marked with the article). regardless of whether they are complements or adjuncts (see Lesson 26).” God said. Direct Objects and ‫ֵאת‬ The function word ‫ ֵאת‬precedes direct objects of Biblical Hebrew verbs if those direct objects are individuated (i. Note: The direct object marker is sometimes attached to the noun with a maqqef (‫( )־‬see 3.Lesson 4 preposition ‫בּ‬.

2. ‫ ֵאת‬direct object marker ‫סוּס‬ ‫סוּסה‬ ָ F M maiden. humankind. attend to. law ‫ִעם‬ F mare PREP with Exercises 1. cut down ‫ָשׁ ַפט‬ Q judge. govern ‫תּוֹרה‬ ָ F direction. PN Adam ‫ָמ ַלְך‬ Q reign. young girl horse.5 Vocabulary #4 ‫ָא ָדם‬ M man. guard ‫ָכּ ַרת‬ Q cut. young boy ‫ָאחוֹת‬ F sister. instruction. be(come) king ‫ָאח‬ M brother.Lesson 4 34 4. P ‫ַא ִחים‬ ‫נָ ִביא‬ M prophet ‫֫ ַנ ַער‬ M lad. P ‫ָבּנוֹת‬ ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ Q visit. Mark the gender of each noun in your vocabulary list from Lessons 1-3 and on your vocabulary cards (M or F) (look in glossary if you are unsure). cut off. P ‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬ ‫ֵאם‬ F mother. Identify the gender (M or F) of the following nouns (use their form). P ‫ִאמּוֹת‬ ‫נַ ֲע ָרה‬ ‫ ֶאת־‬. appoint ‫זָ ַכר‬ Q remember ‫ָשׁ ַמר‬ Q keep. ‫( ____ ָא ָדם‬p ‫( ____ ַח ָטּאת‬k ‫( ____ זָ ָהב‬f ‫( ____ ִמ ְשׁ ֶ֫מ ֶרת‬a ‫( ____ ַ֫בּ ַעל‬q ‫( ____ ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬l ‫( ____ ְצ ָד ָקה‬g ‫( ____ ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬b ‫( ____ ַמ ְל ָאְך‬r ‫( ____ ְדּמוּת‬m ‫( ____ נַ ֲח ָלה‬h ‫( ____ ֲא ָד ָמה‬c ‫( ____ ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬s ‫( ____ ֶ֫כּ ֶבשׂ‬n ‫( ____ ֶ֫מ ַלח‬i ‫( ____ ִתּ ְקוָ ה‬d ‫( ____ ָבּ ָקר‬t ‫( ____ ֲע ָר ָבה‬o ‫( ____ ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬j ‫( ____ ִמ ְצוָ ה‬e . stallion ‫ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬ F cattle ‫ְבּ ִרית‬ F covenant ‫ַבּת‬ F daughter.

Add the Qal Perfect Singular endings (and vowels) to each of these verbs and translate. ‫שׁמר‬ ‫פּקד‬ 3MS 3MS 3FS 3FS 2MS 2MS 2FS 2FS 1CS 1CS ‫זכר‬ ‫שׁפט‬ 3MS 3MS 3FS 3FS 2MS 2MS 2FS 2FS 1CS 1CS ‫מלְך‬ 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS . Also add the appropriate personal pronouns before each verb.Lesson 4 35 3.

Translate the following sentences. give the person.Lesson 4 36 4. and root) in each sentence.. PN is placed beside the first occurrence of proper name other than YHWH. gender. (* is placed by verses that have been altered.) ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָבר‬ ַ ‫ ָה ָאב ָשׁ ַמר ֶא‬Gen 37:11* (a ‫ וְ לֹא ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְר ָתּ ַה ְבּ ִרית‬I Kgs 11:11* (b ‫ת־א ְב ָרם ְבּ ִרית‬ ַ ‫ יְ הוָ ה ָכּ ַרת ֶא‬Gen 15:18* (c ‫ יְ הוָ ה ָמ ַלְך‬Ps 93:1* (d ‫י־שׁ ַ֫מ ְר ִתּי ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬ ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Ps 18:22* (e ‫ת־היּוֹם‬ ַ ‫ לֹא־זָ ַכ ְר ְתּ ֶא‬Ezek 16:43* (f ‫ת־ה ָעם‬ ָ ‫ ָפּ ַקד ֶא‬I Kgs 20:15* (g ‫ לֹא זָ ְכ ָרה‬Lam 1:9 (h ‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬PN‫יוֹאשׁ‬ ָ ‫ וְ לֹא־זָ ַכר‬II Chr 24:22 (i ‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ָשׁ ַפט‬I Kgs 3:28* (j PN ‫ת־חנָּ ה‬ ַ ‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬ ָ ‫ ִכּ‬I Sam 2:21 (k ‫ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬Ps 65:10 (l ‫ת־ה ָעם‬ ָ ‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬ ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Ruth 1:6* (m .e. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i. number.

verb.Lesson 4 37 ‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ‫ ָמ ַלְך ִבּ‬PN‫ ְוּר ַח ְב ָעם‬I Kgs 14:21* (n 5. and object in them. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ . Compose five sentences in Hebrew. Each must have a subject.

hands. These irregular forms must be memorized (paradigms of the most common irregular nouns are in 6. Singular Plural Dual Masculine (no marking) ‫סוּס‬ ‫סוּסים‬ ִ ‫סוּסיִ ם‬ ַ֫ Feminine ‫סוּסה‬ ָ ‫סוּסוֹת‬ ‫סוּס ַ֫תיִ ם‬ ָ • There are some frequently occurring irregular nouns that do not follow this paradigm.Plural Qal Perfect Conjugation plural In Lesson 4 the singular inflectional suffixes of the Qal Perfect were introduced. etc.1 Masculine and Feminine Plural and Dual Nouns Plural nouns Singular nouns were introduced in Lesson 4.Lesson 5 Lesson Summary: ִ ‫יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם סוּסוֹת‬ • Plural and Dual Nouns: ‫סוּסים‬ • Qal Perfect Conjugation – Plural: ‫דתּם ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ֶ ‫ָפּ ְקדוּ ְפּ ַק‬ • Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ 5. ‫‘ ָאבוֹת‬fathers’ (S ‫) ָאב‬ ‫‘ נָ ִשׁים‬women’ (S ‫) ִא ָשּׁה‬ Dual nouns • The use of dual is largely confined to things that occur naturally in pairs (eyes. ‫‘ יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם‬hands’ (FS ‫)יָ ד‬ ‫‘ ֵע ַ֫יניִ ם‬eyes’ (FS ‫) ֫ ַעיִ ן‬ ‫‘ נַ ֲע ֫ ַליִ ם‬sandals’ (FS ‫) ֫ ַנ ַעל‬ ‫‘ ָאזְ ֫ ַניִ ם‬ears’ (FS ‫אזֶ ן‬ ֹ֫) ‫‘ ַרגְ ֫ ַליִ ם‬feet’ (FS ‫) ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬ 5.2).2 Qal Perfect Conjugation . feet. .). Remember that paired body parts are feminine (see 4.1). Here the plural inflectional suffixes are added. In this lesson the plural and dual (= two) noun forms are introduced.

with ‫ַעל‬ PREP article ‫ָה ָהר‬ ‫הוּדה‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ PN Judah ‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַליִ ם‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ PN Jerusalem ‫ָל ַכד‬ Q capture ‫ִמ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם‬ before PN Egypt unto. who ‫ִל ְפנֵ י‬ PREP ‫ַ֫מיִ ם‬ M water ‫גּוֹי‬ M nation. people ‫ָדּ ַרשׁ‬ Q seek ‫ַעד‬ PREP ‫ָהיָ ה‬ Q become. which. Here is the Qal Perfect paradigm of the verb. 3MS ‫‘ ָהיָ ה‬he was’ 3FS ‫‘ ָהיְ ָתה‬she was’ 2MS ‫ָהיִ י֫ ָת‬ 3CP ‫‘ ָהיוּ‬they were’ ‘you were’ 2MP ‫יתם‬ ֶ ִ‫‘ ֲהי‬you were’ 2FS ‫‘ ָהיִ ית‬you were’ 2FP ‫יתן‬ ֶ ִ‫( ֲהי‬not attested) 1CS ‫‘ ָהיִ י֫ ִתי‬I was’ 1CP ‫‘ ָהיִ י֫ נוּ‬we were’ 5.3 Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ The verb ‫‘( ָהיָ ה‬be’) is both frequent and irregular.Lesson 5 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3CP 2MP 2FP 1CP — ‫ה‬-ָ ‫ ָתּ‬‫ ְתּ‬‫ ִתּי‬‫—וּ‬ ‫— ֶתּם‬ ‫— ֶתּן‬ ‫—נוּ‬ → → → → → → → → → 39 ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ ‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‘he attended’ ‘she attended’ ‘you attended’ ‘you attended’ ‘I attended’ ‘they attended’ ‘you attended’ ‘you attended’ ‘we attended’ 5.4 Vocabulary #5 ‫אזֶ ן‬ ֹ֫ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ F ear CONJ that. as far as. be ‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬ F ‫ַהר‬ M mountain. over ‫ָק ַרב‬ Q draw near. hill country. approach ‫רֹאשׁ‬ M head. until eye upon. P ‫אשׁים‬ ִ ‫ָר‬ ‫ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬ F foot ‫רוּח‬ ַ F spirit. wind .

Also add the appropriate personal pronouns before each form. ‫שׁמר‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS ‫פּקד‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP ‫לכד‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS ‫שׁפט‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP . Write out the complete Qal Perfect for each of these verb roots and translate. ‫יָ ד‬ ‫ָאדוֹן‬ ‫אזֶ ן‬ ֹ֫ ‫ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬ ‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬ ‫גּוֹי‬ ‫ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬ ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫֫ ַנ ַעל‬ ‫נָ ִביא‬ ‫סוּס‬ ‫סוּסה‬ ָ ‫רוּח‬ ַ ‫תּוֹרה‬ ָ 2. Write out the plural (right column) and dual (left column) for the following items and translate.Lesson 5 40 Exercises 1.

.) PN ‫ת־שׂ ָרה‬ ָ ‫ וַ יהוָ ה ָפּ ַקד ֶא‬Gen 21:1 (a ‫יהוּדה‬ ָ ִ‫ ָשׁנָ ה ַעל ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ו‬GL‫ וְ ָשׁלשׁ‬GL‫לשׁים‬ ִ ‫ירוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִ ִם ָמ ַלְך ְשׁ‬ ָ ‫וּב‬ ִ II Sam 5:5 (b ‫ וְ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה לֹא ָד ְרשׁוּ‬Isa 9:12* (c ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫ ִכּי ָד ַ ֫ר ְשׁנוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬II Chr 14:6* (d ‫ וָ ֫בֹהוּ‬GL‫תהוּ‬ ֹ ֫ ‫ וְ ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ָהיְ ָתה‬Gen 1:2 (e GL ‫ ָדּ ַ ֫ר ְשׁ ִתּי ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה‬Ps 34:5 (f ‫י־היִ י֫ ִתי ְליִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ְל ָאב‬ ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Jer 31:9 (g ‫א־ד ַרשׁ ַבּיהוָ ה‬ ָ ֹ ‫ וְ ל‬I Chr 10:14 (h ‫ ָק ְרבוּ ַהיָּ ִמים‬Ezek 12:23 (i . gender. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.e. number. give the person. and root) in each sentence. Translate the following sentences.Lesson 5 41 ‫דּרשׁ‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS ‫קרב‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP 3. (GL is placed beside nonvocabulary words to alert you to check the glossary for their meanings.

a. Compose five sentences in Hebrew. ____________________________________________________________ c. verb.Lesson 5 42 ‫י־ע ֶבד ָהיִ י֫ ָת ְבּ ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬ ֶ ֫ ‫ ִכּ‬Deut 16:12 (j ‫ֹלהים לֹא ָק ְר ָבה‬ ִ ‫ל־א‬ ֱ ‫ ֶא‬Zeph 3:2* (k ‫ ָהיָ ה ְב ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬PN‫יוֹסף‬ ֵ ְ‫ ו‬Exod 1:5 (l 4. ____________________________________________________________ b. and object in them. ____________________________________________________________ . Three should have plural verbs and three should have dual or plural nouns. ____________________________________________________________ e. ____________________________________________________________ d. Each should have a subject.

Instead. there are different inflectional affixes for MP and FS nouns in construct and nouns not in construct). the vocalization of a noun in construct often differs from its vocalization when not in construct—even in the MS and FP.) The typical construct relationship (often called ‫)ס ִמיכוּת‬ ְ consists of two elements: a noun in the construct state (‫‘ נִ ְס ָמְך‬supported’) ֵ ‘supporting’).1 The Construct Relationship Construct relationship Biblical Hebrew does not have any equivalent to the English preposition ‘of’.. However.Lesson 6 Lesson Summary: • Construct Relationship: ‫ר־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬ ַ ‫ְדּ ַב‬ • Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns: ‫ָאב ָאח ָאחוֹת ִאישׁ ִא ָשּׁה‬ ‫ַ֫בּיִ ת ֵבּן ַבּת יוֹם רֹאשׁ ִעיר‬ 6. followed by one in the absolute state (‫סוֹמְך‬ ‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬the word of the king’ the king (the) word of ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCT ‫נִ ְס ָמְך‬ ‫סוֹמְך‬ ֵ Only the masculine plural and feminine singular nouns have distinctive construct morphology (i. (The semantics of this relationship are discussed further in Lesson 28.e. Singular Masculine Feminine Absolute Construct Absolute Construct Plural Dual ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫ְדּ ַבר‬ ‫ְדּ ָב ִרים‬ ‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬ ‫ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ם‬ ‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬ ‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬ ‫ַא ְד ַמת‬ ‫ֲא ָדמוֹת‬ ‫ַא ְדמוֹת‬ ‫ַא ְד ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬ ‫ַא ְד ְמ ֵתי‬ . similar ‘of-relationships’ are expressed by joining words together in the construct relationship.

‫י־א ָדם‬ ָ ‫‘ ָכּל־יְ ֵמ‬all of the days of Adam’ (Gen 5:5) • A construct relationship can also have a single construct noun .)־‬this is a graphic signal that the two words are stressed as a single unit. it is a proper noun or has the article). However.g. ‫יאי־יְ הוָ ה‬ ֵ ‫‘ נְ ִב‬the prophets of YHWH’ (PN) (1 Kgs 18:4) ‫ב־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ָ ‫‘ זְ ַה‬the gold of the land’ (article) (Gen 2:12) • The meanings expressed by the construct relationship are similar to English ‘of’ (see Lesson 28 for further discussion). if the absolute noun is definite (e. then the construct noun ‘inherits’ this definiteness. the lack of major stress on the construct noun often affects its vocalization. As noted above. ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCT ‫‘ ָדּ ָבר‬word’ ‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה‬the word of YHWH’ (Ezek 1:3) Note: A construct noun is often attached to an absolute noun with a maqqef (‫ . • A noun in construct cannot have a definite article. This phenomenon is similar to the stress change in English compounds: a whíte hoúse versus the Whítehouse..Lesson 6 44 Description of the construct relationship: • Two nouns in a construct relationship are treated as a compound: the two words are considered to be one prosodic phrase and the major ‘phrase stress’ is on the absolute noun. ‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה‬the word of YHWH’ = ‘YHWH’S word’ (Ezek 1:3) ‫‘ יִ ְר ַאת־יְ הוָ ה‬the fear of YHWH’ (Prov 1:7) ‫וּבגְ ֵדי ַה ֫קֹּ ֶדשׁ‬ ִ ‘and the garments of holiness’ = ‘the holy garments’ (Exod 29:29) • A construct relationship can have more than one construct noun all related to one absolute noun.

Lesson 6 45 related to coordinated absolute nouns (often however. ‫ֹלהים וְ ָא ָדם‬ ִ ‫ְבּ ֵעינֵ י ֱא‬ ‘in the eyes of God and (in the eyes of) man’ (Prov 3:4) ‫אֹלהי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי ַה ָשּׁ ַ֫מיִ ם ו‬ ֵ ‫ֱא‬ ‘the God of heaven and the God of earth’ (Gen 24:3) Irregular nouns 6. You should familiarize yourself with these forms.2 Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns Some irregular noun forms occur frequently. Singular Absolute Singular Construct Plural Absolute Plural Construct ‘father’ M ‫ָאב‬ ‫ַאב‬ ‫ָאבוֹת‬ ‫ֲאבוֹת‬ ‘brother’ M ‫ָאח‬ ‫ֲא ִחי‬ ‫ַא ִחים‬ ‫ַא ֵחי‬ ‘sister’ F ‫ָאחוֹת‬ ‫ֲאחוֹת‬ *‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬ ‫ַא ְחיוֹת‬ ‘man’ M ‫ִאישׁ‬ ‫ִאישׁ‬ ‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬ ‫ַאנְ ֵשׁי‬ ‘woman’ F ‫ִא ָשּׁה‬ ‫ֵ֫א ֶשׁת‬ ‫נָ ִשׁים‬ ‫נְ ֵשׁי‬ ‘house’ M ‫ַ֫בּיִ ת‬ ‫ֵבּית‬ ‫ָבּ ִתּים‬ ‫ָבּ ֵתּי‬ ‫ֵבּן‬ ‫ֶבּן‬ ‫ָבּנִ ים‬ ‫ְבּנֵ י‬ ‘daughter’ F ‫ַבּת‬ ‫ַבּת‬ ‫ָבּנוֹת‬ ‫ְבּנוֹת‬ ‘day’ M ‫יוֹם‬ ‫יוֹם‬ ‫יָמים‬ ִ ‫יְמי‬ ֵ ‘city’ F ‫ִעיר‬ ‫רֹאשׁ‬ ‫ִעיר‬ ‫רֹאשׁ‬ ‫ָע ִרים‬ ‫אשׁים‬ ִ ‫ָר‬ ‫ָע ֵרי‬ ‫אשׁי‬ ֵ ‫ָר‬ ‘son’ M ‘head’ M . the construct noun is repeated in two coordinated constructs).

ִ ‫‘ __________ ֱא‬the spirit of God’ (Exod 35:31) a) ‫ֹלהים‬ b) ‫‘ __________ יְ הוָ ה‬the angel/messenger of the Lord’ (Gen 16:11) c) ‫‘ __________ ְפ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬all of the cities of the Philistines’ (1 Sam 6:18) d) __________ ‫אשׁי‬ ֵ ‫‘ ָר‬the heads of the mountains’ (Gen 8:5) e) ‫‘ _________ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬the sons of Israel’ (Exod 1:1) f) ‫‘ __________ ָה ָא ָדם‬the daughters of man’ (Gen 6:2) g) ‫‘ __________ ַה ָמּקוֹם‬the men of the place’ (Gen 26:7) h) _______________ ‫‘ ֶאל‬to the house of the women’ (Esth 2:3) i) ‫‘ __________ ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬in the days of Abraham’ (Gen 26:1) j) ‫‘ __________ ְבנֵ י־עמּוֹן‬the father of the sons of Ammon’ (Gen 19:38) . ‫ַפּ ְרעֹה‬ sword CONJ PN as. P ‫ְמקוֹמוֹת‬ ‫ַא ֲהר ֹן‬ PN Aaron ‫ָע ַמד‬ Q stand ‫ָא ַמר‬ Q ‫ָבּ ֶבל‬ PN ‫ָבּ ָשׂר‬ M flesh ‫ַחיִּ ים‬ M life ‫ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬ F ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ‫כֹּה‬ say Babylon ‫ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬ ADV Philistines. listen. P ‫ְצ ָבאוֹת‬ ‫קוֹל‬ M voice.Lesson 6 46 6. angel ‫ַא ְב ָרם‬ PN Abram ‫ָמקוֹם‬ M place. + ‫ ְבּקוֹל‬obey Exercises 1. hard service. sound ‫ָשׁ ַכן‬ Q settle. army. dwell ‫ָשׁ ַמע‬ Q hear. just as.3 Vocabulary #6 ‫ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬ PN Abraham ‫ַמ ְל ָאְך‬ M messenger. Complete the following construct phrases. so ‫ָצ ָבא‬ M host. Philistine PN Pharaoh ‫ ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי‬. when thus.

‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים‬ ַ ‫ ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׁ ַמע ֫ ֶע ֶבד ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא‬Gen 24:52* (a ‫ וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם ָע ַמד ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬Gen 18:22* (b ‫ל־ה ְמּקוֹמוֹת‬ ַ ‫ ָשׁ ַפט ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ְבּ ָכ‬I Sam 7:16* (c ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫לוֹא־שׁ ְמעוּ ְבּקוֹל יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ָ Jer 7:28* (d .e. and root) in each sentence. number. Translate the following sentences. Translate the following construct phrases. gender. give the person. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.Lesson 6 2. 47 ‫ ֵבּית יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Lev 10:6 (a ‫הוּדה‬ ָ ְ‫ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך י‬I Kgs 12:23 (b ‫ כֹּל ַמ ְל ֵכי גוֹיִ ם‬Isa 14:9 (c ‫ל־מ ְל ֵכי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ַ ‫ ָכּ‬Ps 102:16 (d ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫ישׁ־ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫משׁה ִא‬ ֶ ‫תוֹרת‬ ַ ‫ְכּ‬ II Chron 30:16 (e ‫אשׁי ֶה ָה ִרים‬ ֵ ‫ ְבּכֹל ָר‬Ezek 6:13 (f ‫ל־ע ֵרי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ָ ‫ִמ ָכּ‬ I Sam 18:6 (g ‫י־א ֲהר ֹן ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים‬ ַ ֵ‫ל־ע ֵרי ְבנ‬ ָ ‫ ָכּ‬Josh 21:19 (h ‫ְך־עיר‬ ִ ‫ ְבּרֹאשׁ ֶ ֫דּ ֶר‬Ezek 21:24 (i 3..

7:3 (h 4.Lesson 6 48 ‫וּמכֹּל ַהר יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ִ ‫הוּדה‬ ָ ְ‫ ִמכֹּל ַהר י‬PN ‫ת־ה ֲענָ ִקים‬ ָ ‫ ָכּ ַרת ֶא‬PN‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬ ֻ ְ‫ י‬Josh 11:21* (e ‫ יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ָשׁ ַכן ְבּ ַהר ִציּוֹן‬Isa 8:18* (f ‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ֵ ‫ֹה־א ַמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה כּ‬ ַ ‫משׁה וְ ַא ֲהר ֹן ָא ְמרוּ ֶא‬ ֶ Exod 5:1* (g ‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ֵ ‫ֹה־א ַמר יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ֱא‬ ָ ‫ כּ‬Jer. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ . From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least one construct phrase each.

‫ְדּ ָב ִרי‬ ← ‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬ ָ ‫ִי‬ ‫ְדּ ַבר‬ ‘my word’ me word of (1CS) (MS CST) + + ‫תּוֹרת‬ ַ ‘his teaching’ him teaching of (3MS) (FS CST) ← ֹ‫ו‬ Note: When pronominal suffixes are added to FS nouns. on the suffix itself) or the next to last syllable (i.e.. About pronouns suffixed to nouns: • Suffixed pronouns express possession on nouns. on the ‘linking vowel’ that connects the noun to the suffix).g. . he/she for subject (Nominative case).Lesson 7 Lesson Summary: • Suffixed Pronouns: ‫ְדּ ָב ִרי‬ • Segolate Nouns: ‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ • Modal use of the Perfect Conjugation: ‫)וּ(פ ַק ְד ִתּי‬ ָ 7. the form ending with a ‫ )ת‬is used. and him/her for object (Accusative case). his/hers for possession (Genitive case)...e.4) only function as subjects. Either ‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬ ָ ‘his teaching’ or ‫תּוֹרה‬ ָ ‫‘ ַה‬the teaching’ BUT NOT BOTH • Nouns with suffixed pronouns are stressed either on the last syllable (i.1 Suffixed Pronouns Suffixed pronouns English uses different pronominal forms based on the pronoun’s role in a sentence: e. A set of suffixed pronouns fills the roles of possession/ Genitive and object/Accusative.e. nouns with pronominal suffixes cannot also have the article. the construct form (i.. • Suffixed pronouns serve to make a noun definite. In Biblical Hebrew the independent pronouns (2.

ֹ ‫ו‬ singular nouns Added to Masculine → ‫‘ ְדּ ָברוֹ‬his word’ ‫ֵר ֫ ֵעהוּ‬ Suffixed pronoun on plural nouns Added to Feminine → ‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬ ָ ‘his law’ ‘his friend’ 3FS ‫ָהּ‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרהּ‬her word’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתהּ‬ ָ ‘her law’ 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ְרָך‬your word’ → ‫תּוֹר ְתָך‬ ָ ‘your law’ 2FS ‫ֵ ְך‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵרְך‬your word’ → ‫תּוֹר ֵתְך‬ ָ ‘your law’ 1CS ‫ִי‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ִרי‬my word’ → ‫תּוֹר ִתי‬ ָ ‘my law’ 3MP ‫ָם‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרם‬their word’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתם‬ ָ ‘their law’ 3FP ‫ָן‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרן‬their word’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתן‬ ָ ‘their law’ 2MP ‫ְ ֶכם‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכם‬your word’ → ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכם‬ ַ ‘your law’ 2FP ‫ְ ֶכן‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכן‬your word’ → ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכן‬ ַ ‘your law’ 1CP ‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ ֫רנוּ‬our word’ → ‫תּוֹר ֵ֫תנוּ‬ ָ ‘our law’ 2) Suffixed pronouns on plural nouns Added to Masculine Added to Feminine 3MS ‫ָ יו‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָריו‬his words’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתיו‬ ָ ‘his laws’ 3FS ‫יה‬ ָ ֶ֫ → ‫יה‬ ָ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ ֫ר‬her words’ → ‫יה‬ ָ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֶ֫ ‘her laws’ 2MS ‫ֶ֫ יָך‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ ֫ריָך‬your words’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתיָך‬ ֶ֫ ‘your laws’ 2FS ‫ַ֫ יִ ְך‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ְך‬your words’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתיִ ְך‬ ַ֫ ‘your laws’ 1CS ‫ַי‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַרי‬my words’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתי‬ ַ ‘my laws’ 3MP ‫יהם‬ ֶ ֵ → ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’ → ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘their laws’ 3FP ‫יהן‬ ֶ ֵ → ‫יהן‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’ → 2MP ‫יכם‬ ֶ ֵ → ‫יכם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’ → ‫יכם‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘your laws’ 2FP ‫יכן‬ ֶ ֵ → ‫יכן‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’ → ‫יכן‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘your laws’ 1CP ‫ֵ֫ ינוּ‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ ֫רינוּ‬our words’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתינוּ‬ ֵ֫ ‘our laws’ ‫יהן‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘their laws’ .Lesson 7 50 ‫סוּסי‬ ִ ‘my horse’ (stressed on the last syllable) ‫סוּסנוּ‬ ֵ֫ ‘our horse’ (stressed on the linking vowel) 1) Suffixed pronouns on singular nouns Suffixed pronoun on 3MS (‫) ֵ֫ הוּ‬.

Suffixed pron. take plural noun suffixes (see chart under [2] above). and ‫)עדי ( ַעד‬.Lesson 7 Suffixed pron. on ‫ ְכּ‬and ‫ִמן‬ 4) Suffixed pronouns on ‫ ְכּ‬/‫כּ‬/‫מוֹ‬ ָ ‫ ָכּ‬and ‫ ִמן( ִמן‬+ ‫) ִמן‬ 3MS → 3FS → 2MS → 2FS → 1CS → 3MP → 3FP → 2MP → 2FP → 1CP → ‫ָכּ ֫מוֹהוּ‬ ‫וֹה‬ ָ ‫ָכּ ֫מ‬ ‫ָכּ ֫מוָֹך‬ ‫ָכּמוְֹך‬ ‫ָכּ ֫מוֹנִ י‬ ‫ָכּ ֵהם‬ ‫ָכּ ֵהן‬ ‫ָכּ ֶכם‬ ‫ָכּ ֶכן‬ ‫ָכּ ֫מוֹנוּ‬ ‘like him’ → ‘like her’ → ‘like you’ → ‘like you’ → ‘like me’ → ‘like them’ → ‘like them’ → ‘like you’ → ‘like you’ → ‘like us’ → ‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬ ‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנָ הּ‬ ‫ִמ ְמָּך‬ ‫ִמ ֵמְּך‬ ‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנִ י‬ ‫ֵמ ֶהם‬ ‫ֵמ ֶהן‬ ‫ִמ ֶכּם‬ ‫ִמ ֶכּן‬ ‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬ ‘from him’ ‘from her’ ‘from you’ ‘from you’ ‘from me’ ‘from them’ ‘from them’ 3MS is identical to 1CP ‘from you’ ‘from you’ ‘from us’ About pronouns suffixed to prepositions: • Suffixed pronouns designate objects on prepositions and on the direct object marker (the form of which is -‫ ֶאת‬or -‫ אוֹת‬with suffixes). on prepositions and -‫ ֶאת‬.-‫אֹת‬ 51 3) Suffixed pronouns on Prepositions and Direct Object Marker 3MS ֹ‫ו‬ → ‫‘ לוֹ‬for him’ → ‫‘ אוֹתוֹ‬him’ → → ‫אוֹתהּ‬ 3FS ‫ָהּ‬ ‫‘ ָלהּ‬for her’ ָ ‘her’ 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ → ‫‘ ְלָך‬for you’ → ‫אוֹתָך‬ ְ ‘you’ 2FS ‫ָ ְך‬ ‫‘ ָלְך‬for you’ ָ ‘you’ → → ‫אוֹתְך‬ → → 1CS ‫ִי‬ ‫‘ ִלי‬for me’ ‫אוֹתי‬ ִ ‘me’ 3MP ‫ ָ ם‬/ ‫ָ ֶהם‬ ‫‘ ָל ֶהם‬for them’ ָ ‘them’ → → ‫אוֹתם‬ 3FP ‫ָ ֶהן‬ → ‫‘ ָל ֶהן‬for them’ → ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶהן‬them’ → → ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬you’ 2MP ‫ָ ֶכם‬ ‫‘ ָל ֶכם‬for you’ 2FP ‫ָ ֶכן‬ ‫‘ ָל ֶכן‬for you’ → → ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכן‬you’ 1CP ‫ָ֫ נוּ‬ → ‫‘ ֫ ָלנוּ‬for us’ → ‫אוֹתנוּ‬ ָ֫ ‘us’ ִ Note: The prepositions ‫ ִעם‬and ‫ ֵאת‬use different forms with suffixes: –‫ ִעמּ‬and –‫אתּ‬. respectively (in the case of the preposition ‫את‬. ‫)אלי ( ֶאל‬. ֵ Also important is the fact that some prepositions. ֵ this difference helps to distinguish it from the object marker ‫)את‬. such as ‫)עלי ( ַעל‬. ‫ ְ ָך ← ָא ַמר ְלָך‬+ ‫ָא ַמר ְל‬ you to (2MS) ‘he said to you’ .

‫ַמ ְלך* ← ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ ‘king’ Note: A guttural second or third root consonant can affect the vowels. the result was the creation of a new. ‫נַ ְער* ← ֫ ַנ ַער‬ ( ַ instead of ֶ ) ‘young man’ (because gutturals prefer a-class vowels) • Masculine segolate nouns are stressed on the initial syllable (originally the only syllable) in the singular absolute form. ‫ )נַ ֲע ָרה‬and those without (e.. one-syllable) nouns in the masculine singular. The original vowel (that is.. ֶ ֫ Those with feminine gender inflection (‫ ָ) ה‬are stressed on the final syllable.2 Segolate Nouns Segolate nouns are a distinct group of nouns that were originally monosyllabic (i.g. ‫)נ ֶפשׁ‬. • Segolate nouns originated as single-syllable nouns to which a segol ‘helping vowel’ was added. P‫נְ ָע רוֹת‬ ‫‘ נַ ְפשׁ* ← ֫ ֶנ ֶפשׁ‬life’. P‫נְ ָפ שׁוֹת‬ • Segolate nouns exhibit their original vowel with some suffixes.g.. ‫‘ ֫ ֶע ֶבד‬servant’ • Feminine segolate nouns come in two forms: those with feminine gender inflection (e.Lesson 7 52 ‫אוֹתם‬ ָ ‫ָ ם ← ָעזַ ב‬ + ‫‘ ָעזַ ב אוֹת‬he abandoned them’ them direct object (3MP) marker Segolate nouns 7. second syllable. ‫ ָ ה ← נַ ֲע ָרה‬+ *‫‘ נַ ְער‬young woman’. ‫ִ י ← ַא ְר ִצי‬ + *‫‘ ַא ְרץ‬my land’ . the vowel in the first syllable) is regularly altered.e.

SINGULAR PLURAL Modal use of the Perfect Conjugation ‘king’ ‘kings’ ‫ַמ ְלְך* ← ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ ‫( ָמ ָלְך* ← ְמ ָל ִכים‬like ‫) ָדּ ָבר‬ 7.. These are equivalent to English clauses beginning with ‘if/when/so that/in order that/ because’. the presence of the conjunction is a good introductory way to distinguish the modal from the indicative use of the verb. • The most common modal function of the Perfect is to mark (semantically) subordinate clauses. i. result. or causal clauses.e. ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָבר‬ ַ ‫וְ ָא ִביו ָשׁ ַמר ֶא‬ (subject-verb) ‘(and) his father kept the word’ (Gen 37:11) ‫ת־ה ְבּ ִרית‬ ַ ‫ֹלהיָך ְלָך ֶא‬ ֶ֫ ‫וְ ָשׁ ַמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ (verb-subject) ‘(so) YHWH your God shall keep for you the covenant’ (Deut 7:12) Note: Often the subject is not explicit in BH clauses. purpose. because most modal Perfects are prefixed with the vav conjunction. However. conditional. ‘For I have chosen him so that he might command his sons and his household after him so that they might keep the way of YHWH (‫ )וְ ָשׁ ְמרוּ ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך יְ הוָ ה‬to practice righteousness and justice so that YHWH might bring about for Abraham that which he promised. which indicates the role that the speaker wants a statement to play in the context (e. it is impossible to identify whether a perfect is used modally or not based on the word order. • The modal use of the Perfect is distinguished from the indicative by its word order: the Perfect functioning modally will have a verb-subject word order (see Lesson 27 for a discussion of Biblical Hebrew word order).3 Modal Use of the Perfect Conjugation The Perfect Conjugation was described in Lesson 4 as expressing perfective aspect.Lesson 7 53 • Segolate nouns use a two-syllable pattern in the plural.’ (Gen 18:19) . an instruction). a condition. a command. The Perfect is also used to express modality. in such cases.g. an outcome..

‫ֵאת‬ PREP with [w/suffixes] M statute [w/suffixes] Jacob ‫ֶ֫בּגֶ ד‬ M garment ‫ְמאֹד‬ M ‫ָבּ ָקר‬ M cattle. herd ‫ִמ ְצוָ ה‬ F commandment.4 Vocabulary #7 ‫ָא ַהב‬ Q love [ ‫] ֻח קּ‬. ADV exceedingly [-‫] ִאתּ‬. loyalty M sheep.Lesson 7 54 ‘If he leaves his father then he shall die’ (‫וָ ֵמת‬ (Gen 44:22) ‫ת־א ִביו‬ ָ ‫)וְ ָעזַ ב ֶא‬ Note: The Perfect often appears in both the subordinate clause and the governing clause in constructions like the conditional clause above. forsake M /F ‫גַּ ם‬ ADV also. even ‫ָה ַלְך‬ Q walk. flock gate . food ‫֫ ַליְ ָלה‬ M night strength. go ‫צֹאן‬ ‫זָ ַבח‬ Q slaughter ‫ַ֫שׁ ַער‬ ‫ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬ M kindness. ‫חֹק‬ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ֫ M tent ‫יַ ֲעקֹב‬ PN ‫ָא ַכל‬ Q eat ‫֫ ֶל ֶחם‬ M bread. ‘(and) he should stand and say (‫וְ ָא ַמר‬ marry her”’ (Deut 25:8) ‫“ )וְ ָע ַמד‬I do not wish to ‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצוָ ה‬ ַ ‫וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא‬ ‘(and) you must keep the commandment’ (Deut 7:11) 7. ‫ ֶאת‬. P ‫ִמ ְצו ֹת‬ ‫ָעזַ ב‬ Q abandon. ‫ ָחק־‬. • Another common modal function of the Perfect is to mark instructions and commands. ox.

Identify and parse the verb(s) (i. and root) in each sentence.e. give the person. ‫א־עזַ ב ַח ְסדּוֹ‬ ָ ֹ ‫ֹלהי ֲאד ֹנִ י ַא ְב ָר ָהם ל‬ ֵ ‫ יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬Gen 24:27* (a ‫ ָה ַלְך ְל ַד ְרכּוֹ‬PN‫ם־בּ ָלק‬ ָ ַ‫ וְ ג‬Num 24:25 (b ‫ל־ה ֫ ָלּיְ ָלה‬ ַ ‫ל־היּוֹם וְ ָכ‬ ַ ‫ ִכּי לֹא ָא ַכל ֫ ֶל ֶחם ָכּ‬I Sam 28:20 (c ‫א־ה ְלכוּ ָבנָ יו ִבּ ְד ָר ָכיו‬ ָ ֹ ‫ וְ ל‬I Sam 8:3 (d . a) ‫‘ ַל ְחמ‬my bread’ b) ‫‘ ַח ְסד‬your (MS) loyalty’ c) ‫‘ ְבּ ָקר‬their (M) cattle’ (S – collective) d) ‫‘ ַשׁ ֲער‬their (MP) gates’ e) ‫‘ ָעל‬upon us’ f) ‫( אֹת‬direct object marker) ‘you (FS)’ g) ‫‘ ֵלאֹלה‬to/for their (F) gods’ h) ‫‘ ֵאל‬to him’ i) ‫‘ ֻחקּ‬my statute’ j) ‫‘ ִמ ְצוָ ת‬his commandment’ 2. Also.Lesson 7 55 Exercises 1.. number. Add the correct suffix to these vocabulary items (note: the vowels within the triconsonantal root have already been modified). gender. Translate the following sentences. indicate whether each verb is modal or non-modal.

From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one noun + suffixed pronoun each.‫‪56‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 7‬‬ ‫ת־ה ֻח ִקּים‬ ‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצוָ ה וְ ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Deut 7:11 (e‬וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ל־א ָחיו‬ ‫יהם ִמ ָכּ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:4 (f‬אֹתוֹ ָא ַהב ֲא ִב ֶ‬ ‫ל־מא ֶ ֹ֫דָך‬ ‫וּב ָכ ְ‬ ‫וּב ָכל־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך ְ‬ ‫ל־ל ָב ְבָך ְ‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ ָך ְבּ ָכ ְ‬ ‫‪ Deut 6:5 (g‬וְ ָא ַה ְב ָ֫תּ ֵאת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬ ‫וּמצֹּאנְ ָך וְ ָא ַכ ְל ָ֫תּ ִבּ ְשׁ ָע ֶרי֫ ָך‬ ‫‪ Deut 12:21* (h‬וְ זָ ַב ְח ָ֫תּ ִמ ְבּ ָק ְרָך ִ‬ ‫וּמ ְצו ָֹתיו‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ ָך וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֻחקּ ָֹתיו ִ‬ ‫‪ Deut 11:1* (i‬וְ ָא ַה ְב ָ֫תּ ֵאת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ‫תּוֹרת ֱא ִ‬ ‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים ְבּ ֵ֫ס ֶפר‪ַ GL‬‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ָכּ ַתב‪ֶ GL‬א ַ‬ ‫‪ Josh 24:26* (j‬יְ ֻ‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ .

The Perfect was described as perfective aspect.2 Past Narrative Conjugation Languages typically use a past tense or perfective aspect verb form for narrating past events (e. In Biblical Hebrew an archaic past tense verb predominates and is mostly restricted to past narrative passages. may devote a particular verb form entirely to literary narrative (e. however. Some languages. In most instances... .1 Qal Imperfect Conjugation Imperfect Conjugation The Perfect and Imperfect were introduced in Lesson 4 as the main conjugations in Biblical Hebrew.Lesson 8 Lesson Summary: • Qal Imperfect Conjugation: ‫יִ ְפקֹד‬ • Past Narrative Conjugation: ‫וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬ • Qal Imperfect Conjugation of: ‫ָהיָ ה‬ • ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬ 8. French Passé Simple). The complete paradigm for the Qal Imperfect is given below. However. The Imperfect Conjugation was described as expressing imperfective aspect.g.g. other conjugations such a the Imperative and the Jussive are also based on the Prefix Pattern (see Lesson 13). The Imperfect is the main conjugation built on the Prefix Pattern. 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS Past Narrative Conjugation ‫יִפקֹד‬ ְ ‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬ ‘he will attend’ 3MP ‘she will attend’ 3FP ‘you will attend’ 2MP ‘you will attend’ 2FP ‘I will attend’ 1CP ‫יִפ ְקדוּ‬ ְ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְפקֹד‬ ‘they will attend’ ‘they will attend’ ‘you will attend’ ‘you will attend’ ‘we will attend’ 8. and a paradigm was given in Lessons 4 and 5. English Simple Past). an English present or future verb will be used to translate the Imperfect.

like the Imperfect. ‫‘ יִ ְפקֹד‬he will visit’ (Imperfect) ‫‘ וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬he visited’ (Past) Qal Imperfect Conjug. • Often. ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ת־יוֹסף וַ יְ ִהי ִאישׁ ַמ ְצ ִל‬ ֵ ‫וַ יְ ִהי יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬ ‘YHWH was with Joseph and he became a successful man’ (Gen 39:2) ‫מוּאל‬ ֵ ‫ל־שׁ‬ ְ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬ ‘The word of YHWH came (lit. or ‘come’. he went’ (Gen 25:34*) The Past Narrative Conjugation. of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ 8. ָ is extremely frequent. it functions just like other Past Narrative forms with the meaning of ‘was’.3 Qal Imperfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬ The verb ‫‘( ָהיָ ה‬be’) is both frequent and irregular. he rose. ‫יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְהיִ י‬ ‫ֶא ְהיֶ ה‬ 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS The Verb Form ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬ ‘he will be’ 3MP ‘she will be’ 3FP ‘you will be’ 2MP ‘you will be’ 2FP ‘I will be’ 1CP ‫יִ ְהיוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְה ֶ֫יינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְהיוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְה ֶ֫יינָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‘they will be’ ‘they will be’ ‘you will be’ ‘you will be’ ‘we will be’ 8. In the majority of cases the only distinguishing feature between these two conjugations is that the Past Narrative form almost always has a uniquely vocalized vav conjunction prefixed to it: • ַ‫( ו‬forms without the • ַ‫ ו‬exist primarily in poetic texts). the 3MS Past Narrative form of ‫היָ ה‬. ‘become’. he drank.Lesson 8 58 ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ַכל וַ יֵּ ְשׁ ְתּ וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך‬ ‘He ate. There are two distinct functions of this form in narrative. Here is the paradigm of the Qal Imperfect Conjugation of the verb.4 ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬ ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬. was) to Samuel’ (1 Sam 15:10) . is built on the Prefix Pattern.

.5 Vocabulary #8 ‫ֶ֫א ֶבן‬ ‫ִאם‬ F stone ‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬ M judgment. Include the appropriate personal pronouns for each verb form. custom if ‫ֵ֫ס ֶפר‬ M scroll. Write out the Qal Imperfect paradigm for the following verbs. antiquity ‫ַח ָטּאת‬ F sin. honor. P wood ‫יְ הוֹנָ ָתן‬ PN Jonathan ‫ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬ M righteousness ‫יִ ְצ ָחק‬ PN Isaac ‫ָכּבוֹד‬ M glory. wealth ‫ָכּ ַתב‬ Q write ‫ָשׁאוּל‬ PN Saul ‫מוּאל‬ ֵ ‫ְשׁ‬ PN Samuel ‫ ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִ ם‬. often the clause opens or closes a narrative episode. however.’ (Gen 21:22) ‫ן־ה ָר ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬ ָ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ִאישׁ ֶא ָחד ִמ‬ ‘now there was a certain man from Ramathaim’ (1 Sam 1:1) 8. ‫ְשׁ ֫ ַניִ ם‬ M. . sin-offering ‫ֵעץ‬ M tree. the form introduces a circumstantial clause in a narrative. justice. ‫שׁמר‬ ‫פּקד‬ 3MS 3MP 3MS 3MP 3FS 3FP 3FS 3FP 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP . document. ‫ימ ֶלך‬ ֶ֫ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ָבּ ֵעת ַה ִהוא וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲא ִב‬ ‘and then at about that time (lit. F two Exercises 1. book COND ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר‬ Q 3MS PAST √ ‫אמר‬ ‫עוֹלם‬ ָ M forever. and it was at that time and) Abimelek said .Lesson 8 • 59 Just as frequently.

e. Translate the following sentences. number. person. give the conjugation.Lesson 8 ‫כּתב‬ 60 ‫שׁפט‬ 3MS 3MP 3MS 3MP 3FS 3FP 3FS 3FP 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP ‫דּרשׁ‬ ‫שׁכן‬ 3MS 3MP 3MS 3MP 3FS 3FP 3FS 3FP 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP 2. ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫ת־בּ ִר‬ ְ ‫ וְ גַ ם ֲאנִ י ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְע ִתּי ֶאת־קוֹל ְבּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל וָ ֶאזְ כֹּר ֶא‬Exod 6:5* (a ‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי יְ הוָ ה‬ ִ ‫משׁה ֵאת ָכּ‬ ֶ ‫ וַ יִּ ְכתֹּב‬Exod 24:4 (b ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם‬ ַ ‫ת־בּ ִריתוֹ ֶא‬ ְ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬ ִ ‫ וַ יִּ זְ כֹּר ֱא‬GL‫ֹלהים ֶאת־נַ ֲא ָק ָתם‬ ִ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע ֱא‬Exod 2:24 (c ‫ֶאת־יִ ְצ ָחק וְ ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב‬ ‫ֹט־א ֶרץ ְבּ ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬ ֶ֫ ‫ וְ הוּא יִ ְשׁפּ‬Ps 9:9* (d . gender. Identify and parse (i. and root) the verbs in each sentence..

‫‪61‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 8‬‬ ‫יתי ִת ְשׁמֹר‬ ‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬ ‫ל־א ְב ָר ָהם וְ ַא ָתּה ֶא ְ‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 17:9 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֱא ִ‬ ‫ל־א ְמ ֵרי‪ GL‬יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫י־היא ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬ ‫‪ִ Josh 24:27* (f‬כּ ִ‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ‫תּוֹרת ֱא ִ‬ ‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים ְבּ ֵ֫ס ֶפר ַ‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Josh 24:26* (g‬וַ יִּ ְכתֹּב יְ ֻ‬ ‫יְמי ַחיָּ יו‬ ‫מוּאל ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל כֹּל ֵ‬ ‫‪ I Sam 7:15 (h‬וַ יִּ ְשׁפֹּט ְשׁ ֵ‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ ָך וְ ָה ַל ְכ ָ֫תּ ִבּ ְד ָר ָכיו‬ ‫ת־מ ְצו ֹת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬ ‫‪ִ Deut 28:9 (i‬כּי ִת ְשׁמֹר ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪ I Sam 18:3* (j‬וַ יִּ ְכ ְרתוּ יְ הוֹנָ ָתן וְ ָדוִ ד ְבּ ִרית‬ ‫יהם ְבּ ִרית ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה וִ יהוֹנָ ָתן ָה ַלְך ְל ֵביתוֹ‬ ‫‪ I Sam 23:18 (k‬וַ יִּ ְכ ְרתוּ ְשׁנֵ ֶ‬ ‫ל־הר ִסינַ י‬ ‫‪ Exod 24:16 (l‬וַ יִּ ְשׁכֹּן ְכּבוֹד־יְ הוָ ה ַע ַ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ . From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one imperfect or past narrative verb each.

The construct relationship is used more often to modify nouns.1 Adjectives Adjectives Adjectives modify nouns by specifying attributes of the noun. ‫‘ ִבּ ְמקוֹם ַה ֫קֹ ֶדשׁ‬in the place of holiness’ = ‘the holy place’ (construct) (Lev 10:17) ‫‘ ְבּ ָמקוֹם ָקדוֹשׁ‬in a holy place’ (adjective) (Lev 7:6) Adjectives have the following characteristics: • Adjectives are declined with the same endings as nouns. Singular Masculine Feminine Absolute (ABS) Construct (CST) Absolute (ABS) Construct (CST) Plural ‫גָּ דוֹל‬ ‫גְּ דוֹל‬ ‫דוֹלים‬ ִ ְ‫גּ‬ ‫דוֹלי‬ ֵ ְ‫גּ‬ ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫גּ‬ ‫דוֹלת‬ ַ ְ‫גּ‬ ‫גְּ דוֹלוֹת‬ ‫גְּ דוֹלוֹת‬ • Adjectives must agree with the modified noun in both gender and number (dual nouns are modified by plural adjectives).Lesson 9 Lesson Summary: • Adjectives: ‫ָקדוֹשׁ‬ • Demonstrative Pronouns: Near – ‫זֶ ה זֹאת ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬ Far – ‫הוּא ִהיא ֵ֫ה ָמּה ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ 9. except that they do not have dual endings. ‫‘ ִאישׁ ַצ ִדּיק‬a righteous man’ (Gen 6:9) ‫‘ ֲאנָ ִשׁים ְר ָשׁ ִעים‬evil men’ (2 Sam 4:11) ‫‘ יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם ָרפוֹת‬a weak (pair of) hands’ (Job 4:3) . ‫‘ גּוֹי ַצ ִדּיק‬a righteous nation’ (Isa 26:2) Biblical Hebrew has relatively few pure adjectives.

2 Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are deictic (pointing) words (e.Lesson 9 Predicative Adjectives 63 • Adjectives can modify nouns predicatively: A predicate adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender. They are used to modify a noun either attributively or predicatively. number.e. that. ‫‘ ֫קֹ ֶדשׁ ֳק ָד ִשׁים‬holy of holies’ = ‘most holy’ (Exod 29.5 or 26.g. ‫‘ ָא ִחיו ַה ָקּטֹן‬his brother who (was) younger’ (Gen 48:19) ִ Note: comparison is often expressed with the preposition ‫מן‬.. ‫‘ ַצ ִדּיק ַע ְב ִדּי‬a righteous man. those in English). but not definiteness. this. and definiteness.) ‫‘ טוֹב ַה ָדּ ָבר‬the word (is) good’ (Deut 1:14) ‫טוֹבה ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ָ ‘the land (is) good’ (Deut 1:25) Attributive Adjectives • Adjectives can modify nouns attributively: An attributive adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender. . see 2. number. ‫טוֹבה ִמ ֶ֫מּנָּ ה‬ ָ ‘(she is) better than her’ (Judg 15:2) ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫‘ ִבּ ִתּי ַהגּ‬my daughter who (is) oldest’ (1 Sam 18:17) Note: superlative is also expressed by a construct phrase in which both construct and absolute use the same noun. (The verb ‘to be’ must be supplied in translation. my servant’ (Isa 53:11) • Adjectives can express the comparative and superlative.37) Demonstrative Pronouns 9. ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫‘ ִעיר גּ‬a great city’ (Josh 10:3) ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫‘ ָה ִעיר ַהגּ‬the great city’ (Gen 10:12) Substantive Adjectives Comparative and Superlative • Adjectives can be substantival (i. The attributive adjective usually follows the noun it modifies. used as a nouns)..1.

hunger ‫ָח ָכם‬ ADJ wise ‫ָר ָשׁע‬ ADJ ‫טוֹב‬ ADJ good. pleasant ‫ָשׂ ֶדה‬ M field. ‫ַרע‬ animal ‫ָר ָעב‬ M ‫גָּ דוֹל‬ ADJ ‫ַחיָּ ה‬ F small call. evil famine. set ADJ righteous wicked .. read ADJ (M. P ‫ֵשׁמוֹת‬ ‫ִמי‬ ‫נָ ַתן‬ ‫ַצ ִדּיק‬ INTER Q who? give. ‫ָקטֹן‬ ADJ (M. place. proclaim. P ‫ָשׂדוֹת‬ ‫ָכּ ֵבד‬ ADJ heavy ‫ָשׁ ַכב‬ Q lie (down) ‫ָשׁ ַלח‬ Q send ‫ֵשׁם‬ M name.17*) The two major groups of demonstrative pronouns are near and far. F) bad. ‫ִשׁ ְלחוּ ֶאת־זֹאת‬ ‘send this one (F) away ’ (2 Sam 13. F) M M ‫ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬ these F 9.e.Lesson 9 64 ‫‘ ַהגּוֹי ַהזֶּ ה‬this nation’ (attributive) ‫‘ זֶ ה ַה ָדּ ָבר‬this (is) the word’ (predicative) Demonstrative pronouns may be used substantivally. i.5 Vocabulary #9 ‫ַאל‬ ADV NEG ‫ֵבּין‬ PREP not (w/commands) between ‫ָק ָרא‬ Q great ‫ ָר ָעה‬. as a noun. The far demonstratives are the same as the 3rd person personal pronouns. Near Far Singular this Plural F this ‫זֶ ה‬ ‫זֹאת‬ M that ‫הוּא‬ M those ‫ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬ F that ‫ִהיא‬ F those ‫ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ ‫ ְק ַטנָּ ה‬.

‫ ָר ִעים‬PN ‫ וְ ַאנְ ֵשׁי ְסד ֹם‬Gen 13. or substantival.13 (a ‫ וְ ָא ַ֫מ ְרנוּ ַחיָּ ה ָר ָעה ָא ְכ ָלה אֹתוֹ‬Gen 37:20 (b PN ‫ וְ ֵשׁם ַה ְקּ ַטנָּ ה ָר ֵחל‬PN ‫ ְשׁ ֵתּי ָבנוֹת ֵשׁם ַהגְּ ד ָֹלה ֵל ָאה‬PN ‫וּל ָל ָבן‬ ְ Gen 29:16 (c ‫יְ הוָ ה ַה ַצּ ִדּיק וַ ֲאנִ י וְ ַע ִמּי ָה ְר ָשׁ ִעים‬ ‫וִ ֵידי מ ֶֹשׁה ְכּ ֵב ִדים‬ Exod 9:27 (d Exod 17:12 (e ‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָשׁאוּל ְלנַ ֲערוֹ טוֹב ְדּ ָב ְרָך‬I Sam 9:10 (f . Construct the following adjectival phrases in Hebrew. Identify the adjective as attributive. predicative. Identify the adjectives in the following as attributive. a) I (M) am a good man f) the king is great b) He is the righteous man g) the house is small c) the people are wicked h) she is the smallest/youngest sister d) the famine is heavy i) you (MP) are the righteous ones e) they (FP) are great cities j) YHWH is great 2. predicative.Lesson 9 65 Exercises 1. and translate the verse. or substantival.

Lesson 9 66 ‫ וְ ָה ִאישׁ גָּ דוֹל ְמאֹד‬I Sam 25:2 (g ‫ וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ט ִֹבים ֫ ָלנוּ ְמאֹד‬I Sam 25:15 (h ‫ ִכּי ִאישׁ ָח ָכם ַא ָתּה‬I Kgs 2:9 (i ‫ וְ ָאנ ִֹכי ֫ ַנ ַער ָקטֹן‬I Kgs 3:7 (j ‫ן־ה ִעיר‬ ָ ‫ וּנְ ָע ִרים ְק ַטנִּ ים ָה ְלכוּ ִמ‬II Kgs 2:23* (k ‫ וַ יִּ ְל ְכדוּ ֵמ ֶ֫א ֶרץ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל נַ ֲע ָרה ְק ַטנָּ ה‬II Kgs 5:2* (l 3. a) this is the house f) those are the nations b) these men g) those are the women c) these cities h) this is the daughter d) that son i) this law e) that is the city j) these are the mountains . Identify the demonstratives as attributive or predicative. Construct the following demonstrative phrases in Hebrew.

‫תּוֹרה ַהזֹּאת ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ָ ‫יקים ְכּכֹל ַה‬ ִ ‫וּמ ְשׁ ָפּ ִטים ַצ ִדּ‬ ִ ‫וּמי גּוֹי גָּ דוֹל ֲא ֶשׁר־לוֹ ֻח ִקּים‬ ִ Deut 4:8* (a ‫יכם ַהיּוֹם‬ ֶ ֵ‫נָ ַתן יְ הוָ ה ִל ְפנ‬ ‫ל־הגּוֹי ַההוּא‬ ַ ‫ ֶא ְפקֹד ַע‬GL ‫וּב ֶ ֫דּ ֶבר‬ ַ ‫וּב ָר ָעב‬ ָ ‫ ְבּ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ָבּ ֶבל ַבּ ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬Jer 27:8* (b ‫י־ה ִאישׁ ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶדה וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָה ֫ ֶע ֶבד הוּא ֲאד ֹנִ י‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ֫ ֶע ֶבד ִמ‬ ָ ‫ וַ תּ ֹ֫א ֶמר ֶא‬Gen 24:65* (c ‫ֹלהיָך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ֶ֫ ‫אמרוּ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ֱא‬ ְ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Exod 32:4 (d ‫ ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ְשׁ ִמי‬Isa 42:8 (e ‫ירוּשׁ ָל ִם‬ ָ֫ ‫ ַהנָּ ִביא ִמ‬PN ‫ וְ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ִדּ ְב ֵרי ַה ֵ֫סּ ֶפר ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׁ ַלח יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬Jer 29:1 (f 5.Lesson 9 67 4. From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least one adjective or demonstrative pronoun each. and translate the verse. Identify the demonstratives in the following as attributive. predicative. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ . or substantival.

Like the Perfect and Imperfect Verbs.) Biblical Hebrew Participles are declined like adjectives. (Note that Biblical Hebrew does not require a copula ‘is’ in such a construction. however. ‫יכל יְ הוָ ה‬ ַ ‫מוּאל שׁ ֵֹכב ְבּ ֵה‬ ֵ ‫וּשׁ‬ ְ ‘(and) Samuel (was) lying in the temple of YHWH’ (1 Sam 3:3) . Participles are only marked for gender and number (not person). the Participle expresses progressive aspect. The Qal Active Participle is declined as follows: Singular Masculine ABS CST Feminine ABS CST Predicative and Substantival Participles Plural ‫פּוֹקד‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹקד‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹק ִדים‬ ְ ‫פּוֹק ֵדי‬ ְ ‫פּוֹק ָדה‬ ְ / ‫פּוֹק ֶדת‬ ֶ֫ ‫פּוֹק ַדת‬ ְ / ‫פּוֹק ֶדת‬ ֶ֫ ‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬ ְ ‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬ ְ Participles may be used predicatively or substantivally: • Predicatively: the Participle functions as the main verb in a clause. Past Narrative.2 Qal Active Participle Participles Participles are a part of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system. Unlike the Perfect. therefore. the Participle in Biblical Hebrew is similar to the English Participle in a statement like the water is running. Semantically. and Imperfect verbs. in particular. Participles express aspect (as opposed to tense). conveying the progressive aspect (the tense is derived from the context).Lesson 10 Lesson Summary: • Qal Active Participle: ‫פּוֹקד‬ ֵ • Qal Passive Participle: ‫ָפּקוּד‬ 10.

The tense is derived from the context.Lesson 10 69 • Participles are often introduced by the article ‫ה‬. ‫ִכּי ָע ִשׂי֫ ָת זֹּאת ָארוּר ַא ָתּה‬ ‘because you have done this. is declined like an adjective. In these cases. Singular Masculine ABS CST Feminine ABS CST Predicative Passive Participle Plural ‫ָפּקוּד‬ ‫ְפּקוּד‬ ‫קוּדים‬ ִ ‫ְפּ‬ ‫קוּדי‬ ֵ ‫ְפּ‬ ‫קוּדה‬ ָ ‫ְפּ‬ ‫קוּדת‬ ַ ‫ְפּ‬ ‫ְפּקוּדוֹת‬ ‫ְפּקוּדוֹת‬ Most occurrences of the Qal passive Participle are predicative. though. with or without a ‫ה‬: ‫רוֹעי ַהנְּ טוּיָ ה‬ ִ ְ‫ת־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ ִבּז‬ ָ ‫( ָאנ ִֹכי ָע ִשׂי֫ ִתי ֶא‬Jer 27:5*) ‘I made the earth with my arm that (was) stretched out’ . It. and the participle is the main verb within a relative clause that modifies a noun. the ‫ ה‬functions as a relative word. The passive Participle functions as the main verb in a clause with a sense like the English Past Participle in similar passive constructions. you (are) cursed’ (Gen 3:14) Note: Like the active participle. such as you are blessed.3 Qal Passive Participle The Qal binyan has a passive counterpart to its active Participle. ‫ם־ה ִא ָשּׁה‬ ָ ‫ָה ִאישׁ ַהשּׁ ֵֹכב ִע‬ ‘the man who lies with the woman’ (Deut 22:22) The ‫ה‬. ‫‘ שׁ ְֹפ ֵטי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬the judges of Israel’ (Num 25:5) Passive Participle 10. their meaning is derived from the action or function that the agents regularly perform/fulfill. is not always present to introduce the relative: ‫וְ נָ ַת ָ֫תּ ְל ַע ְב ְדָּך ֵלב שׁ ֵֹמ ַע‬ ‘so you should give your servant a heart that listens’ (1 Kgs 3:9) • Substantivally: some participles are regularly used as “standalone agentive nouns. the passive participle may be the main verb within a relative clause. too.

ask ‫ ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬. slay ‫זָ ֵקן‬ ‫ִמ ְד ָבּר‬ ADJ M ‫ָמה‬ ‫ָמ ֵלא‬ ‫ַמ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ֶ֫נגֶ ד‬ ADJ M what? how? full. VB Q be old wilderness INTER CONJ lest ‫֫קֹ ֶדשׁ‬ M holiness. opposite to ‫ֶפּן‬ old. pit. ‫ְבּ ֵאר‬ M well. ‫ִשׁ ְב ָעה‬ ‫ָשׁ ַכח‬ M. faithfulness ‫ָא ַסף‬ Q gather. a) I (MS) am old f) You (MS) are full b) We (MP) are wise g) You (FP) are small c) You (FS) are heavy h) He is bad d) They (FP) are righteous i) You (MP) are big e) She is good j) They (MP) are wicked .Lesson 10 70 10.4 Vocabulary #10 ‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬ F ground. cistern ‫ָבּ ַטח‬ Q trust ‫יכל‬ ָ ‫ֵה‬ M palace. sacredness ‫ָשׁ ַאל‬ Q inquire. vision ADV. Construct the following verbless clauses in Hebrew. Q be full. fill appearance. in sight of. land ‫ֱא ֶמת‬ F truth. F Q seven forget Exercises 1. temple ‫ָה ַרג‬ Q kill. remove ‫בּוֹר‬. PREP in front of.

Lesson 10 71 2. Construct the following participial clauses in Hebrew. Identify the independent pronouns and participles in the following and translate the verse. ‫אֹלהי יִ ְצ ָחק ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה‬ ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם ָא ִ֫ביָך ו‬ ֵ ‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬Gen 28:13* (a ‫וּלזַ ְר ֫ ֶעָך‬ ְ ‫יה ִהיא ְלָך‬ ָ ‫שׁ ֵֹכב ָע ֫ ֶל‬ ‫יכן‬ ֶ ‫ת־א ִב‬ ֲ ‫ ָע ַ֫ב ְד ִתּי ֶא‬GL‫ ִכּי ְבּ ָכל־כּ ִֹחי‬GL‫ וְ ַא ֵ֫תּנָ ה יְ ַד ְע ֶתּן‬Gen 31:6 (b ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫ ָה ֱא‬GL‫ ִכּי‬GL‫א־א ֶתּם ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם א ִֹתי ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ ַ ֹ ‫ ל‬GL‫ וְ ַע ָתּה‬Gen 45:8 (c ‫יהוֹשׁ ַע זָ ֵקן וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר יְ הוָ ה ֵא ָליו ַא ָתּה זָ ַ ֫קנְ ָתּה‬ ֻ ִ‫ ו‬Josh 13:1* (d ‫וּב ֶ֫ניָך לֹא ָה ְלכוּ ִבּ ְד ָר ֶ֫כיָך‬ ָ ‫אמרוּ ֵא ָליו ִהנֵּ ה ַא ָתּה זָ ַ ֫קנְ ָתּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬I Sam 8:5 (e ‫ֹלהיָך ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה בּ ֵֹט ַח בּוֹ‬ ֶ֫ ‫ֱא‬ II Kgs 19:10 (f . a) I (MS) am gathering f) They (MP) are sending b) We (MP) are trusting g) He is walking c) You (MS) are killing h) You (FP) are lying down d) They (FP) are forgetting i) You (MP) are giving e) She is asking j) You (FS) are writing 3.

‫‪Lesson 10‬‬ ‫‪72‬‬ ‫בּוֹט ַח ָבּ ֶהן‬ ‫‪ַָ Jer 5:17* (g‬ע ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה ֵ‬ ‫‪II Chr 32:10 (h‬‬ ‫ל־מה ַא ֶתּם בּ ְֹט ִחים‬ ‫כֹּה ָא ַמר ַסנְ ֵח ִריב‪ֶ֫ PN‬מ ֶלְך ַאשּׁוּר‪ַ PN‬ע ָ‬ ‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪ Gen 18:22* (a‬וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם ע ֵֹמד ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫‪ Gen 25:28 (b‬וְ ִר ְב ָקה ‪ PN‬א ֶֹ֫ה ֶבת ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב‬ ‫ל־ע ְמָּך‬ ‫‪ Exod 34:10 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ִהנֵּ ה ‪ָ GL‬אנ ִֹכי כּ ֵֹרת ְבּ ִרית ֫ ֶנגֶ ד ָכּ ַ‬ ‫ה־בּנִ י‬ ‫‪ I Kgs 3:23 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך זֹאת א ֶֹ֫מ ֶרת זֶ ְ‬ ‫‪ Deut 22:29* (e‬וְ נָ ַתן ָה ִאישׁ ַהשּׁ ֵֹכב ִעם ַהנַּ ֲע ָרה ֶ֫כ ֶסף‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫‪ Gen 12:12* (f‬וְ ָא ְמרוּ ִא ְשׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְ ָה ְרגוּ א ִֹתי‬ ‫ת־בּנְ ָך ְבּכ ְֹרָך‬ ‫‪ִ Exod 4:23* (g‬הנֵּ ה ָאנ ִֹכי ה ֵֹרג ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ֹלהיָך שׁ ֵֹאל ֵמ ִע ָמְּך‬ ‫‪ Deut 10:12 (h‬וְ ַע ָתּה יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָמה יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ֫‬ ‫ל־ה ָעם ַהשּׁ ֲֹא ִלים ֵמ ִאתּוֹ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬ ‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬ ‫מוּאל ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬ ‫‪ I Sam 8:10 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ְשׁ ֵ‬ ‫‪Jer 38. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Translate the following. Identify‬‬ ‫‪any participle as predicative or substantival (and note where a predicative‬‬ ‫‪participle is within a relative clause).14 (j‬‬ ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ֶאל־יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‪ PN‬שׁ ֵֹאל ֲאנִ י א ְֹתָך ָדּ ָבר‬ .

29 (k ‫י־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך בּ ֵׁט ַח ַבּיהוָ ה‬ ַ ‫ ִכּ‬Ps 21:8 (l 4. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ .Lesson 10 73 ‫ ֲא ֻס ֵפי ָר ָעב ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬GL ‫ וְ לֹא־יִ ְהיוּ עוֹד‬Ezek 34. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least one participle each.

g. Just as inflectional affixes mark a verb’s conjugation (e. whereas causative refers to causing action.g.g. or causative. Qal). The relationships among the binyanim are illustrated by translations of this verb in each binyan. Perfect conjugation). Translating the former with a form of ‘make’ and the latter with a form of ‘cause’ may be helpful.Lesson 11 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to the Binyanim • Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations: ‫ִפּ ֵקּד ִה ְפ ִקיד‬ Binyanim 11.. The Qal Perfect conjugation was introduced in Lessons 4 and 5.g.2) introduced the fact that verb forms in Biblical Hebrew indicate binyan (e.. and person. and number (e..1 Introduction to the Binyanim Lesson 4 (4. is one of the few verb roots that occurs in every binyan in the Hebrew Bible. These binyan affixes indicate a verb’s “valency”—whether it is active. 3MS). gender. conjugation (e. reflexive. passive. ָ which is used in the lesson paradigms. there are binyan affixes which indicate a verb’s binyan.. . In this lesson the binyan system of the Biblical Hebrew verb is discussed and the Perfect conjugation of the Piel and Hifil binyanim are introduced. Perfect). The verb ‫פּ ַקד‬. Binyanim Chart Active Simple Factitive/Resultative Causative Qal ‫ָק ַדשׁ‬ Piel ‫ִק ֵדּשׁ‬ Hifil ‫ִה ְק ִדּישׁ‬ ‘Abram was holy’ Passive Reflexive ‘Abram consecrated Sarai’ ‘Abram caused Sarai to treat X as holy’ (Abram made Sarai to be holy) Nifal ‫נִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬ Pual ‫ֻק ַדּשׁ‬ Hofal *‫ָה ְק ַדּשׁ‬ ‘Abram was consecrated’ ‘Abram was made to be holy’ ‘Abram was caused to treat X as holy’ Nifal ‫נִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬ Hitpael ‫ִה ְת ַק ֵדּשׁ‬ ‘Abram showed himself to be holy’ ‘Abram consecrated himself’ (‘Abram made himself holy’) *the Hofal of this root is not attested in the Hebrew Bible Note: Factitive/resultative refers to causing a change of state.

‘he made him attend to’) ‫‘ ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬he mustered (himself)’ ‫‘ ֻפּ ַקּד‬he was mustered’ (i. some verb roots. In fact. Therefore. do not occur in Qal nor exhibit the standard meaning for their binyan (factitive/resultative and causative.e. respectively). such as ‫( ִדּ ֵבּר‬Piel ‘he spoke’) and ‫ִה ְשׁ ִליְך‬ (Hifil ‘he threw/cast’). Note: the endings of the Perfect conjugation are the same in all binyanim. Rarely do individual verb roots appear in all or even most binyanim and the relationships among the meanings for a root are not always transparent or predictable. ‘he was made to be attended to’) ‫‘ ִה ְפ ִקיד‬he caused him to be overseer/attend to’ ‫‘ ָה ְפ ַקד‬he was caused to be overseer/attend to’ The system of binyanim is not usually as “neat” as ‫ קדשׁ‬or ‫ פּקד‬may make it appear. it is important to memorize the particular meaning of a verb root in each individual binyan in which it occurs. the Piel and Hifil are the most frequently used binyanim in the Hebrew Bible. QAL 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3CP 2MP 2FP 1CP ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ ‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‘attend to’ PIEL ‫ִפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‘muster’ HIFIL ‫ִה ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ִה ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‘make oversee’ . Piel and Hifil Perfect 11.2 Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations Besides the Qal..Lesson 11 75 ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he visited. attended to’ ‫‘ נִ ְפ ַקד‬he was visited’ ‫‘ ִפּ ֵקּד‬he mustered’ (i.e..

. • doubled R2 (i. ‫ְכּ ַ֫נ ַען‬ ‫ָא ַבד‬ Q perish. PI consecrate ‫ַשׂר‬ M official. The Hifil Perfect conjugation is characterized by: • a ‫( ִה‬or ‫ ה‬with an i-class vowel) prefix. and the subscripts 1 2 3 to indicate the position of the consonant within the triconsonantal root. captain. money ‫גָּ ַדל‬ Q be great. PI. honor ‫ָשׂ ִרים‬ ‫ַ֫תּ ַחת‬ PREP under. 11. ‫ָמ ָצא‬ Q find ‫ָע ָשׂה‬ Q do. Note: we will begin using R to indicate a verbal root consonant.3 Vocabulary #11 ‫ ְכּנַ ֲענִ י‬. beneath .e. the first root letter). dwell ‫שׁמד‬ HI annihilate ‫ָכּ ֵבד‬ Q be heavy.e. Canaanite ‫דּבר‬ PI ‫ִהנֵּ ה‬ INTJ ‫זָ ָהב‬ M gold ‫ָח ָטא‬ Q sin ‫שׁכם‬ HI wake early ‫יָ ַדע‬ Q know ‫שׁלְך‬ HI throw. HI destroy ‫בּקשׁ‬ PI seek ‫ֶ֫כּ ֶסף‬ M silver. the second root letter). HI make ‫ָשׁ ַ֫מיִ ם‬ M heavens speak behold. make. prince. cast ‫יָ ַשׁב‬ Q sit. PI make great.. PI.Lesson 11 76 The Piel Perfect conjugation is characterized by: • i-class vowel under R1 (i. act ‫ָק ַדשׁ‬ Q be holy. P grow/raise PN Canaan. see! heavy.

‫נִ ְשׁ ַמר‬ (Nifal) ‘he was guarded’ (Hifil) ‫( ִה ְק ִריב‬e (Nifal) ‫( נִ ְשׁ ַפּט‬a (Pual) ‫( ֻשׁ ַלּח‬f (Hifil) ‫( ִהזְ ִכּיר‬b (Piel) ‫( ִק ֵדּשׁ‬g (Hofal) ‫( ָה ְכ ַרת‬c (Piel) ‫( גִּ ֵדּל‬h (Hitpael) ‫( ִה ְת ַק ֵדּשׁ‬d 2.. ‫דּבר‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS ‫בּקשׁ‬ 3MS 3CP 3FS 2MS 2MP 2MS 2MP 2FS 2FP 2FS 2FP 1CS 1CP 1CS 1CP . translate the following verb forms: e. Write out the Piel Perfect paradigm for the following verbs. Include the appropriate personal pronouns with each form.Lesson 11 77 Exercises 1.g. Based on the Qal meaning.

‬‬ ‫יהן ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬ ‫‪ַ Exod 1:17 (a‬כּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ֶבּר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬ ‫‪ִ Isa 1:2 (b‬כּי יְ הוָ ה ִדּ ֵבּר ָבּנִ ים גִּ ַ ֫דּ ְל ִתּי‬ ‫‪ I Sam 15:2 (c‬וְ ִה ְשׁ ִכּים ַא ְב ָשׁלוֹם ‪ PN‬וְ ָע ַמד ַעל־יַ ד ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך ַה ָ֫שּׁ ַער‬ ‫ן־הגּוֹיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר ִה ְשׁ ִמיד יְ הוָ ה ִמ ְפּנֵ י ‪ְ GL‬בּנֵ י‬ ‫ת־ה ָרע ִמ ַ‬ ‫‪ II Kgs 21:9* (d‬יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָע ָשׂה ֶא ָ‬ ‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ְבּ ֵעינֵ י ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫‪ַ Josh 4:14* (e‬בּיּוֹם ַההוּא גִּ ֵדּל יְ הוָ ה ֶאת־יְ ֻ‬ ‫ן־ה ָ֫שּׁ ַמיִ ם‬ ‫יהם ֲא ָבנִ ים גְּ ד ֹלוֹת ִמ ַ‬ ‫‪ Josh 10:11 (f‬וַ יהוָ ה ִה ְשׁ ִליְך ֲע ֵל ֶ‬ . Write out the Hifil Perfect paradigm for the following verbs. Identify and parse the verb in each sentence.‬‬ ‫שׁכם‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫שׁלְך‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪4.‫‪Lesson 11‬‬ ‫‪78‬‬ ‫‪3. Translate the following.

‫‪Lesson 11‬‬ ‫‪79‬‬ ‫ל־מ ָל ֵ֫כינוּ ָשׂ ֵ ֫רינוּ‬ ‫יאים ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ְבּרוּ ְבּ ִשׁ ְמָך ֶא ְ‬ ‫ל־ע ָב ֶ ֫דיָך ַהנְּ ִב ִ‬ ‫‪ Dan 9:6 (g‬וְ לֹא ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְענוּ ֶא ֲ‬ ‫ל־עם ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ‫וַ ֲאב ֵֹ֫תינוּ וְ ֶאל ָכּ ַ‬ ‫‪ I Sam 13:14* (h‬יְ הוָ ה ִבּ ֵקּשׁ לוֹ ִאישׁ ִכּ ְל ָבבוֹ‬ ‫י־ב ֵקּשׁ זֹאת ִמיֶּ ְד ֶכם‬ ‫‪ִ Isa 1:12 (i‬מ ִ‬ ‫ל־ל ָב ְבָך‬ ‫את ִכּי ִת ְדר ֹשׁ אוֹתוֹ ְבּ ָכ ְ‬ ‫וּמ ָ֫צ ָ‬ ‫ֹלהיָך ָ‬ ‫וּב ַקּ ְשׁ ֶתּם ִמ ָשּׁם ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ֫‬ ‫‪ִ Deut 4:29* (j‬‬ ‫וּב ָכל־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ן־ה ָמּקוֹם ַההוּא‬ ‫ת־שׁ ָמם ִמ ַ‬ ‫‪ Deut 12:3 (k‬וְ ִא ַבּ ְד ֶתּם ֶא ְ‬ ‫ן־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬ ‫ת־שׁ ֵ֫מנוּ ִמ ָ‬ ‫‪ Josh 7:9* (l‬וְ יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ַה ְכּנַ ֲענִ י וְ כֹל י ְֹשׁ ֵבי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ וְ ִה ְכ ִריתוּ ֶא ְ‬ ‫‪I Sam 6:6 (m‬‬ ‫ת־ל ָבּם‬ ‫וּפ ְרעֹה ֶא ִ‬ ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִכּ ְבּדוּ ִמ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם ַ‬ ‫‪5. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one Piel or Hifil perfect verb each.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ .

• a-class vowel under R1 (i. the Piel and Hifil Imperfect share the same forms as the Piel and Hifil Prefix pattern. Here we will look at the Piel and Hifil Imperfect conjugations. the first root letter).. QAL 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3MP 3FP 2MP 2FP 1CP ‫יִפקֹד‬ ְ ‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬ ‫יִפ ְקדוּ‬ ְ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְפקֹד‬ ‘attend to’ PIEL ‫יְפ ֵקּד‬ ַ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֲא ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫יְפ ְקּדוּ‬ ַ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‘muster’ HIFIL ‫יַפ ִקיד‬ ְ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬ ‫ַא ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫יַפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ְ ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נַ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‘make oversee’ The Piel Imperfect conjugation is characterized by the following: • ְ under the prefix consonant. the second root letter). Just as in the Qal Imperfect.e. .e. • doubled R2 (i.Lesson 12 Lesson Summary: • Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations: ‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד יַ ְפ ִקיד‬ • Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations: ‫וַ יְ ַפ ֵקּד וַ יַּ ְפ ֵקד‬ • Piel and Hifil Participles: ‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬ Piel and Hifil Prefix Pattern/Imperfect 12. (The Qal is given in the charts for comparison).1 Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations The Prefix pattern and Imperfect conjugation of the Qal were introduced in Lesson 8..

‫‘ וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִ֫חתוּ‬they destroyed’ (2 Sam 11:1) 12. “skin them Levi”). the Piel Past Narrative conjugation is based upon to the Prefix pattern with • ַ‫ ו‬prefixed. Piel Imperfect ‫ יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬and Participle ‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬ . ‫נ‬. the vowel pattern of the masculine singular is the same as that of the Prefix pattern in the respective binyanim. ‫ל‬. ‫ שׂ‬and ‫ שׁ‬to drop a dagesh when they have a vocal sheva. This phenomenon is part of a general tendency of the consonants ‫ו‬. Note: the i-class theme vowel is often spelled defectively (without ‫)י‬. the Prefix pattern is altered slightly. ‫צ‬. Also..2 Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations Piel and Hifil Past Narrative As with the Qal binyan (see 8. ‫ס‬.2). The theme vowel in the Past Narrative verb form is ֵ tsere instead of ‫ִ י‬chiriq-yod.3 Piel and Hifil Participles Piel and Hifil Participle The Piel and Hifil Participles are characterized by a ‫ מ‬inflectional prefix throughout. ‫מ‬. however. ‫ י‬. between R2 and R3).e. • i-class theme vowel (i. ‫וַ ְתּ ַד ֵבּר ִל ְפנֵ י ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬ ‘she spoke before the king’ (Esth 8:3) In the Hifil Past Narrative conjugation. ‫ת־ה ַ֫בּ ַעל‬ ַ ‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ֵמד יֵ הוּא ֶא‬ ‘Jehu destroyed the Baal’ (II Kgs 10:28) Vilminqs or Sqinmlevi A peculiarity occurs with the Piel 3MS and 3MP forms: the dagesh “falls out” of the ‫ י‬prefix.Lesson 12 81 The Hifil Imperfect Conjugation is characterized by the following: • a-class vowel under the prefix. ‫ק‬.. ‫‘ וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה‬YHWH spoke to Moses’ (Num 1:1) 12. This phenomenon is often referred to as vilminqs (= ‫ וילמנק‬+ sibilants) or sqinmlevi (i.e.

be hid. HI conceal ‫שׁחת‬ ‫תּוֹע ָבה‬ ֵ PI.Lesson 12 Hifil Imperfect 82 ‫ יַ ְפ ִקיד‬and Participle ‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬ The other participial forms are declined by adding noun/adjective endings to the masculine singular form. PI teach ‫ָר ַשׁע‬ Q be wicked. HI clothe ‫ֵר ַע‬ M friend ‫ָל ַמד‬ Q learn.4 Vocabulary #12 ‫ָבּ ָמה‬ F ‫ַ֫בּ ַעד‬ PREP high-place behind. break ‫סתר‬ NI hide oneself. PI shatter. on behalf of ‫יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬ PN ‫ֵלאמֹר‬ COMP Jeremiah (introduces direct speech. HI justify ‫קהל‬ HI ‫קטר‬ PI. HI F spoil. destroy abomination the . HI condemn ‫ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬ M altar ‫ָשׁ ַבר‬ Q break. HI congregate make sacrifices smoke ‫ָל ַבשׁ‬ Q wear. untranslatable) ‫ָע ַבר‬ Q pass over ‫ע ָֹלה‬ F burnt offering ‫ָצ ַדק‬ Q be righteous. Qal Piel ‫פּוֹקד‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹק ָדה‬ ְ ‫פּוֹק ִדים‬ ְ ‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬ ְ MS FS MP FP ‘attending’ Hifil ‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ִדים‬ ‫ְמ ַפ ְקּדוֹת‬ ‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ַמ ְפ ִק ָידה‬ ‫ַמ ְפ ִק ִידים‬ ‫ַמ ְפ ִקידוֹת‬ ‘mustering’ ‘making oversee’ 12.

and identify the way each participle you find is being used. Translate the following. Piel ‫למד‬ Hifil ‫צדק‬ Piel ‫קטר‬ Hifil ‫שׁחת‬ 3MS 3MS 3MS 3MS 3FS 3FS 3FS 3FS 2MS 2MS 2MS 2MS 2FS 2FS 2FS 2FS 1CS 1CS 1CS 1CS 3MP 3MP 3MP 3MP 3FP 3FP 3FP 3FP 2MP 2MP 2MP 2MP 2FP 2FP 2FP 2FP 1CP 1CP 1CP 1CP 2. Write the Imperfect paradigm for the following verbs in the binyan specified.Lesson 12 83 Exercises 1. Identify and parse all the verbs in each sentence. Include the appropriate personal pronouns with each form. ‫ ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬GL ‫ת־ה ָמּקוֹם ַהזֶּ ה ִכּי־גָ ְד ָלה ַצ ֲע ָק ָתם‬ ַ ‫י־מ ְשׁ ִח ִתים ֲא ֫ ַנ ְחנוּ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ ִכּ‬Gen 19:13* (a ‫אֹלהי יַ ֲעקֹב וַ יַּ ְס ֵתּר‬ ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי יִ ְצ ָחק ו‬ ֵ ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֱא‬ ֵ ‫ֹלהי ָא ִבי֫ ָך ֱא‬ ֵ ‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָאנ ִֹכי ֱא‬Exod 3:6 (b ‫מ ֶֹשׁה ָפּנָ יו‬ .

‫‪84‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 12‬‬ ‫‪ Ezek 37:28 (c‬וְ יָ ְדעוּ ַהגּוֹיִ ם ִכּי ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ְמ ַק ֵדּשׁ ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים‬ ‫ל־ה ָעם ֶאת־יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‪ְ PN‬מ ַד ֵבּר ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Jer 26:7 (d‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים וְ ַהנְּ ִב ִאים וְ ָכ ָ‬ ‫ָה ֵ֫א ֶלּה ְבּ ֵבית יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫ת־ח ָט ַאי ‪ֲ GL‬אנִ י ַמזְ ִכּיר ַהיּוֹם‬ ‫‪ֶ Gen 41:9 (e‬א ֲ‬ ‫אמרוּ גִּ ְדעוֹן‬ ‫ל־ר ֫ ֵעהוּ ִמי ָע ָשׂה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה וַ יִּ ְד ְרשׁוּ וַ יְ ַב ְקשׁוּ וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬ ‫אמרוּ ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬ ‫‪ Judg 6:29 (f‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ן־יוֹאשׁ ָע ָשׂה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה‬ ‫‪ֶ PN‬בּ ָ‬ ‫ר־יְב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִשׁי ַיְב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך‬ ‫‪ִ I Sam 22:23* (g‬כּי ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬ ‫ל־בּמוֹת ַכּגּוֹיִ ם‬ ‫רוּ־שׁם ְבּ ָכ ָ‬ ‫‪ II Kgs 17:11 (h‬וַ יְ ַק ְטּ ָ‬ ‫‪ Exod 9:34 (i‬וַ יַּ ְכ ֵבּד ִלבּוֹ הוּא וַ ֲע ָב ָדיו‬ ‫ת־א ַחי ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַב ֵקּשׁ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:16 (j‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֶא ַ‬ ‫ְך־מ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם‬ ‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶל ִ‬ ‫‪ֵ Exod 6:27 (k‬הם ַה ְמ ַד ְבּ ִרים ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ִ Exod 31:13* (l‬כּי ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ְמ ַק ֵדּשׁ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬ ‫ת־ה ִעיר‬ ‫י־מ ְשׁ ִחית יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 19:14 (m‬כּ ַ‬ ‫יהם‬ ‫ם־שׁנֵ ֶ‬ ‫תּוֹע ַבת יְ הוָ ה גַּ ְ‬ ‫יע ַצ ִדּיק ֲ‬ ‫וּמ ְר ִשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪ַ Prov 17:15* (n‬מ ְצ ִדּיק ָר ָשׁע ַ‬ .

From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one Piel or Hifil imperfect.‫‪85‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 12‬‬ ‫ת־ה ֻלּחֹת ‪ GL‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ֵבּר א ָֹתם ַ֫תּ ַחת ָה ָהר‬ ‫‪ Exod 32:19 (o‬וַ יַּ ְשׁ ֵלְך ִמיָּ דוֹ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־הגּוֹיִ ם ָה ֵ֫א ֶלּה ִמ ְלּ ָפ ֫ ֶניָך‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ ָך הוּא ע ֵֹבר ְל ָפ ֶ֫ניָך הוּא־יַ ְשׁ ִמיד ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Deut 31:3 (p‬יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬ ‫ל־ה ָר ָעה ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה‬ ‫‪ Deut 31:18* (q‬וְ ָאנ ִֹכי ַא ְס ִתּיר ָפּנַ י ַבּיּוֹם ַההוּא ַעל ָכּ ָ‬ ‫‪ַ Deut 4:1* (r‬ה ֻח ִקּים וְ ַה ִמּ ְשׁ ָפּ ִטים ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַל ֵמּד ֶא ְת ֶכם‬ ‫רוּשׁ ֫ ָל ִם‬ ‫ת־כּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאל־יְ ָ‬ ‫‪ I Chr 15:3 (s‬וַ יַּ ְק ֵהל ָדּוִ יד ֶא ָ‬ ‫ת־בּגְ ֵדי ֵע ָשׂו ‪ְ PN‬בּנָ הּ ַהגָּ ד ֹל וַ ַתּ ְל ֵבּשׁ ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב ְבּנָ הּ ַה ָקּ ָטן‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 27:15* (t‬ר ְב ָקה ָל ְק ָחה ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪3. past narrative. or participle each.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ .

the Jussive is preceded by ‫ַאל‬ (never ‫)לֹא‬. The second consists of verbs used to express the will of the speaker —the modal system. You studied for Hebrew class. The first consists of verbs used to make statements—the indicative system. Jussives • The Jussive verb occurs in all three persons and expresses both positive and negative commands or wishes.Lesson 13 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System • Jussive - Qal ‫יִ ְפקֹד ִתּ ְפקֹד ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬ Piel ‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬ Hifil ‫יַ ְפ ֵקד ַתּ ְפ ֵקד ַא ְפ ִקי֫ ָדה‬ • Imperative . (modal) There are two categories of modal verbs in Biblical Hebrew: Jussives and Imperatives.Qal ‫ ְפּקֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬ • Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System Prefix Pattern Modal Verbs 13. When expressing a negative command or wish.1 Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System Biblical Hebrew has two distinct parts to its verb system. ‫‘ יַ ְס ֵתּר ָפּנָ יו ֵמ ֶהם‬may he hide his face from them’ (Mic 3:4) ‫ל־תּ ְס ֵתּר ָפּ ֶ֫ניָך ִמ ֶ֫מּנִּ י‬ ַ ‫‘ ַא‬do not hide your face from me’ (Ps 102:3) Jussives follow the prefix pattern and are identical to the Imperfect forms with two exceptions: . (indicative) Study for Hebrew class! (modal) Let’s study for Hebrew class.

‫א‬. 3MS Jussive ‫יַ ְפ ֵקד‬ (versus 3MS Imperfect ‫)יַ ְפ ִקיד‬ 3FS/2MS Jussive ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵקד‬ (versus 3FS/2MS Imperfect ‫) ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬ 2) The 1st person Jussive forms (sometimes referred to as cohortatives) often end with ‫ ָ ה‬in all binyanim. QAL 1CS 1CP ‫ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‘attend to’ PIEL ‫ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫נְ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‘muster’ HIFIL ‫ַא ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬ ‫נַ ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬ ‘make oversee’ The ‫ ָ ה‬suffix originally expressed action to/toward the speaker or on behalf of the speaker. and it periodically occurs on the Imperative and Past Narrative forms with this meaning. ‫ת‬. ‫‘ ְשׁמֹר נַ ְפ ְשָׁך ְמאֹד‬Guard your life very much’ (Deut 4:9) The form of the Imperative is identical to the Jussive minus the prefix (in the Hifil the ‫י‬. it has become conventionalized. and ‫ נ‬are replaced by ‫)ה‬. and therefore its original sense is not always evident. QAL 2MS 2FS 2MP 2FP ‫ְפּקֹד‬ ‫ִפּ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ִפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ְפּ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬ ‘attend to’ PIEL ‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ַפּ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‘muster’ HIFIL ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬ ‫ַה ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬ ‫ַה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ַה ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‘make oversee’ .Lesson 13 87 1) In the Hifil some forms of the Jussive have ֵ (tsere) under R2 instead of ‫ ִ( י‬chiriq-yod). However. Imperatives • The Imperative verb occurs only in the 2nd person. with first person Jussive forms. It expresses positive commands and wishes (it cannot be negated).

Do not commit adultery. please. it is negated with ‫) ַאל‬ Imperative: command or wish (2nd person only. Imperfect.’ (Exod 20:1315) .3). as in the statement Had he known he would have been there. ‫לֹא ִתּ ְר ָצח לֹא ִתּנְ ָאף לֹא ִתּגְ נֹב‬ ‘Do not kill. in which the use of the Past Perfect indicates that he did not know. SUFF INDICATIVE FUNCTION PREF SUFF MODAL PREF FUNCTIONS PREF ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ ‫)וַ (יִּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫יִפקֹד‬ ְ ‫)וּ(פ ַקד‬ ָ ‫יִפקֹד‬ ְ ‫יִפקֹד‬ ְ ‫ְפּקֹד‬ Perfect: perfective (whole view of situation) Past Narrative(Preterite): past event in narrative (or poetry) Imperfect: imperfective (partial view of situation) Modal Perfect: contingent modality/command Modal Imperfect: command or wish (it is negated with ‫)לֹא‬ Jussive: command or wish (any person. This use of indicative verbs to express modal meanings is found in many other languages as well. speak. The imperfect may also express commands. also have modal functions. For example. This word most often signals a polite request or command (e.2 Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System The Biblical Hebrew verbal system is summarized in the following chart (excluding the participle). to the king’ (II Sam 13:13) 13. it cannot be negated) The Perfect and Imperfect. although indicative forms. and Past). It consists of both modal forms (Jussive and Imperative) as well as indicative forms (Perfect.. most often categorical negative prohibitions (with ‫)לֹא‬.Lesson 13 88 The modal verbs are sometimes followed by ‫־נָ א‬. in English the Past Perfect verb is regularly used to express contrary-to-fact modality. English ‘please’). though it is not always necessary (or easy) to translate. ‫ל־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬ ַ ‫וְ ַע ָתּה ַדּ ֶבּר־נָ א ֶא‬ ‘now.g. Do not steal. The Biblical Hebrew Perfect can express contingent modality or commands/instructions (see 7.

Qal ‫שׁמר‬ Qal ‫זכר‬ Hifil ‫קדשׁ‬ Piel ‫בּקשׁ‬ 2MS 2MS 2MS 2MS 2FS 2FS 2FS 2FS 2MP 2MP 2MP 2MP 2FP 2FP 2FP 2FP . grain offering ‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬ M ‫ַא ֵחר‬ ADJ ‫בּרְך‬ PI bless ‫דּוֹר‬ M generation ‫נָ ָשׂא‬ Q lift up ‫הלל‬ PI praise ‫ָע ַבד‬ Q serve. work ‫יָ ם‬ M sea.Lesson 13 89 13. iniquity ‫יָ ָצא‬ Q go forth ‫ַע ָתּה‬ ADV ‫יָ ֵרא‬ Q fear ‫ָשׂ ָפה‬ F lip. ‫ַא ֲח ֵרי‬ M ‫ָלשׁוֹן‬ one. after M tongue. atone ‫ָ֫תּוֶ ְך‬ M midst (often with ‫ב‬. shore ‫ְכּ ִלי‬ M vessel. language ‫ִמנְ ָחה‬ F gift. ‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬in the ‫ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬ another PREP ‫נָ א‬ for the sake of. each (one) PREP/ADV behind. CONJ in dwelling. P ‫יַמּים‬ ִ ‫ָעו ֹן‬ M transgression.3 Vocabulary #13 ‫ֶא ָחד‬ ‫ ַא ַחר‬. utensil. P ‫ֵכּ ִלים‬ ‫ָשׁ ַפְך‬ Q pour out. tabernacle ADV please (polite request) now midst of) order that Exercises 1. shed (blood) ‫כּפר‬ PI appease. Write out the Imperative paradigm of the listed binyan for the following verbs.

Parse the following verb forms and translate. Identify and parse all of the verbs in each sentence.‬‬ ‫‪ְ (a‬שׁמֹר‬ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ֵמד‬ ‫‪ַ (e‬א ַ‬ ‫‪ (b‬זִ ְכ ִרי‬ ‫‪ַ (f‬דּ ֶבּר־נָ א‬ ‫‪ֶ (c‬א ְד ְר ָשׁה‬ ‫‪ַ (g‬בּ ֵ ֫קּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫‪ַ (d‬ה ְשׁ ֵלְך‬ ‫יִמ ְצאוּ־נָ א‬ ‫‪ְ (h‬‬ ‫‪3. Translate the following.‬‬ ‫‪ Gen 27:8 (a‬וְ ַע ָתּה ְבנִ י ְשׁ ַמע ְבּק ִֹלי‬ ‫ל־הבּוֹר ַהזֶּ ה‬ ‫כוּ־דם ‪ַ GL‬ה ְשׁ ִלי֫ כוּ אֹתוֹ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְפּ ָ‬ ‫אוּבן ‪ַ PN‬א ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:22 (b‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲא ֵל ֶהם ְר ֵ‬ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ־בוֹ‬ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָבּר וְ יָ ד ַא ִ‬ ‫ת־בּנָ יו ִאתּוֹ ִמתּוְֹך ְבּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫ת־א ֲהר ֹן ָא ִחי֫ ָך וְ ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Exod 28:1 (c‬וְ ַא ָתּה ַה ְק ֵרב ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Psa 34:4 (d‬גַּ ְדּלוּ ַליהוָ ה ִא ִתּי‬ ‫‪Psa 22:23* (e‬‬ ‫אוֹתךָּ‬ ‫ֲא ַס ְפּ ָרה ‪ִ GL‬שׁ ְמָך ְל ֶא ָחי ְבּתוְֹך ָק ָהל ‪ֲ GL‬א ַה ֵלּל ְ‬ ‫‪ַ Psa 45:18 (f‬אזְ ִכּי֫ ָרה ִשׁ ְמָך ְבּ ָכל־דּ ֹר וָ ד ֹר‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ נוּ ֲא ַב ְק ָשׁה טוֹב ָלְך‬ ‫‪ְ Psa 122:9 (g‬ל ַ֫מ ַען ֵבּית־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ֵחת ַע ְמָּך‬ ‫‪ֲ Deut 9:26 (h‬אד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה ַא ַ‬ ‫ת־בּנֵ י־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫אוֹתהּ ֶא ְ‬ ‫ת־ה ִשּׁ ָירה ‪ַ GL‬הזֹּאת וְ ַל ֵמּד ָ‬ ‫‪ Deut 31:19* (i‬וְ ַע ָתּה ִכּ ְתבוּ ָל ֶכם ֶא ַ‬ .‫‪Lesson 13‬‬ ‫‪90‬‬ ‫‪2.

‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ .‫‪91‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 13‬‬ ‫יכם ַדּ ְבּרוּ־נָ א ְבּ ָאזְ נֵ י ַפ ְרעֹה‬ ‫אתי ֵחן ‪ְ GL‬בּ ֵעינֵ ֶ‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 50:4 (j‬אם־נָ א ָמ ָ֫צ ִ‬ ‫ֹלהי֫ נוּ יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָחד‬ ‫‪ְ Deut 6:4 (k‬שׁ ַמע יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ ‫וּבין ַכּ ְר ִמי‬ ‫הוּדה ִשׁ ְפטוּ־נָ א ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬ ‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִ ִם וְ ִאישׁ יְ ָ‬ ‫יוֹשׁב יְ ָ‬ ‫‪ Isa 5:3 (l‬וְ ַע ָתּה ֵ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ל־שׂ ְפ ֵתי ֲח ָלקוֹת ‪ָ GL‬לשׁוֹן ְמ ַד ֶ֫בּ ֶרת גְּ ד ֹלוֹת‬ ‫‪ Ps 12:4 (m‬יַ ְכ ֵרת יְ הוָ ה ָכּ ִ‬ ‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ֵאת‬ ‫‪ Exod 6:29 (n‬וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה ֵלּאמֹר ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ַדּ ֵבּר ֶא ַ‬ ‫ל־א ֶשׁר ֲאנִ י דּ ֵֹבר ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך‬ ‫ָכּ ֲ‬ ‫ל־א ֶשׁר־לוֹ‬ ‫ל־כּ ָליו וְ ַעל ָכּ ֲ‬ ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּן וְ ַעל ָכּ ֵ‬ ‫ת־ה ְלוִ יִּ ם ‪ַ PN‬ע ִ‬ ‫‪ Num 1:50 (o‬וְ ַא ָתּה ַה ְפ ֵקד ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־ה ָעם ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים וְ ַהנָּ ִשׁים וְ ַה ַטּף ‪ GL‬וְ גֵ ְרָך‪ֲ GL‬א ֶשׁר ִבּ ְשׁ ָע ֶרי֫ ָך ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬ ‫‪ַ Deut 31:12* (p‬ה ְק ֵהל ֶא ָ‬ ‫תּוֹרה ַהזֹּאת‬ ‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי ַה ָ‬ ‫ת־כּ ִ‬ ‫יכם וְ ָשׁ ְמרוּ ֶא ָ‬ ‫ֹלה ֶ‬ ‫וּל ַ֫מ ַען יִ ְל ְמדוּ וְ יָ ְראוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ְ‬ ‫‪4. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one jussive or imperative in each.

‫‘ ָא ְמ ֵרְך‬your saying’ ‫‘ ֲאמֹר‬to say’ ‫‘ ִל ְשׁ ָמ ְרָך‬to keep you’ ‫‘ ְשׁמֹר‬to keep’ . Imperfect. except in the Hifil. The Infinitive Construct is equivalent in form to the 2MS Imperative in the same binyan. QAL PIEL HIFIL ‫ְפּקֹד‬ ‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬ ‘to attend’ ‘to muster’ ‘to make oversee’ The Form of the Infinitive Construct is as follows: • It can have pronominal suffixes expressing the subject or object of the infinitive.Lesson 14 Lesson Summary: • Infinitive Construct Qal ‫ ְפּקֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬ • Infinitive Absolute Qal ‫ ָפּקוֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬ Infinitive Construct 14.1 Infinitive Construct Infinitives. ‫‘ ָא ְמ ֵרְך‬your saying’ (Jer 2:35) ‫‘ ִל ְשׁ ָמ ְרָך‬to keep you’ (Ps 91:11) Note: The Qal Infinitive Construct (like the Imperative) often appears with ָ (qamets chatuf) instead of ֹ (cholem) when suffixes are added. Biblical Hebrew has two infinitive verbs: the Infinitive Construct and the Infinitive Absolute. or number.). are not marked for person. etc. in contrast to the finite conjugations (Perfect. gender. The Hifil Infinitive Construct has ‫(ִ י‬chiriq-yod) instead of ֵ (tsere) for the theme vowel.

‫ִהנֵּ ה לֹא־יָ ַ ֫ד ְע ִתּי ַדּ ֵבּר‬ ‘Behold. ‘at his reigning’) The Function of the Infinitive Construct is as follows: • It can serve as the subject of another verb. ‫ָשׁמוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ְדּשׁוֹ‬ ‘Keep (INF ABS) the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12) • It can express a temporal meaning with the ‫ בּ‬or ‫ כּ‬prepositions.e. while with ‫ כּ‬it often refers to an immediately preceding event. ‘by -ing’). . ‫לֹא־טוֹב ֱהיוֹת ָה ָא ָדם ְל ַבדּוֹ‬ ‘the man being alone is not good’ (Gen 2:18) • It can serve as the object of another verb...Lesson 14 93 • It is often prefixed with an inseparable preposition. ‫ֹלשׁים ָשׁנָ ה ָדּוִ ד ְבּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬ ִ ‫ן־שׁ‬ ְ ‫ֶבּ‬ ‘David was thirty years old when he became king’ (II Sam 5:4) ‫ל־בּית יָ ָר ְב ָעם‬ ֵ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ְכ ָמ ְלכוֹ ִה ָכּה ֶא‬ ‘As soon as he became king he struck down the whole house of Jeroboam’ (I Kgs 15:29) Note: With ‫ בּ‬the infinitive has a more general temporal sense. usually with a ‫ ל‬preposition. ‘in his reigning’) ‫‘ ְכּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬when he reigns’ (lit. ‫‘ ְל ַב ֵקּשׁ‬to seek’ ‫‘ ְבּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬when he reigns’ (lit. ‫ִכּי־יָ ָצא ָשׁאוּל ְל ַב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפשׁוֹ‬ ‘that Saul had gone out to seek his life’ (II Sam 23:15) • It can be explanatory after the main verb (i. I do not know (how) to speak’ (Jer 1:6) • It can express purpose/result..

necessity.2 Infinitive Absolute The Infinitive Absolute in the Qal has a unique form.. QAL PIEL HIFIL ‫ָפּקוֹד‬ ‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬ ‘to attend ‘to muster’ ‘to make oversee’ The Infinitive Absolute functions as follows: • It is an adverb when it is used with a finite verb of the same root and binyan—it expresses a modal nuance (e. and in the Hifil the form is equivalent to the 2MS Imperative. possibility) as the context dictates. ‫ָשׁמוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ְדּשׁוֹ‬ ‘keep the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12) .g. doubt. In the Piel the form is equivalent to the Infinitive Construct and 2MS Imperative. ‫יכם‬ ֶ ‫ֹלה‬ ֵ ‫ת־מ ְצו ֹת יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ִ ‫ָשׁמוֹר ִתּ ְשׁ ְמרוּ ֶא‬ ‘carefully keep the commandments of YHWH your God’ (Deut 6:17*) ‫ֲה ָמֹלְך ִתּ ְמֹלְך ָע ֵלי֫ נוּ‬ ‘will you really reign over us?’ (Gen 37:8) • It is occasionally used to replace finite verb forms. especially Imperatives.Lesson 14 Infinitive Absolute 94 14.

battle ‫ָמ ַשׁל‬ Q rule many. rest peace. Translate the following. stranger INTER ‫ָה ַפְך‬ Q ‫יוֹסף‬ ֵ PN (marker for “yes” and Joseph ‫יָ ַלד‬ Q beget. to swear finish ‫ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬ F war. bear (children) ‫ָכּ ָלה‬ Q be complete. P ‫ֹלשׁים‬ ִ ‫ ְשׁ‬thirty Exercises 1. ‫ֹלשׁה‬ ָ ‫ְשׁ‬ Sabbath.3 Vocabulary #14 ‫ַאְך‬ ‫גֵּ ר‬ . surely resident alien. F ‫ָשׁלוֹם‬ M ‫ ָשֹׁלשׁ‬. MS three.Lesson 14 95 14. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. PI complete. well-being FS. ‫( ְכּ ַד ֵבּר‬e ‫( ֲהפְֹך‬a ‫( ַה ְכ ֵבּד‬f ‫( ְמשׁ ֹל‬b ‫( ְל ַה ְק ִדּישׁ‬g ‫( ָהלוְֹך‬c ‫יע‬ ַ ‫( ְבּ ַה ְשׁ ִבּ‬h ‫( ִכּ ְשׁמ ַֹע‬d 2. destroy ‫ָשׂנֵ א‬ Q hate ‫שׁבע‬ N swear (an oath). ‫ זָ כוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ֵדּשׁ אוֹתוֹ‬Exod 20:8* (a ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ַ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬ ִ ‫ וַ יִּ זְ כֹּר ֱא‬GL ‫ת־ע ֵרי ַה ִכּ ָכּר‬ ָ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬ ִ ‫ וַ יְ ִהי ְבּ ַשׁ ֵחת ֱא‬Gen 19:29 (b ‫ת־ה ָע ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ַשׁב ָבּ ֵהן לוֹט‬ ֶ ‫ ַבּ ֲהפְֹך ֶא‬GL ‫ ִמתּוְֹך ַה ֲה ֵפ ָכה‬PN ‫ֶאת־לוֹט‬ . HI cause ADV M only.‫ֲה‬ ‫ָע ָלה‬ Q go up ‫֫ ֶע ֶצם‬ F bone ‫ֵעת‬ F time “no” questions) ‫ַרב‬ ADJ overturn. Parse and translate the following verbs. P ‫ַר ִבּים‬ ‫ַשׁ ָבּת‬ M. much.

From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one infinitive construct or absolute in each.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ .‫‪96‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 14‬‬ ‫ל־דּוִ ד כֹּה ָא ַמר יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫‪ָ I Sam 24:12 (c‬הלוְֹך וְ ִד ַבּ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 27:30 (d‬וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִכּ ָלּה יִ ְצ ָחק ְל ָב ֵרְך ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב וַ יְ ִהי ַאְך יָ צֹא יָ ָצא יַ ֲעקֹב ֵמ ֵאת ְפּנֵ י‬ ‫יִ ְצ ָחק ָא ִביו‬ ‫‪ָ Prov 25:27* (e‬אכֹל ְדּ ַבשׁ‪ַ GL‬רב לֹא־טוֹב‬ ‫ת־בּ ְל ָהה ‪ִ PN‬פּ ֫ ֶילגֶ שׁ‬ ‫אוּבן ‪ PN‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 35:22 (f‬וַ יְ ִהי ִבּ ְשׁכֹּן יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ ַה ִהוא וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך ְר ֵ‬ ‫‪ָ GL‬א ִביו וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫ְך־מ ֶלְך ִל ְבנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫‪ Gen 36:31 (g‬וְ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים ֲא ֶשׁר ָמ ְלכוּ ְבּ ֶ֫א ֶרץ ֱאדוֹם ‪ִ PN‬ל ְפנֵ י ְמ ָל ֶ֫‬ ‫ֹה־ד ֶבּר ֵא ַלי ָה ִאישׁ‬ ‫ת־דּ ְב ֵרי ִר ְב ָקה ֲאחֹתוֹ ֵלאמֹר כּ ִ‬ ‫וּכ ָשׁ ְמעוֹ ָל ָבן ‪ֶ PN‬א ִ‬ ‫‪ְ Gen 24:30* (h‬‬ ‫ם־משׁוֹל ִתּ ְמשׁ ֹל ָ֫בּנוּ‬ ‫אמרוּ לוֹ ֶא ָחיו ֲה ָמֹלְך ִתּ ְמֹלְך ָע ֵלי֫ נוּ ִא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:8 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬ ‫ְך־מ ְצ ָריִ ם‬ ‫ֹלשׁים ָשׁנָ ה ְב ָע ְמדוֹ ִל ְפנֵ י ַפּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶל ִ‬ ‫ן־שׁ ִ‬ ‫יוֹסף ֶבּ ְ‬ ‫‪ Gen 41:46* (j‬וְ ֵ‬ ‫‪3.

Lesson 14 d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ 97 .

15.. for the active binyanim: Qal. Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix ( ‫ ָה‬or ‫) ֻה‬. Imperfect. etc. Pual. doubled R2. This lesson provides paradigms for the passive-reflexive binyanim: Nifal.Lesson 15 Lesson Summary: • The Passive-Reflexive Binyanim Nifal Pual Hitpael ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד ֻפּ ַקּד נִ ְפ ַקד‬ PassiveReflexive Binyanim PassiveReflexive Perfect Hofal ‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬ 15. Lessons 11-14 then introduced the Perfect.2 Perfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim NIFAL 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3CP 2MP 2FP 1CP PUAL ‫נִ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫נִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‘be attended to’ HITPAEL ‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬ ‫ֻפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ֻפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‘be mustered’ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‘be mustered’ Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Perfect: Nifal: ִ‫ נ‬prefix. Hitpael. Piel. and Hofal.1 Introduction to the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim Lesson 11 introduced the various verbal binyanim and their valency relationships. Hitpael: ‫ ִה ְת‬prefix. and Hifil. HOFAL ‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָה ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ָה ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‘be made to oversee’ . Pual: u-class ( ָ or ֻ ) vowel under R1. doubled R2.

The Nifal Imperative generally occurs with that binyan’s reflexive . PassiveReflexive Imperative and Jussive 15.3 Imperfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3MP 3FP 2MP 2FP 1CP NIFAL PUAL ‫יִפּ ֵקד‬ ָ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫יִפּ ְקדוּ‬ ָ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫יְפ ַקּד‬ ֻ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֲא ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫יְפ ְקּדוּ‬ ֻ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‘be attended to’ ‘be mustered’ HITPAEL ‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫יִ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‘be mustered’ HOFAL ‫יָפ ַקד‬ ְ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ָא ְפ ַקד‬ ‫יָפ ְקדוּ‬ ְ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נָ ְפ ַקד‬ ‘be made to oversee’ Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Prefix pattern: Nifal: doubled R1 with ָ (a-class qamets) Pual: ְ under the prefix.Lesson 15 PassiveReflexive Imperfect 99 15. the modal forms for the passive-reflexive binyanim are based upon the Prefix pattern.4 Imperative and Jussive in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim As in the active binyanim.e. The Imperative and 1st Person Jussive do not occur in the passive binyanim (i. The passive-reflexive Jussive is identical to the Prefix pattern. u-class ( ָ or ֻ ) vowel under R1. Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix ( ָ or ֻ ). Pual and Hofal). Hitpael: ‫ ְת‬after the prefix. doubled R2.. doubled R2.

so is the Hitpael Infinitive Absolute. ‫ִה ָפּקֹד‬ ‘to be attended to’ HITPAEL ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‘to be mustered’ HOFAL ‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָה ְפ ֵקד‬ ‘to be made to oversee’ There is only one occurrence each of a Pual Infinitive Construct. 1st Person Jussive: NIFAL 1CS 1CP PassiveReflexive Infinitives HITPAEL ‫ֶא ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫נִ ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫נִ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ 15. and Infinitive Absolute. The Nifal has two alternate forms of the Infinitive Absolute.5 Infinitives in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim NIFAL INF CST INF ABS ‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫נִ ְפקֹד‬. Imperative: NIFAL 2MS 2FS 2MP 2FP HITPAEL ‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫ִה ָפּ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ִה ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Imperatives: Nifal: ‫ ִה‬prefix doubled R1 with ָ (a-class qamets) Hitpael: ‫ ִה ְת‬prefix doubled R2. ‫( ֻפּ ַקּד‬Ps 132:1). ‫( ֻפּ ַקּד‬Gen 40:15).Lesson 15 100 sense (as opposed to its passive sense). . which has the same form as the Infinitive Construct. in the Hebrew Bible. The Hofal Infinitives are also rare.

PI reward. doubled R2.6 Participles in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim PassiveReflexive Participle NIFAL ‫נִ ְפ ָקד‬ ‫נִ ְפ ָק ָדה‬ ‫נִ ְפ ָק ִדים‬ ‫נִ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬ MS FS MP FP PUAL HITPAEL ‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּד‬ ‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ָדה‬ ‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ִדים‬ ‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּדוֹת‬ HOFAL ‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדים‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוֹת‬ ‘being attended ‘being mustered’ ‘being mustered’ to’ ‫ָמ ְפ ָקד‬ ‫ָמ ְפ ָק ָדה‬ ‫ָמ ְפ ָק ִדים‬ ‫ָמ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬ ‘being made to oversee’ Characteristics of the passive-reflexive participles: Nifal: ִ‫ נ‬prefix. time ‫ָהמוֹן‬ M multitude ‫ָפּ ַתח‬ Q open wall ‫ָצ ַלח‬ Q prosper. receive ‫ָקנָ ה‬ Q buy. acquire ‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬ F family. ָ (a-class qamets) under R2. pay back ‫עוֹד‬ ADV still. clan ‫ָשׁ ֵלם‬ Q be whole. doubled R2. ‫חוֹמה‬ ָ F ‫ֲחמוֹר‬ M donkey ‫ָח ָמס‬ M violence ‫ָק ַבר‬ Q PI ‫ָל ַקח‬ Q take. even.7 Vocabulary #15 ‫ַאף‬ ADV also. yet.Lesson 15 101 15. be successful. Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix (‫ ָמ‬or ‫) ֻמ‬ 15. u-class vowel under R1 ( ָ or ֻ ). Hitpael: ‫ ִמ ְת‬prefix. again HI make successful bury . Pual: ‫ ְמ‬prefix. moreover ‫פּלל‬ HIT pray ‫גַּ ן‬ M garden ‫֫ ַפּ ַעם‬ M step.

NIFAL PERF 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3CP 2MP 2FP 1CP IMPF 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS PUAL HITPAEL HOFAL . Write out the full paradigm for ‫ ָק ַדשׁ‬in the passive-reflexive conjugations.Lesson 15 102 Exercises 1.


Parse and translate the following verb forms. Translate the following.‬‬ ‫‪ Gen 34:19 (a‬וְ הוּא נִ ְכ ָבּד ִמכֹּל ֵבּית ָא ִביו‬ ‫יהם׃‬ ‫‪ Gen 44:3 (b‬וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ ֵ֫ה ָמּה וַ ֲחמ ֵֹר ֶ‬ ‫רוּח ַהיּוֹם‬ ‫ֹלהים ִמ ְת ַה ֵלְּך ַבּגָּ ן ְל ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 3:8 (c‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ֶאת־קוֹל יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫חוֹמה‬ ‫ל־יוֹאב ‪ִ PN‬הנֵּ ה רֹאשׁוֹ ֻמ ְשׁ ָלְך ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך ְבּ ַעד ַה ָ‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫‪ II Sam 20:21 (d‬וַ תּ ֹ֫א ֶמר ָה ִא ָשּׁה ֶא‬ ‫וּב ָשׂר ִמ ְבּ ָשׂ ִרי ְלזֹאת יִ ָקּ ֵרא ִא ָשּׁה‬ ‫‪ Gen 2:23 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָה ָא ָדם זֹאת ַה ֫ ַפּ ַעם ֫ ֶע ֶצם ֵמ ֲע ָצ ַמי ָ‬ ‫ִכּי ֵמ ִאישׁ ֻל ֳק ָחה־זֹּאת‬ ‫אֹלהים י ְֹד ֵעי‬ ‫יתם ֵכּ ִ‬ ‫יכם וִ ְהיִ ֶ‬ ‫ֹלהים ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְל ֶכם ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ וְ נִ ְפ ְקחוּ ֵעינֵ ֶ‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 3:5 (f‬כּי י ֵֹד ַע ֱא ִ‬ ‫טוֹב וָ ָרע‬ ‫‪ְ Prov 16:6 (g‬בּ ֶ֫ח ֶסד וֶ ֱא ֶמת יְ ֻכ ַפּר ָעו ֹן‬ . Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬ ‫‪ִ (a‬ה ְת ַק ְדּשׁוּ‬ ‫‪ְ (f‬מ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬ ‫‪ (b‬נִ ְשׁ ְבּרוּ‬ ‫‪ִ (g‬מ ְת ַפּ ְלּ ִלים‬ ‫‪ (c‬וְ נִ ְס ְת ָרה‬ ‫‪ִ (h‬ה ָשּׁ ֵחת‬ ‫‪ (d‬יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫‪ (i‬נִ ְכ ָבּד‬ ‫‪ְ (e‬תּ ֻכ ַפּר‬ ‫יָמ ַלְך‬ ‫‪ְ (j‬‬ ‫‪3.‫‪Lesson 15‬‬ ‫‪104‬‬ ‫‪2.

From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬ ‫‪one construct phrase each.‫‪105‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 15‬‬ ‫יהם וַ יֵּ ְדעוּ ִכּי ֵע ֻיר ִמּם ‪ֵ GL‬הם‬ ‫‪ Gen 3:7 (h‬וַ ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְחנָ ה ‪ֵ GL‬עינֵ י ְשׁנֵ ֶ‬ ‫חוֹטא‬ ‫י־ר ָשׁע וְ ֵ‬ ‫‪ֵ Prov 11:31 (i‬הן ַצ ִדּיק ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ יְ ֻשׁ ָלּם ַאף ִכּ ָ‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ‫ל־ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 20:17 (j‬וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא ָ‬ ‫ל־פּנֵ י ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה‬ ‫‪ Ezek 16:5 (k‬וַ ֻתּ ְשׁ ְל ִכי ֶא ְ‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ‫ת־ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 5:24 (l‬וַ יִּ ְת ַה ֵלְּך ֲחנוְֹך‪ֶ PN‬א ָ‬ ‫ֹלהים וַ ִתּ ָמּ ֵלא ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ָח ָמס‬ ‫‪ Gen 6:11 (m‬וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵחת ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ִל ְפנֵ י ָה ֱא ִ‬ ‫י־חת ‪ָ֫ PN‬שׁ ָמּה ֻק ַבּר ַא ְב ָר ָהם וְ ָשׂ ָרה‬ ‫ר־קנָ ה ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֵמ ֵאת ְבּנֵ ֵ‬ ‫‪ַ Gen 25:10 (n‬ה ָשּׂ ֶדה ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬ ‫‪4.‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬ ‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬ .

and Briggs (BDB) with sidebar notes explaining the layout of the entries. this is the editors’ opinion of which meaning best suits the passage. Step 3b: Same as Step 2b. you will be introduced to the basic steps for using a lexicon for Biblical Hebrew. lexica provide glosses from one language to another. Step 3a: If the word is a noun. .1 Using a Lexicon At this point in your study of Biblical Hebrew. Step 2a: If the word is a verb. which provide definitions of words and rules of usage. Driver. identify the binyan (see the Parsing Flow Chart in the Appendix B for help). In addition.Note to student: from this chapter onward word stress ( ֫ ) will rarely be marked for you. you should begin to transition from using our glossary to using a full-scale lexicon. look for its entry after the entry for the verbal root. Unlike dictionaries. Step 2b: If multiple meanings are listed for the binyan. lexica for ancient languages often provide attested forms of words as well as examples taken from ancient texts. Following this discussion are sample pages from the Hebrew lexicon edited by Brown. determine which meaning best fits the context for your passage. Step 1: Identify the three-letter root and look it up in the lexicon. In this section. Lesson 16 Lesson Summary: • Using the Lexicon • Dynamic and Stative Verbs 16. The lexicon may reference the verse on which you are working.

Pi. Hoph.1. Niph.–with italicized glosses. Pu. Hithp.Lesson 16 Verbs • Verbs are listed in 3MS Perfect form.. • A partial listing of conjugated forms is provided for each binyan... • Multiple meanings are given in outline form– A. 107 . • The most common meanings are given in bold..a. Hiph. • Entries are arranged by binyan as follows: Qal.. • In parentheses are attestations and basic meanings of the root in other Semitic languages.

• Identification as noun (n. Dynamic verbs refer to events or movements. • Multiple meanings are arranged in outline form—2. 16. Stative verbs refer to states or qualities.. • A partial listing of declined forms is given.e.) and gender (m. or f.a. state versus event).—with italicized glosses. In English.) follow the form. stative verbs are distinguished from dynamic verbs not only by their basic meaning (i.2 Dynamic and Stative Verbs Dynamic and Stative The semantic distinction between dynamic and stative forms a basic division among verbs. but in their . • Then the most common meanings are listed in bold.Lesson 16 108 Nouns • Nouns are listed after the related verbal root.

indeed.. without an object). is very heavy (= serious)’ (Gen 18:20) ‫וְ ֵעינֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָכּ ְבדוּ ִמ ֫זּ ֹ ֶקן‬ ‘(and) Israel’s eyes were heavy (= dim) from age’ (Gen 48:10) . statives not only have semantic limitations (statives are usually used intransitively. whether they are semantically dynamic or stative (see 17. 3MS Perfect MSA adjective = ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬he is/was heavy’ = ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬heavy’ • Stative verbs in the Perfect Conjugation may express a present state or a past state. i.Lesson 16 109 semantic limitations: stative verbs do not usually appear in progressive conjugations (*He was knowing) or as imperatives (*Know!).e. • The vowel patterns in dynamic and stative verbs usually contrast with each other in both the Suffix Pattern and Prefix Pattern. but are also distinguished from dynamics morphologically.3): ‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬. • Stative verbs do not have an active Participle form. but often have an adjective form equivalent to the 3MS Perfect form. ‫אתם ִכּי ָכ ְב ָדה ְמאֹד‬ ָ ‫וְ ַח ָטּ‬ ‘(and) their sin. Dynamic Suffix Pattern = ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he attended’ Stative Suffix Pattern = ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬he is/was heavy’ ‫‘ ָקטֹן‬he is/was small’ Dynamic Prefix Pattern = ‫‘ יִ ְפקֹד‬he will attend’ Stative Prefix Pattern = ‫‘ יִ ְכ ַבּד‬he will be heavy’ ‫‘ יִ ְק ַטן‬he will be small’ Note: All III-Gutturals verbs have a Prefix Pattern like the statives. In Biblical Hebrew.

Translate the following verses. ‫ת־ה ֻח ִקּים‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצו ֹת וְ ֶא‬ ַ ‫א־שׁ ַמ ְרנוּ ֶא‬ ָ ֹ ‫ ֲחבֹל ָח ַב ְלנוּ ָלְך וְ ל‬Neh 1:7 (a ‫סוּסיָך ח ֶֹמר ַמיִ ם ַר ִבּים‬ ֶ ‫ ָדּ ַר ְכ ָתּ ַביָּ ם‬Hab 3:15 (b GL ‫ֵמאוֹת‬ ‫ ֶא ֶלף וַ ֲח ֵמשׁ‬GL‫ וְ ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים‬GL‫אוּבן ִשׁ ָשּׁה‬ ֵ ‫יהם ְל ַמ ֵטּה ְר‬ ֶ ‫ ְפּ ֻק ֵד‬Num 1:21 (c GL ‫מוֹע׃‬ ַ ‫א־כ ְב ָדה ָאזְ נוֹ ִמ ְשּׁ‬ ָ ֹ ‫יע וְ ל‬ ַ ‫הוֹשׁ‬ ִ ‫א־ק ְצ ָרה יַ ד־יְ הוָ ה ֵמ‬ ָ ֹ ‫ ל‬GL‫ ֵהן‬Isa 59:1 (d PN ‫יהם ֶדּ ֶרְך ַהיַּ ְר ֵדּן‬ ֶ ‫ וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ָר ְדפוּ ַא ֲח ֵר‬Josh 2:7 (e . became). be glad Q rise.Lesson 16 110 • Stative verbs may express either a state or the inception of or entrance into a state (i. ‫ת־פּנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬ ְ ‫ִכּי־גָ ְד ָלה ַצ ֲע ָק ָתם ֶא‬ ‘for their outcry has become great before the YHWH’ (Gen 19:13) 16. Look up in BDB and identify/parse the boxed words. Determine the best meaning for the word in the context.3 Vocabulary #16 ‫ָדּ ַרְך‬ Q tread. insignificant be polluted.e. appear ‫ָשׁכֹל‬ Q be bereaved.. childless F work ‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶמשׁ‬ M/F sun Exercises 1. profane ‫ָשׂ ַמח‬ Q rejoice. march ‫ָח ַכם‬ Q be wise ‫ָחנֵ ף‬ Q ‫זָ ַרח‬ ‫אכה‬ ָ ‫ְמ ָל‬ ‫נָ ִקי‬ ADJ clean. innocent. come forth. exempt ‫ָקטֹן‬ Q be small.

‬‬ ‫‪ (a‬יֶ ְח ַכּם‬ ‫‪ (f‬יִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬ ‫‪ָ (b‬שׁכ ְֹל ִתּי‬ ‫‪ (g‬וַ יִּ ְקבֹּר‬ ‫‪ִ (c‬תּ ְדר ְֹך‬ ‫‪ָ (h‬קטֹנְ ִתּי‬ ‫‪ֲ (d‬חזַ ק‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫‪ (e‬וַ ֶתּ ֱחנַ ף‬ ‫‪ָ (i‬מ ַשׁ ְל ָתּ‬ ‫‪ִ (j‬תּ ְשׂ ַמ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫‪3. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence (also‬‬ ‫‪indicate whether the verbs are dynamic or stative). Parse and translate the following verbs and indicate whether each verb is‬‬ ‫‪dynamic or stative. Translate the following.‬‬ ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם ַבּכֹּל‬ ‫‪ Gen 24:1* (a‬וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם זָ ֵקן ַבּיָּ ִמים וַ יהוָ ה ֵבּ ַרְך ֶא ַ‬ ‫יכם יוֹם ֶא ָחד‬ ‫ם־שׁנֵ ֶ‬ ‫אוֹתָך ִמ ָשּׁם ָל ָמה ֶא ְשׁ ַכּל גַּ ְ‬ ‫וּל ַק ְח ִתּי ְ‬ ‫‪ Gen 27:45* (b‬וְ ָשׁ ַל ְח ִתּי ְ‬ ‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ‬ ‫י־חזַ ק ָה ָר ָעב ְבּ ָכ ָ‬ ‫ל־יוֹסף ִכּ ָ‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ ָבּאוּ ְל ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ִל ְשׁבֹּר ‪ֶ GL‬א‬ ‫‪ Gen 41:57 (c‬וְ ָכ ָ‬ ‫יכם‬ ‫יכם וְ ַע ְב ֵד ֶ‬ ‫וּבנ ֵֹת ֶ‬ ‫יכם ְ‬ ‫וּבנֵ ֶ‬ ‫יכם ַא ֶתּם ְ‬ ‫ֹלה ֶ‬ ‫וּשׂ ַמ ְח ֶתּם ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ ‫‪ְ Deut 12:12 (d‬‬ ‫יכם ִכּי ֵאין לוֹ ֵח ֶלק ‪ GL‬וְ נַ ֲח ָלה ‪ִ GL‬א ְתּ ֶכם‬ ‫יכם וְ ַה ֵלּוִ י ‪ֲ PN‬א ֶשׁר ְבּ ַשׁ ֲע ֵר ֶ‬ ‫וְ ַא ְמה ֵֹת ֶ‬ ‫ית־ע ְב ְדָּך ְל ֵמ ָרחוֹק‬ ‫ל־בּ ַ‬ ‫‪ II Sam 7:19‬וַ ִתּ ְק ַטן עוֹד זֹאת ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך ֲאד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה וַ ְתּ ַד ֵבּר גַּ ם ֶא ֵ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ .‫‪Lesson 16‬‬ ‫‪111‬‬ ‫ם־אין לוֹ וְ נִ ְמ ַכּר ‪ִ GL‬בּגְ נֵ ָבתוֹ‬ ‫‪ִ Exod 22:2 (f‬אם־זָ ְר ָחה ַה ֶשּׁ ֶמשׁ ָע ָליו ָדּ ִמים לוֹ ַשׁ ֵלּם יְ ַשׁ ֵלּם ִא ֵ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫‪2.

‫‪112‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 16‬‬ ‫אכה ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ְשֹׁלמֹה ‪ֵ PN‬בּית יְ הוָ ה וַ יָּ ֵבא ְשֹׁלמֹה‬ ‫ל־ה ְמּ ָל ָ‬ ‫‪ I Kgs 7:51‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַלם ָכּ ַ‬ ‫ת־ה ֵכּ ִלים נָ ַתן ְבּא ְֹצרוֹת ‪ֵ GL‬בּית יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫ת־הזָּ ָהב וְ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־ה ֶכּ ֶסף וְ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־ק ְד ֵשׁי ָדּוִ ד ָא ִביו ֶא ַ‬ ‫ֶא ָ‬ ‫יהם ֲא ֶשׁר זִ ְבּחוּ ַל ֲע ַצ ֵבּי ‪ְ GL‬כנָ ַען וַ ֶתּ ֱחנַ ף‬ ‫נוֹת ֶ‬ ‫וּב ֵ‬ ‫יהם ְ‬ ‫ם־בּנֵ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Ps 106:38‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְפּכוּ ָדם ‪ GL‬נָ ִקי ַדּ ְ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ָה ָא ֶרץ ַבּ ָדּ ִמים‬ ‫ח־אב‬ ‫‪ֵ Prov 15:20‬בּן ָח ָכם יְ ַשׂ ַמּ ָ‬ ‫ם־אנִ י‬ ‫ם־ח ַכם ִל ֶבָּך יִ ְשׂ ַמח ִל ִבּי גַ ָ‬ ‫‪ְ Prov 23:15‬בּנִ י ִא ָ‬ .

they cannot have a dagesh chazaq).Lesson 17 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Guttural Verbs • I-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָחזַ ק ָע ַמד‬ • II-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬ • III-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָשׁ ַלח‬ Guttural Verbs 17.. second (II-Guttural).5) that the guttural consonants (‫א‬. or third (III-Guttural) radicals.1 Introduction to Guttural Verbs You should remember from Lesson 2 (2. we will study how these three characteristics affect verbs that have guttural consonants for their first (I-Guttural). • Characteristic #2: Gutturals prefer a-class vowels (placed both before and after). . 17. • Characteristic #1: Gutturals (and ‫ )ר‬cannot be lengthened (i. Qal Imperfect Stative verbs have a ֶ (segol) prefix vowel instead of ִ (chiriq).e.2 I-Guttural Verbs I-Guttural Verbs • #1: Nifal Imperfect has a ֵ (tsere) prefix vowel instead of the normal ִ (chiriq) to ‘compensate’ for the fact that the guttural consonant cannot take a dagesh chazaq. ‫ה‬. ‫ ח‬and ‫ )ע‬have three main characteristics. • Characteristic #3: Gutturals usually have a compound sheva instead of a simple sheva. In this lesson. ‫ יֵ ָע ֵמד‬instead of *‫( יִ ּ ָע ֵמד‬compare to ‫)יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬ • #2: Qal Imperfect Dynamic verbs have a ַ (patach) prefix vowel instead of ִ (chiriq).

‫( יַ ֲע ִמיד ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬Hifil 3MS Perfect and Imperfect) Note: The chatef vowel may change to a full vowel if the vowel in the following syllable is reduced to a sheva. and Hitpael binyanim do not have their characteristic dagesh chazaq in R2. HITP R E G U L A R HIFIL ‫ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬ ‫יַ ֲע ִמיד‬ ‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ַה ֲע ִמיד‬ ‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ִמיד‬ HOFAL ‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬ ‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬ ‫וַ יָּ ֳע ַמד‬ ‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬ ‫ָה ֳע ֵמד‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ָמד‬ 17. The preceding vowel may lengthen. ‫( יַ ֲעמֹד‬Qal 3MS Imperfect) BUT ‫( יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬Qal 3MP Imperfect) I-Guttural: Representative Forms QAL DYNAMIC STATIVE PERF IMPF PAST IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP ‫ָחזֵ ק ָע ַמד‬ ‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק יַ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫וַ יֶּ ֱחזַ ק וַ יַּ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫ֲעמֹד‬ ‫ֲחזַ ק‬ ‫ֲעמֹד‬ ‫ֲחזַ ק‬ ‫ָחזוֹק ָעמוֹד‬ ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫ָחזֵ ק‬ NIFAL ‫נֶ ֱע ַמד‬ ‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֵה ָעמֹד נַ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ָמד‬ PI. Pual.Lesson 17 114 ‫ יַ ֲעמֹד‬instead of *‫( יִ ְעמֹד‬compare ‫)יִ ְפקֹד‬ ‫ יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬instead of *‫( יִ ְחזַ ק‬compare ‫)יִ ְכ ַבּד‬ Note: Both dynamic and stative 1CS Qal Impf. Have ֶ (segol) as the prefix vowel: ‫ ֶא ֱעמֹד‬and ‫ֶא ֱחזַ ק‬ • #3: Qal Imperative and Infinite Construct will have ֲ (chatef patach) under the first radical. PU. Before ‫ ר‬the vowel always lengthens: ‫ ֵבּ ַרְך‬instead of *‫( ִבּ ֵרְּך‬compare ‫)פּ ֵקּד‬ ִ . ‫ ֲעמֹד‬instead of *‫( ְעמֹד‬compare ‫)פּקֹד‬ ְ Note: In I-Guttural verbs. the chatef vowel will always be the same class as that of the preceding vowel (where there is one).3 II-Guttural Verbs II-Guttural Verbs • #1: The Piel.

Stative: ‫( יֶ ֱא ַהב‬expected) Dynamic: ‫ יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬instead of *‫( יִ ְשׁחֹט‬compare ‫)יִפקֹד‬ ְ • #3: R2 has a compound sheva instead of a simple sheva when the verb ends in a vocalic inflectional suffix in all binyanim except for the Hifil.4 III-Guttural Verbs III-Guttural Verbs • #1: There is often no effect on III-Guttural verbs ‫יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ ָשׁ ְלחוּ‬ HITPAEL ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ . ‫ ָבּ ֲח ָרה‬instead of *‫( ָבּ ְח ָרה‬compare ‫)פּ ְק ָדה‬ ָ ‫ ָבּ ֲחרוּ‬instead of *‫( ָבּ ְחרוּ‬compare ‫)פּ ְקדוּ‬ ָ Note: ‫ ר‬does not always require a compound sheva: ‫ֵבּ ְרכוּ‬ II-Guttural: Representative Forms (two different roots appear in this paradigm since none appears in all binyanim) QAL PERF IMPF PAST IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP ‫ָשׁ ַחט‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ְשׁחֹט‬ ‫ָשׁחוֹט‬ ‫שׁוֹחט‬ ֵ NIFAL ‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫נִ ְשׁחֹט‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָחט‬ PIEL PUAL ‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬ ‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬ ‫וַ יְ ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ָבּ ֵרְך ָבּרוֹך‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫בּ ַֹרְך‬ ‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫וַ יְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫ְמב ָֹרְך‬ Note: The Hifil and Hofal binyanim are regular. 17. or ‫ ע‬the vowel usually does not lengthen: ‫ נִ ַחם‬instead of *‫נֵ ַחם‬ • #2: Qal Imperfect and Imperative have an a-class theme vowel with both stative and dynamic roots.Lesson 17 115 Before ‫ א‬the vowel usually lengthens: ‫ ֵבּ ֵאר‬instead of *‫ִבּ ֵאּר‬ Before ‫ה‬. ‫ח‬.

‫ יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬instead of *‫( יִ ְשֹׁלח‬compare ‫)יִ ְפקֹד‬ ‫( ַה ְשׁ ַלח‬HIF 2MS IMV) instead of *‫( ַה ְשׁ ֵלח‬compare ‫)ה ְפ ֵקד‬ ַ BUT. ‫ ֶא ְשׁ ָל ֲחָך‬instead of *‫( ֶא ְשׁ ָל ְחָך‬compare ‫)א ְפ ָק ְדָך‬ ֶ III-Guttural: Representative Forms PERF IMPF PAST IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL ‫ָשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫ִשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫וַ יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ִה ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫יח‬ ַ ‫יַ ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫וַ יָּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ֹלח‬ ַ ‫ְשׁ‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ַה ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫לוֹח‬ ַ ‫ָשׁ‬ ‫נִ ְשֹׁלח‬ ‫ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬ ‫שׁוֹל ַח‬ ֵ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָלח‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ָלּח‬ ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלח‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬ Note: The infixed ‫ ת‬of the Hitpael and R1 of roots that begin with a sibilant undergo metathesis.e. the ‫ ת‬switches places with a ‫ז‬.. . i.Lesson 17 116 • #2: Some forms have an a-class theme vowel. ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ ִ‌ה ְשׁ ִל‬instead of *‫( ִה ְשׁ ִליח‬compare ‫)ה ְפ ִקיד‬ ִ • #3: When III-Guttural verbs have object suffixes (discussed in Lesson 18). a furtive patach appears before R3. In these cases. ‫שׂ‬ or ‫שׁ‬. the linking vowel is often a compound sheva instead of a simple sheva. ‫ס‬. ‫ צ‬. some non-a-class theme vowels remain.

‫אוֹתהּ ְלט ָֹבה‬ ָ ‫ֹלהים ָח ַשׁב‬ ִ ‫ וְ ַא ֶתּם ֲח ַשׁ ְב ֶתּם ָע ַלי ָר ָעה ֱא‬Gen 50:20* (a ‫ת־בּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ְ ‫ת־לב ַפּ ְרעֹה וְ לֹא ִשׁ ַלּח ֶא‬ ֵ ‫ וַ יְ ַחזֵּ ק יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬Exod 10:20 (b . comforted. devise. salvation ‫֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬ M opening ‫ָשׁ ַחט‬ Q slaughter comfort. regret. grasp F chariot ‫נָ ַאף‬ Q PI ‫נחם‬ NI commit adultery be sorry. dominate ‫ָא ָשׁם‬ M guilt.Lesson 17 117 17. guilt offering ‫מוֹעד‬ ֵ M meeting. PI ‫ָח ַשׁב‬ Q think. HI believe ‫ָכּ ַבשׁ‬ Q subdue. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. rescue. Parse the following Guttural verbs. PN Jonah ‫ֵע ָדה‬ F ‫ֵ֫י ַשׁע‬ M deliverance. ‫( וַ יַּ ֲעזֹב‬f ‫( ְמנָ ֵאף‬a ‫( ָבּ ֳח ִרי‬g ‫( וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬b ‫( יֵ ָח ֵשׁב‬h ‫( ַה ֲא ִמינוּ‬c ‫( ָשׁ ַכנְ נוּ‬i ‫( יְ נַ ֲחמוּ‬d ‫( נַ ֲחמוּ‬j ‫( ְבּט ַֹח‬e 2. console congregation Exercises 1.5 Vocabulary #17 ‫ָא ַמן‬ Q support. NI be reckoned ‫יוֹנָ ה‬ F dove. appointed time ‫ָבּ ַחר‬ Q choose ‫ָחזַ ק‬ Q be strong. HI ‫ֶמ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬ seize. PI strengthen.

‫‪Lesson 17‬‬ ‫‪118‬‬ ‫‪ I Kgs 22:35 (c‬וְ ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ָהיָ ה ָמ ֳע ָמד ַבּ ֶמּ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬ ‫אוֹתהּ וַ יִּ נָּ ֵחם יִ ְצ ָחק ַא ֲח ֵרי ִאמּוֹ‬ ‫‪ Gen 24:67* (d‬וַ ְתּ ִהי־לוֹ ְל ִא ָשּׁה וַ יֶּ ֱא ַהב ָ‬ ‫‪Exod 17:9 (e‬‬ ‫ר־לנוּ ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ְבּ ַח ָ‬ ‫אמר מ ֶֹשׁה ֶאל־יְ ֻ‬ ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ת־ה ָא ָשׁם‬ ‫ת־הע ָֹלה יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ִ Lev 7:2 (f‬בּ ְמקוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ ֶא ָ‬ ‫מוֹעד וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ‬ ‫ל־ע ַדת ְבּנֵ י־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ִשֹׁלה ‪ PN‬וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִכּינוּ ָשׁם ֶאת־א ֶֹהל ֵ‬ ‫‪ Josh 18:1 (g‬וַ יִּ ָקּ ֲהלוּ ָכּ ֲ‬ ‫יהם‬ ‫נִ ְכ ְבּ ָשׁה ִל ְפנֵ ֶ‬ ‫יכם‬ ‫ֹלה ֶ‬ ‫אמר ֱא ֵ‬ ‫‪ Isa 40:1 (h‬נַ ֲחמוּ נַ ֲחמוּ ַע ִמּי י ֹ ַ‬ ‫‪ Deut 5:18 (i‬וְ לֹא ִתּנְ ָאף‬ ‫ת־בּנָ יו‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶאת־נ ַֹח וְ ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 9:1 (j‬וַ יְ ָב ֶרְך ֱא ִ‬ ‫ת־היּוֹנָ ה ֵמ ִאתּוֹ‬ ‫‪ Gen 8:8 (k‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח ֶא ַ‬ ‫אוֹתָך ְבּ ָשׁלוֹם‬ ‫‪ Gen 26:29* (l‬וַ נְּ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח ְ‬ ‫ה־בן ְל ָשׂ ָרה ִא ְשׁ ֶתָּך וְ ָשׂ ָרה שׁ ַֹמ ַעת ֶפּ ַתח ָהא ֶֹהל‬ ‫‪ Gen 18:10 (m‬וְ ִהנֵּ ֵ‬ ‫אמר ַפּ ְרעֹה ִמי יְ הוָ ה ֲא ֶשׁר ֶא ְשׁ ַמע ְבּקֹלוֹ ְל ַשׁ ַלּח ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל לֹא יָ ַד ְע ִתּי‬ ‫‪ Exod 5:2 (n‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה וְ גַ ם ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל לֹא ֲא ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ .

‫‪119‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 17‬‬ ‫ם־שֹׁלמֹה ‪ֵ PN‬לאמֹר ֲהלוֹא ָשׁ ַמ ַע ְתּ ִכּי ָמ ַלְך‬ ‫ת־שׁ ַבע ‪ֵ PN‬א ְ‬ ‫ל־בּ ֶ‬ ‫אמר נָ ָתן ‪ֶ PN‬א ַ‬ ‫‪ I Kgs 1:11 (o‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ן־חגִּ ית ‪ PN‬וַ ֲאד ֹנֵ ינוּ ָדוִ ד לֹא יָ ָדע‬ ‫ֲאד ֹנִ יָּ הוּ‪ֶ PN‬ב ַ‬ ‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׁ ֵעְך‬ ‫‪ִ Isa 17:10 (p‬כּי ָשׁ ַכ ַח ְתּ ֱא ֵ‬ .

II-Vav/Yod. Weak verbs have one or more “weak” (e. Weak verbs fall into one of four main classes (Roman numerals are used to refer to the position of the weak letter in the root): • Roots that begin or end with ‫א‬: I-Alef. It is a strong verb..e. III-Alef • Roots that begin with ‫נ‬: I-Nun • Roots with ‫ ו‬or ‫( י‬i. Biblical Hebrew. glides): I-Vav/Yod.e. III-He (originally III-Vav/Yod) • Roots with an identical consonant in second and third positions: II-III The chart below lists all the classes of weak verbs: Class Traditional Name I-Alef Pe Alef III-Alef Lamed Alef I-Nun Pe Nun I-Vav/Yod Pe Vav/Yod III-He Lamed He II-Vav/Yod Ayin Vav/Yod II-III Ayin Ayin Examples ‫ָא ַמר‬ ‫ָמ ָצא‬ ‫נָ ַפל‬ ‫יָ ַשׁב יָ ַרשׁ‬ ‫גָּ ָלה‬ ‫קוּם ִשׂים‬ ‫ָס ַבב‬ Lesson Studied 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 Biblical Hebrew also has doubly-weak roots (Lesson 25). These roots have more than one weak consonant. glide) consonants in the root that may affect the form’s vowel pattern. no gutturals or glides)..Lesson 18 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Weak Verbs • Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs Weak Verbs 18. contains many more weak verbs than strong. Some frequently .g..1 Introduction to Weak Verbs The paradigms in this book use the root ‫ פקד‬because it has regular consonants (i. however.

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוֹ = ָפּ ַקד אוֹתוֹ‬He visited him’ Suffixes added to a verb ending in a vowel 1) Suffixes added to any verb ending in a Vowel 3MS ‫הוּ‬. Suffixed object pronouns can also be added directly to verbs. III-He ‫ יָ ָצא‬I-Vav/Yod. III-Alef ‫ ָהיָ ה‬II-Vav/Yod. III-He ‫ נָ ָשׂא‬I-Nun.“you (FS)/I visited him” 2MP/2FP Suff ‫תּוּ ← ְפּ ַק ְדתּוּם‬.“you (MP/FP) visited them” .֫ / ‫ו‬‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ הוּ‬they visited him’ (‫)פּ ַק ְד ִתּיו‬ ְ (‘I visited him’) 3FS ‫ה‬ָ ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ ָה‬they visited her’ 2MS ‫ָך‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ ָך‬they visited you’ 2FS ‫ְך‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוְּך‬they visited you’ 1CS ‫נִ י‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ נִ י‬they visited me’ 3MP ‫ם‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּם‬they visited them’ 3FP ‫ן‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּן‬they visited them’ 2MP ‫כם‬ֶ ‫דוּכם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ָפּ ְק‬they visited you’ 2FP ‫כן‬ֶ ‫דוּכן‬ ֶ ‫‘ ָפּ ְק‬they visited you’ 1CP ‫נוּ‬- ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ נוּ‬they visited us’ Note: Several verb forms are altered before suffixed pronouns: 2FS Suff ‫ ְתּ ← ִתּי ← ְפּ ַק ְד ִתּיו‬. ‫ ָא ָבה‬I-Alef.← ‫ ֶתּם‬-. ‫ ֶתּן‬. III-Alef Suffixed Object Pronouns 18.Lesson 18 121 occurring doubly-weak roots are listed here.2 Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs Lesson 7 introduced suffixed pronouns that express objects when added to prepositions or the direct object marker (‫את־‬/‫ת‬ ֶ ‫) ֵא‬. III-Alef I-Nun. III-He ‫ בּוֹא‬II-Vav/Yod. When added to finite verbs these pronouns express the object of the verb (just as suffixes that are added to the direct object marker). III-He ‫נָ ָטה‬ ‫ יָ ָרה‬I-Vav/Yod.

Imperfect.before suffixes).← ‫נָ ה‬. .“they (FP)/you (MP/FP) will visit her” Suffixes added to a Suffix pattern verb ending in a consonant 2) Suffixes added to a Suffix pattern verb ending in a Consonant 3MS ֹ‫ו‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוֹ‬he visited him’ 3FS ‫ָהּ‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדהּ‬he visited her’ 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ְדָך‬he visited you’ 2FS ‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ֵדְך‬he visited you’ 1CS ‫ַ֫ נִ י‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ַ ֫דנִ י‬he visited me’ 3MP ‫ָם‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדם‬he visited them’ 3FP ‫ָן‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדן‬he visited them’ 2MP ‫ְ ֶכם‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ַק ְד ֶכם‬he visited you’ 2FP ‫ְ ֶכן‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ַק ְד ֶכן‬he visited you’ 1CP ‫ָ֫ נוּ‬ ‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָ ֫דנוּ‬he visited us’ Note: This chart applies only to the 3MS and 3FS (‫ה‬. Imperative) ending in a Consonant Suffixes on a Prefix pattern verb ending in a consonant 3MS ‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דהוּ‬ ְ (‫) ָפּ ְק ֵ ֫דהוּ‬ ‘he will visit him’ (‘visit him!’) 3FS ‫ֶ֫ ָה‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫ד ָה‬ ְ ‘he will visit her’ 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ ‫יִפ ָק ְדָך‬ ְ ‘he will visit you’ 2FS ‫ֵ ְך‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵדְך‬ ְ ‘he will visit you’ 1CS ‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דנִ י‬ ְ ‘he will visit me’ 3MP ‫ֵם‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵדם‬ ְ ‘he will visit them’ 3FP ‫ֵן‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵדן‬ ְ ‘he will visit them’ 2MP ‫ְ ֶכם‬ ‫יִפ ָק ְד ֶכם‬ ְ ‘he will visit you’ 2FP ‫ְ ֶכן‬ ‫יִפ ָק ְד ֶכן‬ ְ ‘he will visit you’ 1CP ‘he will visit us’ ‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬ ‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דנוּ‬ ְ Note: The u-class vowel between R2 and R3 is ָ (qamets chatuf).Lesson 18 122 3FP/2FP Prefix ‫וּ ← ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ֫ ָה‬. 3) Suffixes added to an Prefix pattern verb (e.g..becomes ‫ת‬.

Lesson 18 Suffixes on the 3FS Perfect 123 4) The 3FS Perfect verb replaces the ‫ ה‬ending with a ‫ ת‬before suffixes. while Prefix pattern verbs use an i-class vowel (usually ֵ ).) +3MS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶדנּוּ‬ ְ ← ‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬ ‘Energic’ Nun +3FS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דנָּ ה‬ ְ ← ‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬ +2MS suff ָ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דךּ‬ ְ ← ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ֶ֫ ךּ‬ +1CS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דנִּ י‬ ְ ← ‫נְ נִ י* ← ֶ֫ נִּ י‬ +1CP suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶדנּוּ‬ ְ ← ‫נְ נוּ* ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬ Summary of Suffixed Object Pronouns on Verbs Following Vowel 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS 3MP 3FP 2MP 2FP 1CP ‫הוּ‬.֫ / ‫ו‬‫ה‬ָ ‫ָך‬‫ְך‬‫נִ י‬‫ם‬‫ן‬‫כם‬ֶ ‫כן‬ֶ ‫נוּ‬- FOLLOWING CONSONANT SUFFIX VERB Prefix Verb ֹ‫ו‬ ‫ָהּ‬ ‫ְ ָך‬ ‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬ ‫ַ֫ נִ י‬ ‫ָם‬ ‫ָן‬ ‫ְ ֶכם‬ ‫ְ ֶכן‬ ‫ָ֫ נוּ‬ ‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬ ‫ֶ֫ ָה‬ ‫ְ ָך‬ ‫ֵ ְך‬ ‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬ ‫ֵם‬ ‫ֵן‬ ‫ְ ֶכם‬ ‫ְ ֶכן‬ ‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬ With Energic Nun ‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬ ‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬ ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ךּ‬ ‫נִּ י‬ ← *‫נְ נִ י‬ ‫נְ נוּ* ← נּוּ‬ Note: Generally speaking. . + 3MS suff ‫)– ְתהוּ( ← ְפּ ָק ַ ֫דתוּ‬ + 3MP suff ‫ְפּ ָק ָ ֫ד ַתם‬ + 3FS suff ‫)– ְת ָה( ← ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ָתּה‬ + 3FP suff ‫ְפּ ָק ָ ֫ד ַתן‬ + 1CP suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתנוּ‬ + 2MS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתָך‬ + 2FS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ֶתְך‬ + 1CS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתנִ י‬ 5) Suffixes added with an ‘energic’ nun: Sometimes there is an “extra nun” between the suffixes listed below and an imperfect verb. (Usually the nun is assimilated. Suffix pattern/Perfect verbs use an a-class vowel (usually ַ ) before a suffixed pronoun.

away ‫ֵהן‬ INTJ be recognized.. thrust out. board. a) II-III weak root that begins with ‫ד‬: b) III-He weak root that has a middle ‫ר‬: c) I-Nun weak root that ends with ‫ק‬: d) I-Vav/Yod weak root that ends with ‫ק‬: e) I-Alef and II-Vav/Yod weak root: . regard ‫ֶשׁ‬ behold. plate ‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּב‬ M couch. who lay hold of. ‫ אמר‬I-Alef) ‫( נָ ַפל‬g ‫( ָמ ֵלא‬d ‫( גָּ ָלה‬a ‫( ָא ַכל‬h ‫( מוּת‬e ‫( רוּם‬b ‫( בּוֹשׁ‬i ‫( ָבּ ָכה‬f ‫( ָא ַבד‬c 2. which. see! ‫לוּח‬ ַ M tablet. place of lying ‫ָתּ ַפשׂ‬ CONJ Q that. Find a weak root in BDB that fits the following criteria. the meanings listed in bold in BDB).Lesson 18 124 18.3 Vocabulary #18 ‫גָּ ַרשׁ‬ Q cast out..e. List the basic meaning(s) of the root (i. Identify the class of the following weak roots (e. plank.g. HI recognize. PI drive ‫נכר‬ NI out. wield Exercises 1.

Translate the following. 26:7 (f‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ֲאלוּ ַאנְ ֵשׁי ַה ָמּקוֹם ְל ִא ְשׁתּוֹ וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫י־טוֹבת ַמ ְר ֶאה ִהיא‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫ל־ר ְב ָקה ‪ִ PN‬כּ‬ ‫יַ ַה ְרגֻ נִ י ַאנְ ֵשׁי ַה ָמּקוֹם ַע ִ‬ ‫וּשׁ ַמ ְר ִתּיָך ִכּי לֹא ֶא ֱעזָ ְבָך‬ ‫‪ Gen 28:15* (g‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ָאנ ִֹכי ִע ָמְּך ְ‬ ‫אמר ֶא ֱע ָב ְדָך ֶשׁ ַבע ָשׁנִ ים ְבּ ָר ֵחל ִבּ ְתָּך ַה ְקּ ַטנָּ ה‬ ‫ת־ר ֵחל ‪ PN‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 29:18 (h‬וַ יֶּ ֱא ַהב יַ ֲעקֹב ֶא ָ‬ .‬‬ ‫י־אנִ י‬ ‫ן־ה ֲא ָרצוֹת ַא ְשׁ ִמ ְידָך וְ יָ ַד ְע ָתּ ִכּ ֲ‬ ‫ן־ה ַע ִמּים וְ ַה ֲא ַב ְד ִתּיָך ִמ ָ‬ ‫‪ Ezek 25:7 (a‬וְ ִה ְכ ַר ִתּיָך ִמ ָ‬ ‫יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫י־היוּ יָ ָדיו ִכּ ֵידי ֵע ָשׂו ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיו ְשׂ ִער ֹת ‪ GL‬וַ יְ ָב ְר ֵכהוּ‬ ‫‪ Gen 27:23 (b‬וְ לֹא ִה ִכּירוֹ ִכּ ָ‬ ‫יכם‬ ‫‪ Deut 9:17 (c‬וָ ֶא ְתפּ ֹשׂ ִבּ ְשׁנֵ י ַה ֻלּחֹת וָ ַא ְשׁ ִל ֵכם ֵמ ַעל ְשׁ ֵתּי יָ ָדי וָ ֲא ַשׁ ְבּ ֵרם ְל ֵעינֵ ֶ‬ ‫א־ב ְקשׁוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה וְ לֹא ְד ָר ֻשׁהוּ‬ ‫‪ Zeph 1:6 (d‬ל ֹ ִ‬ ‫אתיו‬ ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּ ִבי ַבּ ַלּ ָילה ִבּ ַקּ ְשׁ ִתּי ֵאת ֶשׁ ָא ֲה ָבה נַ ְפ ִשׁי ִבּ ַקּ ְשׁ ִתּיו וְ לֹא ְמ ָצ ִ‬ ‫‪ַ Song 3:1* (e‬ע ִ‬ ‫אמר ֲאח ִֹתי ִהוא ִכּי יָ ֵרא ֵלאמֹר ִא ְשׁ ִתּי ֶפּן־‬ ‫‪ Gen.‫‪Lesson 18‬‬ ‫‪125‬‬ ‫‪3. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Parse and translate the following verbs (be sure to fully parse the suffixes).‬‬ ‫‪ִ (a‬תּ ְשׁ ָכּ ֵחנוּ‬ ‫‪ (f‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ְלּ ֵחנוּ‬ ‫‪ִ (b‬ק ְדּשׁוּהוּ‬ ‫‪ֲ (g‬א ַכ ֶבּ ְדָך‬ ‫‪ֲ (c‬ה ָרגוּם‬ ‫‪ִ (h‬ק ַדּ ְשׁתּוֹ‬ ‫ֲא ַל ֶמּ ְד ֶכם‬ ‫‪ (d‬זְ ַכ ְר ַתּנִ י‬ ‫‪(i‬‬ ‫‪ (e‬יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרנוּ‬ ‫‪ֲ (j‬ה ָרגָ ְתהוּ‬ ‫‪4.

‫‪126‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 18‬‬ ‫ת־דּ ָב ָרי ֲא ֶשׁר יִ ְל ְמדוּ ְליִ ְר ָאה א ִֹתי ָכּל־‬ ‫ת־ה ָעם וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵעם ֶא ְ‬ ‫ל־לי ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ַ Deut 4:10 (i‬ה ְק ֶה ִ‬ ‫יהם יְ ַל ֵמּדוּן‬ ‫ת־בּנֵ ֶ‬ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה וְ ֶא ְ‬ ‫ַהיָּ ִמים ֲא ֶשׁר ֵהם ַחיִּ ים ַע ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:20* (j‬וְ ַע ָתּה וְ נַ ַה ְרגֵ הוּ וְ נַ ְשׁ ִל ֵכהוּ ְבּ ַא ַחד ַהבֹּרוֹת וְ ָא ַמ ְרנוּ ַחיָּ ה ָר ָעה ֲא ָכ ָל ְתהוּ‬ ‫יכהוּ ַא ְר ָצה‬ ‫יכהוּ ַא ְר ָצה וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִל ֵ‬ ‫אמר ַה ְשׁ ִל ֵ‬ ‫‪ Exod 4:3 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫וּמ ָפּנֶ יָך ֶא ָסּ ֵתר וְ ָהיָ ה ָכל־מ ְֹצ ִאי‬ ‫‪ֵ Gen 4:14* (l‬הן גֵּ ַר ְשׁ ָתּ א ִֹתי ַהיּוֹם ֵמ ַעל ְפּנֵ י ָה ֲא ָד ָמה ִ‬ ‫יַ ַה ְרגֵ נִ י‬ .

it loses its consonantal status. The following changes take place in these verb forms: • An R2 BeGaD KeFaT lacks a dagesh qal. Qal 3MS Imperfect (dynamic) Gl‫ ָאזַ ר‬is ‫יֶ ֱאז ֹר‬ Qal 3MS Imperfect (stative) ‫ ָא ֵהב‬is ‫יֶ ֱא ַהב‬ However.Lesson 19 Lesson Summary: • I-Alef Weak Verbs: ‫ָא ַכל‬ • III-Alef Weak Verbs: ‫ָמ ֵלא ָמ ָצא‬ I-Alef Weak Verbs 19. The five I-Alef roots can be remembered by a mnemonic device: ‫‘ ָא ַמר‬he said’ ‫‘ ָא ָבה‬he was willing’ ‫‘ ָא ַכל‬he ate’ ‫‘ ָא ַבד‬he perished’ ‫‘ ָא ָפה‬he baked’ Quiescent Alef Mnemonic: ‘He said: I am willing to eat what I bake even if I perish!’ In the Qal Imperfect and Past Narrative conjugations the initial ‫ א‬in these five roots becomes quiescent. ‫אכל‬ ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יִ ְכתֹּב‬ • The prefix vowel becomes a ֹ . there are five verbs that are classified as I-Alef weak verbs because they have a unique vocalization in the Qal Imperfect and Past Narrative conjugations. In all the other conjugations and binyanim these roots behave exactly as I-Gutturals. and follow the I-Guttural pattern outlined in Lesson 17. in other words.1 I-Alef Weak Verbs The majority of verbs that begin with ‫ א‬are classified as I-Guttural weak verbs. ‫אכל‬ ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יֶ ֱא ַהב‬ .

‫ א ַֹכל‬instead of *‫אכל‬ ַ ֹ‫א‬ 19. as in ‫אכל‬ ֵ֫ ֹ ‫י‬. Qal Piel Hitpael Hifil ‫ִתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬ Pual ‫ִתּ ָמּ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֻמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬ Hofal ‫ֻתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬ Nifal • Only Qal Perfect shows a distinction in vowel pattern between dynamic and stative. ‫אכל‬ ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יֶ ֱאזֹר‬ Note: The theme vowel also appears as ֵ in pausal forms. Here are the other characteristics to note about the III-Alef verbs.Lesson 19 128 • The theme vowel (the vowel between R2 and R3) becomes ַ . • Often the R1 ‫ א‬is not written in the 1CS form. ‫ ָמ ָצאת‬instead of *‫ָמ ַצ ְא ְתּ‬ • The quiescent ‫ א‬cannot be vocalized with a sheva.2 III-Alef Weak Verbs A similar phenomenon takes place in III-Alef verbs as in I-Alef: the ‫ א‬becomes quiescent. and as ֶ in the Past Narrative of ‫ אמר‬as ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר‬. Perfect ‫( ָמ ָצא‬dynamic) versus ‫( ָמ ֵלא‬stative) Imperfect ‫יִמ ָצא‬ ְ (dynamic) like ‫יִמ ָלא‬ ְ (stative) . • ֶ appears before ‫ א‬in the 3FP/2FP Imperfect in all binyanim. • The vowel preceding the quiescent ‫ א‬lengthens. • a BeGaD KeFaT letter following the quiescent ‫ א‬never has a dagesh qal. When the ‫ א‬becomes quiescent it cannot close a syllable.

‫‪Lesson 19‬‬ ‫‪129‬‬ ‫‪• Nifal.‬‬ ‫‪Hifil‬‬ ‫‪Piel‬‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫א ָת‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫א ִתי‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫אנוּ‬ ‫‪Nifal‬‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫א ָת נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫א ָת‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּאת נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫א ִתי נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫א ִתי‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫אתם נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫אתן נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫אנוּ נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫אנוּ‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪• Hofal has a ֻ instead of ָ (short) under the prefix.‬‬ ‫ָה ְמ ָצא* ‪ֻ instead of‬ה ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יֻמ ָצא‬ ‫יָ ְמ ָצא* ‪ְ instead of‬‬ ‫‪III-Alef: Representative Forms‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יֻמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫וַ יֻּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ִה ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יַמ ִציא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫וַ יַּ ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ַה ְמ ִציא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַמצֹּא‬ ‫נִ ְמצֹא‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ִציא‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫יְמ ָצּא‬ ‫ֻ‬ ‫וַ יְ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יְמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יִמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ָמ ָצא‬ ‫יִמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ְמצֹא‬ ‫ָמצוֹא‬ ‫מוֹצא‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫‪PERF‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪PAST‬‬ ‫‪IMPV‬‬ ‫‪INF‬‬ ‫‪CST‬‬ ‫‪INF‬‬ ‫‪ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP‬‬ . Piel. and Hifil Perfect have a ֵ theme vowel instead of‬‬ ‫‪ַ before consonantal inflectional suffixes.

Translate the following verses. HI do an extraordinary thing ‫ָרחוֹק‬ little. ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫( וַ יּ‬a ‫( ְר ָפא‬f ‫אב ָדה‬ ְ ֹ ‫( נ‬b ‫את‬ ָ ‫( ָמ ֵל‬g ‫אכ ֶלנּוּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫( י‬c (two possible parsings) ‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬ (h ‫( א ֵֹבד‬d ‫( ָצ ֵמאת‬i ‫( וָ א ֵֹכל‬e ‫יאהוּ‬ ֵ ‫יַמ ִצ‬ ְ (j 2. extraordinary.3 Vocabulary #19 ‫ָא ָבה‬ Q be willing. give drink Exercises 1. few forgive ADJ M water-trough ADJ ‫ָר ָפא‬ Q ‫שׁקה‬ HI near far heal water. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Parse the following I.Lesson 19 130 19.and III-Alef verbs. handmaid ‫ָא ָפה‬ Q bake ‫ָצ ֵמא‬ Q be thirsty ‫בּשׁל‬ PI boil ‫ָק ָהל‬ M assembly. congregation ‫זָ ָכר‬ M male ‫ָקרוֹב‬ sin ‫ַ ֫ר ַהט‬ ‫ֲח ָט ָאה‬ F ‫ְמ ַעט‬ ADV ‫ָס ַלח‬ Q ‫פּלא‬ NI HIT be difficult. consent ‫ָא ָמה‬ F maid. ‫אכל‬ ֵ ֹ ‫ץ־הגָּ ן ָאכֹל תּ‬ ַ ‫ ִמכֹּל ֵע‬Gen 2:16 (a ‫ ְשׁכֹן ָבּ ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר א ַֹמר ֵא ֶליָך‬Gen 26:2 (b .

‫‪Exod 16:23 (c‬‬

‫‪Lesson 19‬‬

‫ר־תּ ַב ְשּׁלוּ ַבּ ֵשּׁלוּ‬
‫ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁר־תֹּאפוּ ֵאפוּ וְ ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ ְ‬

‫אכ ֶלנָּ ה‬
‫‪ָ Lev 6:11 (d‬כּל־זָ ָכר ִבּ ְבנֵ י ַא ֲהר ֹן י ֹ ֲ‬

‫אבדוּ ִמתּוְֹך ַה ָקּ ָהל‬
‫‪ Num 16:33 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬

‫יכם ֵכּן ת ֹ ֵ‬
‫‪ַ Deut 8:20 (f‬כּגּוֹיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר יְ הוָ ה ַמ ֲא ִביד ִמ ְפּנֵ ֶ‬

‫ֹלח לוֹ‬
‫אבה יְ הוָ ה ְס ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 29:19 (g‬לֹא־י ֹ ֶ‬

‫אתי ֵחן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך ַאל־נָ א ַת ֲעבֹר ֵמ ַעל ַע ְב ֶדָּך‬
‫אמר ֲאד ֹנָ י ִאם־נָ א ָמ ָצ ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 18:3 (h‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬

‫ת־א ְשׁתּוֹ‬
‫ימ ֶלְך וְ ֶא ִ‬
‫ת־א ִב ֶ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ֲ‬
‫ֹלהים וַ יִּ ְר ָפּא ֱא ִ‬
‫ל־ה ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 20:17 (i‬וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא ָ‬
‫וְ ַא ְמה ָֹתיו‬

‫אתם א ִֹתי וַ ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּחוּנִ י ֵמ ִא ְתּ ֶכם‬
‫‪ Gen 26:27 (j‬וְ ַא ֶתּם ְשׂנֵ ֶ‬

‫אתם ֲח ָט ָאה גְ ד ָֹלה‬
‫ל־ה ָעם ַא ֶתּם ֲח ָט ֶ‬
‫אמר מ ֶֹשׁה ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Exod 32:30 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫ת־א ִחיָך ִבּ ְל ָב ֶבָך‬
‫א־ת ְשׂנָ א ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Lev 19:17 (l‬ל ֹ ִ‬

‫‪Judg 4:19 (m‬‬

‫ט־מיִ ם ִכּי ָצ ֵמ ִ‬
‫יה ַה ְשׁ ִקינִ י־נָ א ְמ ַע ַ‬
‫אמר ֵא ֶל ָ‬
‫וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬


‫‪Lesson 19‬‬

‫‪ָ Isa 57:19 (n‬שׁלוֹם ָשׁלוֹם ָל ָרחוֹק וְ ַל ָקּרוֹב ָא ַמר יְ הוָ ה‬

‫י־ה ַמר ַשׁ ַדּי ִלי‬
‫ל־תּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ִלי נָ ֳע ִמי ‪ְ PN‬ק ֶראן ָ ִלי ָמ ָרא ‪ִ PN‬כּ ֵ‬
‫יהן ַא ִ‬
‫ֹאמר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:20 (o‬וַ תּ ֶ‬

Lesson 20
Lesson Summary:

• I-Nun Weak Verbs: ‫נָ ַפל נָ גַ שׁ‬
• ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬

I-Nun Verbs

20.1 I-Nun Weak Verbs
I-Nun weak verbs undergo two changes that make them weak:
1) When the ‫ נ‬closes a syllable (i.e., it does not have a vowel and
is preceded by a verbal prefix), it assimilates to the following

‫( יִ פֹּל‬instead of *‫)יִ נְ פֹל‬
Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫( נִ גַּ שׁ‬instead of *‫)נִ נְ גַ שׁ‬
Hifil MS Participle ‫( ַמגִּ ישׁ‬instead of *‫) ַמנְ גִ ישׁ‬
Qal 3MS Imperfect

BUT, ‫ נ‬does not assimilate to gutturals – ‫יִ נְ ַהג‬.
2) When the ‫ נ‬occurs at the beginning of a form and it does not
have a vowel, it may undergo aphaeresis (i.e., the initial ‫נ‬
drops out). Aphaeresis only occurs in the Qal Imperative and
Qal 2MS Imperative ‫( גַּ שׁ‬instead of *‫)נְ גַ שׁ‬
Qal Infinitive Construct ‫ ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬, from *‫גַּ ְשׁ ְת‬, (instead of *‫)נְ גַ שׁ‬
Note: the Infinitive Construct forms that undergo aphaeresis also
add a ‫ ת‬to the end of the form.

BUT, the ‫ נ‬remains with a few roots:
Qal Infinitive Construct/2MS Imperative ‫נְ פֹל‬

Lesson 20


I-Nun: Representative Forms



‫נָ ַפל נָ גַ שׁ‬
‫יִ פֹּל יִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫וַ יִּ פֹּל וַ יִּ גַּ שׁ‬
‫נְ פֹל גַּ שׁ‬

‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫וַ יִּ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫נְ פֹל ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬

‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫נָ פוֹל נָ גוֹשׁ‬


‫נוֹפל נוֹגֵ שׁ‬


‫ לָ ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬




‫ִהגִּ ישׁ‬
‫יַ גִּ ישׁ‬
‫וַ יַּ גֵּ שׁ‬
‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬
‫יֻ גַּ שׁ‬
‫וַ יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬


‫ַהגִּ ישׁ‬

‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬

‫ִהנָּ ג ֹשׁ נִ גּ ֹשׁ‬


‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫ֻהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫נִ גָּ שׁ‬


‫ַמגִּ ישׁ‬

‫ֻמגָּ שׁ‬


20.2 ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬
The verb ‫ ָל ַקח‬follows the I-Nun pattern:
1) The ‫ ל‬assimilates (just like a ‫ נ‬would) to the ‫ק‬.
Qal 3MS Imperfect
Qal 3FS Imperfect

‫יִ ַקּח‬
‫ִתּ ַקּח‬

In addition, the ‫ ל‬undergoes aphaeresis in the imperative and
infinitive construct forms.

Qal Infinitive Construct ‫ַ ֫ק ַחת‬
Qal 2MS Imperative

However, the ‫ ל‬does not assimilate in the Nifal.
Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫נִ ְל ַקח‬

2) The verb ‫ נָ ַתן‬is not only a I-Nun verb, it also has a ‫ נ‬as the
final consonant of the root. When inflectional endings are
added and the final ‫ נ‬in ‫ נָ ַתן‬does not have a full vowel, it
assimilates to the following consonant (just like the initial ‫נ‬
does in the same environment). Note that this does not happen
in other roots that end in ‫נ‬.
Qal 2MS Perfect
Qal 2FS Perfect
Qal 1CS Perfect

‫( נָ ַ֫ת ָתּ‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ָתּ‬
‫( נָ ַת ְתּ‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ְתּ‬
‫( נָ ַ֫ת ִתּי‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ִתּי‬

Qal Infinitive Construct ‫( ֵתּת‬with suffixes, -‫תּת‬,
ִ from *‫)תּנְ ְת‬

deliver ‫ֶ֫נגֶ ב‬ M south. approach ‫ֶ֫ז ַרע‬ M seed ‫נָ ַסע‬ Q pull up (tent pegs). HI look. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Translate the following verses. set out. deliver oneself. arrive Exercises 1. PN Negeb ‫נגד‬ HI declare ‫נָ גַ ע‬ Q touch.3 Vocabulary #20 ‫ָבּ ָרא‬ Q create ‫נָ גַ שׁ‬ Q draw near.)ב‬HI touch. journey ‫נָ ַפל‬ Q fall ‫נצל‬ NI ‫ ֫ ָל ָמּה‬/ ‫ָל ָמה‬ ‫ָמ ָחה‬ ‫נבט‬ INTER Q why? blot out. ADV anciently ‫ִשׁ ְפ ָחה‬ F maidservant takes ‫ . gaze be delivered. east. strike (often ‫ְפּ ִרי‬ M fruit ‫ֶ ֫ק ֶדם‬ M front. reach. ‫( וַ יִּ ְסעוּ‬f ‫( ַמגִּ יד‬a ‫( נִ ַתּן‬g ‫( ִהגַּ ְע ִתּיהוּ‬b ‫סוֹע‬ ַ ַ‫( נ‬h ‫( נִ ֵתּן‬c ‫( יַ גִּ ֶיד ָה‬i ‫( ָל ַק ַחת‬d ‫( ַקח‬j ‫( וַ ַתּ ֵפּל‬e 2. ‫אכלוּ ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ לֹא ִתגְּ עוּ בּוֹ‬ ְ ֹ ‫ֹלהים לֹא ת‬ ִ ‫תוְֹך־הגָּ ן ָא ַמר ֱא‬ ַ ‫וּמ ְפּ ִרי ָה ֵעץ ֲא ֶשׁר ְבּ‬ ִ Gen 3:3 (a ‫אכל‬ ַ ֹ ‫ישׁהּ ִע ָמּהּ וַ יּ‬ ָ ‫ם־ל ִא‬ ְ ַ‫ֹאכל וַ ִתּ ֵתּן גּ‬ ַ ‫ וַ ִתּ ַקּח ִמ ִפּ ְריוֹ וַ תּ‬Gen 3:6 (b . wipe away PI.Lesson 20 135 20. Parse the following I-Nun weak verbs. HI snatch away.

‫‪136‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 20‬‬ ‫אמר ִמי ִהגִּ יד ְלָך ִכּי ֵעיר ֹם ָא ָתּה‬ ‫‪ Gen 3:11 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 11:2 (d‬וַ יְ ִהי ְבּנָ ְס ָעם ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם וַ יִּ ְמ ְצאוּ ִב ְק ָעה ְבּ ֶא ֶרץ ִשׁנְ ָער‬ ‫סוֹע ַהנֶּ גְ ָבּה‬ ‫‪ Gen 12:9 (e‬וַ יִּ ַסּע ַא ְב ָרם ָהלוְֹך וְ נָ ַ‬ ‫‪ָ Gen 12:19 (f‬ל ָמה ָא ַמ ְר ָתּ ֲאח ִֹתי ִהוא וָ ֶא ַקּח א ָֹתהּ ִלי ְל ִא ָשּׁה וְ ַע ָתּה ִהנֵּ ה ִא ְשׁ ְתָּך ַקח‬ ‫ל־כּ ַכּר ַהיַּ ְר ֵדּן וַ יִּ ַסּע לוֹט ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם‬ ‫‪ Gen 13:11 (g‬וַ יִּ ְב ַחר־לוֹ לוֹט ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬ ‫ד־עוֹלם‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫וּלזַ ְר ֲעָך ַע‬ ‫ר־א ָתּה ר ֶֹאה ְלָך ֶא ְתּנֶ נָּ ה ְ‬ ‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬ ‫ת־כּ ָ‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 13:15 (h‬כּי ֶא ָ‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ‫ל־פּנָ יו וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר ִאתּוֹ ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 17:3 (i‬וַ יִּ פֹּל ַא ְב ָרם ַע ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 19:26 (j‬וַ ַתּ ֵבּט ִא ְשׁתּוֹ ֵמ ַא ֲח ָריו‬ ‫‪ Gen 22:20 (k‬וַ יְ ִהי ַא ֲח ֵרי ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה וַ יֻּ גַּ ד ְל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֵלאמֹר ִהנֵּ ה יָ ְל ָדה ִמ ְל ָכּה ‪ PN‬גַ ם־‬ ‫ִהוא ָבּנִ ים ְלנָ חוֹר ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיָך‬ ‫ת־מי ַא ְתּ ַהגִּ ִידי נָ א ִלי‬ ‫אמר ַבּ ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 24:23 (l‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪ַ Gen 32:12 (m‬ה ִצּ ֵילנִ י נָ א ִמיַּ ד ָא ִחי ִמיַּ ד ֵע ָשׂו ִכּי־יָ ֵרא ָאנ ִֹכי אֹתוֹ‬ ‫יהן‬ ‫‪ Gen 33:6 (n‬וַ ִתּגַּ ְשׁן ָ ַה ְשּׁ ָפחוֹת ֵהנָּ ה וְ יַ ְל ֵד ֶ‬ .

1 I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs I-Vav/Yod weak verbs undergo two changes: 1) The ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬contracts with the preceding vowel. instead of *‫יְ ֵשׁב‬ (Morphologically.) BUT. Pual.Lesson 21 Lesson Summary: • I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs: ‫יָ ַשׁב יָ ַרשׁ‬ • ‫ָה ַלְך‬ I-Vav/Yod Verbs 21. and Hitpael. 2MS Imperative ‫ ֵשׁב‬. the ‫ ת‬is a feminine ending—with no semantic value—that was added after the ‫ י‬underwent aphaeresis. ‫ ירא‬is an example of a root which retains the initial ‫ י‬in the Imperative (‫ )יְ ָרא‬and Infinitive Construct (‫)יְ רֹא‬. Piel. The ‫ ו‬is replaced with a ‫ י‬in Qal. This is similar to the form of I-Nun weak verbs. Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫( יֵ ֵשׁב‬from *‫)יַ יְ ֵשׁב‬ Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫( יִ ַירשׁ‬from *‫)יִ יְ ַרשׁ‬ Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ִ (from *‫) ַהוְ ִשׁיב‬ Hofal 3MS Perfect ‫הוּשׁב‬ ַ (from *‫) ֻהוְ ַשׁב‬ 2) The ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬undergoes aphaeresis when it lacks a full vowel at the beginning of the word (only in Qal Imperative and Infinitive Construct of some I-Vav roots). instead of *‫יְ ֵשׁב‬ Infinitive Construct ‫( ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬from *‫) ֵשׁ ְב ְת‬. There are three different types of I-Vav/Yod weak verbs: 1) Original I-Vav verbs – these verbs originally began with ‫ו‬. Qal 3MS Perfect ‫ יָ ַשׁב‬and Imperfect ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬ .

Hifil. Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫( ִה ִצּיב‬from *‫) ִהיְ ִציב‬ .Lesson 21 138 The original ‫ ו‬appears (as a consonant or vowel marker) in Nifal. and Hofal. The ‫ י‬appears in all forms (as a consonant or a vowel marker). Stative (i-a) ‫ יִ ַירשׁ‬from *‫יִ יְ ַרשׁ‬ 2) Original I-Yod verbs – these verbs originally began with ‫י‬. Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫נוֹשׁב‬ ַ and Imperfect ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ִ and Imperfect ‫יוֹשׁיב‬ ִ Qal Prefix verbs of dynamic I-Vav/Yod roots have an a-i pattern. Dynamic (a-i) ‫ יֵ ֵשׁב‬from *‫יַ יְ ִשׁב‬ Qal Prefix verbs of stative I-Vav/Yod roots have an i-a pattern. upright’ 3) I-Yod-Tsade verbs – these roots begin with –‫ יצ‬and undergo changes like I-Nun weak verbs. ‫ ֵיָבשׁ‬Q ‘it was dry’ ‫ ימן‬HI ‘he chose/used the right arm’ ‫ יָ ַטב‬Q ‘he was good’ ‫ יָ נַ ק‬Q ‘he suckled’ ‫ ילל‬HI ‘he howled’ *‫ יָ ַקץ‬Q ‘he awoke’ ‫ יָ ַשׁר‬Q ‘it was straight. The ‫ י‬assimilates to the ‫ צ‬when it closes a syllable (this is similar to the assimilation of the ‫ נ‬in I-Nun verbs). Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫יבשׁ‬ ַ ִ‫ י‬and Infinitive Construct ‫יְב ֹשׁ‬ Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫יטיב‬ ִ ‫ ֵה‬and 3MS Imperfect ‫יטיב‬ ִ ֵ‫י‬ There are only seven I-Yod roots (all with the stative i-a vowel pattern in the Prefix pattern).

‫ יצב‬HIT ‘he stationed himself’ ‫ יָ ַצק‬Q ‘he poured’ ‫ יצג‬HI ‘he set.2 ‫ָה ַלְך‬ The verb ‫ ָה ַלְך‬follows the original I-Vav pattern: Qal 3MS Perfect Qal 3MS Imperfect Qal 3MS Past Narrative Qal 2MS Imperative Qal Infinitive Construct Hifil 3MS Perfect Hifil 3MS Imperfect ‫ָה ַלְך‬ ‫יֵ ֵלְך‬ ‫וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך‬ ‫ֵלְך‬ ‫֫ ֶל ֶכת‬ ‫הוֹליְך‬ ִ ‫וֹליְך‬ ִ ‫י‬ .Lesson 21 139 There are only six I-Yod-Tsade roots (all with the stative i-a pattern in the Prefix pattern). placed’ ‫ יָ ַצר‬Q ‘he formed. lay’ ‫ יָ ַצת‬Q ‘it kindled. burned I-Vav/Yod: Representative Forms Original I-Vav QAL PERF ‫יָ ַשׁב‬ ‫נוֹשׁב‬ ַ IMPF ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬ ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ PAST ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֵשׁב וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶשׁב‬ PI. HIT R E HIFIL HOFAL QAL HIFIL ‫יָ ַטב‬ ‫יטיב‬ ִ ‫ֵה‬ ‫יוּשׁב‬ ַ ‫יטב‬ ַ ִ‫י‬ ‫יטיב‬ ִ ֵ‫י‬ ‫יּוּשׁב וַ ֫יּוֹ ֶשׁב‬ ַ ַ‫ו‬ ‫יטב‬ ַ ִ‫וַ יּ‬ ‫וַ יֵּ י֫ ֶטב‬ ‫יטב‬ ַ ִ‫י‬ ‫יטב‬ ֵ ֵ‫י‬ ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ִ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ַ ‫יוֹשׁיב‬ ִ ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ G ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ֵ ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב ֵשׁב‬ U ‫הוֹשׁב‬ ֵ INF CST ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬ L ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ִ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ַ ‫יְ טֹב‬ ‫יטיב‬ ִ ‫ֵה‬ INF ABS ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב יָ שׁוֹב‬ A ‫הוֹשׁב‬ ֵ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ֵ ‫יָ טוֹב‬ ‫יטב‬ ֵ ‫ֵה‬ PTCP ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ֵ R ‫מוֹשׁיב‬ ִ ‫מוּשׁב‬ ָ ‫יוֹטב‬ ֵ ‫יטיב‬ ִ ‫ֵמ‬ JUSS IMPV ‫ָהלַ ְך‬ NIFAL Original I-Yod ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬ ‫נוֹשׁב‬ ָ ‫יוּשׁב‬ ַ ‫יטב‬ ֵ ‫ֵה‬ 21. fashioned’ ‫ יצע‬HI ‘he spread. PU.

right. deal well ‫ָפּ ָרשׁ‬ M horseman with ‫ֶ ֫ק ֶשׁת‬ F bow ‫ַ֫ייִ ן‬ M wine ‫רחם‬ PI have compassion on ‫יָ ַקץ‬ Q awake ‫ָר ָעה‬ Q shepherd. practice (something) well. PI make even. HI do be saved. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. GL ‫ ָאנ ִֹכי וָ ֵא ָח ֵבא‬GL ‫י־עיר ֹם‬ ֵ ‫ ֶאת־ק ְֹלָך ָשׁ ַמ ְע ִתּי ַבּגָּ ן וָ ִא ָירא ִכּ‬Gen 3:10 (a ‫ֹלהים ֵהן ָה ָא ָדם ָהיָ ה ְכּ ַא ַחד ִמ ֶמּנּוּ ָל ַד ַעת טוֹב וָ ָרע‬ ִ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 3:22 (b . Parse the following I-Vav/Yod weak verbs. HI cause to be dry ‫יָ ַשׁר‬ Q ‫ָיַבּ ָשׁה‬ F dry land ‫יָ ַטב‬ Q be good. Translate the following verses. tend. pasture ‫יַ ְר ֵדּן‬ PN ‫ר ֶֹעה‬ M shepherd (Q PTCP) Jordan River ‫ָתּ ִמים‬ ADJ complete.3 Vocabulary #21 ‫א ַרח‬ ֹ֫ M way.Lesson 21 140 21. pleasing. smooth ‫ַמ ֲע ָלל‬ M deed. path ‫ישׁע‬ NI ‫ֵיָבשׁ‬ Q be(come) dry. sound Exercises 1. HI save be smooth. ‫אוֹבישׁ‬ ִ (f ‫( וַ יֵּ ֶלְך‬a ‫( ֵצאת‬g ‫נוֹרא‬ ָ (b ‫( וַ יִּ ֶיקץ‬h ‫תּוֹסף‬ ֵ (c ‫נוֹשׁ ְענוּ‬ ַ (i ‫יט ִבי‬ ְ ‫( ִתּ‬d ‫ישׁר‬ ַ ‫( ִתּ‬j ‫יעם‬ ָ ‫מוֹד‬ ִ (e 2.

‫‪Lesson 21‬‬ ‫‪141‬‬ ‫ת־קיִ ן‬ ‫ת־חוָּ ה ‪ִ PN‬א ְשׁתּוֹ וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 4:1* (c‬וְ ָה ָא ָדם יָ ַדע ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫י־ה ֶבל ר ֵֹעה צֹאן וְ ַקיִ ן ‪ָ PN‬היָ ה ע ֵֹבד‬ ‫ת־ה ֶבל ‪ PN‬וַ יְ ִה ֶ‬ ‫ת־א ִחיו ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 4:2 (d‬וַ תּ ֶֹסף ‪ָ GL‬ל ֶל ֶדת ֶא ָ‬ ‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬ ‫ר־ע ָשׂה־לוֹ ְבּנוֹ ַה ָקּ ָטן‬ ‫‪ Gen 9:24 (e‬וַ יִּ ֶיקץ נ ַֹח‪ִ PN‬מיֵּ ינוֹ וַ יֵּ ַדע ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫ְך־לָך ֶאל־‬ ‫ר־א ַה ְב ָתּ ֶאת־יִ ְצ ָחק וְ ֶל ְ‬ ‫ת־בּנְ ָך ֶאת־יְ ִח ְידָך‪ֲ GL‬א ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫אמר ַקח־נָ א ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 22:2 (f‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ֶא ֶרץ ַהמּ ִֹריָּ ה‬ ‫ֹלהים ַל ְמיַ ְלּד ֹת‬ ‫יטב ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Exod 1:20 (g‬וַ יֵּ ֶ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫יטב ְבּ ֵעינָ יו‬ ‫‪ Lev 10:20 (h‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע מ ֶֹשׁה וַ יִּ ַ‬ ‫ת־מי יַ ם־סוּף‬ ‫ר־הוֹבישׁ יְ הוָ ה ֶא ֵ‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫‪ִ Josh 2:10 (i‬כּי ָשׁ ַמ ְענוּ ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ‫ִמ ִמּ ְצ ָריִ ם‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫את ֶכם‬ ‫יכם ְבּ ֵצ ְ‬ ‫ִמ ְפּנֵ ֶ‬ ‫ת־היַּ ְר ֵדּן ַהזֶּ ה‬ ‫יכם ֵלאמֹר ַבּיַּ ָבּ ָשׁה ָע ַבר יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־בּנֵ ֶ‬ ‫הוֹד ְע ֶתּם ֶא ְ‬ ‫‪ Josh 4:22 (j‬וְ ַ‬ ‫יעם ְבּ ֶק ֶשׁת‬ ‫אוֹשׁ ֵ‬ ‫יהם וְ לֹא ִ‬ ‫ֹלה ֶ‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְע ִתּים ַבּיהוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ ‫הוּדה ֲא ַר ֵחם וְ ַ‬ ‫ת־בּית יְ ָ‬ ‫‪ Hos 1:7 (k‬וְ ֶא ֵ‬ ‫וּב ָפ ָר ִשׁים‬ ‫סוּסים ְ‬ ‫וּב ִמ ְל ָח ָמה ְבּ ִ‬ ‫וּב ֶח ֶרב ְ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ל־דּ ָר ֶכיָך ָד ֵעהוּ וְ הוּא יְ יַ ֵשּׁר א ְֹרח ֶֹתיָך‬ ‫‪ְ Prov 3:6 (l‬בּ ָכ ְ‬ ‫ץ־מ ְד ָבּר ֵמ ֵא ֶשׁת ְמדוֹנִ ים ‪ GL‬וָ ָכ ַעס‬ ‫‪ Prov 21:19 (m‬טוֹב ֶשׁ ֶבת ְבּ ֶא ֶר ִ‬ ‫הוֹלְך ָתּ ִמים יִ וָּ ֵשׁ ַע‬ ‫‪ֵ Prov 28:18 (n‬‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ .

The ‫ ה‬in the 3MS Perfect form is only a vowel letter marking the long final vowel. i.. The original R3 ‫ י‬or ‫ ו‬shows up only rarely in some forms.e.גּ ֶֹלה‬MS CST ‫גּ ֵֹלה‬ . ‫הּ‬.1 III-He Weak Verbs III-He Verbs Most III-He weak verbs originally had a ‫( י‬or ‫ )ו‬as their R3. This signifies that the ‫ הּ‬is a consonant rather than a vowel letter: ‫‘ גָּ ַבהּ‬it was high/lofty/tall’ • All forms without an inflectional suffix end in ‫ה‬: Perfect – 3MS ‫גָּ ָלה‬ Imperfect – 3MS ‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬ Imperative – 2MS ‫גְּ ֵלה‬ Infinitive Construct – ‫גְּ לוֹת‬ Infinitive Absolute – ‫גָּ ֹלה‬ Participle – MS ABS ‫ . This vowel letter was added after the final ‫ י‬or ‫ ו‬was lost. Qal Passive Participle (‫)פּקוּד‬ ָ exhibits the original ‫י‬: ‫‘ גָּ לוּי‬uncovered’ Qal 3MS Perfect of some verbs shows the original ‫ו‬: ‫‘ ָשׁ ֵלו‬he was at ease’ Note: the few roots that actually have a ‫ ה‬as their original R3 have a mappiq in the ‫ה‬.Lesson 22 Lesson Summary: • III-He Weak Verbs: ‫ָבּנָ ה גָּ ָלה‬ 22.

Lesson 22 • 143 Forms with a vocalic inflectional suffix or a object suffix with a linking vowel drop the R3 ‫ה‬: Qal Perfect 3CP ‫גָּ לוּ‬ Qal Perfect 3MS + 1CS suffix ‫גָּ ֫ ַלנִ י‬ • In all forms with a consonantal suffix. Hitpael. and Hofal). and Hifil). Qal Imperfect 3FP/2FP ‫ִתּגְ ֶלי֫ נָ ה‬ • In Past and Jussive forms without an inflectional suffix. ‫‘ ִ֫יגֶ ל‬let him uncover’ ‫‘ וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬he uncovered’ III-He: Representative Forms PERF IMPF PAST IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP (FSA) QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL ‫גָּ ָלה‬ ‫גָּ ִלי֫ ָת‬ ‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬ ‫גְּ ֵלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ָלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬ ‫יִ גָּ ֶלה‬ ‫וַ יִּ גָּ ל‬ ‫ִהגָּ ֵלה‬ ‫גִּ ָלּה‬ ‫גִּ ִלּי֫ ָת‬ ‫יְ גַ ֶלּה‬ ‫וַ יְ גַ ל‬ ‫גַּ ֵלּה‬ ‫גֻּ ָלּה‬ ‫גֻּ ֵלּי֫ ָת‬ ‫יְ גֻ ֶלּה‬ *‫וַ יְ גֻ ל‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ָלּה‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּי֫ ָת‬ ‫יִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְתגַּ ל‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֵלּה‬ ‫ִהגְ ָלה‬ ‫ִהגְ ִלי֫ ָת‬ ‫יַ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫וַ ֶ֫יּגֶ ל‬ ‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫ָהגְ ָלה‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬ ‫יָ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫גְּ לוֹת‬ ‫ִהגָּ לוֹת‬ ‫גַּ לּוֹת‬ ‫גֻּ לּוֹת‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬ ‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬ ‫ָהגְ לוֹת‬ ‫גָּ ֹלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ֹלה‬ ‫גַּ ֹּלה‬ ‫גֻּ ֹּלה‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֹּלה‬ ‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫גּ ֶֹלה‬ ‫גּ ָֹלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ָלה‬ ‫ְמגַ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְמגַ ָלּה‬ ‫ְמגֻ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְמגֻ ָלּה‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ ָלּה‬ ‫ַמגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ַמגְ ָלה‬ ‫ָמגְ ֶלה‬ ‫מגְ ָלה‬ . Piel. Qal Perfect 2MS ‫גָּ ִלי֫ ָת‬ 2) into ‫ ֵ י‬in the passive binyanim (Nifal. Nifal Perfect 2MS ‫נִ גְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬ 3) into ‫ ֶ י‬in Prefix verb 3FP/2FP in all binyanim. the R3 ‫ ה‬drops. Pual. the R3 contracts: 1) into ‫_ִ י‬in the active binyanim (Qal.

make multiply so. look. multiply. ‫טּוֹתהּ‬ ָ ‫( ְל ַה‬f ‫( יִ ֶרב‬a ‫( ר ֵֹדם‬g ‫( וָ ֵא ָרא‬b ‫( ֵתּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬h ‫( ָענָ הוּ‬c ‫( ִה ְר ַאנִ י‬i ‫( ֲחרוֹת‬d ‫( וַ יִּ גָּ לוּ‬j ‫( נִ ְבנֵ ית‬e . steer. appear. stretch out.2 Vocabulary #22 ‫אוֹר‬ M light ‫ָענָ ה‬ Q answer. CONJ Q show. P ‫גְּ ַמ ִלּים‬ ‫ָח ָרה‬ Q burn. exhibit ‫ָר ָבה‬ Q be(come) many. HI put an end to. Parse the following III-He verbs. NI show oneself. destroy ‫ָשׁ ָתה‬ incline (something) Q drink Exercises 1.Lesson 22 144 22. desist. HI turn. anger ‫ַפּר‬ M young bull. HI ‫גָּ ָלה‬ Q uncover. be fruitful ‫ָבּנָ ה‬ Q build ‫ָר ָאה‬ Q see. HI make much/many. cow ‫בּדל‬ HI divide. reveal ‫גָּ ָמל‬ M camel. face. rest. respond ‫ַאף‬ M nose. ‫ ָפּ ָרה‬F heifer. rule ‫ָשׁ ַבת‬ Q cease. separate ‫ָפּ ָרה‬ Q bear fruit. be kindled ‫֫ח ֹ ֶשְׁך‬ M darkness ‫ֵכּן‬ ‫נָ ָטה‬ ADV. extend. thus ‫ָר ָדה‬ Q have dominion.

Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‫‪Lesson 22‬‬ ‫‪145‬‬ ‫‪2...‬‬ ‫ֶא ַ‬ ‫ת־דּ ְב ֵרי ִא ְשׁתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ְבּ ָרה ֵא ָליו ֵלאמֹר ַכּ ְדּ ָב ִרים‬ ‫‪ Gen 39:19 (k‬וַ יְ ִהי ִכ ְשׁמ ַֹע ֲאד ֹנָ יו ֶא ִ‬ ‫ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָע ָשׂהּ ִלי ַע ְב ֶדָּך וַ יִּ ַחר ַאפּוֹ‬ . Translate the following verses.‬‬ ‫וּבין ַהח ֶֹשְׁך‬ ‫ֹלהים ֵבּין ָהאוֹר ֵ‬ ‫ת־האוֹר ִכּי־טוֹב וַ יַּ ְב ֵדּל ֱא ִ‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 1:4 (a‬וַ יַּ ְרא ֱא ִ‬ ‫וּבין ַה ַמּיִ ם‬ ‫יע ֵ‬ ‫יע‪ GL‬וַ יַּ ְב ֵדּל ֵבּין ַה ַמּיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר ִמ ַתּ ַחת ָל ָר ִק ַ‬ ‫ת־ה ָר ִק ַ‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 1:7 (b‬וַ יַּ ַעשׂ ֱא ִ‬ ‫י־כן‬ ‫יע וַ יְ ִה ֵ‬ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר ֵמ ַעל ָל ָר ִק ַ‬ ‫ת־ה ַמּיִ ם ַבּיַּ ִמּים‬ ‫וּמ ְלאוּ ֶא ַ‬ ‫ֹלהים ֵלאמֹר ְפּרוּ ְוּרבוּ ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 1:22 (c‬וַ יְ ָב ֶרְך א ָֹתם ֱא ִ‬ ‫מוּתנוּ‬ ‫ֹלהים נַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָא ָדם ְבּ ַצ ְל ֵמנוּ‪ִ GL‬כּ ְד ֵ‬ ‫אמר ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 1:26 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫וּב ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬ ‫וּבעוֹף ‪ַ GL‬ה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם ַ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫וְ יִ ְרדּוּ ִב ְדגַ ת‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ַהיָּ ם‬ ‫ל־צ ָב ָאם‬ ‫‪ Gen 2:1 (e‬וַ יְ ֻכלּוּ ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ וְ ָכ ְ‬ ‫יעי ִמ ָכּל־‬ ‫אכתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה וַ יִּ ְשׁבֹּת ַבּיּוֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬ ‫יעי ְמ ַל ְ‬ ‫ֹלהים ַבּיּוֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 2:2 (f‬וַ יְ ַכל ֱא ִ‬ ‫אכתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה׃‬ ‫ְמ ַל ְ‬ ‫ית זֹּאת ָארוּר ‪ַ GL‬א ָתּה ִמ ָכּל־‬ ‫ל־הנָּ ָחשׁ‪ִ GL‬כּי ָע ִשׂ ָ‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶא ַ‬ ‫אמר יְ הוָֹ ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 3:14 (g‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫אכל ָכּל־יְ ֵמי ַחיֶּ יָך‬ ‫וּמכֹּל ַחיַּ ת ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ַעל־גְּ חֹנְ ָך‪ֵ GL‬ת ֵלְך וְ ָע ָפר ‪ GL‬תּ ֹ ַ‬ ‫ַה ְבּ ֵה ָמה ִ‬ ‫הוֹרה‬ ‫‪ Gen 8:20 (h‬וַ יִּ ֶבן נ ַֹח ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח ַליהוָ ה וַ יִּ ַקּח ִמכֹּל ַה ְבּ ֵה ָמה ַה ְטּ ָ‬ ‫וַ יַּ ַעל עֹֹלת ַבּ ִמּזְ ֵבּ ַח‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫וּמכֹּל ָהעוֹף ַה ָטּהֹר‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫אמר ֵא ָליו‬ ‫ל־א ְב ָרם וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ן־תּ ְשׁ ִעים ָשׁנָ ה וְ ֵת ַשׁע ָשׁנִ ים וַ יֵּ ָרא יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 17:1 (i‬וַ יְ ִהי ַא ְב ָרם ֶבּ ִ‬ ‫י־אל ַשׁ ַדּי ‪ִ PN‬ה ְת ַה ֵלְּך ְל ָפנַ י וֶ ְהיֵ ה ָת ִמים‬ ‫ֲאנִ ֵ‬ ‫י־חת‬ ‫‪ Gen 23:5 (j‬וַ יַּ ֲענוּ ְבנֵ ֵ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם ֵלאמֹר לוֹ ‪.

not a remnant of the original ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬consonant. ‫‘ ָקוָ ה‬he waited’ Lexicon Tip #1: The II-Vav/Yod weak verbs are listed in your lexicons by their Infinite Construct form because this form (unlike the 3MS Perfect as in other verbs) better reflects the three root consonants of these weak verbs.1 II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs II-Vav/Yod weak verbs have a ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as R2. Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫יָ קוּם‬ ‫יָ ִשׂים יָבוֹא‬ Note: several common roots retain their R2 ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as a consonant (and thus the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬does not disappear or contract). They are classified as weak verbs because the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬undergoes one of two changes: 1) elides (i. ‫‘ ָחיָ ה‬he is alive’.e. ‫ שׂוּם‬and ‫ִשׂים‬ ‫ לוּן‬and ‫ִלין‬ Though these roots should be classified as II-Yod forms. drops out) Qal 3MS Perfect/MS Participle ‫ָקם‬ ‫ָשׂם ָבּא‬ 2) contracts with a preceding or following vowel—the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬in these forms is merely a vowel letter. ‫‘ ָהיָ ה‬he is’. some older lexicons list them as II-Vav roots .Lesson 23 Lesson Summary: • II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs: ‫ִשׂים בּוֹא קוּם‬ II-Vav/Yod Verbs 23. Lexicon Tip #2: A few roots are listed as both II-Vav and II-Yod roots because they exhibit two infinitive construct forms: an R2 ‫ ו‬and an R2 ‫י‬..

‫( ָקם‬dynamic) versus ‫( ֵמת‬stative) • Instead of Piel. most II-Vav/Yod roots have Polel. ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫קוֹמם‬ ָ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫ ִה ְת‬but Piel ‫ ִצוָּ ה‬and Pual ‫ֻצוָּ ה‬ • Linking vowels often connect the consonantal inflectional suffixes to the roots: ֹ ‫ ו‬in Nifal and Hifil Perfect. HITP) ‫נָ קוֹם‬ ‫קוֹ ָמה‬ ֫ ָ‫נ‬ ‫יִ קּוֹם‬ ‫וַ יִּ קּוֹם‬ ‫יִ קּוֹם‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫נָ קוֹם‬ ‫קוֹמה‬ ָ ְ‫נ‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫קוֹמ ָמה‬ ְ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ְ‫י‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ְ‫וַ י‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ְ‫י‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫ְמ‬ ‫קוֹמ ָמה‬ ְ ‫ְמ‬ ‫ֵמת‬ ‫ֵ֫מ ָתה‬ ‫יָ מוּת‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָמת‬ ‫יָ מֹת‬ ‫מוּת‬ ‫מוּת‬ ‫מוֹת‬ ‫ֵמת‬ ‫ֵמ ָתה‬ HIFIL ‫ֵה ִקים‬ ‫ֵה ִקי֫ ָמה‬ ‫יָ ִקים‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶקם‬ ‫יָ ֵקם‬ ‫ָה ֵקם‬ ‫ָה ִקים‬ ‫ָה ֵקם‬ ‫ֵמ ִקים‬ ‫ימה‬ ָ ‫ְמ ִק‬ QAL II-YOD ‫ָשׂם‬ ‫ָ֫שׂ ָמה‬ ‫יָ ִשׂים‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬ ‫יָ ֵשׂם‬ ‫ִשׂים‬ ‫ִשׂים‬ ‫שׂוֹם‬ ‫ָשׂם‬ ‫ָשׂ ָמה‬ HOFAL ‫הוּקם‬ ַ ‫הוּק ָמה‬ ְ ‫יוּקם‬ ַ ‫יּוּקם‬ ַ ַ‫ו‬ ‫הוּקם‬ ַ ‫הוּקם‬ ֵ ‫מוּקם‬ ָ ‫מוּק ָמה‬ ָ • Some roots exhibit a distinction between dynamic and stative vowel patterns in the Qal. and Hitpael. and Hitpolel binyanim. ‫ ֶ י‬in Qal and . Pual. Polal.Lesson 23 147 II-Vav/Yod: Representative Forms QAL II-VAV DYNAMIC PERF (3FS) IMPF PAST JUSS IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP (FS) ‫ָקם‬ ‫ָ ֫ק ָמה‬ ‫יָ קוּם‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם‬ ‫יָ קֹם‬ ‫קוּם‬ ‫קוּם‬ ‫קוֹם‬ ‫ָקם‬ ‫ָק ָמה‬ NIFAL PERF (3FS) IMPF PAST JUSS IMPV INF CST INF ABS PTCP (MS) (FS) QAL II-VAV STATIVE ‫ָבּא‬ ‫ָ֫בּ ָאה‬ ‫יָבוֹא‬ ‫וַ יָּ בֹא‬ ‫יָבֹא‬ ‫בּוֹא‬ ‫בּוֹא‬ ‫בּוֹא‬ ‫ָבּא‬ ‫ָבּ ָאה‬ ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹ ָשׁה‬ ֫ ‫יֵבוֹשׁ‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ב ֹשׁ‬ ‫יֵב ֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ ‫בּוֹשׁה‬ ָ POLEL (≈POLAL.

portent ‫מוּת‬ Q die. Parse the following II-Vav/Yod verbs. HI cause ‫יָ ַצר‬ Q form. set up. place. HI return (something) Exercises 1. set ‫שׁוּב‬ Q turn back. HI bring. shape ‫כּון‬ NI to depart. make ‫ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬ F kingdom. remove be set up. make ‫ָע ָפר‬ M dust. enter. erect ‫ִכּ ֵסּא‬ M throne. ‫קוּמוֹ ָת‬ ֫ ְ‫נ‬ ‫ימוֹ ָת‬ ֫ ‫ֲה ִק‬ ‫קוּמי֫ נָ ה‬ ֶ ‫ְתּ‬ ‫ימי֫ נָ ה‬ ֶ ‫( ְתּ ִק‬sometimes ‫) ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬ Nifal 2MS Perfect Hifil 2MS Perfect Qal 3FP/2FP Imperfect Hifil 3FP/2FP Imperfect 23. PI confirm. established. depart. dry earth ‫קוּם‬ Q rise.2 Vocabulary #23 ‫בּוֹא‬ Q come. stand up. P ‫ִכּ ְסאוֹת‬ ‫מוֹפת‬ ֵ M wonder. rule ‫נָ ַטע‬ Q plant enter ‫בּוֹשׁ‬ Q be ashamed ‫נֵ ָכר‬ M foreign thing ‫ְבּכוֹר‬ M first-born ‫סוּר‬ Q turn aside. fashion. fixed. HI kill ‫ שׂוּם‬/ ‫ִשׂים‬ Q put. firm establish. ‫( וַ יָּ ֶקם‬f ‫בּוֹשׁי‬ ִ (a ‫( וַ יָּ ֶשׂם‬g ‫מוּבאוֹת‬ ָ (b ‫( שׁוּב‬h ‫( ֵה ִכינוּ‬c ‫ימי‬ ִ ‫( ָתּ ִשׂ‬i ‫( ֲה ִכינוֹנוּ‬d ‫( נָ כוֹנָ ה‬j ‫( וַ יָּ ָמת‬e (hint: II-Yod verb) . return.Lesson 23 148 Hifil Imperfect. HI establish. sign. dirt. HI raise.

Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Translate the following verses.‬‬ ‫ת־ה ָא ָדם ֲא ֶשׁר יָ ָצר‬ ‫ן־בּ ֵע ֶדן ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם וַ יָּ ֶשׂם ָשׁם ֶא ָ‬ ‫ֹלהים גַּ ְ‬ ‫‪ Gen 2:8 (a‬וַ יִּ ַטּע יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫ל־ה ִא ָשּׁה לֹא־מוֹת ְתּ ֻמתוּן‬ ‫אמר ַהנָּ ָחשׁ‪ֶ GL‬א ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 3:4 (b‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ִכּי ִמ ֶמּנָּ ה ֻל ָקּ ְח ָתּ ִכּי־‬ ‫שׁוּבָך ֶא ָ‬ ‫אכל ֶל ֶחם ַעד ְ‬ ‫‪ְ Gen 3:19 (c‬בּזֵ ַעת ‪ַ GL‬א ֶפּיָך תּ ֹ ַ‬ ‫ל־ע ָפר ָתּשׁוּב‬ ‫ָע ָפר ַא ָתּה וְ ֶא ָ‬ ‫ל־ה ֶבל ָא ִחיו‬ ‫יוֹתם ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶדה וַ יָּ ָקם ַקיִ ן ֶא ֶ‬ ‫ל־ה ֶבל ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיו וַ יְ ִהי ִבּ ְה ָ‬ ‫אמר ַקיִ ן ‪ֶ PN‬א ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 4:8 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫וַ יַּ ַה ְרגֵ הוּ‬ ‫ל־ה ֵתּ ָבה‬ ‫את ֶא ַ‬ ‫וּב ָ‬ ‫יתי ִא ָתְּך ָ‬ ‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 6:18 (e‬וַ ֲה ִקמ ִֹתי ֶא ְ‬ ‫ָבנֶ יָך ִא ָתְּך‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫וּבנֶ יָך וְ ִא ְשׁ ְתָּך וּנְ ֵשׁי־‬ ‫ַא ָתּה ָ‬ ‫יכם‬ ‫יתי ִא ְתּ ֶכם וְ ֶאת־זַ ְר ֲע ֶכם ַא ֲח ֵר ֶ‬ ‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 9:9 (f‬וַ ֲאנִ י ִהנְ נִ י ֵמ ִקים ֶא ְ‬ ‫ימנּוּ‬ ‫י־לגוֹי גָּ דוֹל ֲא ִשׂ ֶ‬ ‫יקי ֶאת־יָ ֵדְך בּוֹ ִכּ ְ‬ ‫ת־הנַּ ַער וְ ַה ֲחזִ ִ‬ ‫קוּמי ְשׂ ִאי ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ִ Gen 21:18 (g‬‬ ‫ם־יוּכל‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 13:16 (h‬וְ ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי ֶאת־זַ ְר ֲעָך ַכּ ֲע ַפר ָה ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר ִא‬ ‫יִמּנֶ ה‬ ‫ֲע ַפר ָה ָא ֶרץ גַּ ם־זַ ְר ֲעָך ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ִאישׁ ִל ְמנוֹת‬ ‫ת־ה ִאישׁ ִכּי־נָ ִביא הוּא וְ יִ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַבּ ַע ְדָך וֶ ְחיֵ ה‬ ‫‪ Gen 20:7 (i‬וְ ַע ָתּה ָה ֵשׁב ֵא ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫ר־לְך‬ ‫ל־א ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫ֵמ ִשׁיב ַדּע ִכּי־מוֹת ָתּמוּת ַא ָתּה וְ ָכ ֲ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ֶאת־‬ ‫ם־אינְ ָך‬ ‫וְ ִא ֵ‬ ‫ֹלהי ַהנֵּ ָכר ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ‫ת־א ֵ‬ ‫ל־א ֶשׁר ִעמּוֹ ָה ִסרוּ ֶא ֱ‬ ‫ל־בּיתוֹ וְ ֶאל ָכּ ֲ‬ ‫אמר יַ ֲעקֹב ֶא ֵ‬ ‫‪ Gen 35:2 (j‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ְבּת ְֹכ ֶכם‬ .‫‪149‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 23‬‬ ‫‪2.

‫‪150‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 23‬‬ ‫ל־המּ ְֹפ ִתים ֲא ֶשׁר־‬ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה ְבּ ֶל ְכ ְתָּך ָלשׁוּב ִמ ְצ ַריְ ָמה ְר ֵאה ָכּ ַ‬ ‫‪ Exod 4:21 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ת־ה ָעם‬ ‫ת־לבּוֹ וְ לֹא יְ ַשׁ ַלּח ֶא ָ‬ ‫יתם ִל ְפנֵ י ַפ ְרעֹה וַ ֲאנִ י ֲא ַחזֵּ ק ֶא ִ‬ ‫ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי ְביָ ֶדָך וַ ֲע ִשׂ ָ‬ ‫ד־עוֹלם‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫ת־כּ ֵסּא ַמ ְמ ַל ְכתּוֹ ַע‬ ‫ה־בּיִ ת ִל ְשׁ ִמי וְ כֹנַ נְ ִתּי ֶא ִ‬ ‫‪ II Sam 7:13 (l‬הוּא ְיִבנֶ ַ‬ .

Po‘al. Qal 3MP Imperfect ‫ יָ ֫סֹבּו‬but also ‫יִ ֫סֹּבוּ‬ • Instead of Piel.1 II-III Weak Verbs II-III Verbs II-III weak verbs are roots with identical second (R2) and third (R3) root letters. Nifal. Qal 3MS Perfect ‫( ַסב‬from *‫) ַסבּ‬ Sometimes instead of R2 assimilating forward to R3. Pual. Qal 3CP Perfect ‫ ַ֫סבּוּ‬or ‫ָס ֲבבוּ‬ Note: When the doubled (from assimilation) consonant is at the end of the word. most II-III weak verbs have Po‘el. the dagesh chazaq drops out. and Hitpo‘el. Po‘el ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ BUT Piel ‫ִק ֵלּל‬ • Linking vowels often appear before consonantal inflectional suffixes in some forms: Qal. and Hofal Suffix patterns have ֹ ‫ו‬. it assimilates back to R1. They have the following characteristics: • The identical root letters may assimilate.Lesson 24 Lesson Summary: • II-III Weak Verbs: ‫קלל סבב‬ 24. and Qal. Hifil.ֶ 2MS PERF: Q ‫וֹת‬ ָ ‫ַס ֫בּ‬ 2/3FP IMPF: Q ‫ְתּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ FP IMV: Q ‫ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ NI ‫וֹת‬ ָ ‫נְ ַס ֫בּ‬ HI ‫וֹת‬ ָ ‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ‬ NI ‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ HI ‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ NI ‫ִה ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ HI ‫ֲה ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ . Nifal. Hifil. and Hitpael. and Hofal Prefix patterns have ‫ י‬.

be gracious ‫ָח ַתת‬ Q be shattered. surround oneself ‫פּרר‬ HI ‫חוה‬ HISHTAFEL bow down. go around. inherit ‫ָס ַבב‬ Q turn about. before break. HI ‫ָק ַלל‬ Q be slight. PI pollute. abundance ‫ָרנַ ן‬ Q. trifling. greatness.Lesson 24 152 II-III: Representative Forms QAL DYNAMIC QAL STATIVE NIFAL POEL HIFIL HOFAL ‫ ַסב‬/ ‫ָס ַבב‬ ‫ַ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫ַקל‬ ‫ַק ָלּה‬ ‫נָ ַסב‬ ‫נָ ַ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ְ ‫ֵה ֵסב‬ ‫ֵה ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ַ ‫הוּס ָבּה‬ ַ֫ IMPF ‫ יָ סֹב‬/ ‫יִ סֹּב‬ ‫יֵ ַקל‬ ‫יִ ַסּב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ְ‫י‬ ‫יָ ֵסב‬ ‫יוּסב‬ ַ PAST ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָסב‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ַקל‬ ‫וַ יִּ ַסּב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ְ‫וַ י‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶסב‬ ‫יּוּסב‬ ַ ַ‫ו‬ JUSS ‫יָ סֹב‬ ‫יֵ ַקל‬ ‫יִ ַסּב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ְ‫י‬ ‫יָ ֵסב‬ ‫יוּסב‬ ַ IMPV ‫סֹב‬ ‫ִה ַסּב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ INF CST ‫סֹב‬ ‫ִה ַסּב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ַ INF ABS ‫ָסבוֹב‬ ‫ִהסּוֹב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ֵ ‫נָ ָסב‬ ‫נָ ַס ָבּה‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫ְמ‬ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ְ ‫ְמ‬ ‫ֵמ ֵסב‬ ‫ְמ ִס ָבּה‬ ‫מוּסב‬ ָ ‫מוּס ָבּה‬ ַ PERF (FS) ‫סוֹבב‬ ֵ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ְ PTCP (FS) ‫קֹל‬ ‫ַקל‬ ‫ַק ָלּה‬ 24. frustrate ‫ֵחיק‬ M bosom. PI begin ‫ָחנַ ן‬ Q show favor. lap ‫ָצ ַרר‬ Q show hostility ‫חלל‬ NI be defiled. become pregnant ‫יָ ַרשׁ‬ Q take possession. be quick ‫ר ֹב‬ M multitude. finished . prostrate ADV not yet. ark ‫ֶ֫ט ֶרם‬ ‫ָה ָרה‬ Q conceive.2 Vocabulary #24 ‫ֲארוֹן‬ M chest. dismayed ‫ָתּ ַמם‬ Q give a ringing cry be complete. defile.

‬‬ ‫‪ (a‬נָ ָסב‬ ‫‪ (f‬וַ יָ ָחן‬ ‫‪ (b‬יָ ֵקל‬ ‫‪ (g‬יְ ִח ֵתּנִ י‬ ‫‪ (c‬וַ יָּ ֶפר‬ ‫‪ (h‬צ ֲֹר ַרי‬ ‫‪ִ (d‬תּתֹּם‬ ‫‪ (i‬יָ ר ֹנּוּ‬ ‫‪ (e‬וָ ֵא ַחל‬ ‫מוּסבּוֹת‬ ‫‪ַ (j‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫וּבנוֹת יֻ ְלּדוּ ָל ֶהם‬ ‫ל־פּנֵ י ָה ֲא ָד ָמה ָ‬ ‫י־ה ֵחל ָה ָא ָדם ָלר ֹב ‪ַ GL‬ע ְ‬ ‫‪ Gen 6:1 (a‬וַ יְ ִהי ִכּ ֵ‬ ‫ל־א ְב ָרם ֲח ָמ ִסי ָע ֶליָך ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ַת ִתּי ִשׁ ְפ ָח ִתי ְבּ ֵח ֶיקָך וַ ֵתּ ֶרא‬ ‫ֹאמר ָשׂ ַרי ‪ֶ PN‬א ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 16:5 (b‬וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫וּבינֶ יָך‬ ‫יה יִ ְשׁפֹּט יְ הוָ ה ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬ ‫ִכּי ָה ָר ָתה וָ ֵא ַקל ְבּ ֵעינֶ ָ‬ ‫יכם ‪ GL‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ין ָ ַל ֲא ֻל ָמּ ִתי‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:7 (c‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ְת ֻס ֶבּינָ ה ֲא ֻלמּ ֵֹת ֶ‬ ‫יהם‬ ‫ל־פּנֵ ֶ‬ ‫ל־ה ָעם וַ יָּ ר ֹנּוּ וַ יִּ ְפּלוּ ַע ְ‬ ‫‪ Lev 9:24 (d‬וַ יַּ ְרא ָכּ ָ‬ ‫ת־ע ְב ְדָּך ֶאת־גָּ ְד ְלָך‬ ‫לּוֹת ְל ַה ְראוֹת ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ֲ Deut 3:24 (e‬אד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה ַא ָתּה ַה ִח ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫‪Josh 4:1 (f‬‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יְ ֻ‬ ‫ת־היַּ ְר ֵדּן וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ל־הגּוֹי ַל ֲעבוֹר ֶא ַ‬ ‫ר־תּמּוּ ָכ ַ‬ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪Josh 4:11 (g‬‬ ‫ל־ה ָעם ַל ֲעבוֹר וַ יַּ ֲעבֹר ֲארוֹן־יְ הוָ ה וְ ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים ִל ְפנֵ י ָה ָעם‬ ‫ר־תּם ָכּ ָ‬ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬ . Parse the following II-III verbs. Translate the following verses.‫‪Lesson 24‬‬ ‫‪153‬‬ ‫‪Exercises‬‬ ‫‪1. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫‪Lesson 24‬‬ ‫‪154‬‬ ‫ת־ה ִעיר‬ ‫‪ Josh 6:3 (h‬וְ ַסבּ ֶֹתם ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪Josh 6:11 (i‬‬ ‫‪Judg 2:1 (j‬‬ ‫ת־ה ִעיר‬ ‫וַ יַּ ֵסּב ֲארוֹן־יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬ ‫עוֹלם‬ ‫יתי ִא ְתּ ֶכם ְל ָ‬ ‫א־א ֵפר ְבּ ִר ִ‬ ‫וָ א ַֹמר ל ֹ ָ‬ ‫יוֹד ַע יְ ָחנַּ נִ י יְ הוָ ה וְ ַחי ַהיָּ ֶלד‬ ‫‪ִ II Sam 12:22 (k‬כּי ָא ַמ ְר ִתּי ִמי ֵ‬ ‫‪II Kgs 13:23 (l‬‬ ‫וַ יָּ ָחן יְ הוָ ה א ָֹתם וַ יְ ַר ֲח ֵמם‬ .

Thus.” This is the final category of weak roots that you will study. III-He ‫יָ ָרה‬ I-Vav/Yod. Below are listed some common doubly-weak roots: ‫ָא ָבה‬ I-Alef. many verb roots contain more than one weak consonant. other roots become more difficult to identify since it is possible that up to two of their three root consonants may not be apparent. such roots are referred to as “doubly-weak. as in the verb ‫וַ יַּ ְך‬. STEP 1: Identify what parts of the verb form are inflectional affixes and what parts are remnants of the root.2 Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs Although most of these roots are still relatively simple to identify. thus ‫ ְך‬is the only remaining consonant from the root of this verb. you have studied all of the major categories of weak roots in Biblical Hebrew. III-Alef 25.Lesson 25 Lesson Summary: • Doubly-Weak Verbs • Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs Doubly-Weak Verbs 25. However. ‫וַ יַּ ְך‬: the ַ‫ ו‬and ַ‫ יּ‬are clearly inflectional affixes for the Past Narrative conjugation.1 Doubly-Weak Verbs At this point. III-He ‫נָ ָשׂא‬ I-Nun. III-He ‫נָ ָטה‬ I-Nun. III-Alef ‫ָהיָ ה‬ II-Vav/Yod. . III-Alef ‫יָ ָצא‬ I-Vav/Yod. The key to correctly identifying and parsing these doubly weak verbs is to use a three step process of elimination. III-He ‫בּוֹא‬ II-Vav/Yod.

then scan through the existing forms in each root to aid you in identifying which is your verb’s root. and identify which weak consonants can account for what is left of the verbal root in the verb form. so we can rule out a root that begins with ‫ה‬. or vice versa. Therefore. the remaining consonants of this verb’s root cannot be ‫ע‬.‫ נ‬and ‫)י‬. STEP 3: Use your lexicon to identify which of your logical roots actually exists in the Hebrew Bible. For the verb ‫ וַ יַּ ְך‬we are left with two logical possibilities after the first two steps: the root is either ‫ נכה‬or ‫יכה‬. • Of the weak consonants (the gutturals. so we can rule out a root that ends in ‫נ‬. If both exist. ‫ ו‬. and ‫ נ‬assimilates. however. or ‫ר‬. ‫ה‬. • ‫ נ‬only assimilates at the beginning of a root (except in ‫)נתן‬. Hence. the other two consonants must be ones that disappear in some way. • ‫ ה‬only elides at the end of a root. ‫א‬.Lesson 25 156 STEP 2: Rule out which weak consonants cannot be part of the verbal root. Thus we can conclude that this verb is not a IIVav/Yod. • ‫ ו‬and ‫ י‬often elide in II-Vav/Yod verbs. ‫ְך‬: Since we have only one consonant of the root left. the root for this verb is ‫ נכה‬HI ‘smite. only ‫ו‬. these weak verbs never have a final ‫ ה‬which elides or an initial ‫ נ‬which assimilates. and ‫ י‬elide. ‫וַ יַּ ְך‬: Hifil 3MS Past √‫( נכה‬from *‫)וַ יַּ נְ ֶכה‬ . In the case of ‫ וַ יַּ ְך‬the the lexicon should tell you that the root ‫יכה‬ does not exist. strike’. ‫ ח‬.

bind on. set restrain. PI throw. confess divide. ‫ידה‬ HI ‫יָ ָרה‬ Q. cast.3 Vocabulary #25 ‫ָ֫אנָ ה‬ INTER ‫ִבּ ְל ִתּי‬ ADV ‫ָח ַבשׁ‬ Q where?. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. ‫אמר לוֹ יְ הוָ ה ָל ֵכן ָכּל־ה ֵֹרג ַקיִ ן ִשׁ ְב ָע ַתיִ ם יֻ ָקּם וַ יָּ ֶשׂם יְ הוָ ה ְל ַקיִ ן אוֹת‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 4:15 (a ‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ַהכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ ָכּל־מ ְֹצאוֹ‬ . HO be avenged ‫ָחנָ ה‬ Q incline. strike avenge. camp ‫ַָפּ ַתר‬ Q interpret ‫ָט ַרף‬ Q tear. Parse the following Doubly-Weak verbs. NI avenge oneself. bind up. HI ‫נוּח‬ ַ Q ‫ָח ַלק‬ M down. except bind. bend down. month Q. HI cause to rest. make quiet. praise. PU be bound up ‫֫חֹ ֶדשׁ‬ give thanks. distribute. shoot (arrows) rest. pluck ‫ֵתּ ָבה‬ F ark ‫ָתּ ָלה‬ Q hang Exercises 1. let remain. NI divide ‫נכה‬ HI ‫נָ ַקם‬ Q oneself smite. rend. to where? not. Translate the following verses.Lesson 25 157 25. PI bind. leave new moon. ‫( וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂאנָ ה‬f ‫את‬ ָ ‫( ָבּ‬a ‫יפי‬ ִ ‫( וַ ִתּ‬g ‫( ֵתּ ֶרא‬b ‫את‬ ָ ‫( נִ ֵבּ‬h ‫( יֹאבוּ‬c ‫אתם‬ ֶ ‫( ֲה ֵב‬i ‫יע‬ ַ ‫הוֹד‬ ִ (d ‫( וַ יּוֹר‬j ‫( יֵ אֹתוּ‬e 2. take vengeance.

‫‪158‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 25‬‬ ‫־ע ָשׂר ‪ GL‬יוֹם ַלח ֶֹדשׁ ַעל ָה ֵרי‬ ‫יעי ‪ְ GL‬בּ ִשׁ ְב ָעה ‪ָ GL‬‬ ‫‪ Gen 8:4 (b‬וַ ָתּנַ ח ַה ֵתּ ָבה ַבּח ֶֹדשׁ ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ֲא ָר ָרט‬ ‫יהם ַליְ ָלה הוּא וַ ֲע ָב ָדיו וַ יַּ ֵכּם‬ ‫‪ Gen 14:15 (c‬וַ יֵּ ָח ֵלק ֲע ֵל ֶ‬ ‫י־מזֶּ ה ָבאת וְ ָאנָ ה ֵת ֵל ִכי‬ ‫אמר ָהגָ ר ‪ִ PN‬שׁ ְפ ַחת ָשׂ ַרי ֵא ִ‬ ‫‪ Gen 16:8 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬ ‫‪ Gen 26:17 (e‬וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ִמ ָשּׁם יִ ְצ ָחק וַ יִּ ַחן ְבּנַ ַחל ‪GL‬־גְּ ָרר ‪ PN‬וַ יֵּ ֶשׁב ָשׁם‬ ‫ל־כּן ָק ְר ָאה ְשׁמוֹ‬ ‫אוֹדה ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ַע ֵ‬ ‫אמר ַה ַפּ ַעם ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 29:35 (f‬וַ ַתּ ַהר עוֹד וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֵבּן וַ תּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫הוּדה וַ ַתּ ֲעמֹד ִמ ֶלּ ֶדת‬ ‫יְ ָ‬ ‫אמר לֹא נַ ֶכּנּוּ נָ ֶפשׁ‬ ‫אוּבן וַ יַּ ִצּ ֵלהוּ ִמיָּ ָדם וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 37:21 (g‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע ְר ֵ‬ ‫יוֹסף‬ ‫‪ Gen 40:22 (h‬וְ ֵאת ַשׂר ָהא ִֹפים ָתּ ָלה ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָפּ ַתר ָל ֶהם ֵ‬ ‫הוּדה ַא ָתּה יוֹדוָּך ַא ֶחיָך‬ ‫‪ Gen 49:8 (i‬יְ ָ‬ ‫אוֹדָך יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫‪ Isa 12:1 (j‬וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָתּ ַבּיּוֹם ַההוּא ְ‬ ‫שׁוּבה ֶאל־יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫‪ְ Hos 6:1 (k‬לכוּ וְ נָ ָ‬ ‫נוֹדה‬ ‫עוֹלם ֶ‬ ‫ל־היּוֹם וְ ִשׁ ְמָך ְל ָ‬ ‫אֹלהים ִה ַלּ ְלנוּ ָכ ַ‬ ‫‪ֵ Ps 44:9 (l‬בּ ִ‬ .

or some other nominal constituent (such as a substantive adjective). noun phrases. Imperfect verb. Predicate Predicates may be verbal (e.g.. must be supplied).g. or ‘be’ verb.g.Lesson 26 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1 • Complements and Adjuncts • Argument Structure 26. clauses with nominal predicates are called verbless clauses (the copula. . an adjective / adjective phrase. Participle) or nominal (e. Verbal and Verbless Clauses Clauses with verbal predicates are called verbal clauses. more complex unit called a clause.1 Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1 Syntax Throughout the last 25 lessons.. Clause A basic definition of a clause is that it is the combination of at least two constituents: a subject and a predicate. we will begin our discussion of syntax—the system of relationships among constituents. a Perfect verb. nouns / noun phrases. ‫( וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים‬Jon 1:5) The sailors subject were afraid predicate Subject Subjects are usually nouns.. or a prepositional phrase). verbs / verb phrases. prepositions / prepositional phrases) that relate to each other to form a larger. In this lesson. we primarily discussed the morphology of Biblical Hebrew words. Constituent ‘Constituent’ is the label used for the individual words or phrases (e.

‫ל־היָּ ם‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬ ‘YHWH cast a great wind to the sea’ (Jon 1:4) ‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח‬ ִ ‫ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬ ‘Because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH’ (Jon 1:10) ‫ֹלע ֶאת־יוֹנָ ה‬ ַ ‫וַ יְ ַמן יְ הוָ ה ָדּג גָּ דוֹל ִל ְב‬ ‘YHWH appointed a big fish to swallow Jonah’ (Jon 2:1) The presence and number of complements are generally determined by the valency of the verb. a verb may require a constituent(s). or ditransitive. etc. transitive. to fulfill it (i. if such constituents were omitted. adjuncts are optional constituents . The boldfaced. or both. Complements are obligatory constituents following the verb in a clause. to make sense). the clause would be incomplete.e. whether it is intransitive. An important distinction is between complements and adjuncts. In other words. underlined constituents in the following examples are complements—their presence is required by the verbs in order for the clauses to be grammatical (i.Lesson 26 160 Verbal (Imperfect) Clause: ‫ֹלהים ָלנוּ‬ ִ ‫אוּלי יִ ְת ַע ֵשּׁת ָה ֱא‬ ַ ‘perhaps God will think about us’ (Jon 1:6) Verbless Clause: ‫ִע ְב ִרי ָאנ ִֹכי‬ Complements and Adjuncts ‘a Hebrew (am) I’ (Jon 1:9) 26.). manner. a major issue is the relationship between a verb and its modifiers.e.. to function as its object or to specify location. such as a noun phrase or a prepositional phrase..2 Complements and Adjuncts When we consider the relationship between constituents. In contrast to complements.

g. a subject. in contrast. prepositional phrases. adverbs. intransitive verbs) take just one argument. The boldfaced. ‫( וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים‬Jon 1:5) The sailors were afraid external predicate argument ‘Two-place predicates’ (e. Each and every role must be filled for the play to work.g. ‘One-place predicates’ (e. each predicate specifies the number of arguments needed to complete its argument structure.. In the same way. such constituents may be omitted without affecting the basic grammaticality of the clause. a subject and another obligatory constituent that modifies the verb—objects. An argument is a constituent that is a participant involved in the event or action denoted by the predicate. ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫ת־מ ֲע ֵשׂ‬ ַ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬ ִ ‫( וַ יַּ ְרא ָה ֱא‬Jon 3:10) their deeds internal argument God external argument saw predicate . take two arguments. which correspond to the constituents. transitive verbs).3 Argument Structure Another way of analyzing syntax is in terms of argument structure. italicized constituents in the following clauses are adjuncts. An analogy might help: we can think of a predicate as the script of a play in which there are a number of roles..Lesson 26 161 following the verb in a clause. ‫ֹלהיו ִמ ְמּ ֵעי ַה ָדּגָ ה‬ ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל יוֹנָ ה ֶאל־יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ‘Jonah prayed to YHWH his God from the belly of the fish’ (Jon 2:2) ‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֶ ה ִכּ ְד ַבר יְ הוָ ה‬ ‘Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of YHWH’ (Jon 3:3) 26. etc.

come to an end ‫נַ ֲח ָלה‬ F ‫ָחמוֹת‬ F mother-in-law ‫נָ ְכ ִרי‬ favor. inheritance ADJ foreign.4 Vocabulary #26 ‫ָבּ ָכה‬ Q weep.Lesson 26 162 Some predicates (e. such as interrogatives. a direct object (e. preposition (P). F ‫נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬ Q. alien. gather why possession.g.g. external argument argument argument 26. PN ‫וְ ֵשׁ ם ַה ֵשּׁנִ ית רוּת‬ PN ‫ֵשׁ ם ָה ַא ַח ת ָע ְר ָפּה‬ ‫י־פ ַקד‬ ָ ‫מוֹאב ִכּ‬ ָ ‫ִכּי ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדה‬ PN PN ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׂאוּ ָל ֶה ם נָ ִשׁים מ ֲֹא ִביּוֹת‬Ruth 1:4 ‫ ָשׁנִ ים‬GL ‫וַ יֵּ ְשׁבוּ ָשׁם ְכּ ֶע ֶשׂר‬ (a ‫מוֹאב‬ ָ ‫יה וַ ָתּ ָשׁב ִמ ְשּׂ ֵדי‬ ָ ‫ֹּלת‬ ֶ ‫ וַ ָתּ ָקם ִהיא וְ ַכ‬Ruth 1:6 (b ‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬ ַ ‫יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬ . a prepositional phrase.. or conjunctions). and an oblique object (e. adjective (Adj). an object). keep close ‫דּוּע‬ ַ ‫ַמ‬ INTER ‫ָח ַדל‬ Q cease. cleave.. grace ‫נָ ַשׁק‬ ‫ֵחן‬ ‫ַכּ ָלּה‬ M F ‫ֵעד‬ daughter-in-law. ditransitive verbs) may take more than two arguments. pick up. verb (V.g. bewail. bride Q glean. such as a subject and two direct objects or a subject. or other grammatical word (GW. Translate the following verses and identify all of the constituents by their lexical category: mark each one as a noun/pronoun (N). negatives. property. adverb (Adv). PI lament ‫ָל ַקט‬ ‫ָדּ ַבק‬ Q cling.. ‫ל־היָּ ם‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫( וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬Jon 1:4) to the sea a great wind cast YHWH internal internal pred. include infinitives and participles). PI M kiss witness Exercises 1.

and‬‬ ‫‪adjunct (Adt) that you find.‫‪163‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 26‬‬ ‫ל־תּ ְל ִכי ִל ְלקֹט ְבּ ָשׂ ֶדה ַא ֵחר וְ גַ ם‬ ‫אמר בּ ַֹעז ‪ֶ PN‬אל־רוּת ֲהלוֹא ָשׁ ַמ ַע ְתּ ִבּ ִתּי ַא ֵ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 2:8 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫בוּרי ִמזֶּ ה וְ כֹה ִת ְד ָבּ ִקין ִעם־נַ ֲער ָֹתי‬ ‫לֹא ַת ֲע ִ‬ ‫‪Ruth 3:16 (d‬‬ ‫ָה ִאישׁ‬ ‫ה־להּ‬ ‫ל־א ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂ ָ‬ ‫ד־להּ ֵאת ָכּ ֲ‬ ‫י־א ְתּ ִבּ ִתּי וַ ַתּגֶּ ָ‬ ‫ֹאמר ִמ ַ‬ ‫מוֹתהּ וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ל־ח ָ‬ ‫וַ ָתּבוֹא ֶא ֲ‬ ‫‪2. complement (Comp). Translate the following verses and identify the argument structure—mark each‬‬ ‫‪predicate (Pred). external argument (EA).‬‬ ‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬ ‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה ָ‬ ‫י־פ ַקד‬ ‫מוֹא ב ִכּ ָ‬ ‫מוֹא ב ִכּ י ָשׁ ְמ ָע ה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵד ה ָ‬ ‫יה וַ ָתּ ָשׁ ב ִמ ְשּׂ ֵד י ָ‬ ‫ֹּלת ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:6 (b‬וַ ָתּ ָק ם ִהיא וְ ַכ ֶ‬ ‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬ ‫יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪(c‬‬ ‫את י ֵח ן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך‬ ‫דּוּע ָמ ָצ ִ‬ ‫ֹאמ ר ֵא ָליו ַמ ַ‬ ‫יה וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּחוּ ָא ְר ָצ ה וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ל־פּנֶ ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 2:10‬וַ ִתּפֹּל ַע ָ‬ ‫ְל ַה ִכּ ֵירנִ י וְ ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬ ‫ם־ה ֵמּת‬ ‫יתי ִלי ְל ִא ָשּׁה ְל ָה ִקים ֵשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 4:10 (d‬וְ גַ ם ֶאת־רוּת ַהמּ ֲֹא ִביָּ ה ֵא ֶשׁת ַמ ְחלוֹן ‪ָ PN‬קנִ ִ‬ ‫וּמ ַשּׁ ַער ְמקוֹמוֹ ֵע ִדים ַא ֶתּם ַהיּוֹם‬ ‫ם־ה ֵמּת ֵמ ִעם ֶא ָחיו ִ‬ ‫ַעל־נַ ֲח ָלתוֹ וְ לֹא־יִ ָכּ ֵרת ֵשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬ ‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה ָ‬ . verb (V). and internal argument (IA). Translate the following verses and identify the syntactic relationships between‬‬ ‫‪the constituents—mark each subject (S).

‫‪164‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 26‬‬ ‫יה‬ ‫י־מ ְת ַא ֶמּ ֶצת ִהיא ָל ֶל ֶכת ִא ָתּהּ וַ ֶתּ ְח ַדּל ְל ַד ֵבּר ֵא ֶל ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:18 (b‬וַ ֵתּ ֶרא ִכּ ִ‬ ‫אתי ֵחן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך‬ ‫דּוּע ָמ ָצ ִ‬ ‫ֹאמר ֵא ָליו ַמ ַ‬ ‫יה וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּחוּ ָא ְר ָצה וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ל־פּנֶ ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 2:10 (c‬וַ ִתּפֹּל ַע ָ‬ ‫ְל ַה ִכּ ֵירנִ י וְ ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬ ‫‪(d‬‬ ‫אמר‬ ‫ת־ר ֵעהוּ וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫יַכּיר ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬ ‫ד־הבּ ֶֹק ר וַ ָתּ ָק ם ְבּ ֶט ֶר ם ִ‬ ‫לוֹתיו ַע ַ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:14‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַכּ ב ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫י־ב ָאה ָה ִא ָשּׁה ַהגּ ֶֹרן‬ ‫ַאל־יִ וָּ ַדע ִכּ ָ‬ .

. ‫אוּלם‬ ָ ‘but’. ‫‘ אוֹ‬or’. Related to this classification is the distinction between the two ways that clauses relate to each other: coordination and subordination. ‫‘ ֲא ָבל‬but’.2 Main and Subordinate Clauses Main and Subordinate Clauses One way to classify clauses is by how they relate to each other. This lesson will introduce you to two further important aspects of Biblical Hebrew syntax: the relationships between clauses. and the basic order of constituents within clauses. There are two basic types: main clauses and subordinate clauses. and went down (to) Joppa and found a ship . (See 3. Coordination Coordination is the linking of two or more clauses that are of equal syntactic status. 27. .Lesson 27 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2 • Main and Subordinate Clauses • Biblical Hebrew Word Order 27..1 Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2 In the last lesson. there is no syntactic hierarchical relationship between the two or more clauses. A main clause is one that can stand on its own.‫וַ יֵּ ֶרד יָ פוֹ וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא ָאנִ יָּ ה‬.. and gave its fare and went down in it’ (Jon 1:3) Coordination in Biblical Hebrew is most often marked with coordinating conjunctions: ְ‫‘ ו‬and’. . that is. i.6 for further discussion of ְ‫ ו‬and why it is not always ..e. In contrast. syntax was introduced as the system of relationships between constituents and a clause was defined as a subject and a predicate.‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה‬ ‘(and) Jonah rose .. . it is not grammatically controlled by another clause. a subordinate clause is one that is grammatical controlled by another clause. ‫וַ יִּ ֵתּן ְשׂ ָכ ָרהּ וַ יֵּ ֶרד ָבּהּ‬.

) Asyndesis However. since. when’ ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ‘if not’ ‫לוּלי‬ ֵ ‘while. if. whereas those in subordinate relationship form a complex sentence. “What is this (that) you have done?” Because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH because he had told them’ (Jon 1:10) Subordinating Conjunctions Subordination in English is most often marked with subordinating conjunctions: when. if. ‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י‬ ִ ‫ית ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬ ָ ‫אמרוּ ֵא ָליו ַמה־זֹּאת ָע ִשׂ‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬ ‫יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח ִכּי ִהגִּ יד ָל ֶהם‬ ‘(and) they said to him. until’ ‫ַעד‬ ‘in order to. before. although. resulting in asyndesis. when. or unmarked coordination.Lesson 27 166 appropriate to translate it. that. . i. the great city’ (Jon 1:2) Subordination Subordination is the linking of two or more clauses with the result that they have different syntactic status. so that’ ‫ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬ ‘before’ ‫ַא ֲח ֵרי‬ ‘if. Compare the two clauses below: ‫גוֹרלוֹת‬ ָ ‫ל־ר ֵעהוּ ְלכוּ וְ נַ ִפּ ָילה‬ ֵ ‫אמרוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬ ‘(and) they said to each other: come and let us cast lots’ (Jon 1:7) ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ְ‫קוּם ֵלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֵ ה ָה ִעיר ַהגּ‬ ‘Rise. The list below provides the most commonly used Biblical Hebrew subordinating conjunctions: ‫ִל ְפנֵ י‬ ‘because. that’ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ‘if’ ‫לוּ‬ ‘therefore’ ‫ָל ֵכן‬ ‘lest. etc. one clause is syntactically dependent on the other. while. Go to Nineveh. because. so that not’ ‫ֶפּן‬ ‘after’ Traditionally.e. after. though’ ‫ִכּי‬ ‘just as. clauses in coordinate relationship are said to form a compound sentence. it is not uncommon for the coordinating conjunction to be absent. though’ ‫ִאם‬ ‘who/which.

in contrast to English as well as IndoEuropean languages in general. Hebrew is primarily a Subject-Predicate word order language. i. .). 14:10) ‫ת־ה ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים ְבּיָ ֶדָך‬ ַ ‫ֲע ֵלה ִכּי־נָ תֹן ֶא ֵתּן ֶא‬ ‘Go up because I will surely place the Philistines in your hand’ (2 Sam. This means that in normal (“without emphasis”) indicative clauses. adjective. ִ that trigger this inversion include the relatives ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬and ‫שׁ‬. you will have noticed by now that many clauses in Biblical Hebrew are not Subject-Predicate in order.. etc. ‫ ֫ ָל ָמּה‬. it becomes predicate-subject.. and most other grammatical words. etc.. but very few subordinating conjunctions. that’ stands at the front of the clause. often times clauses which are syntactically coordinate in Biblical Hebrew may in fact be semantically subordinate. has a few coordinating conjunctions. As a result. ‫ ֶפּן‬.Lesson 27 167 Note: Biblical Hebrew. An accurate translation from Biblical Hebrew to English will reflect this semantic subordination despite the syntactical coordination of the clauses. the word order of the remaining clause is inverted. negatives ‫לֹא‬. ‫ֲע ֵלה וּנְ ַת ִתּים ְבּיָ ֶדָך‬ ‘Go up and (= so that. the subject precedes the predicate (regardless of whether the predicate is a verb.g. e. The words. 5:19) Word Order BH = Subj-Pred (in indicative clauses) 27. ‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח‬ ִ ‫ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬ ‘because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH (Jon 1:10) Inversion = X-Pred-Subj As illustrated in Jonah 1:10. like ‫כּי‬. ‫ ֲה‬. ‫ ִאם‬. ‫ ַאל‬. ֶ the interrogatives ‫ ָמה‬.e. ‫ ָאז‬. ‫ ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬. or because) I will place them in your hand’ (1 Chr. Consider the following segments from parallel material in Kings and Chronicles.3 Biblical Hebrew Word Order Like English. For instance: ‫ל־היָּ ם‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬ ‘YHWH cast a great wind upon the sea’ (Jon 1:4) However. whenever a grammatical word like ‫ִכּי‬ ‘because.

Subject-Predicate word order is not present in the most common type of clause in the Hebrew Bible. we see the Predicate-Subject order.g. Thus. ‫וְ יִ ְשׁתֹּק ַהיָּ ם ֵמ ָע ֵלינוּ‬ ‘(so that) the sea may be quiet from upon us’ (Jon 1:11) ‫וְ יָ ֻשׁבוּ ִאישׁ ִמ ַדּ ְרכּוֹ ָה ָר ָעה‬ ‘let (each) man turn from his evil way’ (Jon 3:8) The Modal Perfect (Lesson 7) also has a modal value. Modal Clause = Pred-Subj All of the clauses we have discussed to this point have contained indicative verbs. any clause including a Past Narrative verb is predicate-subject in order. when we examine the Jussives given below.Lesson 27 168 The only two grammatical words in Biblical Hebrew that do not generally trigger Predicate-Subject word order are ‫ ִהנֵּ ה‬and ‫ע ָתּה‬. the Past Narrative verb ‫ וַ יָּ ָקם‬precedes the subject ‫יוֹנָ ה‬.. modal verbs exist in inverted clauses. thus. the clause in which the Past Narrative verb is used. it too stands in inverted clauses. ‫ )וַ יָּ ָקם‬represents a grammatical word that has been assimilated into the prefix consonant. Thus. which exist primarily in Subject-Predicate clauses. Unlike indicative verbs. For instance: ‫ישׁה ִמ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬ ָ ‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה ִל ְבר ַֹח ַתּ ְר ִשׁ‬ ‘Jonah arose to flee to Tarshish from before YHWH’ (Jon 1:3) In the case of Jonah 1:3. ַ Past Narr. because of that “little grammatical word” represented by the dagesh. This is the case with every Past Narrative verb—the verb precedes the subject. One possible explanation for this is that the dagesh chazaq in the prefix of the Past Narrative verb (e. Notice the Predicate-Subject order of the following Modal Perfect examples: ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫י־יוֹד ַע יָ שׁוּב וְ נִ ַחם ָה ֱא‬ ֵ ‫ִמ‬ ‘Who knows? Maybe God shall turn back and repent’ (Jon 3:9) . verb = Pred-Subj Finally.

• In modal clauses. the order becomes inverted (Predicate-Subject) when there is a function word at the beginning of the clause. ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫הוֹלְך וְ ס ֵֹער ֲע ֵל‬ ֵ ‫ִכּי ַהיָּ ם‬ ‘because the sea was growing stormier upon them’ (Jon 1:13) ‫יאה ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי דּ ֵֹבר ֵא ֶליָך‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ְקּ ִר‬ ַ ‫יה ֶא‬ ָ ‫וּק ָרא ֵא ֶל‬ ְ ‘call to her the proclamation that I am speaking to you’ (Jon 3:2) From the examples in Jonah 1:13 and 3:2. Also notice how the Modal Perfect follows a Jussive. unlike the finite verbal clauses above.e. Participles & Verbless = Subj-Pred Our final discussion focuses on Participles and verbless clauses.e. clauses with participial and adjectival (i. function words do not invert the word order of participial or verbless clauses. that they follow other modal forms. This is a common verb sequence for Modal Perfects (i. verbless) predicates exhibit primarily Subject-Predicate order. • In clauses with finite indicative verbs.. Summary: • Biblical Hebrew is a Subject-Predicate language. . we can also notice that.Lesson 27 169 In Jonah 3:9. the order is Predicate-Subject. such as Imperatives and Jussives).. the Predicate-Subject word order for the clause ‫וְ נִ ַחם‬ ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫ ָה ֱא‬reflects the normal word order for modal clauses. Like the indicative finite verbal clauses presented above.

lengthen ‫ֶ֫יְב ֶמת‬ F Q perceive. be alive ‫ָשׁ ַלף‬ Q draw out. off Exercises 1. Translate the following verses and identify which clauses are main and which are subordinate. previously place of feet ‫מרר‬ Q be bitter. ‫ יִ ְחיֶ ה ְל ָפנֶ יָך‬PN ‫ יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֵעאל‬GL‫ֹלהים לוּ‬ ִ ‫ל־ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 17:18 (a ‫יטב ְלָך‬ ַ ִ‫ת־מ ְצו ָֹתיו ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַצוְּ ָך ַהיּוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר י‬ ִ ‫ת־ח ָקּיו וְ ֶא‬ ֻ ‫ וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָתּ ֶא‬Deut 4:40 (b ‫ֹלהיָך נ ֵֹתן ְלָך ָכּל־‬ ֶ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֲא ֶשׁר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫יָמים ַע‬ ִ ‫וּל ַמ ַען ַתּ ֲא ִריְך‬ ְ ‫וּל ָבנֶ יָך ַא ֲח ֶריָך‬ ְ ‫ַהיָּ ִמים‬ ‫וּק ַב ְר ֶתּם א ִֹתי ַבּ ֶקּ ֶבר‬ ְ ‫מוֹתי‬ ִ ‫ל־בּנָ יו ֵלאמֹר ְבּ‬ ָ ‫אמר ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יְ ִהי ַא ֲח ֵרי ָק ְברוֹ אֹתוֹ וַ יּ‬I Kgs 13:31 (c ‫ת־ע ְצמ ָֹתי‬ ַ ‫ ַע ְצמ ָֹתיו ַהנִּ יחוּ ֶא‬GL ‫ֹלהים ָקבוּר בּוֹ ֵא ֶצל‬ ִ ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר ִאישׁ ָה ֱא‬GL ‫ל־צ ָבא‬ ְ ‫ל־כּ ְסאוֹ וְ ָכ‬ ִ ‫יתי ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה י ֵֹשׁב ַע‬ ִ ‫אמר ָל ֵכן ְשׁ ַמע ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ָר ִא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬I Kgs 22:19 (d GL ‫וּמ ְשּׂמֹאלוֹ‬ ִ GL‫ימינוֹ‬ ִ ‫ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם ע ֵֹמד ָע ָליו ִמ‬ . abide ‫֫ ַנ ַעל‬ F ‫֫גּ ֹ ֶרן‬ M threshing floor ‫צוה‬ PI command ‫ָחיָ ה‬ Q live.4 Vocabulary #27 ‫ֵאיְך‬ ‫ָא ֵרְך‬ ADV. observe. INTJ How! ‫ָח ָסה‬ Q seek refuge sister-in-law Q be long. Also.Lesson 27 170 27. INTER how. have insight. teach FP formerly. shoe ‫גּוּר‬ Q to sojourn. give ‫ַמ ְרגְּ לוֹת‬ understanding. ‫ְל ָפנִ ים‬ ADV ‫ִבּין‬ HI understand. PI HI make bitter sandal. identify any coordination. HI prolong.

Translate the following clauses.‫‪171‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 27‬‬ ‫הוֹתיר ‪ָ GL‬לנוּ ָשׂ ִריד ‪ִ GL‬כּ ְמ ָעט ִכּ ְסד ֹם ‪ָ PN‬היִ ינוּ ַל ֲעמ ָֹרה‬ ‫לוּלי ‪ GL‬יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ִ‬ ‫‪ֵ Isa 1:9 (e‬‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ָדּ ִמינוּ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫וּב ָאזְ נָ יו‬ ‫ב־ה ָעם ַהזֶּ ה וְ ָאזְ נָ יו ַה ְכ ֵבּד וְ ֵעינָ יו ָה ַשׁע ‪ֶ GL‬פּן־יִ ְר ֶאה ְב ֵעינָ יו ְ‬ ‫‪ַ Isa 6:10 (f‬ה ְשׁ ֵמן ‪ֵ GL‬ל ָ‬ ‫וּל ָבבוֹ ִיָבין וָ ָשׁב וְ ָר ָפא לוֹ׃‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ָמע ְ‬ ‫י־ה ַמר ַשׁ ַדּי ִלי‬ ‫ל־תּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ִלי נָ ֳע ִמי ‪ְ PN‬ק ֶראן ָ ִלי ָמ ָרא ‪ִ PN‬כּ ֵ‬ ‫יהן ַא ִ‬ ‫ֹאמר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:20 (g‬וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ְמאֹד‬ ‫‪2. identify why. For each clause with an explicit subject indicate‬‬ ‫‪whether the word order is Subject-Predicate or Predicate-Subject.‬‬ ‫מוֹאב‬ ‫הוּדה ‪ָ PN‬לגוּר ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדי ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:1 (a‬וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ִאישׁ ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם ‪ PN‬יְ ָ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬ ‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬ ‫מוֹאב ִכּ ָ‬ ‫‪ִ Ruth 1:6 (b‬כּי ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדה ָ‬ ‫ם־ה ֵמּ ִתים וְ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬ ‫יתם ִע ַ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:8 (c‬יַ ַעשׂ יְ הוָ ה ִע ָמּ ֶכם ֶח ֶסד ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ֲע ִשׂ ֶ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 2:4 (d‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה־ב ַֹעז ָבּא ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫וּת ִהי ַמ ְשׂ ֻכּ ְר ֵתְּך‬ ‫‪ Ruth 2:12 (e‬יְ ַשׁ ֵלּם יְ הוָ ה ָפּ ֳע ֵלְך‪ְ GL‬‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ת־כּנָ ָפיו‬ ‫ר־בּאת ַל ֲחסוֹת ַתּ ַח ְ‬ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‫ְשׁ ֵל ָמה ֵמ ִעם יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬ . If the order is‬‬ ‫‪Predicate-Subject.

‫‪172‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 27‬‬ ‫מוֹתהּ‬ ‫ר־צוַּ ָתּה ֲח ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:6 (f‬וַ ַתּ ַעשׂ ְכּכֹל ֲא ֶשׁ ִ‬ ‫ֹלתיו‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:8 (g‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ִא ָשּׁה שׁ ֶֹכ ֶבת ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬ ‫ת־ר ֵעהוּ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:14 (h‬וַ ָתּ ָקם ְבּ ֶט ֶרם יַ ִכּיר ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬ ‫י־ב ָאה ָה ִא ָשּׁה ַהגּ ֶֹרן‬ ‫אמר ַאל־יִ וָּ ַדע ִכּ ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:14 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫ֹאמר ְשׁ ִבי ִב ִתּי ַעד ֲא ֶשׁר ֵתּ ְד ִעין ֵאיְך יִ פֹּל ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:18 (j‬וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ל־דּ ָבר ָשׁ ַלף ִאישׁ‬ ‫מוּרה ְל ַקיֵּ ם ָכּ ָ‬ ‫ל־ה ְתּ ָ‬ ‫אוּלּה וְ ַע ַ‬ ‫ל־הגְּ ָ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 4:7 (k‬וְ זֹאת ְל ָפנִ ים ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ַע ַ‬ ‫נַ ֲעלוֹ וְ נָ ַתן ְל ֵר ֵעהוּ‬ .

It deals with various meaning issues. synonymy.g. and semantic overlap) and at the clause level (e. truth values. ambiguity. polysemy.2 the verbs in Biblical Hebrew were examined as a system in which certain forms contrast with each other and others overlap in meaning.g.. Venn Diagram of a Semantic Model of BH Verbal System ‫וַ יִּ ְקטֹל‬ ‫קוֹטל‬ ֵ Past Tense Progressive Aspect (narrative verb) expected future simple past gnomic past habitual ‫ָק ַטל‬ commissive contingent Perfective Aspect perfect immediate future performative present progressive past progressive ‫ִי ְקטֹל‬ Imperfective Aspect general future future in the past directive volitive ‫ ְקטֹל‬/‫( ַי ְק ֵטל‬H) Deontic Modality . Lexical semantics and case roles are examined in the following sections. The treatment of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system in this grammar illustrates the main concerns of semantics. In 13.1 Introduction to Semantics Semantics is concerned with meaning in language. This is illustrated by the following diagram. communicative potential.. and entailment).Lesson 28 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Semantics • Lexical Semantics • Case Roles Semantics 28. both at the word and phrase level (e.

instance. 3:8). 3:2. For instance. Every meaning of a word is not represented by each instance where it occurs. 1:14. the lexicon lists six different meanings for the verb ‫ ָק ָרא‬in Qal: (1) call. However. by looking at other color terms related to ‘red’ we more precisely define the allowable range of meaning of red.3). The crucial task in reading a passage is deciding which meaning best fits the context in which it occurs. Semantics is also interested in analyzing the case roles of these arguments. cry aloud. and related meanings between words.Lesson 28 Lexical Semantics 174 28. 4. 2:3. or proclaim (1:2. (4) read aloud.). (6) name. (2) call to (someone).2 Lexical Semantics Lexical semantics is concerned with discerning semantic contrast and overlap between words in terms of their lexical meaning (as opposed to grammatical meanings such as tense. definiteness. instance. cry aloud (1:6. For instance.1 you were introduced to the binyanim. etc. Lexical semantics involves two areas of study: multiple meanings for the same word. modality. 5) Examining the interrelated meanings of words helps sharpen understanding of the range of meanings of a particular word. generally the context will limit an occurrence of ‫ ָק ָרא‬to one of these meanings.’ they often differ in nuance. In 11. . You have noticed that the lexicon gives numbered entries of the various meanings a word may have. Thus. the eight occurrences of this root in Jonah appear to have one of two meanings: call. it may have a different number of arguments (see 26. Depending on which binyan a verb appears in. only ‫ ָק ָרא‬is used as ‘to read aloud’. aspect. (5) summon. and only ‫ זָ ַעק‬is used explicitly as ‘to make a cry of horror/alarm/distress/sorrow’. at one point is a color no longer ‘red’ but ‘maroon’? our For can For We can sharpen the range of meaning of ‫ ָק ָרא‬by comparing it to semantically related words like ‫ זָ ַעק‬and ‫צ ַעק‬. ָ Although they all have the basic meaning ‘cry out. (3) proclaim.

However. and the Genitive case has been replaced by the construct relationship (see 6. Although accusative is most . An agent is the entity that performs an action or brings about a change of state. German). Cases indicate the particular syntactic role or relationship between words in an expression. syntax.Lesson 28 175 ‫ל־ה ִעיר‬ ָ ‫וְ ָה ִאישׁ ָבּא ְל ַהגִּ יד ָבּ ִעיר וַ ִתּזְ ַעק ָכּ‬ ‘(when) the man came to the report in the city [that the ark had been captured]. Latin. Nominative I he she we they Accusative me him her us them Genitive my his her our their Similarly. by the period of Biblical Hebrew cases are mostly abstract.g. morphological case marking is preserved only in the personal pronouns. The Nominative case includes the agent of a dynamic verb or the patient of a stative or passive verb. often by morphological distinctions (e. ‫ל־היָּ ם‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬ ‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea’ (Jon 1:4) ‫עוֹד ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים יוֹם וְ נִ ינְ וֵ ה נֶ ְה ָפּ ֶכת‬ ‘yet forty days and Nineveh will be destroyed’ (Jon 3:4) The Accusative case includes all the nouns governed by the verb— whether complements or adjuncts.. and semantics. The role of each case can also be analyzed semantically (e.3 Case Roles in Biblical Hebrew Case involves morphology. A patient is an entity in a state or undergoing change. all of the city cried out (in alarm)’ (1 Sam 4:13) ‫ֹלהים יוֹם ְבּיוֹם‬ ִ ‫תּוֹרת ָה ֱא‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָרא ְבּ ֵס ֶפר‬ ‘(and) they read in the book of the law of God daily’ (Neh 8:18) Case Roles 28..1).g. nominative is syntactically the subject but semantically the agent of a dynamic verb but the patient of a stative verb). Hebrew at one time distinguished these cases morphologically. In English.

remain.Lesson 28 176 often associated with the direct object of a verb. HI show quietness. In a construct relationship the noun in the absolute can modify the noun in construct in a number of ways. God. a journey of three days (= a three day’s journey)’ (Jon 3:3) 28. HI continue ‫ַמ ֲע ֶשׂה‬ M deed. source. . neighbor be quiet. work ‫נצב‬ NI take one’s stand. ‫ן־א ִמ ַתּי‬ ֲ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יוֹנָ ה ֶב‬ ‘the word of YHWH came to Jonah. mighty one ‫ָק ֶצה‬ M end.4 Vocabulary #28 ‫אוֹ‬ CONJ or ‫ָקדוֹשׁ‬ ADJ sacred. son of Amitai’ (Jon 1:1) ‫יָמים‬ ִ ‫ֹלשׁת‬ ֶ ‫ַמ ֲה ַלְך ְשׁ‬ ‘. it is also associated with nouns expressing nuances such as location. or manner. . behind ‫ָשׁ ֵכן‬ ‫ָשׁ ַקט‬ ADJ Q inhabitant. harvest ‫יָ ַסף‬ Q add. Sometimes different prepositions signal different meanings of the predication. be stationed. ‫ל־היָּ ם‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬ ‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea’ (Jon 1:4) ‫וַ יָּ ֶחל יוֹנָ ה ָלבוֹא ָב ִעיר ַמ ֲה ַלְך יוֹם ֶא ָחד‬ ‘(and) Jonah began to enter into the city a journey of one day’ (Jon 3:4) Note: Often verbs take a direct object headed by a preposition. path. Most often the absolute noun represents the agent or possessor of the activity behind the construct noun or simply modifies the construct noun adjectivally. ‫יכל ָק ְד ֶשָׁך‬ ַ ‫ל־ה‬ ֵ ‫אוֹסיף ְל ַה ִבּיט ֶא‬ ִ ‫ַאְך‬ ‘Surely I will again look at/to your holy temple’ (Jon 2:5) The Genitive case has been replaced in Biblical Hebrew by the construct. undisturbed. ‫שׁאר‬ NI be left over. extremity ‫֫בֹּ ֶקר‬ M morning ‫ָק ַצר‬ Q reap. cause quietness . behind. do again. appointed leave over. HI multiply. holy ‫ֵאל‬ M god.

Lesson 28 177 Exercises 1. genitive (Gen). or accusative (Acc). Examine the range of meanings for ‫ ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬using the lexicon. ‫יה‬ ָ ֶ‫וּשׁנֵ י ָבנ‬ ְ ‫וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵאר ִהיא‬ PN ‫ ִאישׁ נָ ֳע ִמי‬PN‫ימ ֶלְך‬ ֶ ‫ וַ יָּ ָמת ֱא ִל‬Ruth 1:3 (a ‫יה ֵל ְכנָ ה שּׁ ְֹבנָ ה ִא ָשּׁ ה ְל ֵבית ִא ָמּ הּ יַ ַע שׂ יְ הוָ ה‬ ָ ‫ֹּלת‬ ֶ ‫ֹאמ ר נָ ֳע ִמ י ִל ְשׁ ֵתּ י ַכ‬ ֶ ‫ וַ תּ‬Ruth 1:8 ‫ם־ה ֵמּ ִתים וְ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬ ַ ‫יתם ִע‬ ֶ ‫ִע ָמּ ֶכם ֶח ֶסד ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ֲע ִשׂ‬ (b ‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬ ָ ‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח‬ ָ ‫ וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה‬Ruth 1:14 (c ‫ ֶאל־נָ ֳע ִמ י ֵא ְל ָכה־נָּ א ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ה וַ ֲא ַל ֳק ָט ה ַב ִשּׁ ֳבּ ִלים‬PN‫מּוֹא ִביָּ ה‬ ֲ ‫ֹאמ ר רוּת ַה‬ ֶ ‫ וַ תּ‬Ruth 2:2 (d ‫ֹאמר ָלהּ ְל ִכי ִב ִתּי‬ ֶ ‫א־חן ְבּ ֵעינָ יו וַ תּ‬ ֵ ‫ַא ַחר ֲא ֶשׁר ֶא ְמ ָצ‬ GL ‫קּוֹצ ִרים ְל ִמי ַהנַּ ֲע ָרה ַהזֹּאת‬ ְ ‫ל־ה‬ ַ ‫אמר בּ ַֹעז ְלנַ ֲערוֹ ַהנִּ ָצּב ַע‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Ruth 2:5 (e . 2. and determine the best meaning(s) for the word in its occurrences in Ruth. Determine the degree of overlap between these related words (use a diagram like the one given for the verbal system in the lesson to show the overlap). ‫ָא ָדם ִאישׁ גִּ בּוֹר‬ 3. Translate the following clauses and identify the case roles of the nouns in each – nominative (Nom).

‫‪178‬‬ ‫‪(f‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 28‬‬ ‫יט ב ִלבּוֹ וַ יָּ ב ֹא ִל ְשׁ ַכּ ב ִבּ ְק ֵצ ה ָה ֲע ֵר ָמה‪ GL‬וַ ָתּב ֹא ַב ָלּט‬ ‫אכ ל בּ ַֹע ז וַ יֵּ ְשׁ ְתּ וַ יִּ ַ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:7‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬ ‫ֹלתיו וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ָכּב‬ ‫וַ ְתּגַ ל ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫ֹאמר ְשׁ ִבי ִב ִתּי ַעד ֲא ֶשׁר ֵתּ ְד ִעין ֵאיְך יִ פֹּל ָדּ ָבר ִכּי ל ֹא יִ ְשׁקֹט ָה ִאישׁ ִכּי־‬ ‫‪ Ruth 3:18 (g‬וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫ם־כּ ָלּה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהיּוֹם‬ ‫ִא ִ‬ ‫‪Ruth 4:13 (h‬‬ ‫יה וַ יִּ ֵתּ ן יְ הוָ ה ָל הּ ֵה ָריוֹן‬ ‫וַ יִּ ַקּ ח בּ ַֹע ז ֶאת־רוּת וַ ְתּ ִהי־לוֹ ְל ִא ָשּׁ ה וַ יָּ ב ֹא ֵא ֶל ָ‬ ‫‪GL‬‬ ‫וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֵבּן‬ ‫עוֹבד‬ ‫ד־בּ ן ְלנָ ֳע ִמ י וַ ִתּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ְשׁמוֹ ֵ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 4:17 (i‬וַ ִתּ ְק ֶראנָ ה לוֹ ַה ְשּׁ ֵכנוֹת ֵשׁ ם ֵלאמֹר יֻ ַלּ ֵ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫הוּא ֲא ִבי־יִ ַשׁי‪ֲ PN‬א ִבי ָדוִ ד‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ .

which is the study of the relationship of constituents or clauses to each other. or use of discourse markers). Pragmatics is a broad field of study.. the discussion and definitions will reflect our focus on the application of pragmatic analysis to written texts. Unlike syntax.g. pragmatics incorporates the notion of the larger linguistic and extra-linguistic context. which is the study of the relationship between linguistic expressions and the objects to which they refer. pragmatics is the study of the use of linguistic expressions and includes such issues as deixis. The linguistic context that is the object of pragmatic study ranges from the level of the clause (e. rheme. how pragmatic concerns affect the structure of an entire text). theme. In this lesson we will focus on clause-level pragmatics (discourselevel pragmatics will be discussed in Lesson 30).Lesson 29 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Pragmatics • Information Structure • Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information Structure 29. how the word order of constituents reflects pragmatic concerns) to the levels of discourse beyond the clause (i.1 Introduction to Pragmatics Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of how the relationship between an utterance. word order. by means of prosody. and focus.e. and any other aspect of the context/discourse are encoded (e. unlike semantics.g. .. the addressee. Also. in what follows.. the speaker.

2 Information Structure One of the common ways to study the pragmatics of a language is by analyzing what is called the information structure of that language. Central concepts to the study of information structure are the concepts of theme. it is the presupposed information in a discourse. often marked in languages by word order. Information structure is concerned with studying why. active entity within the discourse and stands in contrast to the Rheme. If all the material is new to the discourse. then Israel is the Rheme and was . was victorious is not) There are at least three basic contexts that we can supply to understand how the clause Israel was victorious can signal different states of information. if we supply a context that is discussing the various people who were victorious but Israel has not yet been mentioned.. While the Rheme may often mark “new” discourse items. or both. when two or more possible linguistic options may express the same propositional information. it may also mark “old” discourse items that are being “re-added” to the discourse. then we could consider Israel as the Theme and was victorious as the Rheme. The Rheme represents that information which has been added to a discourse situation (i. Consider the following example. Finally. it is the non-presupposed information). and focus.e. prosody. The Theme is that piece of information that anchors the added information to the existing information state.Lesson 29 Information Structure 180 29. one is chosen over the others. it is all considered to be the Rheme. ‫נוֹשׁע‬ ַ ‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ‘Israel Rheme Theme Rheme was victorious’ (Isa 45:17) Rheme (All the constituents are new) Rheme (Israel is not new to the context) Theme (Israel is new. Information structure refers to the interface between the linguistic content of a text and how the reader cognitively processes that linguistic information. Thus. the Theme is a known. rheme. If we supply a context in which Israel has already been introduced.

My affliction and the labor of my hands God has seen and he judged last night’ (Gen 31. the basic order of constituents in a clause has the subject preceding the verb. Israel was victorious (not its enemies).3 Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information Structure In Lesson 27. The fronting of a focused constituent almost always results in Verb-Subject order. . for contrast. the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac had not been for me. ‫וּפ ַחד יִ ְצ ָחק ָהיָ ה ִלי‬ ַ ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬ ֵ ‫ֹלהי ָא ִבי ֱא‬ ֵ ‫לוּלי ֱא‬ ֵ ‫יע ַכּ ַפּי‬ ַ ִ‫ת־ענְ יִ י וְ ֶאת־יְ ג‬ ָ ‫ִכּי ַע ָתּה ֵר ָיקם ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ָתּנִ י ֶא‬ ‫יּוֹכח ָא ֶמשׁ‬ ַ ַ‫ֹלהים ו‬ ִ ‫ָר ָאה ֱא‬ ‘if the God of my father.42) The fronting of this focused phrase also results in the inversion of ִ ‫) ָר ָאה ֱא‬. the word order for the rest of the clause: Verb-Subject (‫ֹלהים‬ Jonah 1:9 illustrates Predicate-Subject inversion in a verbless clause. many clauses in the Hebrew Bible contain a focused constituent.. In other words. Focus represents a constituent that is highlighted for some sort of emphasis within the discourse (e.Lesson 29 181 victorious is the Theme. identification). Consider the following four examples: Genesis 31:42 contains the focusing of an object phrase: ‫ת־ענְ יִ י‬ ָ ‫ֶא‬ ‫יע ַכּ ַפּי‬ ַ ִ‫וְ ֶאת־יְ ג‬. The final information structure concept that we must discuss is Focus. 29.g. There are numerous examples in which the Verb-Subject (or Predicate-Subject in a verbless clause) order is triggered by a fronted focused constituent. However. indeed now you would have sent me away empty. Biblical Hebrew was described as a Subject-Verb language. Focused constituents are usually placed at the front of the clause (this is sometimes referred to as “fronting”).

) may be focused (for contrast or some other kind of emphasis). ‫ֹלהים ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְל ֶכם ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ נִ ְפ ְקחוּ‬ ִ ‫ִכּי י ֵֹד ַע ֱא‬ ‫אֹלהים י ְֹד ֵעי טוֹב וָ ָרע‬ ִ ‫יתם ֵכּ‬ ֶ ִ‫יכם וִ ְהי‬ ֶ ֵ‫ֵעינ‬ ‘because God knows that on the day you eat from it. that is. a focused constituent is almost always fronted.Lesson 29 182 ‫ִע ְב ִרי ָאנ ִֹכי‬ ‘A Hebrew am I’ (Jon 1:9) The predicate ‫ ִע ְב ִרי‬is in the initial position because Jonah is telling the sailors who he is. please let your servant stay instead of the lad as a servant to my lord. ‫וְ ַע ָתּה יֵ ֶשׁב־נָ א ַע ְב ְדָּך ַתּ ַחת ַהנַּ ַער ֶע ֶבד ַלאד ֹנִ י‬ ‫ם־א ָחיו‬ ֶ ‫וְ ַהנַּ ַער יַ ַעל ִע‬ ‘Now. etc. . . is that it now precedes the modal verb ‫יַ ַעל‬.’ (Gen 3:5) In this case. prepositional phrases. and let the lad go up with his brothers’ (Gen 44:33) The result of the focusing and fronting of the subject noun. Summary: • Words (such as objects. . your eyes will be opened and you will become like gods . When we turn our attention to modal clauses (in which the normal word order is Verb-Subject). In Genesis 44:33. Genesis 3:5 illustrates Verb-Subject inversion with the participle ‫י ֵֹד ַע‬. placed at the front of the Biblical Hebrew clause. producing Subject-Verb order in a modal clause (which is normally Verb-Subject order). the subject noun ‫ ַהנַּ ַער‬is focused and thus fronted. the serpent in Genesis 3 wants Eve to believe that God is well aware of the effects of eating the forbidden fruit and that He is trying to keep Eve and Adam from something desirable. it only makes sense that the focusing and fronting of a constituent triggers inversion back to Subject-Verb order.

obstinate ‫ָפּ ַרד‬ Q separate. and Focus (if there is one) for each clause in the following verses.) GL ‫ֹלהים ְמ ַר ֶח ֶפת‬ ִ ‫רוּח ֱא‬ ַ ְ‫ל־פּנֵ י ְתהוֹם ו‬ ְ ‫ וְ ח ֶֹשְׁך ַע‬GL‫ וָ בֹהוּ‬GL‫ וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ ָהיְ ָתה תֹהוּ‬Gen 1:2 (a ‫ל־פּנֵ י ַה ָמּיִ ם‬ ְ ‫ַע‬ ‫ֹלהים ִכּי־‬ ִ ‫יַמּים וַ יַּ ְרא ֱא‬ ִ ‫ ַה ַמּיִ ם ָק ָרא‬GL ‫וּל ִמ ְקוֵ ה‬ ְ ‫ֹלהים ַליַּ ָבּ ָשׁה ֶא ֶרץ‬ ִ ‫ וַ יִּ ְק ָרא ֱא‬Gen 1:10 (b ‫טוֹב‬ . consult the context of each for help in identifying the information structure.e. inverted) word order in indicative clauses. army ‫ְצ ָד ָקה‬ F righteousness ‫ֶח ְל ָקה‬ F portion ‫ֵר ָיקם‬ ADV ‫יָ ַרד‬ Q go down. wealth. vainly underworld. 29. Translate the following clauses. which have Predicate-Subject order as their basic word order. (If necessary. abyss Exercises 1. HI divide. descend ‫ְשׁאוֹל‬ F ‫ְתּהוֹם‬ M/F emptily. • In modal clauses. bold. valor.4 Vocabulary #29 ‫ָא ַמץ‬ ‫ַ ֫דּ ַעת‬ ‫ַ֫חיִ ל‬ Q F/M M ‫ָ֫מוֶ ת‬ M death (something).. Identify the Theme. Rheme. PI strengthen knowledge (something) strength. Sheol deep.Lesson 29 • 183 Such fronted words trigger Predicate-Subject (i. sea. the Subject-Predicate word order is triggered when a focused constituent is fronted. separate be strong. HIT make oneself ‫ָמ ַכר‬ Q sell bold.

” or triggered due to‬‬ ‫‪syntactic or pragmatic reasons). Translate the following clauses.‫‪Lesson 29‬‬ ‫‪184‬‬ ‫אכל‬ ‫ץ־הגָּ ן ָאכֹל תּ ֹ ֵ‬ ‫ל־ה ָא ָדם ֵלאמֹר ִמכֹּל ֵע ַ‬ ‫ֹלהים ַע ָ‬ ‫‪ Gen 2:16 (c‬וַ יְ ַצו יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬ ‫אכל ִמ ֶמּנּוּ ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְלָך ִמ ֶמּנּוּ מוֹת ָתּמוּת‬ ‫וּמ ֵעץ ַה ַדּ ַעת טוֹב וָ ָרע לֹא ת ֹ ַ‬ ‫‪ֵ Gen 2:17 (d‬‬ ‫ת־חוָּ ה‬ ‫‪ Gen 4:1 (e‬וְ ָה ָא ָדם יָ ַדע ֶא ַ‬ ‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה׃‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫ת־קיִ ן‬ ‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ וַ ַתּ ַהר וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪PN‬‬ ‫יתי ִאישׁ‬ ‫ֹאמר ָקנִ ִ‬ ‫וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫יהם‬ ‫ת־ה ְתּ ָר ִפים ‪ GL‬וַ ְתּ ִשׂ ֵמם ְבּ ַכר ‪ַ GL‬הגָּ ָמל וַ ֵתּ ֶשׁב ֲע ֵל ֶ‬ ‫‪ Gen 31:34 (f‬וְ ָר ֵחל ָל ְק ָחה ֶא ַ‬ ‫ל־הא ֶֹהל וְ לֹא ָמ ָצא׃‬ ‫ת־כּ ָ‬ ‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵשּׁשׁ ָל ָבן ֶא ָ‬ ‫‪2. For each clause indicate whether the word‬‬ ‫‪order is Subject-Predicate or Predicate-Subject and explain why the word order‬‬ ‫‪is that way (i. indicate whether the word order is “basic.e.‬‬ ‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬ ‫יה‬ ‫ֹלה ָ‬ ‫ל־א ֶ‬ ‫ל־ע ָמּהּ וְ ֶא ֱ‬ ‫ֹאמר ִהנֵּ ה ָשׁ ָבה ִיְב ְמ ֵתְּך ֶא ַ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:15 (b‬וַ תּ ֶ‬ ‫וּבינֵ ְך‬ ‫‪ִ Ruth 1:17 (c‬כּי ַה ָמּוֶ ת יַ ְפ ִריד ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬ ‫י־מ ְת ַא ֶמּ ֶצת ִהיא ָל ֶל ֶכת ִא ָתּהּ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 1:18 (d‬וַ ֵתּ ֶרא ִכּ ִ‬ ‫‪ֲ Ruth 1:21 (e‬אנִ י ְמ ֵל ָאה ָה ַל ְכ ִתּי וְ ֵר ָיקם ֱה ִשׁ ַיבנִ י יְ הוָ ה‬ ..

‫‪185‬‬ ‫‪Lesson 29‬‬ ‫ל־שׁ ַער ַע ִמּי ִכּי ֵא ֶשׁת ַחיִ ל ָא ְתּ‬ ‫יוֹד ַע ָכּ ַ‬ ‫‪ִ Ruth 3:11 (f‬כּי ֵ‬ ‫ימ ֶלְך‪ָ PN‬מ ְכ ָרה נָ ֳע ִמי‬ ‫אמר ַלגּ ֵֹאל ‪ֶ GL‬ח ְל ַקת ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ֲא ֶשׁר ְל ָא ִחינוּ ֶל ֱא ִל ֶ‬ ‫‪ Ruth 4:3 (g‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬ .

g. linguistics.g. how the saliency of events are marked (e. Foreground and Background 30.Lesson 30 Lesson Summary: • Introduction to Discourse Linguistics • The Foreground and Background of Narrative • Discourse Topic Discourse Linguistics 30. a poem). in which we focused on ‘clause-level’ pragmatics and information structure). sentence-based.. We shall approach discourse linguistics as the study of information structure beyond the level of individual clauses (as opposed to Lesson 29... foreground or background). takes a discourse or text as the object of linguistic analysis. in contrast to traditional. Some elements that shape discourse include the genre or type of discourse (e. Because Biblical Hebrew has a Past Narrative verb form. and 2) discourse topic. The study of discourse linguistics is still developing.g.1 Introduction to Discourse Linguistics Discourse linguistics. how speech is incorporated into the discourse (e.2 The Foreground and Background of Narrative The majority of the Hebrew Bible is narrative. we may describe discourse linguistics as the linguistic counterpart to traditional literary analysis. In the next two sections we will examine two areas of discourse analysis on the Hebrew Bible that have proven quite fruitful: 1) foreground and background of narrative. The main thread or foreground of narrative discourse features the Past Narrative verb. In this way. ‫ן־א ִמ ַתּי‬ ֲ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יוֹנָ ה ֶב‬ ‘(and) the word of YHWH came to Jonah. this discourse type is readily identifiable. son of Amitai’ (Jon 1:1) . direct or indirect speech). a narrative. The following presentation represents just one approach out of many.

‫י־ה ֲא ָד ָמה‬ ָ ֵ‫ל־פּנ‬ ְ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ן־ה ָא ֶרץ וְ ִה ְשׁ ָקה ֶא‬ ָ ‫וְ ֵאד יַ ֲע ֶלה ִמ‬ ‘(and) mist would come up from the earth and would water the entire surface of the ground’ (Gen 2:6) . he avoids using the Past Narrative verb. Now Jonah had gone down into the recesses of the ship and laid down and fallen asleep. ‫ֹלהיו וַ יָּ ִטלוּ ֶאת־‬ ָ ‫ל־א‬ ֱ ‫וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים וַ יִּ זְ ֲעקוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬ ‫יהם וְ יוֹנָ ה‬ ֶ ‫ל־היָּ ם ְל ָה ֵקל ֵמ ֲע ֵל‬ ַ ‫ַה ֵכּ ִלים ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּ ֳאנִ יָּ ה ֶא‬ ‫יָ ַרד ֶאל־יַ ְר ְכּ ֵתי ַה ְסּ ִפינָ ה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב וַ יֵּ ָר ַדם‬ ‘(and) the sailors were afraid and each cried out to his god. For instance. and they cast the vessels that were on the ship into the sea in order to lighten (the ship) of them. which begins with God creating man in verse 7. the narrator also avoids using the Past Narrative verb to portray events in an order other than their occurrence in the narrative. prior to the storm being sent and the sailors’ emergency measures. in Jonah 1:5.Lesson 30 187 Whenever the narrator chooses to communicate something that is not part of the development or progression of the plot action. in Genesis 2:6. the narrator uses the Imperfect and Modal Perfect verbs to report events that contribute to the setting (the state of creation) rather than the main plot line of the narrative. Jonah had gone down into the ship. ‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֶ ה ִכּ ְד ַבר יְ הוָ ה וְ נִ ינְ וֵ ה ָהיְ ָתה‬ ‫אֹלהים‬ ִ ‫דוֹלה ֵל‬ ָ ְ‫ִעיר־גּ‬ ‘(and) Jonah rose and went to Nineveh according to the word of YHWH. Thus. in Jonah 3:3 the Perfect ‫ ָהיְ ָתה‬is used instead of the Past Narrative form because the clause provides the reader with background information regarding an important element in the plot —the city of Nineveh.’ (Jon 1:5) Similarly. the Perfect verb ‫ יָ ַרד‬indicates that. Now Ninevah was a great city to God’ (Jon 3:3) In addition to communicating background information.

Perfect. we discussed the fact that the basic word order in Biblical Hebrew is Subject-Verb. this happened. verbless clause. ‫ל־היָּ ם וַ יְ ִהי ַס ַער־גָּ דוֹל‬ ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬ ‫ַבּיָּ ם וְ ָה ֳאנִ יָּ ה ִח ְשּׁ ָבה ְל ִה ָשּׁ ֵבר‬ ‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea and there was a great storm in the sea (so that) the ship threatened to break apart’ (Jon 1:4) ‫ יְ הוָ ה‬is not necessarily new to the narrative (it was his word which came to Jonah in the first place). then this happened. Clearly. In Jonah 1:5 we have a related use of a non-Past Narrative verb.g. when the narrator wants to introduce a new character in the narrative or signal an important change in which character is doing the action. Participle. 30. Foreground events are the most salient or important for the development of the plot line and very frequently occur in succession (i. in verse 3 the narrator focuses entirely on what Jonah does. Imperfect) is generally background material. However.e. however. Background material describes the narrative setting or reports simultaneous or out-of-sequence events relative to the narrative plot.Lesson 30 188 Summary: Discourse material that is presented with the Past Narrative verb is called foreground material. Hebrew narrative is typically Verb-Subject because of the predominant use of the Past Narrative verb.. etc. .2 Discourse Topic In Lesson 29 when we examined Biblical Hebrew word order. Thus. the Focus on the character is signaled by the use of Subject-Verb word order. The use of a non-Past Narrative verb in verse 4 signals the switch from Jonah as the primary agent to ‫יְ הוָ ה‬.). Discourse material is presented with other predicates (e. Consider the following examples: In Jonah 1:4 the narrator avoids the Past Narrative to introduce an important new agent into the sequence of events..

They cast the vessels that were on the ship into the sea in order to lessen (the load) upon them. Keep in mind.. since both backgrounded material as well as character or topic changes avoid the use of the Past Narrative verb. that a character change is not necessarily backgrounded information (see Ruth 4:1). or one with a focused subject. Jonah is focused in order to contrast Jonah’s actions with those of the sailors.e. Thus. in the case of Jonah 1:5. . that Subject-Verb order can represent either a basic clause. there is not a one-to-one correspondence between non-Past Narrative clauses and any particular discourse function. whether the non-Past Narrative clause is signaling backgrounded material or a character change or both). This can only be determined based on the context. In the case of narrative. however. the non-Narrative Past clause ‫ יוֹנָ ה יָ ַרד‬presents information that both is background (because the narrator had already informed the audience that Jonah had gone down into the ship in verse 3) and includes a focused subject. of course.’ (Jon 1:5) As we noted above. this focus is signalled by the non-use of the Narrative Past verb. Also. Jonah had gone down to the recesses of the ship and laid down and fallen asleep.Lesson 30 189 ‫ֹלהיו וַ יָּ ִטלוּ ֶאת־‬ ָ ‫ל־א‬ ֱ ‫וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים וַ יִּ זְ ֲעקוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬ ‫יהם וְ יוֹנָ ה‬ ֶ ‫ל־היָּ ם ְל ָה ֵקל ֵמ ֲע ֵל‬ ַ ‫ַה ֵכּ ִלים ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּ ֳאנִ יָּ ה ֶא‬ ‫יָ ַרד ֶאל־יַ ְר ְכּ ֵתי ַה ְסּ ִפינָ ה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב וַ יֵּ ָר ַדם‬ ‘The sailors were afraid and each cried out to his gods. This means. it is necessary to identify which is occurring (i. (However).

the exercises for this final lesson presume a familiarity with the entire book of Ruth.Lesson 30 190 Exercises (Since we have now come to the end of this grammar. ‫י־בנָ יו ַמ ְחלוֹן וְ ִכ ְליוֹן ֶא ְפ ָר ִתים‬ ָ ֵ‫ימ ֶלְך וְ ֵשׁם ִא ְשׁתּוֹ נָ ֳע ִמי וְ ֵשׁם ְשׁנ‬ ֶ ‫ וְ ֵשׁם ָה ִאישׁ ֱא ִל‬Ruth 1:2 ‫יוּ־שׁם‬ ָ ‫י־מוֹאב וַ יִּ ְה‬ ָ ‫הוּדה וַ יָּ בֹאוּ ְשׂ ֵד‬ ָ ְ‫ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם י‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׂאוּ ָל ֶהם נָ ִשׁים מ ֲֹא ִביּוֹת ֵשׁם ָה ַא ַחת ָע ְר ָפּה וְ ֵשׁם ַה ֵשּׁנִ ית רוּת וַ יֵּ ְשׁבוּ ָשׁם‬Ruth 1:4 ‫ְכּ ֶע ֶשׂר ָשׁנִ ים‬ ‫וּשׁמוֹ בּ ַֹעז‬ ְ ‫ימ ֶלְך‬ ֶ ‫ישׁהּ ִאישׁ גִּ בּוֹר ַחיִ ל ִמ ִמּ ְשׁ ַפּ ַחת ֱא ִל‬ ָ ‫מוֹדע ְל ִא‬ ַ ‫וּלנָ ֳע ִמי‬ ְ Ruth 2:1 ‫אמרוּ לוֹ ָיְב ֶר ְכָך‬ ְ ֹ ‫קּוֹצ ִרים יְ הוָ ה ִע ָמּ ֶכם וַ יּ‬ ְ ‫אמר ַל‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וְ ִהנֵּ ה־ב ַֹעז ָבּא ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם וַ יּ‬Ruth 2:4 ‫יְ הוָ ה‬ ‫סוּרה‬ ָ ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וּב ַֹעז ָע ָלה ַה ַשּׁ ַער וַ יֵּ ֶשׁב ָשׁם וְ ִהנֵּ ה ַהגּ ֵֹאל ע ֵֹבר ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ֶבּר־בּ ַֹעז וַ יּ‬Ruth 4:1 ‫ְשׁ ָבה־פֹּה ְפֹּלנִ י ַא ְלמֹנִ י וַ יָּ ַסר וַ יֵּ ֵשׁב‬ . Identify any non-Past Narrative clauses and specify their discourse function. and we have been focusing on the book of Ruth in the exercises of the last five lessons. Translate the following clauses.) 1.

‫ַאב‬ ‫ֲא ִחי‬ ‫ֲאחוֹת‬ ‫ִאישׁ‬ ‫ֵ֫א ֶשׁת‬ ‫ֵבּית‬ ‫ֶבּן‬ ‫ַבּת‬ ‫יוֹם‬ ‫ִעיר‬ ‫רֹאשׁ‬ Plural Absolute ‫ָאבוֹת‬ ‫ַא ִחים‬ ‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬ ‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬ ‫נָ ִשׁים‬ ‫ָבּ ִתּים‬ ‫ָבּנִ ים‬ ‫ָבּנוֹת‬ ‫יָמים‬ ִ ‫ָע ִרים‬ ‫אשׁים‬ ִ ‫ָר‬ Plural Construct ‫ֲאבוֹת‬ ‫ַא ֵחי‬ ‫ַא ְחיוֹת‬ ‫ַאנְ ֵשׁי‬ ‫נְ ֵשׁי‬ ‫ָבּ ֵתּי‬ ‫ְבּנֵ י‬ ‫ְבּנוֹת‬ ‫יְמי‬ ֵ ‫ָע ֵרי‬ ‫אשׁי‬ ֵ ‫ָר‬ . Adjective.2) Singular Absolute ‘father’ M ‘brother’ M ‘sister’ F ‘man’ M ‘woman’ F ‘house’ M ‘son’ M ‘daughter’ F ‘day’ M ‘city’ F ‘head’ M ‫ָאב‬ ‫ָאח‬ ‫ָאחוֹת‬ ‫ִאישׁ‬ ‫ִא ָשּׁה‬ ‫ַ֫בּיִ ת‬ ‫ֵבּן‬ ‫ַבּת‬ ‫יוֹם‬ ‫ִעיר‬ ‫רֹאשׁ‬ Singular Construct ‫ ֲא ִבי‬.Appendix A Noun. Adjective Inflection (6. Frequent Irregular Nouns (6.1) Singular Plural Dual Absolute ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫ְדּ ָב ִרים‬ ‫ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ם‬ Construct ‫ְדּ ַבר‬ ‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬ ‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬ Absolute ‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬ ‫ֲא ָדמוֹת‬ ‫ַא ְד ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬ Construct ‫ַא ְד ַמת‬ ‫ַא ְדמוֹת‬ ‫ַא ְד ָמ ֵתי‬ Masculine Feminine 1b. Noun Inflection (6. and Pronoun Paradigms 1a.1) Singular Plural Dual Absolute ‫ָח ָכם‬ ‫ֲח ָכ ִמים‬ ‫ֲח ָכ ַ֫מיִ ם‬ Construct ‫ֲח ַכם‬ ‫ַח ְכ ֵמי‬ ‫ַח ְכ ֵמי‬ Absolute ‫ֲח ָכ ָמה‬ ‫ַח ְכ ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬ Construct ‫ַח ְכ ַמת‬ ‫ֲח ָכמוֹת‬ ‫ַח ְכמוֹת‬ Masculine Feminine ‫ַח ְכ ָמ ֵתי‬ 2.

Personal Pronouns (10.Appendix A 192 3.2) Near Far M this F this ‫זֶ ה‬ ‫זֹאת‬ M that F that F } these ‫הוּא‬ M those ‫ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬ ‫ִהיא‬ F those ‫ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ M ‫ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬ .1) ‫הוּא‬ ‫ִהיא‬ ‫ַא ָתּה‬ ‫ַא ְתּ‬ ‫ ָאנ ִֹכי‬/ ‫ֲאנִ י‬ 3MS 3FS 2MS 2FS 1CS ‘he’ 3MP ‘she’ 3FP ‘you’ 2MP ‘you’ 2FP ‘I’ 1CP ‫ֵהם‬ ‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬/ ‫ֵהן‬ ‫ַא ֶתּם‬ ‫ַא ֶתּן‬ ‫ֲאנָ ְחנוּ‬ ‘they’ ‘they’ ‘you’ ‘you’ ‘we’ 4. Demonstrative Pronouns (9.

Appendix A 193 5a. 3MS ֹ‫ו‬ → 3FS ‫ָהּ‬ → 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ → 2FS ‫ָ ְך‬ → 1CS ‫ִי‬ → 3MP ‫ ָ ם‬/‫ָ ֶהם‬ → 3FP ‫ָ ֶהן‬ → 2MP ‫ָ ֶכם‬ → 2FP ‫ָ ֶכן‬ → 1CP ‫ָ֫ נוּ‬ → ‫‘ לוֹ‬for him’ ‫‘ ָלהּ‬for her’ ‫‘ ְלָך‬for you’ ‫‘ ָלְך‬for you’ ‫‘ ִלי‬for me’ ‫‘ ָל ֶהם‬for them’ ‫‘ ָל ֶהן‬for them’ ‫‘ ָל ֶכם‬for you’ ‫‘ ָל ֶכן‬for you’ ‫‘ ֫לנוּ‬for us’ → → → → → → → → → → ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מֹהוּ‬like him’ ‫וֹה‬ ָ ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מ‬like her’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוָֹך‬like you’ ‫‘ ָכּמוְֹך‬like you’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוֹנִ י‬like me’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֶהם‬like them’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֵהן‬like them’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֶכם‬like you’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֶכן‬like you’ ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוֹנוּ‬like us’ → → → → → → → → → → ‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬from him’ ‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנָ ה‬from her’ ‫‘ ִמ ְמָּך‬from you’ ‫‘ ִמ ֵמְּך‬from you’ ‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנִ י‬from me’ ‫‘ ֵמ ֶהם‬from them’ ‫‘ ֵמ ֶהן‬from them’ ‫‘ ִמ ֶכּם‬from you’ ‫‘ ִמ ֶכּן‬from you’ ‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬from us’ → → → → → → → → → → ‫‘ אוֹתוֹ‬him’ ‫אוֹתהּ‬ ָ ‘her’ ‫אוֹתָך‬ ְ ‘you’ ‫אוֹתְך‬ ָ ‘you’ ‫אוֹתי‬ ִ ‘me’ ‫אוֹתם‬ ָ ‘them’ ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶהן‬them’ ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬you’ ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכן‬you’ ‫אוֹתנוּ‬ ָ֫ ‘us’ . ‫ ְכּ‬/‫ ָכּ‬/‫ ָכּמוֹ‬and ‫ ִמן‬and the Direct Object Marker -‫את‬/‫אוֹת‬ ֶ . Suffixed Pronouns on Prepositions ‫ל‬. Suffixed Pronouns on Nouns Added to Masculine Singular Added to Feminine Singular 3MS ֹ‫ו‬ 3FS ‫ָהּ‬ 2MS ‫ְ ָך‬ 2FS ‫ֵ ְך‬ 1CS ‫ִי‬ 3MP ‫ָ ם‬ 3FP ‫ָן‬ 2MP ‫ְ ֶכם‬ 2F ‫ְ ֶכן‬ 1CP ‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬ ‫‘ ְדּ ָברוֹ‬his word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרהּ‬her word’ ֽ ָ ‫‘ ְדּ‬your word’ → ‫ב ְרָך‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵרְך‬your word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ִרי‬my word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרם‬their word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרן‬their word’ →‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכם‬your word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכן‬your word’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ֫רנוּ‬our word’ → ‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬ ָ ‘his law’ ָ ‘her law’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתהּ‬ ֽ ָ ‘your law’ → ‫תּוֹר ְתָך‬ ָ ‘your law’ → ‫תּוֹר ֵתְך‬ ָ ‘my law’ → ‫תּוֹר ִתי‬ ָ ‘their law’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתם‬ ָ ‘their law’ → ‫תּוֹר ָתן‬ ַ ‘your law’ → ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכם‬ ַ ‘your law’ → ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכן‬ ָ ‘our law’ → ‫תּוֹר ֵ֫תנוּ‬ → Added to Masculine Plural 3MS ‫ָ יו‬ 3FS ‫יה‬ ָ ֶ֫ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָריו‬his words’ ָ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ֫ר‬her words’ → ‫יה‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ֫ריָך‬your words’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַ֫ריִ ְך‬your words’ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַרי‬my words’ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’ → ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’ → ‫יהן‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’ → ‫יכם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’ → ‫יכם‬ → ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ֫רינוּ‬our words’ → 2MS ‫ֶ֫ יָך‬ 2FS ‫ַ֫ יִ ְך‬ 1CS ‫ַי‬ 3MP ‫יהם‬ ֶ ֵ 3FP ‫יהן‬ ֶ ֵ 2MP ‫יכם‬ ֶ ֵ 2FP ‫יכן‬ ֶ ֵ 1CP ‫ֵ֫ ינוּ‬ Added to Feminine Plural ‫תּוֹרוֹתיו‬ ָ ‘his laws’ ָ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֶ֫ ‘her laws’ → ‫יה‬ ֶ֫ ‘your laws’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתיָך‬ ַ֫ ‘your laws’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתיְך‬ ‫תּוֹרוֹתי‬ ַ ‘my laws’ → ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘their laws’ → ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘their laws’ → ‫יהן‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ ‘your laws’ → ‫יכם‬ ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬ ֵ֫ ‘your laws’ → ‫יכן‬ ֵ֫ ‘our laws’ → ‫תּוֹרוֹתינוּ‬ → 5b.

2.1. 13.‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫ִה ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ִה ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬ ‫ֻפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ֻפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‫ִפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִפּ ְקּ ָדה‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ִפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫נִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ ‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‫יָ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫יַ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫יִ ְפקֹד‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ָא ְפ ַקד‬ ‫יָ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נָ ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬ ‫ַא ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫יַ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נַ ְפ ִקיד‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫יִ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֲא ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫יְ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ֻפ ַקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּ ִדי‬ ‫ֲא ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫יְ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ַפ ֵקּד‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫יִ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִת ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ָפּ ֵקד‬ ‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬ ‫ָה ְפ ְק ָדה‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬ ‫ָה ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬ ‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬ ‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬ ‫יִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְפ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְפקֹד‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪PERF‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ . 15. 8.1-2.2.1-2. 5.2-6‬פּקד ‪1. 12. 10.1-3. 11.1-2.‫‪Appendix B‬‬ ‫‪Strong Verb Paradigms‬‬ ‫)‪ ‘attend to’ (4. 14.3.

‫‪Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms‬‬








‫וַ יָּ ְפ ַקד‬

‫וַ יַּ ְפ ֵקד‬

‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫וַ יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫וַ יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫וַ יִּ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יָ ְפ ַקד‬

‫יַ ְפ ֵקד‬

‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יִ ְפקֹד‬

‫ַא ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬

‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֲא ֻפ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֶא ָפּ ְק ָדה‬

‫ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬


‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬



‫ַה ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬

‫ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬

‫ִה ָפּ ְק ִדי‬

‫ִפּ ְק ִדי‬


‫ַה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬

‫ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬

‫ִה ָפּ ְקדוּ‬

‫ִפּ ְקדוּ‬


‫ַה ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬

‫ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬

‫ִה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬

‫ְפּ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬


‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬

‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬



‫ָה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ָמ ְפ ָקד‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫ָמ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬

‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ָידה‬
‫ַמ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ִידים‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִקידוֹת‬

‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוֹת‬

‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּד‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּדוֹת‬

‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ַפ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ַפ ַקּדוֹת‬

‫נִ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִה ָפּקֹד‬
‫נִ ְפ ָקד‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫נִ ְפ ָקדוִ ת‬



‫וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬


‫פּ ֵֹקד‬
‫פּ ְֹק ָדה‬
‫פּ ֶ ֹ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫פּ ְֹק ִדים‬
‫פּ ְֹקדוֹת‬






Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms


2. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs (18.2)

‫הוּ‬- / ‫ו‬‫ה‬ָ
‫ָך‬‫ְך‬‫נִ י‬‫ם‬‫ן‬‫כם‬ֶ


‫ְ ָך‬
‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ַ֫ נִ י‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ָ֫ נוּ‬

‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬
‫ֶ֫ ָה‬
‫ְ ָך‬
‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬


‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬
‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬
ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ֶ֫ ךּ‬
‫נְ נִ י* ← ֶ֫ נִּ י‬

‫נְ נוּ* ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬

Note: Suffix Pattern (Perfect) verbs have an a-class linking vowel (i.e., the vowel
between the verb form and the suffixed pronoun). Prefix Pattern
(Imperfect, Past Narrative, and Imperative) have an i-class linking vowel.

Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms


‫‪Appendix C‬‬
‫‪Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬
‫)‪ָ ‘stand’ (17.2‬ע ַמד ‪1. I-Guttural Verb:‬‬


‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָה ָע ְמ ָדה‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָה ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬
‫ֶה ֱע ִ֫מ ָידה‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ֶה ֱע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָתּ ָע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ָא ֳע ַמד‬
‫יָ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נָ ֳע ַמד‬

‫יַ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִ֫מ ִידי‬
‫ֲא ֲע ִמיד‬
‫יַ ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ֲע ִמיד‬




‫נֶ ֱע ַמד‬
‫נֶ ֶע ְמ ָדה‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫נֶ ֳע ַמ ְד ְתּ‬
‫נֶ ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫נֶ ֶע ְמדוּ‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬


‫ָחזֵ ק‬
‫ָחזְ ָקה‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְק ָתּ‬
‫ָחזַ ְק ְתּ‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְק ִתּי‬
‫ָחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֲחזַ ְק ֶתּם‬
‫ֲחזַ ְק ֶתּן‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְקנוּ‬


‫ָע ַמד‬
‫ָע ְמ ָדה‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָע ַמ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֲע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ְע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬


‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ֵא ָע ֵמד‬
‫יֵ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ַמ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ַמ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נֵ ָע ֵמד‬

‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫ֶתּ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫ֶתּ ֶחזְ ִקי‬
‫ֶא ֱחזַ ק‬
‫יֶ ֶחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֶתּ ֱח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬
‫ֶתּ ֱחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֶתּ ֱח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬
‫נֶ ֱחזַ ק‬

‫יַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ַתּ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ַתּ ַע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ֶא ֱעמֹד‬
‫יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ְמדוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ֲעמֹד‬




‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪199‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫וַ יָּ ֳע ַמד‬ ‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫יַ ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ַא ֲע ִמ ָידה‬ ‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ַה ֲע ִ֫מ ִידי‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫ַה ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬ ‫ַה ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬ ‫ָה ֳע ֵמד‬ ‫ָה ֲע ִמיד‬ ‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ָמד‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ָמ ָדה‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ִמיד‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ִמ ָידה‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ָמ ִדים‬ ‫ָמ ֳע ָמדוֹת‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ִמ ִידים‬ ‫ַמ ֲע ִמידוֹת‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL (STATIVE‬‬ ‫)‪QAL (DYNAMIC‬‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ָע ֵמד‬ ‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֵא ָע ְמ ָדה‬ ‫וַ יֶּ ֱחזַ ק‬ ‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬ ‫ֶא ֶחזְ ָקה‬ ‫וַ יַּ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫יַ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫ֶא ֶע ְמ ָדה‬ ‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֲחזַ ק‬ ‫ֲעמֹד‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫ֵה ָע ְמ ִדי‬ ‫ִחזְ ִקי‬ ‫ִע ְמ ִדי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ֵה ָע ְמדוּ‬ ‫ִחזְ קוּ‬ ‫ִע ְמדוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ֵה ָע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬ ‫ֲח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬ ‫ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬ ‫ֵה ָעמֹד‬ ‫נַ ֲעמֹד‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ָמד‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ָמ ָדה‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬ ‫ֲחזַ ק‬ ‫ָחזוֹק‬ ‫ֲעמֹד‬ ‫ָעמוֹד‬ ‫ָחזֵ ק‬ ‫ֲחזֵ ָקה‬ ‫ע ֵֹמד‬ ‫ע ְֹמ ָדה‬ ‫ע ֶֹ֫מ ֶדת‬ ‫ֲחזֵ ִקים‬ ‫ֲחזֵ קוֹת‬ ‫ע ְֹמ ִדים‬ ‫ע ְֹמדוֹת‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ָמ ִדים‬ ‫נֶ ֱע ָמדוֹת‬ ‫‪I-Guttural‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫)‪ ‘bless’ (17.3‬בּרְך ‪ָ ‘slaughter’ and‬שׁ ַחט ‪2. II-Guttural Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫בּ ַֹרְך‬ ‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬ ‫בּ ְֹר ָכה‬ ‫ֵבּ ְר ָכה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֲח ָטה‬ ‫ָשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ָשׁ ֲח ָטה‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנוּ‬ ‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬ ‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ְתּ‬ ‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬ ‫בּ ְֹרכוּ‬ ‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ֶתּם‬ ‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ֶתּן‬ ‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכנוּ‬ ‫ֵבּ ַ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬ ‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ְתּ‬ ‫ֵבּ ַ ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬ ‫ֵבּ ְרכוּ‬ ‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ֶתּם‬ ‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ֶתּן‬ ‫ֵבּ ַ֫ר ְכנוּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ָתּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ְתּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ִתּי‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּם‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּן‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנוּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ָתּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַח ְט ְתּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ִתּי‬ ‫ָשׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּם‬ ‫ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּן‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנוּ‬ ‫‪II‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬ ‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬ ‫ֶא ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬ ‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫ְתּב ַֹרְך‬ ‫ְתּב ְֹר ִכי‬ ‫ֲאב ַֹרְך‬ ‫יְ ב ְֹרכוּ‬ ‫ְתּב ַֹ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּב ְֹרכוּ‬ ‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֲר ִכי‬ ‫ֲא ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫ָיְב ֲרכוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֲרכוּ‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֲח ִטי‬ ‫ֶא ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֲח ִטי‬ ‫ֶא ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּב ַֹ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫נִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫נְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫נְ ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫נִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ .

‬בּ ֵרְך‬ ‫נִ ְשׁחֹט‬ ‫ָשׁחוֹט‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֶ֫ר ֶכת‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֵרְך‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֲר ָכה‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֶ֫ר ֶכת‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָחט‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָח ָטה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֶ֫ח ֶטת‬ ‫ַשׁ ֵחט‬ ‫שׁ ֲֹח ָטה‬ ‫שׁ ֶֹ֫ח ֶטת‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֲר ִכים‬ ‫ְמ ָב ֲרכוֹת‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָח ִטים‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָחטוֹת‬ ‫שׁ ֲֹח ִטים‬ ‫שׁ ֲֹחטוֹת‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכים‬ ‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוֹת‬ ‫וַ יְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬ ‫ֲאב ֲֹר ָכה‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫ְמב ָֹרְך‬ ‫ְמב ָֹר ָכה‬ ‫ְמב ֶֹ֫ר ֶכת‬ ‫ְמב ָֹר ִכים‬ ‫ְמב ָֹרכוֹת‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪201‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ֶא ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫וַ יְ ָ֫ב ֶרְך‬ ‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬ ‫ֲא ָב ֲר ָכה‬ ‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ֶא ָשּׁ ֲח ָטה‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ֶא ְשׁ ֲח ָטה‬ ‫ְשׁ ַחט‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬ ‫ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֲח ִטי‬ ‫ַשׁ ֲח ִטי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬ ‫ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫ַשׁ ֲחטוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ָבּ ֵ ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬ ‫ְשׁחֹט‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬ ‫ָבּר ְֹך ‪ָ .

4‬שׁ ַלח ‪3.‬א ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫‪III‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬ ‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪202‬‬ ‫)‪ָ ‘send’ (17. III-Guttural Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ְל ָהה‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ְתּ‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬ ‫יח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יחה‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ִל ָ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ַחה‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬ ‫ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ֻשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ֻשּׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬ ‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ִתּי‬ ‫ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ֻשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ֻשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬ ‫ִשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ִשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬ ‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ִתּי‬ ‫ִשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ָשׁ ְל ָחה‬ ‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְה ִתּי‬ ‫ָשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬ ‫ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬ ‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬ ‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ָתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ָתּ ְשׁ ְל ִחי‬ ‫ָא ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יָ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ָתּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נָ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יח‬ ‫יַ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יח‬ ‫ַתּ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יחי‬ ‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ִל ִ‬ ‫יח‬ ‫ַא ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יַ ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫יח‬ ‫נַ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחי‬ ‫ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬ ‫ֲא ֻשׂ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נָ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ְשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬ ‫ֲא ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלה‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫שּׁל ִחי‬ ‫ִתּ ְ‬ ‫ֶא ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫שּׁלחוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְ‬ ‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְל ִחי‬ ‫‪ֶ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪203‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫וַ יָּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ָא ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬ ‫ָה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלח‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ָל ָחה‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ָל ִחים‬ ‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלחוֹת‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫וַ יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ֲא ֻשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יַ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יחה‬ ‫ַא ְשׁ ִל ָ‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫יחי‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ִל ִ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחי‬ ‫ַשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ַשּׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬ ‫יח‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫ֹלח‬ ‫ְשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬ ‫יח‬ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬ ‫יחה‬ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ָ‬ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬ ‫יחים‬ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ִ‬ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִליחוֹת‬ ‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ ‫נִ ְשֹׁלח‬ ‫לוֹח‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָלח‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָל ָחה‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬ ‫שׁ ֵֹל ַח‬ ‫שׁ ְֹל ָחה‬ ‫שׁ ֫ ַֹל ַחת‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּ ִחים‬ ‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּחוֹת‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָל ִחים‬ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָלחוֹת‬ ‫שׁ ְֹל ִחים‬ ‫שׁ ְֹלחוֹת‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחים‬ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוֹת‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּ ָחה‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּ ִחים‬ ‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּחוֹת‬ ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫ֲא ַשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬ ‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫ֶא ָשּׁ ְל ָחה‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫יִ ַשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ֶא ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬ ‫ְשׁ ַלח‬ ‫ִה ָשּׁ ְל ִחי‬ ‫ִשׁ ְל ִחי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ִשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

all other conjugations are as I-Guttural verbs. III-Alef Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ְצ ָאה‬ ‫את‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬ ‫ִה ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יאה‬ ‫ִה ְמ ִ֫צ ָ‬ ‫את‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬ ‫ִה ְמ ִ֫צאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫את‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬ ‫ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫ֻמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫את‬ ‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬ ‫ֻמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬ ‫ֻמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ֻמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ֻמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּא‬ ‫צּאה‬ ‫ִמ ָ‬ ‫את‬ ‫ִמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ִמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬ ‫ִמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬ ‫ִמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫נִ ְמ ְצ ָאה‬ ‫את‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬ ‫נִ ְמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬ ‫ָמ ָצא‬ ‫ָמ ְצ ָאה‬ ‫את‬ ‫ָמ ָ֫צ ָ‬ ‫ָמ ָצאתּ‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫ָמ ָ֫צ ִ‬ ‫ָמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫ְמ ָצ ֶ‬ ‫אתן‬ ‫ְמ ָצ ֶ‬ ‫ָמ ָ֫צאנוּ‬ ‫יֻמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ֻתּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ֻתּ ְמ ְצ ִאי‬ ‫ֻא ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יֻמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ֻתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ֻתּ ְמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫נֻ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יַמ ִציא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ַתּ ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יאי‬ ‫ַתּ ְמ ִ֫צ ִ‬ ‫ַא ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יַמ ִ֫ציאוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ַתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ְמ ִ֫ציאוּ‬ ‫נַ ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬ ‫ֶא ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יִ ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫נִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יְמ ָצּא‬ ‫ֻ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫ְתּ ֻמ ְצּ ִאי‬ ‫ֲא ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫יְמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫ֻ‬ ‫ְתּ ֻמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֻמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫נְ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫יְמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫ְתּ ַמּ ֵצּא‬ ‫ְתּ ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬ ‫ֲא ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יְמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫ְתּ ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫נְ ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יִמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫ִתּ ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ִתּ ָמּ ְצ ִאי‬ ‫ֶא ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫יִמּ ְצאוּ‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫ִתּ ָמּ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ָמּ ְצאוּ‬ ‫נִ ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫יִמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ִתּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ִתּ ְמ ְצ ִאי‬ ‫ֶא ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יִמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ִתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫‪III-Alef‬‬ ‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP/2FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪204‬‬ ‫)‪ָ ‘bake’) (19.‬א ָבה ’‪ָ ‘perish‬א ַבד ‪ָ ‘say’ (also‬א ַמר ‪4a. I-Alef Verb:‬‬ ‫‪*These five roots behave differently only in the Qal Imperfect and‬‬ ‫‪Past Narrative.2‬מ ָצא ‪4b. and‬א ַכל ‪ָ ‘be willing’.1‬א ָפה ‪ָ ‘eat’.‬‬ ‫‪PAST‬‬ ‫אמר‬ ‫וַ ֫יּ ֹ ֶ‬ ‫‪IMPF 1CS‬‬ ‫א ַֹמר‬ ‫‪IMPF 3MS‬‬ ‫אמר‬ ‫יֹ ַ‬ ‫‪I-Alef‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫)‪ָ ‘find’ (19.

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪205‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫וַ יֻּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יֻמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫וַ יַּ ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫יַמ ֵצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫יאה‬ ‫ַא ְמ ִצ ָ‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ֶא ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫וַ יְ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫יְמ ָצּא‬ ‫ֻ‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪III-ALEF‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫יְמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫ֲא ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫וַ יִּ ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫יִמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫ִא ָמּ ְצ ָאה‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫יִמ ָצא‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ֶא ְמ ְצ ָאה‬ ‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫ְמ ָצא‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫יאי‬ ‫ַה ְמ ִצ ִ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬ ‫ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ְצ ִאי‬ ‫ִמ ְצ ִאי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ַה ְמ ִציאוּ‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫ַמ ְצּאוּ‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ְצאוּ‬ ‫ִמ ְצאוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ַה ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬ ‫ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ֵ֫צאנָ ה‬ ‫ְמ ֫צ ֶאנָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ַה ְמ ִציא‬ ‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ַמצֹּא‬ ‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬ ‫נִ ְמצֹא‬ ‫ְמצֹא‬ ‫ָמצוֹא‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ָצ ָאה‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ִציא‬ ‫יאה‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ִצ ָ‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּא‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּ ָאה‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּא‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּאת‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצ ָאה‬ ‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬ ‫מ ֵֹצא‬ ‫מ ְֹצ ָאה‬ ‫מ ֵֹצאת‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ָצ ִאים‬ ‫ֻמ ְמ ָצאוֹת‬ ‫יאים‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ִצ ִ‬ ‫ַמ ְמ ִציאוֹת‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאים‬ ‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּאוֹת‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּ ִאים‬ ‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּאוֹת‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ְצּ ִאים‬ ‫ְמ ַמ ְצּאוֹת‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצ ִאים‬ ‫נִ ְמ ָצאוֹת‬ ‫מ ְֹצ ִאים‬ ‫מ ְֹצאוֹת‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‬נָ ַפל ‪5.‫‪206‬‬ ‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫)‪ ‘draw near’ (20. I-Nun Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻהגְּ ָשׁה‬ ‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬ ‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬ ‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ִתּי‬ ‫ֻהגְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫ֻהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬ ‫ֻהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬ ‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬ ‫ִהגִּ ישׁ‬ ‫ישׁה‬ ‫ִה ֫ ִגּ ָ‬ ‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬ ‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬ ‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ִתּי‬ ‫ִה ֫גּישׁוּ‬ ‫ִהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬ ‫ִהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬ ‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬ ‫יֻ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻתּגַּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻתּגְּ ִשׁי‬ ‫ֻאגַּ שׁ‬ ‫יֻ גְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫ֻתּגַּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ֻתּגְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫ֻתּגַּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נֻ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫יַ גִּ ישׁ‬ ‫ַתּגִּ ישׁ‬ ‫ישׁי‬ ‫ַתּ ֫ ִגּ ִ‬ ‫ַאגִּ ישׁ‬ ‫יַ ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ַתּ ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬ ‫ַתּ ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נַ גִּ ישׁ‬ ‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫נִ גְּ ָשׁה‬ ‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬ ‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׂ ְתּ‬ ‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׂ ִתּי‬ ‫נִ גְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫נִ גַּ ְשׂ ֶתּם‬ ‫נִ גַּ ְשׂ ֶתּן‬ ‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫נָ גַ שׁ‬ ‫נָ גְ ָשׁה‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ָתּ‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ְתּ‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ִתּי‬ ‫נָ גְ שׁוּ‬ ‫נְ גַ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬ ‫נְ גַ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁנוּ‬ ‫נָ ַפל‬ ‫נָ ְפ ָלה‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְל ָתּ‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְל ְתּ‬ ‫נָ ַפ ְל ִתּי‬ ‫נָ ְפלוּ‬ ‫נְ ַפ ְל ֶתּם‬ ‫נְ ַפ ְל ֶתּן‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְלנוּ‬ ‫‪I-NUN‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪PERF‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫ִתּנָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫ִתּנָּ גְ ִשׁי‬ ‫ֶאנָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫יִ נָּ גְ שׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּנָּ גְ שׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫יִ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫ִתּגַּ שׁ‬ ‫ִתּגְּ ִשׁי‬ ‫ֶאגַּ שׁ‬ ‫יִ גְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּגְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫יִ פֹּל‬ ‫ִתּפֹּל‬ ‫ִתּ ְפּ ִלי‬ ‫ֶאפֹּל‬ ‫יִ ְפּלוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫פּ ְֹלנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְפּלוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫פּ ְֹלנָ ה‬ ‫נִ פֹּל‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .1‬נָ גַ שׁ ‪ ‘fall’.

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪207‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫וַ יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫וַ יַּ גֵּ שׁ‬ ‫יַ גֵּ שׁ‬ ‫ישׁה‬ ‫ַא ֫ ִגּ ָ‬ ‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬ ‫ישׁי‬ ‫ַה ֫ ִגּ ִ‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫ַה ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬ ‫ַה ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻהגֵּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻמגָּ שׁ‬ ‫ֻמגָּ ָשׁה‬ ‫ֻמ ֫ ָגּ ֶשׁת‬ ‫ַהגִּ ישׁ‬ ‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬ ‫ַמגִּ ישׁ‬ ‫ישׁה‬ ‫ַמגִּ ָ‬ ‫ַמ ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬ ‫ֻמגָּ ִשׁים‬ ‫ֻמגָּ שׁוֹת‬ ‫ישׁים‬ ‫ַמגִּ ִ‬ ‫ישׁים‬ ‫ַמגִּ ִ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪I-NUN‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫וַ יִּ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫ֵאנָּ גְ ָשׁה‬ ‫וַ יִּ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫יִ גַּ שׁ‬ ‫ֶאגְּ ָשׁה‬ ‫וַ יִּ פֹּל‬ ‫יִ פֹּל‬ ‫ֶא ְפּ ָלה‬ ‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫גַּ שׁ‬ ‫נְ פֹל‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫ִהנָּ גְ ִשׁי‬ ‫גְּ ִשׁי‬ ‫נִ ְפ ִלי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ִהנָּ גְ שׁוּ‬ ‫גְּ שׁוּ‬ ‫נִ ְפלוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ִהנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נְ ֫פ ְֹלנָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬ ‫נִ גָּ שׁ‬ ‫נִ גָּ ָשׁה‬ ‫נִ ֫ ָגּ ֶשׁת‬ ‫֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬ ‫נָ גוֹשׁ‬ ‫נֹגֵ שׁ‬ ‫נֹגְ ָשׁה‬ ‫נ ֫ ֶֹג ֶשׁת‬ ‫נְ פֹל‬ ‫נָ פוֹל‬ ‫נ ֵֹפל‬ ‫נ ְֹפ ָלה‬ ‫נ ֫ ֶֹפ ֶלת‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫נִ גָּ ִשׁים‬ ‫נִ גָּ שׁוִ ת‬ ‫נֹגְ ִשׁים‬ ‫נֹגְ שׁוֹת‬ ‫נ ְֹפ ִלים‬ ‫נ ְֹפלוֹת‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪208‬‬ ‫)‪ ‘be good’ (21.’‪ ‘possess‬יָ ַרשׁ ‪ ‘sit’. I-Vav/Yod Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫ֵה ִ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫יט ָ‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫‬ ‫יט ְב ָתּ‬ ‫ֵה ַ֫‬ ‫יט ְב ְתּ‬ ‫ֵה ַ‬ ‫יט ְב ִתּי‬ ‫ֵה ַ֫‬ ‫יטיבוּ‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫‬ ‫יט ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫ֵה ַ‬ ‫יט ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫ֵה ַ‬ ‫יט ְבנוּ‬ ‫ֵה ַ֫‬ ‫יָ ַטב‬ ‫יָ ְט ָבה‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ט ְב ָתּ‬ ‫יָ ַט ְב ְתּ‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ט ְב ִתּי‬ ‫יָ ְטבוּ‬ ‫יְ ַט ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫יְ ַט ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ט ְבנוּ‬ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ָבה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְב ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְב ְתּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְב ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוּשׁבוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּשׁ ְבנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ָ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְב ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְב ְתּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְב ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁיבוּ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְבנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫יֵ ִ‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫ֵתּ ִ‬ ‫יבי‬ ‫יט ִ‬ ‫ֵתּ ִ֫‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫ֵא ִ‬ ‫יטיבוּ‬ ‫יֵ ִ֫‬ ‫יט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ֫‬ ‫יטיבוּ‬ ‫ֵתּ ִ֫‬ ‫יט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ֫‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫נֵ ִ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫יִ ַ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫ִתּ ַ‬ ‫יט ִבי‬ ‫ִתּ ְ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫ִא ַ‬ ‫יטבוּ‬ ‫יִ ְ‬ ‫יט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫‬ ‫יטבוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְ‬ ‫יט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫נִ ַ‬ ‫יוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּשׁ ִבי‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫אוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יוּשׁבוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫תּוּשׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫תּוּשׁבוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫תּוּשׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫תּוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫יבי‬ ‫תּוֹשׁ ִ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫אוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫יוֹשׁיבוּ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫תּוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫‬ ‫תּוֹשׁיבוּ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫תּוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫‬ ‫נוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫נוֹשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְב ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְב ְתּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְב ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נוֹשׁבוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ְבנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫יָ ַרשׁ‬ ‫יָ ְר ָשׁה‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁ ָתּ‬ ‫יָ ַר ְשׁ ְתּ‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁ ִתּי‬ ‫יָ ְרשׁוּ‬ ‫יְ ַר ְשׁ ֶתּם‬ ‫יְ ַר ְשׁ ֶתּן‬ ‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁנוּ‬ ‫יָ ַשׁב‬ ‫יָ ְשׁ ָבה‬ ‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְב ָתּ‬ ‫יָ ַשׁ ְב ְתּ‬ ‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְב ִתּי‬ ‫יָ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְבנוּ‬ ‫‪I-VAV/YOD‬‬ ‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ְשׁ ִבי‬ ‫ֶאוָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫יוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫נִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫יִ ַירשׁ‬ ‫ִתּ ַירשׁ‬ ‫ִתּ ְיר ִשׁי‬ ‫ִא ַירשׁ‬ ‫יִ ְירשׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫יר ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְירשׁוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫יר ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫נִ ַירשׁ‬ ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ֵתּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ֵתּ ְשׁ ִבי‬ ‫ֵא ֵשׁב‬ ‫יֵ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵתּ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫נֵ ֵשׁב‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .1‬יָ ַטב .‬יָ ַשׁב ‪6.

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪209‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫יּוּשׁב‬ ‫וַ ַ‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ֵטב‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫יֵ ֵ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫וַ יִּ ַ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫יִ ַ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫יט ָ‬ ‫ֵא ִ֫‬ ‫יט ָבה‬ ‫ִא ְ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫אוֹשׁ ָ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫ֵה ֵ‬ ‫יְ ַטב‬ ‫הוֹשׁב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫יבי‬ ‫יט ִ‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫‬ ‫יִ ְט ִבי‬ ‫יבי‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ִ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫יטיבוּ‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫‬ ‫יִ ְטבוּ‬ ‫הוֹשׁיבוּ‬ ‫ִ֫‬ ‫יט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵה ֵ֫‬ ‫יְ ַ֫ט ְבנָ ה‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫‬ ‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪I-VAV/YOD‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫וַ ֫י ֹ ֶשׁב‬ ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫וַ יִּ ַרשׁ‬ ‫יִ ַירשׁ‬ ‫וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶשׁב‬ ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫ֶאוָּ ְשׁ ָבה‬ ‫ִא ְיר ָשׁה‬ ‫ֵא ְשׁ ָבה‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ֵרשׁ‬ ‫ֵשׁב‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫ִהוָּ ְשׁ ִבי‬ ‫ְר ִשׁי‬ ‫ְשׁ ִבי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ִהוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫ְרשׁוּ‬ ‫ְשׁבוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ִהוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ַ֫ר ְשׁנָ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬ ‫נוֹשׁב‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ֶבת‬ ‫ֶ֫‬ ‫ֶ֫ר ֶשׁת‬ ‫יָ רוֹשׁ‬ ‫י ֵֹרשׁ‬ ‫י ְֹר ָשׁה‬ ‫י ֶֹ֫ר ֶשׁת‬ ‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬ ‫יָ שׁוֹב‬ ‫י ֵֹשׁב‬ ‫י ְֹשׁ ָבה‬ ‫י ֶֹ֫שׁ ֶבת‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ִבים‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫נוֹשׁבוֹת‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫י ְֹר ִשׁים‬ ‫י ְֹרשׁוֹת‬ ‫י ְֹשׁ ִבים‬ ‫י ְֹשׁבוֹת‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫ֵה ִ‬ ‫יטב‬ ‫ֵה ֵ‬ ‫יטיב‬ ‫ֵמ ִ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫יט ָ‬ ‫ֵמ ִ‬ ‫יט ֶבת‬ ‫ֵמ ֶ֫‬ ‫יְ טֹב‬ ‫יָ טוֹב‬ ‫י ֵֹטב‬ ‫י ְֹט ָבה‬ ‫י ֶֹ֫ט ֶבת‬ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫מוּשׁב‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּשׁ ָבה‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּשׁ ֶבת‬ ‫ֶ֫‬ ‫הוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫הוֹשׁב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫מוֹשׁיב‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫יבה‬ ‫מוֹשׁ ָ‬ ‫ִ‬ ‫מוֹשׁ ֶבת‬ ‫ֶ֫‬ ‫יבים‬ ‫יט ִ‬ ‫ֵמ ִ‬ ‫יטיבוֹת‬ ‫ֵמ ִ‬ ‫י ְֹט ִבים‬ ‫י ְֹטבוֹת‬ ‫מוּשׁ ִבים‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫מוּשׁבוֹת‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫מוֹשׁ ִבים‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫מוֹשׁבוֹת‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫‪G‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪210‬‬ ‫)‪ ‘reveal’ (22.1‬גָּ ָלה ‪7. III-He Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫ָהגְ ָלה‬ ‫ָהגְ ְל ָתה‬ ‫ית‬ ‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵל ָ‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵלית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵל ִ‬ ‫ָהגְ לוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵל ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵל ֶ‬ ‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵלינוּ‬ ‫ִהגְ ָלה‬ ‫ִהגְ ְל ָתה‬ ‫ית‬ ‫ִהגְ ֫ ִל ָ‬ ‫ִהגְ ִלית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫ִהגְ ֫ ִל ִ‬ ‫ִהגְ לוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫ִהגְ ִל ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫ִהגְ ִל ֶ‬ ‫ִהגְ ֫ ִלינוּ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ָלּה‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ְלּ ָתה‬ ‫יתּ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּ ְ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּ ִ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּ ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּ ֶ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּינוּ‬ ‫גֻּ ָלה‬ ‫גֻּ ְלּ ָתה‬ ‫ית‬ ‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּ ָ‬ ‫גֻּ ֵלּית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּ ִ‬ ‫גֻּ לּוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫גֻּ ֵלּ ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫גֻּ ֵלּ ֶ‬ ‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּינוּ‬ ‫גִּ ָלּה‬ ‫גִּ ְלּ ָתה‬ ‫ית‬ ‫גִּ ֫ ִלּ ָ‬ ‫גִּ ִלּית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫גִּ ֫ ִלּ ִ‬ ‫גִּ לּוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫גִּ ִלּ ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫גִּ ִלּ ֶ‬ ‫גִּ ֫ ִלּינוּ‬ ‫נִ גְ ָלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ְל ָתה‬ ‫ית‬ ‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵל ָ‬ ‫נִ גְ ֵלית‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵל ִ‬ ‫נִ גְ לוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫נִ גְ ֵל ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫נִ גְ ֵל ֶ‬ ‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵלינוּ‬ ‫גָּ ָלה‬ ‫גּל ָתה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫ית‬ ‫גָּ ֫ ִל ָ‬ ‫ית‬ ‫גָּ ִל ְ‬ ‫יתי‬ ‫גָּ ֫ ִל ִ‬ ‫גָּ לוּ‬ ‫יתם‬ ‫גְּ ִל ֶ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫גְּ ִל ֶ‬ ‫גָּ ֫ ִלינוּ‬ ‫יָ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫ָתּגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ָתּגְ ִלי‬ ‫ָאגְ ֶלה‬ ‫יָ גְ לוּ‬ ‫ָתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫ָתּגְ לוּ‬ ‫ָתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫נָ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫יַ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫ַתּגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ַתּגְ ִלי‬ ‫ַאגְ ֶלה‬ ‫יַ גְ לוּ‬ ‫ַתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫ַתּגְ לוּ‬ ‫ַתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫נַ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫יִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫ִתּ ְתגְּ ִלּי‬ ‫ִא ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫יִ ַתגְּ לּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְתגַּ לּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫נִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫יְ גֻ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְתּגֻ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְתּגֻ ִלּי‬ ‫ֲאגֻ ֶלּה‬ ‫יְ גֻ לּוּ‬ ‫ְתּגֻ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּגֻ לּוּ‬ ‫ְתּגֻ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫נְ גֻ ֶלּה‬ ‫יְ גַ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְתּגַ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְתּגַ ִלּי‬ ‫ֲאגַ ֶלּה‬ ‫יְ גַ לּוּ‬ ‫ְתּגַ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּגַ לּוּ‬ ‫ְתּגַ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫נְ גַ ֶלּה‬ ‫יִ גָּ ֶלה‬ ‫ִתּגָּ ֶלה‬ ‫ִתּגָּ ִלי‬ ‫ֶאגָּ ֶלה‬ ‫יִ גָּ לוּ‬ ‫ִתּגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּגָּ לּוּ‬ ‫ִתּגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫נִ גָּ ֶלה‬ ‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫ִתּגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ִתּגְ ִלי‬ ‫ֶאגְ ֶלה‬ ‫יִ גְ לוּ‬ ‫ִתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּגְ לוּ‬ ‫ִתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫‪III-He‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪PERF‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪211‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬ ‫ָהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫ָמגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ָמגְ ָלה‬ ‫ָמגְ ִלים‬ ‫ָמגְ לוֹת‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪HITPAEL‬‬ ‫‪PUAL‬‬ ‫‪PIEL‬‬ ‫‪QAL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪III-HE‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫וַ ֶ֫יּגֶ ל‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְתגַּ ל‬ ‫וַ יְ גַ ל‬ ‫וַ יִּ גָּ ל‬ ‫וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬ ‫ֶ֫יגֶ ל‬ ‫יִ ְתגַּ ל‬ ‫יְ גַ ל‬ ‫יִ גָּ ל‬ ‫ִ֫יגֶ ל‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪NO DISTINCT 1CS JUSSIVE FORM – IDENTICAL WITH 1CS IMPERFECT‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֵלּה‬ ‫גַּ ֵלּה‬ ‫ִהגָּ ֵלה‬ ‫גְּ ֵלה‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫ַהגְ ִלי‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּי‬ ‫גַּ ִלּי‬ ‫ִהגָּ ִלי‬ ‫גְּ ִלי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ַהגְ לוּ‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוּ‬ ‫גַּ לּוּ‬ ‫ִהגָּ לוּ‬ ‫גְּ לוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ַהגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫גַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫ִהגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫גְּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬ ‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬ ‫ַמגְ ֶלה‬ ‫ַמגְ ָלה‬ ‫ַמגְ ִלים‬ ‫ַמגְ לוֹת‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬ ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֹּלה‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ ָלּה‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ ִלּים‬ ‫ִמ ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬ ‫גַּ לּוֹת‬ ‫גַּ ֹּלה‬ ‫ְמגַ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְמגַ ָלּה‬ ‫ְמגַ ִלּים‬ ‫ְמגַ לּוֹת‬ ‫ִהגָּ לוֹת‬ ‫נִ גְ ֹלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ָלה‬ ‫נִ גְ ִלים‬ ‫נִ גְ לוֹת‬ ‫גְּ לוֹת‬ ‫גָּ ֹלה‬ ‫גּ ֶֹלה‬ ‫גּ ָֹלה‬ ‫גּ ִֹלים‬ ‫גֹּלוֹת‬ ‫גֻּ לּוֹת‬ ‫גֻּ ֹּלה‬ ‫ְמגֻּ ֶלּה‬ ‫ְמגֻּ ָלּה‬ ‫ְמגֻ ִלּים‬ ‫ְמגֻ לּוֹת‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪212‬‬ ‫)‪ִ ‘set’ (23.‬מוּת ‪ ‘arise’.1‬שׂים ‪ ‘die’.‬קוּם ‪8. II-Vav/Yod Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪POLEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL II-YOD‬‬ ‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬ ‫‪QAL II-VAV‬‬ ‫הוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּק ָמה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫הוּק ְמ ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוּק ְמ ְתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוּק ְמ ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫הוּקמוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫הוּק ְמ ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּק ְמ ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּק ְמנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫ֵה ִקים‬ ‫ימה‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫ק ָ‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫ימ ָ‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֫‬ ‫ימוֹת‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֫‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫ימ ִ‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֫‬ ‫ֵה ִ֫קימוּ‬ ‫ימוֹתם‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֶ‬ ‫ימוֹתן‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֶ‬ ‫ימוֹנוּ‬ ‫ֲה ִק ֫‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמ ָמה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמ ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמ ְתּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמ ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫קוֹממוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמ ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמ ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נָ ֽקוֹם‬ ‫וֹמה‬ ‫נָ ֫ק ָ‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫קוּמ ָ‬ ‫נְ ֫‬ ‫נְ קוּמוֹת‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫קוּמ ִ‬ ‫נְ ֫‬ ‫נָ ֫קוֹמוּ‬ ‫קוּמוֹתם‬ ‫ֶ‬ ‫נְ‬ ‫קוּמוֹתן‬ ‫ֶ‬ ‫נְ‬ ‫קוּמוֹנוּ‬ ‫נְ ֫‬ ‫ָשׂם‬ ‫ָ֫שׂ ָמה‬ ‫ַ֫שׂ ְמ ָתּ‬ ‫ַשׂ ְמ ְתּ‬ ‫ַ֫שׂ ְמ ִתּי‬ ‫ָ֫שׂמוּ‬ ‫ַשׂ ְמ ֶתּם‬ ‫ַשׂ ְמ ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ֫שׂ ְמנוּ‬ ‫ֵמת‬ ‫ֵ֫מ ָתה‬ ‫ַ֫מ ָתּה‬ ‫ַמ ְתּ‬ ‫ַ֫מ ִתּי‬ ‫ֵ֫מתוּ‬ ‫ַמ ֶתּם‬ ‫ַמ ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ֫מ ְתנוּ‬ ‫ָקם‬ ‫ָ ֫ק ָמה‬ ‫ַ ֫ק ְמ ָתּ‬ ‫ַק ְמ ְתּ‬ ‫ַ ֫ק ְמ ִתּי‬ ‫ָ ֫קמוּ‬ ‫ַק ְמ ֶתּם‬ ‫ַק ְמ ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ ֫ק ְמנוּ‬ ‫יוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּק ִמי‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫אוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יוּקמוּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יָ ִקים‬ ‫ָתּ ִקים‬ ‫ימי‬ ‫ָתּ ִ֫ק ִ‬ ‫ָא ִקים‬ ‫ימוּ‬ ‫יָ ִ֫ק ִ‬ ‫ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ימנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ִק ֶ֫‬ ‫ימוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ִ֫ק ִ‬ ‫ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ימנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ִק ֶ֫‬ ‫נָ ִקים‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫יְ ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמ ִמי‬ ‫ְתּ ֲ‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ֲא ֵ‬ ‫קוֹממוּ‬ ‫יְ ֲ‬ ‫יִ קּוֹם‬ ‫ִתּקּוֹם‬ ‫וֹמי‬ ‫ִתּ ֫קּ ִ‬ ‫ֶאקּוֹם‬ ‫יִ ֫קּוֹמוּ‬ ‫יָ ִשׂים‬ ‫ָתּ ִשׂים‬ ‫ימי‬ ‫ָתּ ִ֫שׂ ִ‬ ‫ָא ִשׂים‬ ‫יָ ִ֫שׂימוּ‬ ‫יָמוּת‬ ‫ָתּמוּת‬ ‫וּתי‬ ‫ָתּ ֫מ ִ‬ ‫ָאמוּת‬ ‫יָמוּתוּ‬ ‫֫‬ ‫יָ קוּם‬ ‫ָתּקוּם‬ ‫וּמי‬ ‫ָתּ ֫ק ִ‬ ‫ָאקוּם‬ ‫יָ ֫קוּמוּ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬ ‫וֹמנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ֫קּ ְ‬ ‫ימינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ִשׂ ֶ֫‬ ‫מוּתינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬ ‫קוּמינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬ ‫קוֹממוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ֲ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫קּוֹמוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ִ֫שׂימוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ֫מוּתוּ‬ ‫ָתּ ֫קוּמוּ‬ ‫קוֹמ ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬ ‫וֹמנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ֫קּ ְ‬ ‫ימינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ִשׂ ֶ֫‬ ‫מוּתינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬ ‫קוּמינָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫נְ ֵ‬ ‫נִ קּוֹם‬ ‫נָ ִשׂים‬ ‫נָ מוּת‬ ‫נָ קוּם‬ ‫תּוּק ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫תּוּקמוּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּק ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫‪II-Vav/Yod‬‬ ‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪213‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL II-YOD‬‬ ‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶקם‬ ‫יָ ֵקם‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫וַ יְ ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫יְ ֵ‬ ‫וַ יִּ קּוֹם‬ ‫יִ קּוֹם‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬ ‫יָ ֵשׂם‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָמת‬ ‫יָ מֹת‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם‬ ‫יָ קֹם‬ ‫ימה‬ ‫ָא ִ֫ק ָ‬ ‫קוֹמ ָמה‬ ‫ֲא ֲ‬ ‫וֹמה‬ ‫ֶא ֫קּ ָ‬ ‫ימה‬ ‫ָא ִ֫שׂ ָ‬ ‫וּתה‬ ‫ָא ֫מ ָ‬ ‫וּמה‬ ‫ָא ֫ק ָ‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫ָה ֵקם‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫ִשׂים‬ ‫מוּת‬ ‫קוּם‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫ימי‬ ‫ָה ִ֫ק ִ‬ ‫קוֹמ ִמי‬ ‫ֲ‬ ‫וֹמי‬ ‫ִה ֫קּ ִ‬ ‫ימי‬ ‫ִ֫שׂ ִ‬ ‫וּתי‬ ‫֫מ ִ‬ ‫וּמי‬ ‫֫ק ִ‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ָה ִ֫קימוּ‬ ‫קוֹממוּ‬ ‫ֲ‬ ‫ִה ֫קּוֹמוּ‬ ‫ִ֫שׂימוּ‬ ‫֫מוּתוּ‬ ‫֫קוּמוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫הוּקם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּקם‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫ָה ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ָה ִקים‬ ‫ָה ֵקם‬ ‫ֵקו ֵֹ֫מ ְמנָ ה‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫וֹמנָ ה‬ ‫ִה ֫קּ ְ‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫ִהקּוֹם‬ ‫ֵ֫שׂ ְמנָ ה‬ ‫ִשׂים‬ ‫שׂוֹם‬ ‫֫מ ְֹתנָ ה‬ ‫מוּת‬ ‫מוֹת‬ ‫֫ק ְֹמנָ ה‬ ‫קוּם‬ ‫קוֹם‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫מוּקם‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּק ָמה‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּק ִמים‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּקמוֹת‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫ֵמ ִקים‬ ‫ימה‬ ‫ְמ ִק ָ‬ ‫ימים‬ ‫ְמ ִק ִ‬ ‫ְמ ִקימוֹת‬ ‫קוֹמם‬ ‫ְמ ֵ‬ ‫קוֹמ ָמה‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫קוֹמ ִמים‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫קוֹממוֹת‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫נָ קוֹם‬ ‫קוֹמה‬ ‫נְ ָ‬ ‫קּוֹמים‬ ‫נְ ִ‬ ‫נְ קוֹמוֹת‬ ‫ָשׂם‬ ‫ָשׂ ָמה‬ ‫ָשׂ ִמים‬ ‫ָשׂמוֹת‬ ‫ֵמת‬ ‫ֵמ ָתה‬ ‫ֵמ ִתים‬ ‫ֵמתוֹת‬ ‫ָקם‬ ‫ָק ָמה‬ ‫ָק ִמים‬ ‫ָקמוֹת‬ ‫יּוּקם‬ ‫וַ ַ‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪POLEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL II-VAV‬‬ ‫‪II-VAV/YOD‬‬ ‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪214‬‬ ‫)‪ַ ‘be slight’ (24. II-III Verb:‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪POEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬ ‫‪QAL DYNAMIC‬‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּס ָבּה‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫הוּס ֫בּ ָ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּסבּוֹת‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫הוּס ֫בּ ִ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּסבּוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫בּוֹתם‬ ‫הוּס ֶ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫בּוֹתן‬ ‫הוּס ֶ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫ֵה ֵסב‬ ‫ֵה ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ ָ‬ ‫ֲה ִסבּוֹת‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ ִ‬ ‫ֵה ֵ֫סבּוּ‬ ‫בּוֹתּם‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֶ‬ ‫בּוֹתן‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֶ‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫סוֹב ְב ָתּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫סוֹב ְב ְתּ‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫סוֹב ְב ִתּי‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫סוֹבבוּ‬ ‫ְ‬ ‫סוֹב ְב ֶתּם‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫סוֹב ְב ֶתּן‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫סוֹב ְבנוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫נָ ַסב‬ ‫נָ ַ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫נְ ַס ֫בּ ָ‬ ‫נְ ַסבּוֹת‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫נְ ַס ֫בּ ִ‬ ‫נָ ַ֫סבּוּ‬ ‫בּוֹתם‬ ‫נְ ַס ֶ‬ ‫בּוֹתן‬ ‫נְ ַס ֶ‬ ‫נְ ַס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬ ‫ַקל‬ ‫ַ ֫ק ָלּה‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫ַק ֫לּ ָ‬ ‫ַקלּוֹת‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫ַק ֫לּ ִ‬ ‫ַ ֫קלּוּ‬ ‫לּוֹתם‬ ‫ַק ֶ‬ ‫לּוֹתן‬ ‫ַק ֶ‬ ‫ַק ֫לּוֹנוּ‬ ‫ָס ַבב ‪ָ /‬סב‬ ‫ַ֫ס ָבּה ‪ָ /‬ס ְב ָבה‬ ‫וֹת‬ ‫ַס ֫בּ ָ‬ ‫ַסבּוֹת‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ‫ַס ֫בּ ִ‬ ‫ַ֫סבּוּ ‪ָ /‬ס ְבבוּ‬ ‫בּוֹתם‬ ‫ַס ֶ‬ ‫בּוֹתן‬ ‫ַס ֶ‬ ‫ַס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬ ‫יוּסב ‪ /‬יֻ ַסּב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּס ִבּי‬ ‫֫‬ ‫אוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יוּסבּוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫תוּס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫תּוּסבּוּ‬ ‫ַ֫‬ ‫תוּס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫נוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫יָ ֵסב‬ ‫ָתּ ֵסב‬ ‫ָתּ ֵ֫ס ִבּי‬ ‫ָא ֵסב‬ ‫יָ ֵ֫סבּוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ָתּ ֵ֫סבּוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫נָ ֵסב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫יְ ֵ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ‬ ‫סוֹב ִבי‬ ‫ְתּ ְ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ֲא ֵ‬ ‫סוֹבבוּ‬ ‫יְ ְ‬ ‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬ ‫סוֹבבוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ְ‬ ‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫נְ ֵ‬ ‫יִ ַסּב‬ ‫ִתּ ַסּב‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫סּ ִבּי‬ ‫ֶא ַסּב‬ ‫יִ ַ֫סּבּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ַ֫סּבּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫נִ ַסּב‬ ‫יֵ ַקל‬ ‫ֵתּ ַקל‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ ֫ק ִלי‬ ‫ֵא ַקל‬ ‫יֵ ַ ֫קלּוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַק ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫ֵתּ ַ ֫קלּוּ‬ ‫ְתּ ַק ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬ ‫נֵ ַקל‬ ‫יִ סֹּב‪ /‬יָ סֹב‬ ‫ִתּסֹּב ‪ָ /‬תּסֹב‬ ‫ִתּ ְסּ ִבי ‪ָ /‬תּ ֫סֹ ִבּי‬ ‫ֶאסֹּב ‪ָ /‬אסֹב‬ ‫יִ ְסּבוּ ‪ /‬יָ ֫סֹבּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫סֹּ ְבנָ ה ‪ְ /‬תּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְסּבוּ‪ָ /‬תּ ֫סֹבּוּ‬ ‫ִתּ ֫סֹּ ְבנָ ה ‪ְ /‬תּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫נִ סֹּב ‪ /‬נָ סֹב‬ ‫‪II-III‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪PERF‬‬ ‫‪3FS‬‬ ‫‪2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3CP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪IMPF‬‬ ‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬ ‫‪2FS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪3MP‬‬ ‫‪3FP‬‬ ‫‪2MP‬‬ ‫‪2FP‬‬ ‫‪1CP‬‬ .‬ס ַבב ‪9.1‬קל ‪ָ ‘surround’.

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬ ‫‪215‬‬ ‫‪HOFAL‬‬ ‫יּוּסב‬ ‫וַּ ַ‬ ‫יוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫הוּסב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫מוּסב‬ ‫ָ‬ ‫מוּס ָבּה‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫מוּס ִבּים‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫מוּסבּוֹת‬ ‫ַ‬ ‫‪HIFIL‬‬ ‫‪POEL‬‬ ‫‪NIFAL‬‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶסב‬ ‫יָ ֵסב‬ ‫ָא ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫וַ יְ ֵ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫יְ ֵ‬ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ‫ֲא ְ‬ ‫וַ יִּ ַסּב‬ ‫יִ ַסּב‬ ‫ֶא ַ֫סּ ָבּה‬ ‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬ ‫וַ יֵּ ַקל‬ ‫יֵ ַקל‬ ‫ֵא ַ ֫ק ָלּה‬ ‫‪QAL DYNAMIC‬‬ ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָסב‬ ‫יָ סֹב‬ ‫ָא ֫סֹ ָבּה‬ ‫‪II-III‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫‪3MS‬‬ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫ִה ַסּב‬ ‫סֹב‬ ‫ָה ֵ֫ס ִבּי‬ ‫סוֹב ִבי‬ ‫ֲ‬ ‫ִה ַ֫סּ ִבּי‬ ‫֫סֹ ִבּי‬ ‫‪FS‬‬ ‫ָה ֵ֫סבּוּ‬ ‫סוֹבבוּ‬ ‫ֲ‬ ‫ִה ַ֫סּבּוּ‬ ‫֫סֹבּוּ‬ ‫‪MP‬‬ ‫ֲה ִס ֶ֫יבּנָ ה‬ ‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫‬ ‫ִה ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬ ‫‪FP‬‬ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ ‫ָה ֵסב‬ ‫ֵמ ֵסב‬ ‫ְמ ִס ָבּה‬ ‫ְמ ִס ִבּים‬ ‫ְמ ִסבּוֹת‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ֵ‬ ‫סוֹבב‬ ‫ְמ ֵ‬ ‫סוֹב ָבה‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫סוֹב ִבים‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫סוֹבבוֹת‬ ‫ְמ ְ‬ ‫ִה ַסּב‬ ‫ִהסּוֹב‬ ‫נָ ָסב‬ ‫נְ ַס ָבּה‬ ‫נְ ַס ִבּים‬ ‫נְ ַסבּוֹת‬ ‫קֹל‬ ‫ָקלוֹל‬ ‫ַקל‬ ‫ַק ָלּה‬ ‫ַק ִלּים‬ ‫ַקלּוֹת‬ ‫‪JUSS‬‬ ‫‪1CS‬‬ ‫‪MS‬‬ ‫סֹב‬ ‫ָסבוֹב‬ ‫ס ֵֹבב‬ ‫ס ְֹב ָבה‬ ‫ס ְֹב ִבים‬ ‫ס ְֹבבוֹת‬ ‫‪PAST‬‬ ‫‪IMV‬‬ ‫‪INF CST‬‬ ‫‪INF ABS‬‬ ‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬ ‫‪FSA‬‬ ‫‪MPA‬‬ ‫‪FPA‬‬ .

‫‘ ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬20’ ‫לוֹשׁים וְ ֶא ָחד‬ ִ ‫‘ ְשׁ‬31’ ‫‘ ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים וְ ָח ֵמשׁ‬45’ • 100s are based on ‘100’ (FSA ‫. single integers are conjoined with vav. ‫י־אנָ ִשׁים ~ ְשׁנַ יִ ם ֲאנָ ִשׁים ~ ֲאנָ ִשׁים ְשׁנַ יִ ם‬ ֲ ֵ‫‘ ְשׁנ‬two men’ • 3-10 (unlike 1 and 2) take the opposite gender form to the noun they modify.מ ָאה‬ ֵ FSC ‫. • Certain nouns appear in the singular even with numerically plural modifiers: ‫‘ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר ָשׁנָ ה‬11 year(s)’ ‫‘ ‌ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר יוֹם‬11 day(s)’ ‫‘ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר ִאישׁ‬11 man (men)’ . • 2-10 are nouns which can be in apposition (any order) or construct with a noun. etc.מ ַאת‬ ְ P ‫)מאוֹת‬ ֵ ‫אתיִ ם‬ ַ֫ ‫( ָמ‬DU) ‘200’ ‫ֹלשׁ־מאוֹת‬ ֵ ‫‘ ָשׁ‬300’.ע ָשׂר‬ ָ F ‫)ע ְשׂ ֵרה‬. ‫לוֹשׁה ָבּנִ ים‬ ָ ‫‘ ְשׁ‬three sons’ and ‫‘ ָשׁלוֹשׁ ָבּנוֹת‬three daughters’ (contrast ‫‘ ֶבּן ֶא ָחד‬one son’ and ‫‘ ַבּת ַא ַחת‬one daughter’) 11-19 are constructed of the numerals 1-9 followed by 10 (M ‫. and agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies. ֶ They agree in gender with the noun they modify (like 1 and 2).216 Appendix D Numerals Cardinals Masculine Absolute 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ‫ֶא ָחד‬ ‫ְשׁ ֫ ַניִם‬ ‫ֹלשׁה‬ ָ ‫ְשׁ‬ ‫רבּ ָעה‬ ָ ‫ַא‬ ‫ֲח ִמ ָשּׁה‬ ‫ִשׁ ָשּׁה‬ ‫ִשׁ ְב ָעה‬ ‫ְשׁמֹנָ ה‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ָעה‬ ‫ֲע ָשׂ ָרה‬ Construct ‫ַא ַחד‬ ‫ְשׁנֵ י‬ ‫ְשׁ ֹ֫ל ֶשׁת‬ ‫ַא ְר ַ֫בּ ַעת‬ ‫ֲח ֵ֫מ ֶשׁת‬ ‫ֵ֫שׁ ֶשׁת‬ ‫ִשׁ ְב ַעת‬ ‫ְשׁמֹנַ ת‬ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַעת‬ ‫ֲע ֶ֫שׂ ֶרת‬ Ordinals Feminine Absolute ‫ַא ַחת‬ ‫ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִם‬ ‫ָשֹׁלשׁ‬ ‫ַא ְר ַבּע‬ ‫ָח ֵמשׁ‬ ‫ֵשׁשׁ‬ ‫ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬ ‫ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬ ‫ֵ֫תּ ַשׁע‬ ‫֫ ֶע ֶשׂר‬ Construct ‫ַא ַחת‬ ‫ְשׁ ֵתּי‬ ‫ְשֹׁלשׁ‬ ‫ַא ְר ַבּע‬ ‫ֲח ֵמשׁ‬ ‫ֵשׁשׁ‬ ‫ְשׁ ַבע‬ ‫ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁע‬ ‫֫ ֶע ֶשׂר‬ 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th Masculine Feminine ‫ִראשׁוֹן‬ ‫ֵשׁנִ י‬ ‫ישׁי‬ ִ ‫ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫יעי‬ ִ ‫ְר ִב‬ ‫ישׁי‬ ִ ‫ֲח ִמ‬ ‫ִשׁ ִשּׁי‬ ‫יעי‬ ִ ‫ְשׁ ִב‬ ‫ְשׁ ִמינִ י‬ ‫יעי‬ ִ ‫ְתּ ִשׁ‬ ‫ֲע ִשׂ ִירי‬ ‫ִראשׁוֹנָ ה‬ ‫ֵשׁנִ ית‬ ‫ישׁית‬ ִ ‫ְשׁ ִל‬ ‫יעית‬ ִ ‫ְר ִב‬ ‫ישׁית‬ ִ ‫ֲח ִמ‬ ‫ִשׁ ִשּׁית‬ ‫יעית‬ ִ ‫ְשׁ ִב‬ ‫ְשׁ ִמינִ ית‬ ‫יעית‬ ִ ‫ְתּ ִשׁ‬ ‫ֲע ִשׂ ִירית‬ • 1 is an adjective. Note: there are alternate forms for 11 and 12 ‫‘ ַע ְשׁ ֵתּי ָע ָשׂר ~ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר‬11’ ‫‘ ְשׁנֵ י ָע ָשׂר ~ ְשׁנֵ ים ָע ָשׂר‬12’ • 20-90 are the plural forms of 2-9.

LEVEL ONE Silluq ֽ Atnah ֑ ‫( ִסילוּֽ ק׃‬always with sof pasuq ‫)סוֹף ָפּסוּק׃‬ ‫ַא ְת ָנ֑ח‬ LEVEL TWO Segolta ֒ Zaqef Qatan ֔ Zaqef Gadol ֕ Tifha ֖ ‫א‬ ֒ ‫( ְסג ְֹל ָת‬postpositive) ‫זָ ֵקף ָק ָ֔טן‬ ‫( זָ ֵקף גָּ ֕דוֹל‬variant of zaqef qatan) ‫ִט ְפ ָ ֖חא‬ LEVEL THREE Revia ֗ Pashta ֙ Tevir ֛ ‫יע‬ ַ ‫ְר ִ֗ב‬ ֨ ‫( ַפּ ְשׁ ָתּא‬postpositive) ‫ְתּ ִבי֛ ר‬ . —The voice of one crying out inthe wilderness: ”Prepare the way of the Lord. make his paths straight. a group of scholars responsible for the preservation of the Hebrew Bible as well as the addition of accents and vowels.). as illustrated by Isaiah 40:3. Job. The accents are categorized as disjunctive —those which make a sense break with what follows—and conjunctive—those that make a sense connection with what follows. In addition.217 Appendix E Masoretic Accents ‫ְט ָע ִמים‬ ‫ט ָע ִמים‬.“ (Isa 40:3.E. make straight in the desert a highway for our God. NRSV) There are 27 accents used by twenty-one books of the Hebrew Bible as well as a variant 21 accents used exclusively in Psalms. the disjunctive accents are of different “levels” depending on the “strength” of their disjunction. ְ or accents. the prepositional phrase is part of the crier‘s statement. informs the reader both where to place word stress and how to phrase groups of words. immediately preceding certain disjunctive accents. NRSV) Compare: This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke when he said. followed by the New Testament. ‫אֹלהינוּ׃‬ ֽ ֵ ‫רוּ ָבּ ֲע ָר ָ֔בה ְמ ִס ָלּ֖ה ֵל‬ ֙ ‫הו֑ה יַ ְשּׁ‬ ָ ְ‫קוֹרא ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ֕בּר ַפּנּ֖ וּ ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך י‬ ֔ ֵ ‫֣קוֹל‬ A voice cries out: —In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD. Knowing the accents. but the Septuagint. If the division of the verse by the accents are observed. In addition. and Proverbs. Listed below are the accents of the first three disjunctive levels as well as the two most common conjunctive accents which function as servi (“servants”). 500-1000 C. therefore.‘“ (Matt 3:3. The accents serve to break up the text into “sense” units so that when the text is read or chanted. accents can also be of consequence for interpretation. Level 1 accents make the greatest disjunction. were added to the Bible by the Masoretes (ca. a pause (or breath) is taken in a logical place. treats the prepositional phrase as indicating the location of the crier.

and pashta) Merka ֥ ‫( ֵמ ְר ָ ֥כא‬servi for silluq. etc. tifha. and tevir) Verse divisions by the accents can be understood as operating on a continuous dichotomy: the strongest disjunctive divides the verse in half. revia. zaqef.Appendix E: Masoretic Accents 218 Note: If two of the same disjunctive accents appear within one clause. Genesis 1:1-2 ‫ים | ֵ ֥את ַה ָשּׁ ַ ֖מיִ ם‌ ‌|| וְ ֵ ֥את ָה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ‌ ‫ֹלה‬ ֑ ִ ‫אשׁית ‌|| ָבּ ָ ֣רא ֱא‬ ֖ ִ ‫ ְבּ ֵר‬1:1 | ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֣י ְת ֑הוֹם‬ ְ ‫הוּ ||| וָ ֔בֹהוּ || וְ ֖ח ֹ ֶשְׁך || ַע‬ ֙ ‫ת‬ ֹ ֨ ‫ וְ ָה ָ֗א ֶרץ ||| ָהיְ ָ ֥תה‬1:2 ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֥י ַה ָ ֽמּיִם׃‬ ְ ‫ֹלהים || ְמ ַר ֶ ֖ח ֶפת || ַע‬ ִ֔ ‫וּח ֱא‬ ַ ‫וְ ֣ר‬ . In the following verses the strength of each disjunction is represented by vertical lines between the words: one vertical line (|) represents a level one disjunction. segolta. the next strongest divides each half in half again. MAJOR CONJUNCTIVE Munah ֣ ‫מוּנ֣ח‬ ָ (servi for atnah. two vertical lines (||) a level two disjunction. and three vertical lines (|||) a level three disjunction. most often the first of the two will mark the more disjunctive “sense” break.

C7] ‫ימ ֶלְך‬ ֶ֫ ‫ ֲא ִב‬PN Abimelech ‫ ֲא ָבל‬CONJ but ‫( ֶ֫א ֶבן‬L8) NOUN F stone. store. C common. PRON independent pronoun. VB verb CONJ ‫א‬ ‫( ָאב‬L2) NOUN M father. C2] ‫( ֫א ֶֹהל‬L7) NOUN M tent ‫( ַא ֲהרוֹן‬L6) PN Aaron ‫( אוֹ‬L28) CONJ or ‫אוּלם‬ ָ CONJ but ‫אוֹצר‬ ָ NOUN M treasure. PI. Within the body of a lemma. F sign. PI Piel. for a paradigm of that weak verb). M masculine. except in the case of hollow roots. after ‫( ַא ֵחר‬L13) ADJ another ‫ ֵאי‬INTE where?. HI destroy [C4] ‫( ָא ָבה‬L19) VB Q be willing. H give light. conjunction. INF infinitive. PN proper noun. make shine ‫ אוֹת‬NOUN M. P ‫[ ִאמּוֹת‬A2] . humankind. DET determiner/article. S singular. P [‫]א ָחיוֹת‬ ֲ A2] ‫ ַא ַחר‬. Homonyms are listed separately. • Parentheses (L#) indicate the lesson/vocabulary list in which the word is introduced. The Qal infinitive construct is used as the citation form for hollow roots.) ‫( ֵאם‬L4) NOUN F mother. ADV adverb. or . • Abbreviations: ADJ adjective. HIT Hitpael.g.219 GLOSSARY Verbs are cited according to the third masculine singular form of the Qal perfect conjugation. PREP preposition. DEM demonstrative pronoun. P ‫[ ַא ִחים‬A2] ‫( ֶא ָחד‬L13) NOUN M one. HO Hofal. equip [C1. COMP complementizer. PU Pual. INTER interrogative. towards [A5] ‫( ַאל‬L9) ADV not (with commands) ‫( ֵאל‬L28) NOUN M god. eating ‫( ֶאל־‬L2) PREP to. God. • Brackets [] indicate the appendix that supplies further information for that lexical entry (e. ADV. P plural. shine. LOCV locative. DU ‫ָאזְ ֫ ַניִ ם‬ ‫ ָאזַ ר‬VB Q gird. DU dual. P ‫[ ָאבוֹת‬A2] ‫( ָא ַבד‬L11) VB Q perish. consent [C4. each (one). ‫( ַא ֲח ֵרי‬L13) PREP. INTJ interjection. NI Nifal. unattested forms are also placed in parentheses. P ‫ֲא ָבנִ ים‬ ‫( ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬L6) PN Abraham ‫( ַא ְב ָרם‬L6) PN Abram ‫ ַא ְב ָשׁלוֹם‬PN Absalom ‫ ֱאדוֹם‬PN Edom ‫( ָא ָדם‬L4) NOUN M man. PASS passive. ‫( ֵאין־‬L3) EXST ADV there is/are not ‫( ִאישׁ‬L2) NOUN M man. PTCP participle.g.. CST construct state. INTJ How! ‫ ַ֫איִ ן‬. Q Qal.. lord ‫( ֲאד ֹנָ י‬L3) PN (EPITHET) the Lord ‫ ֲאד ֹנִ ָ֫יּהוּ‬PN Adonijah ‫( ָא ֵהב‬L7) VB Q love [C1.e. agree ‫( ֫אֹזֶ ן‬L5) NOUN F ear. F ‫ַא ַחת‬ [D] ‫( ָאחוֹת‬L4) NOUN F sister. personal hostility ‫ ַאיֵּ ה‬INTER where? ‫( ֵאיְך‬L27) ADV how.. storehouse ‫( אוֹר‬L22) NOUN M light [‫ ]אוֹר‬VB Q be(come) light. C3] ‫( ָאח‬L4) NOUN M brother. i. HI Hifil. (also marks an alternative condition. clan [‫]א ֶלף‬ ֶ֫ NOUN M cattle (only in P) ‫( ִאם‬L8) COND if. The same principle applies to nouns. P ‫אוֹתוֹת‬ [‫ ]אוּת‬VB NI consent. PN Adam ‫( ֲא ָד ָמה‬L10) NOUN F ground. CONJ behind. NOUN noun. mighty one ‫ ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬CP DEM these [A4] ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ ‫( ֱא‬L2) NOUN M God. ‫י־מזֶּ ה‬ ִ ‫ ֵא‬from where? ‫ אוֹיֵב‬NOUN M enemy (Q PTCP) ‫יבה‬ ָ ‫ ֵא‬NOUN F enmity. COND conditional. P ‫[ ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬A2] ‫( ַאְך‬L14) ADV only. surely ‫( ָא ַכל‬L7) VB Q eat [C4] ‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬NOUN F food. treasury. gods ‫ימ ֶלְך‬ ֶ֫ ‫ ֱא ִל‬PN Elimelech ‫ ֲא ֻל ָמּה‬NOUN F sheaf ‫ ֶ֫א ֶלף‬NOUN M thousand. F feminine.. land ‫( ָאדוֹן‬L3) NOUN M master. [‫)]אוּת‬. EXST existential. it is placed in parentheses (e. If a citation form is not actually attested.

PN Baal ‫ ָבּ ֵצק‬NOUN M dough ‫ ִבּ ְק ָעה‬NOUN F valley. faithfulness ‫( ָ֫אנָ ה‬L25) INTER where?. which. obstinate [C1] ‫( ָא ַמר‬L6) VB Q say [C3. HI understand. C9] ‫ ֲא ָר ַרט‬PN Ararat ‫( ִא ָשּׁה‬L3) NOUN F woman. C3] ‫( ָבּ ַטח‬L10) VB Q trust [C3] ֵ [‫]בּיִ ן‬ ַ֫ (L9) PREP between (only in CST ‫)בּין‬ ‫ ִבּין‬VB Q perceive. to where? ‫ ָ֫אנָּ א‬. ‫ ֶאת־‬. ‫ ֲא ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬PRON 1CP we [A3] ‫ ָאנ ִֹכי‬. by [A5] ‫( ְבּ ֵאר‬L10) NOUN M well. ִ etc. separate ‫ ֫בֹּהוּ‬NOUN M emptiness ‫( ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬L4) NOUN F cattle ‫( בּוֹא‬L23) VB Q come. cistern. HI believe [C1] [‫]א ֵמץ‬ ָ (L29) VB Q be strong. even. COMP that ‫ ֵאת‬. ark ‫( ֫א ַֹרח‬L21) NOUN M way. plain ‫( ָבּ ָקר‬L7) NOUN M cattle. with suffix ‫א ִתּי‬. give understanding.Glossary ‫( ָא ָמה‬L19) NOUN F maid. path ‫ ֫א ֶֹרְך‬NOUN M length [‫]א ֵרְך‬ ָ (L27) VB Q be long. bewail. P ‫[ נָ ִשׁים‬A2] ‫ ַאשּׁוּר‬PN Assyria ‫( ָא ָשׁם‬L17) NOUN M guilt (offering) ‫( ֲא ֶשׁר‬L5) CONJ that. MS ‫. away from. now! ‫ ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬. how much more! ‫( ָא ָפה‬L19) VB Q bake [C4. bold. handmaid ‫ ַא ָמּה‬NOUN F cubit [‫]א ַמן‬ ָ (L17) VB Q support. ‫ ֶאת־‬. observe. land [‫]א ַרר‬ ָ VB Q. teach ‫ ִבּינָ ה‬NOUN F understanding ‫( ַ֫בּיִ ת‬L2) NOUN M house ‫[ ָ ֽבּ ִתּים‬A2] ‫ית־אל‬ ֵ ‫ ֵבּ‬PN Bethel ‫ית־ל ֶחם‬ ֶ ֫ ‫ ֵבּ‬PN Bethlehem ‫( ָבּ ָכה‬L26) VB Q weep. ‫ ָ֫אנָּ ה‬INTJ ah!. remove [C1] ‫( ַאף‬L15) ADV also. lengthen ‫( ֶא ֶרץ‬L2) NOUN F earth. pit ‫( ָבּ ֶבל‬L6) PN Babylon ‫( ֶ֫בּגֶ ד‬L7) NOUN M garment [‫]בּ ַדל‬ ָ (L22) VB HI divide. ‫ ַא ֵ֫תּנָ ה‬PRON 2FP you [A3] 220 ‫בּ‬ ‫( ְבּ‬L3) PREP in. HI prolong. C8] ‫( בּוֹר‬L10) NOUN M well. ‫ ֲאנִ י‬PRON 1CS I [A3] ‫ ָא ָסא‬PN Asa ‫( ָא ַסף‬L10) VB Q gather. with suffix ‫א ִֹתי‬. anger ‫ ַאף ִכּי‬CONJ furthermore. ‫יעי‬ ִ ‫ ְר ִב‬M fourth [D] ‫ ִר ֵבּ ִעים‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to) the fourth generation ‫( ֲארוֹן‬L24) NOUN M chest. moreover ‫( ַאף‬L22) NOUN M nose. etc. except ‫( ָבּ ָמה‬L12) NOUN F high-place ‫( ֵבּן‬L2) NOUN M son. herd. ‫ ַא ְר ַבּ ְע ַ֫תּיִ ם‬four-fold. C4] ‫ ֵ֫א ֶמר‬NOUN M speech. ox ‫( ֫בּ ֶֹקר‬L28) NOUN M morning [‫]בּ ַקשׁ‬ ָ (L11) VB PI seek ‫ ַבּר‬NOUN M corn ‫( ָבּ ָרא‬L20) VB Q create [C4] ‫ ָבּ ַרח‬VB Q flee [C3] ‫( ְבּ ִרית‬L4) NOUN F covenant [‫]בּ ַרְך‬ ָ (L13) VB PI bless [C2] ‫( ָבּ ַשׁל‬L19) VB PI boil ‫( ָבּ ָשׂר‬L6) NOUN M flesh . enter. with. lord. face.א ְר ָבּ ָעה‬ ַ P ‫ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים‬ forty. PI strengthen (something). P ‫[ ָבּנִ ים‬A2]. (L4) direct object marker (mostly for definite nouns) [A5] ‫ ֵאת‬. ‫ ֶבּן־‬number ‫ ָשׁנָ ה‬idiomatic for X years old ‫( ָבּנָ ה‬L22) VB Q build [C7] ‫יָמין‬ ִ ְ‫ ִבּנ‬PN Benjamin ‫( ַ֫בּ ַעד‬L12) PREP behind. HIT make oneself bold. CST ‫ְבּ ַעד‬ ‫ ֫בּ ַעז‬PN Boaz ‫ ַ֫בּ ַעל‬NOUN M owner. word ‫( ֱא ֶמת‬L10) NOUN F truth. pit ‫( בּוֹשׁ‬L23) VB Q be ashamed [C8] ‫( ָבּ ַחר‬L17) VB Q choose [C2. wife. C7] ‫ ֵ֫א ֶצל‬NOUN M proximity. at. PREP beside ‫ ַא ְר ַבּע‬NOUN FS four. cistern. HI bring. (L7) PREP with [A5] ‫ ַא ָתּה‬PRON 2MS you [A3] ‫ ַא ְתּ‬PRON 2FS you [A3] ‫ ַא ֶתּם‬PRON 2MP you [A3] ‫ ַא ֶתּן‬. make enter [C4. have insight. PI curse [C1. on behalf of. PI lament [C7] ‫( ְבּכוֹר‬L23) NOUN M first-born ‫ ִבּ ְל ָהה‬PN Bilhah ‫ ָבּ ָלק‬PN Balak ‫( ִבּ ְל ִתּי‬L25) ADV not. who.

see ‫)תּוֶ ְך‬ ָ֫ ‫גּ‬ ‫ גָּ ַאל‬VB Q redeem. C2. ‫ָה ָהר‬ ‫( ָה ַרג‬L10) VB Q kill. even ‫( גָּ ָמל‬L22) NOUN M camel ‫( גַּ ן‬L15) NOUN M garden ‫ גָּ נַ ב‬VB Q steal. destruction ‫( ַהר‬L5) NOUN M mountain. P ‫[ ָבּנוֹת‬A2] ‫ת־שׁ ַבע‬ ֶ֫ ‫ ַבּ‬PN Bathsheba ‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬PREP M in the midst of (only in CST. PI steal away. slay [C1. DEM those [A3. territory ‫( גָּ דוֹל‬L9) ADJ great [‫גָּ ַדל‬. plague ‫ ְדּ ַבשׁ‬NOUN M honey ‫ ָדּג‬NOUN M fish. DEM that [A3. resemble [C7] ‫ ְדּמוּת‬NOUN F likeness ‫ ָדּן‬PN Dan ‫( ַ ֫דּ ַעת‬L29) NOUN F/M knowledge 221 ‫ ַדּ ְר ַדּר‬NOUN M thistles ‫( ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬L3) NOUN M/F way. A4] ‫( ָהמוֹן‬L15) NOUN M multitude. close relative ‫ גָּ ַבהּ‬VB Q be high. PI slaughter. see! ‫( ָה ַפְך‬L14) VB Q overturn. toward (suffixed on nouns) ‫ ֶ֫ה ֶבל‬PN Abel ‫ ָהגָ ר‬PN Hagar ‫ הוּא‬MS PRON he. A4] ‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ADV here. hill country. people ‫( גּוּר‬L27) VB Q to sojourn. C4] ‫ז‬ ‫ זֹאת‬FS DEM this [A4] ‫( זָ ַבח‬L7) VB Q. F ‫ָדּגָ ה‬ ‫( ָדּוִ ד‬L3) PN David ‫( דּוֹר‬L13) NOUN M generation ‫ ָדּ ָלה‬VB Q draw (water) ‫ ָדּם‬NOUN M blood. walk ‫( ָדּ ַרשׁ‬L5) VB Q seek [C2] [‫ ָ]דּ ָשׁא‬VB Q be green. become pregnant [C1. PU be stolen away. PI make great. ‫ ֵהן‬FP PRON they. cleave. NI be stolen. DEM those [A3.Glossary ‫( ַבּת‬L4) NOUN F daughter. go [‫]ה ַלל‬ ָ (L13) VB PI praise [C9] ‫ ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬. tall. P bloodguilt ‫ ָדּ ָמה‬VB Q be like. abide [C8] ‫ גָּ חוֹן‬NOUN M belly (of reptiles) ‫( גָּ ָלה‬L22) VB Q uncover. A4] ‫( ָהיָ ה‬L5) VB Q become. P ‫.ADV to. away [C2] ‫דּ‬ ‫( ָדּ ַבק‬L26) VB Q cling. reveal [C7] ‫( גַּ ם‬L7) ADV also. C7] ‫ ֵה ָריוֹן‬NOUN M conception. HI make high ‫ גְּ בוּל‬NOUN M border. act as a kinsman [C2] ‫ גּ ֵֹאל‬Q PTCP kinsman-redeemer. C2] ‫( ָה ָרה‬L24) VB Q conceive. road ‫( ָדּ ַרְך‬L16) VB Q tread. H cause to sprout ‫ ֶ ֫דּ ֶשׁא‬NOUN M grass ‫ה‬ •‫( ַה‬L3) DET the ‫( ֲה‬L14) INTER (question marker for “yes” and “no” questions) ‫ ָ֫ ה‬. keep close ‫( ָדּ ָבר‬L2) NOUN M word. stranger ‫ גַּ ְרגָּ רוֹת‬NOUN FP neck ‫( ֫גּ ֹ ֶרן‬L27) NOUN M threshing floor ‫ גְּ ָרר‬PN Gerar [‫( ]גָּ ַרשׁ‬L18) VB Q cast out. ‫( ִהנֵּ ה‬L11) INTJ behold. temple ‫( ָה ַלְך‬L7) VB Q walk. thing [‫( ָ]דּ ַבר‬L11) VB PI speak [C3] ‫ ֶ ֫דּ ֶבר‬NOUN M pestilence. march. lofty. ‫ ֵהם‬MP PRON they. see! ‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬. HIT go by stealth ‫ גְּ נֵ ָבה‬NOUN F stolen item ‫( גֵּ ר‬L14) NOUN M resident alien.ה ִרים‬ ָ with article ‫ ֶה ָה ִרים‬. grow ‫ ֫גּ ֹ ֶדל‬NOUN M greatness. crowd ‫( ֵהן‬L18) INTJ behold. destroy [C1] ‫ ֲה ֵפ ָכה‬NOUN F overthrow. ‫( ]גָּ ֵדל‬L11) VB Q be great. sacrifice [C3] ‫ זֶ ה‬MS DEM this [A4] ‫( זָ ָהב‬L11) NOUN M gold ‫( זָ ַכר‬L4) VB Q remember . thrust out. PI drive out. DEM that [A3. A4] ‫ ִהיא‬FS PRON she. be [C7] ‫יכל‬ ָ ‫( ֵה‬L10) NOUN M palace. pregnancy (also ‫)הרוֹן‬ ֵ ‫ו‬ ְ‫( ו‬L3) CONJ and ‫( וַ יּ֫ א ֶֹמר‬L8) VB Q 3MS PAST √‫ אמר‬he said [C2. magnificence ‫ גִּ דעוֹן‬PN Gideon ‫( גּוֹי‬L5) NOUN M nation.

devise. mortar. bend down. etc. PI he polluted. share. (L7) NOUN M statute ‫( ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬L6) NOUN F sword P ‫ֲח ָרבוֹת‬ ‫ ח ֵֹרב‬PN Horeb ‫( ָח ָרה‬L22) VB Q burn. dismayed [C1. pure [‫ ]טוּל‬HI cast. lap ‫( ָח ָכם‬L9) ADJ MS wise. HI exhibit silence. month [‫]חוָ ה‬ ָ (L24) VB HISHTAFEL bow down. HI strengthen. ‫ ֻח ִקּי‬. C7] ‫( ֫ח ֹ ֶשְׁך‬L22) NOUN M darkness ‫ ֵחת‬PN Heth. C4] ‫ ֵח ְטא‬NOUN M sin ‫( ֲח ָט ָאה‬L19) NOUN F sin ‫( ַח ָטּאת‬L8) NOUN F sin. HIT hide (oneself). C9] ‫( ָח ַלק‬L25) VB Q. pleasant ‫ ָטהוֹר‬ADJ clean. PI bind. C9] [‫]חנֵ ף‬ ָ (L16) VB Q be polluted. C7] ‫( ַחיָּ ה‬L9) NOUN F animal ‫( ַ֫חיִ ל‬L29) NOUN M strength. C7] ‫ ַחנָּ ה‬PN Hannah ‫ ֲחנוְֹך‬PN Enoch ‫( ָחנַ ן‬L24) VB Q show favor. prostrate oneself [C1. territory 222 ‫( ֶח ְל ָקה‬L29) NOUN F portion ‫ ָח ַמד‬VB Q desire. bind up. valor. MS ‫. C7] ‫( ָח ַשׁב‬L17) VB Q think. H produce seed ‫( ֶ֫ז ַרע‬L20) NOUN M seed ‫ח‬ [‫]ח ָבא‬ ָ VB NI. grace ‫( ָחנָ ה‬L25) VB Q incline. defiled. take pleasure in ‫( ֲחמוֹר‬L15) NOUN M donkey [‫]חמוֹת‬ ָ (L26) NOUN F mother-in-law ‫( ָח ָמס‬L15) NOUN M violence ‫ ֫ח ֶֹמר‬NOUN M cement. pledge. ‫ ָח ֵמשׁ‬NOUN FS five. PI divide. camp [C1. ‫ ִח ִתּים‬Hittites [‫]ח ַתת‬ ָ (L24) VB Q be shattered. restrain. ‫ ָחק־‬. C7] ‫ ַחוָּ ה‬PN Eve ‫חוֹמה‬ ָ (L15) NOUN F wall ‫( ָחזַ ק‬L17) VB Q be strong. NI be pledged. before ‫( ָט ַרף‬L25) VB Q tear. sailor (Q PTCP) [‫]ח ַבק‬ ָ VB Q. C2. wealth.Glossary ‫( זָ ָכר‬L19) NOUN M male ‫ זְ ָ ֑מן‬NOUN M appointed time. C7] ‫ ֵ֫ח ֶפץ‬NOUN M delight. goodness ‫( ָח ָסה‬L27) VB Q seek refuge [C1. FS ‫ַחיָּ ה‬ ‫( ָחיָ ה‬L27) VB Q live. rend. slippery ‫ ֵ֫ח ֶלק‬NOUN M portion. NI divide oneself [C1] ‫ ָח ָלק‬ADJ smooth. seize [C1] ‫( ָח ָטא‬L11) VB Q sin [C1. girdle ‫( ָח ַדל‬L26) VB Q cease. pluck [C2] ‫י‬ [‫]יְב ֶמת‬ ֵ֫ (L27) NOUN F sister-in-law . pleasure ‫חֹק‬. bind on. PI writhe. be alive [C1. be kindled [C1. hurl. make still/quiet [C1. living. HI begin [C1. army ‫( ַחיִּ ים‬L6) NOUN MP life ‫( ֵחיק‬L24) NOUN M bosom.ח ִמ ָשּׁה‬ ‫ ֲח ִמ ִשּׁי‬fifth [D] ‫( ֵחן‬L26) NOUN M favor. twist [C1] ‫ ח ֵֹבל‬NOUN M mariner. make profane [C1] ‫( ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬L7) NOUN M kindness. throw. be gracious [C1. clay ֲ P ‫ ֲח ִמ ִשּׁים‬fifty. C9] ‫ט‬ ‫( טוֹב‬L9) ADJ good. come to an end [C1] ‫( ֫ח ֶֹדשׁ‬L25) NOUN M new moon. PU be bound up [C1] ‫ ַחגִּ ית‬PN Haggit ‫ ֲחגוֹר‬NOUN M belt. HI pollute. profane. PI embrace [C1] [‫]ח ַבשׁ‬ ָ (L25) VB Q bind. with suffix ‫ ָח ְקָך‬. FS ‫ֲח ָכ ָמה‬ ‫( ָח ַכם‬L16) VB Q be wise [C1] [‫]ח ַלל‬ ָ (L24) VB NI be defiled. come forth. distribute. C4] [‫]ח ַבל‬ ָ VB Q bind. HO be hurled. sin-offering ‫ ַחי‬ADJ MS alive. HI hide (something) [C1. cast. appear ‫ זָ ַרע‬VB Q sow seed. time [‫ ]זֵ ָעה‬NOUN F sweat ‫( זָ ֵקן‬L10) ADJ old ‫ זָ ֵקן‬VB Q be old ‫( זָ ַרח‬L16) VB Q rise. ‫ ִח ִתּי‬Hittite. NI be reckoned [C1] [‫]ח ָשׁה‬ ָ VB Q be silent. thrown [C8] ‫ ָט ֵמא‬ADJ unclean ‫ ַטף‬NOUN M children ‫( ֶ֫ט ֶרם‬L24) ADV not yet.

so ‫( כּ ֵֹהן‬L3) NOUN M priest ‫כּוֹכב‬ ָ NOUN M star [‫( ]כּוּן‬L23) VB NI be set up. use the right hand [C6] ‫יָמין‬ ִ NOUN F right side. HI make heavy. P ‫יָמים‬ ‫ יוֹם‬daily [A2] ‫( יוֹנָ ה‬L17) NOUN F dove ‫ יוֹנָ ה‬PN Jonah ‫יוֹסף‬ ֵ (L14) PN Joseph ‫ יָ ִחיד‬ADJ. molten. shape [C4. pleasing. firmly established [C6] ‫( יָ ַצר‬L23) VB Q form. HI do (something) well. honor ‫( ָכּבוֹד‬L8) NOUN M glory. smooth [C3. cast. HI save. bear (children) [C6] [‫ ]יָ ַלל‬VB HI howl [C6. solitary [‫( ]יָ ַטב‬L21) VB Q be good. remain over. inherit [C6] ‫( יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬L2) PN Israel ‫ יֵ שׁ‬EXST there is ‫( יָ ַשׁב‬L11) VB Q sit. C9] ‫( יָ ם‬L13) NOUN M sea. HI establish. when ‫( ָכּ ֵבד‬L9) ADJ heavy [‫ ָכּ ַבד‬. leave a remnant [C3. HI cause to be dry [C6] ‫( ָיַבּ ָשׁה‬L21) NOUN F dry land ‫( יָ ד‬L2) NOUN F hand. P ‫יַמּים‬ ִ ‫ יַ ם־סוּף‬PN Sea of Reeds (“Red Sea”) [‫]יָמן‬ ַ VB HI go right. ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ֵ inhabitant. C6] [‫ ]יָ ַצב‬VB HIT station oneself. wealth ‫ ֶ֫כּ ֶבשׁ‬NOUN M lamb [‫]כּ ַבשׁ‬ ָ (L17) VB Q subdue. HI suckle. deliver [C3. burn. dwell. HO be stayed. right. PI beautify ‫( יָ ָצא‬L13) VB Q go forth [C4. stopped. ‫ ַהיּוֹם‬today. make firm [C8] ‫ כּ ַֹח‬NOUN M strength. reverence ‫( יָ ַרד‬L29) VB Q go down. salvation ‫( יָ ַשׁר‬L21) VB Q be smooth. established. C6] [‫ ]יָ ַצת‬VB Q kindle. set up. right hand [‫ ]יָ נַ ק‬VB Q suck. ‫( יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‬L12) PN Jeremiah ‫ ֶ֫י ֶרק‬NOUN M green (thing). dominate ‫( כֹּה‬L6) ADV thus. C6] ‫( ֵ֫י ַשׁע‬L17) NOUN M deliverance. continue [C6] ‫( יַ ֲעקֹב‬L7) PN Jacob [‫ ]יָ ָפה‬VB Q be fair. take one's stand [C6] [‫ ]יָ ַצג‬VB HI set. beautiful. HO be poured. praise. DU ‫ . fashion. just as. as [A5] ‫( ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬L6) CONJ as. HI pour (oil). C6] ‫ יֵ הוּא‬PN Jehu ‫הוּדה‬ ָ ְ‫( י‬L5) PN Judah ‫ יְ הוֹנָ ָתן‬PN Jonathan ‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬ ֻ ְ‫ י‬PN Joshua ‫( יהוה‬L1) PN YHWH (personal name of the Hebrew God) ‫יוֹאב‬ ָ PN Joab ‫יוֹאשׁ‬ ָ PN Joash ִ . HI multiply. establish. set on fire [C6] [‫( ]יָ ַקץ‬L21) VB Q awake [C6] ‫( יָ ֵרא‬L13) VB Q fear [C4. HI kindle. ‫( ] ָכּ ֵבד‬L11) VB Q be heavy. power . honor.יָ ַ ֫דיִם‬P ‫יָ דוֹת‬ [‫( ]יָ ָדה‬L25) VB HI give thanks. detained [C6] ‫( יִ ְצ ָחק‬L8) PN Isaac [‫ ]יָ ַצע‬VB HI lay. only one. pour out. do again.Glossary ‫( ֵיָבשׁ‬L21) VB Q be(come) dry. HI throw. cast. NI be kindled. choose the right. place. shoot (arrows) [C6] ‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִם‬ ָ ְ‫( י‬L5) PN Jerusalem ‫ יְ ִריחוֹ‬PN Jericho ‫יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬. C6] ‫כּ‬ ‫( ְכּ‬L3) PREP like. greenness ‫( יָ ַרשׁ‬L24) VB Q take possession. C6] ‫ יִ ְר ָאה‬NOUN F fear. descend [C6] ‫( יַ ְר ֵדּן‬L21) PN Jordan River ‫( יָ ָרה‬L25) VB Q. terror. confess [C6. HO be laid. have power [C6] ‫( יָ ַלד‬L14) VB Q beget. fixed. rescue. C6] [‫]יָתר‬ ַ VB NI be left over. ‫יוֹם‬ ‫( יוֹם‬L2) NOUN M day. spread. spread [C3. PI. C7] ‫( יָ ַדע‬L11) VB Q know [C3. PI make even. SUBST only. nurse [C6] ‫( יָ ַסף‬L28) VB Q add. C6] 223 ‫ יָ ַצק‬VB Q pour. dweller (Q PTCP) [C6] ‫ יִ ַשׁי‬PN Jesse ‫ יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֵעאל‬PN Ishmael [‫( ]יָ ַשׂע‬L21) VB NI be saved. deal well with [C6] ‫( ַ֫ייִ ן‬L21) NOUN M wine ‫ יָ כֹל‬VB Q irregular be able. HI leave over.

weight ‫כּל‬. negative) ‫לוּח‬ ַ (L18) NOUN M tablet. ‫( ְכּנ֫ ַען‬L11) PN Canaan. ‫( ָל ֵבשׁ‬L12) VB Q wear. camp P ‫ ַמ ֲחנוֹת‬and ‫ַמ ֲחנִ ים‬ ‫ ַמ ֶטּה‬NOUN M staff. F ‫מוֹא ִביָּ ה‬ ֲ ‫מוֹעד‬ ֵ (L17) NOUN M meeting. but. (L2) ADJ all. bride ‫( ְכּ ִלי‬L13) NOUN M vessel. atone [C3] ‫ ַכּר‬NOUN M saddlebag ‫ ְכּרוּב‬NOUN M cherub (type of subordinate divine being) ‫ ֶ֫כּ ֶרם‬NOUN M. sign. F vineyard ‫( ָכּ ַרת‬L4) VB Q cut. food ‫ ָלט‬. so that (result) ‫( ִל ְפנֵ י‬L5) PREP. ‫ ִכּי ִאם‬but ‫ ִכּ ָכּר‬NOUN F round district. species ‫ ַמ ָכּה‬NOUN F blow. fill. ‫( ֵלב‬L3) NOUN M heart. collect. for [A5] ‫( לֹא‬L2) ADV no. ADV exceedingly ‫ ֵמ ָאה‬NOUN F hundred [D] ‫ ָמאוֹר‬NOUN M luminary. with suffix ‫כּ ֵלְּך‬. C4] ‫ ֵל ָבב‬. gather ‫( ָלשׁוֹן‬L13) NOUN M tongue. if (irreal) ‫לוּלי‬ ֵ COND if not (irreal. Canaanite ‫ ָכּנָ ף‬NOUN F wing. money ‫ ַ֫כּ ַעס‬NOUN M vexation. PI fill [C4] ‫( ַמ ְל ָאְך‬L6) NOUN M messenger. wipe away [C2. not translated (Q INF CST √‫)אמר‬ [C1. plank. portent ‫( מוּת‬L23) VB Q die. light. loaf. lamp. CONJ in order that (purpose). though. ‫ ָכּל־‬. wound ‫( ָמ ַכר‬L29) VB Q sell [C3] ‫( ָמ ֵלא‬L10) ADJ full ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬VB Q be full. not ‫ ֵל ָאה‬PN Leah ‫( ֵלאמֹר‬L12) COMP used to introduce direct speech. C7] ‫ ַמ ְחלוֹן‬PN Machlon ‫ ַמ ֲחנֶ ה‬NOUN M encampment. P ‫ ִמ ְדוָ נִ ים ְמ ָדנִ ים‬. utensil. ‫ ָלאט‬NOUN M secrecy (always with ‫)בּ‬ ְ 224 ‫( ֫ ַליְ ָלה‬L7) NOUN M night ‫( ָל ַכד‬L5) VB Q capture ‫ ָל ֵכן‬CONJ therefore ‫( ָל ַמד‬L12) VB Q learn. ‫תּנֶ ת‬ ֹ ֫ ‫ ֻכּ‬NOUN F tunic ‫ל‬ ‫( ְל‬L3) PREP to. rod. P ‫ִמזְ ָבּחוֹת‬ ‫( ָמ ָחה‬L20) VB Q blot out. HIT gather oneself together ‫ ְכּנַ ֲענִ י‬. pick up.Glossary ‫( ִכּי‬L2) CONJ because. confusion ‫מוֹאב‬ ָ PN Moab. HI clothe ‫ ֫ ַל ַהט‬NOUN M flame ‫ לוּ‬COND would that. PI complete. COMP that. extremity DU ‫ ְכּנָ ֫ ַפיִ ם‬P [‫]כּנָ פוֹת‬ ְ ‫( ִכּ ֵסּא‬L23) NOUN M throne ‫( ֶ֫כּ ֶסף‬L11) NOUN M silver. C5] [‫]ל ַקט‬ ָ (L26) VB Q glean. ‫מוֹא ִבי‬ ָ Moabite. PI gather together. finish [C7] ‫( ַכּ ָלּה‬L26) NOUN F daughter-in-law. mind ‫ ָל ָבן‬PN Laban ‫ ְל ָבנוֹן‬PN Lebanon ‫ ָל ַבשׁ‬. previously ‫( ָל ַקח‬L15) VB Q take. branch. cut down [C2] ‫( ָכּ ַתב‬L8) VB Q write ‫תנֶ ת‬ ֹ ֫ ‫ ְכּ‬. PI teach ‫ ָל ָמה‬. CONJ before ‫( ְל ָפנִ ים‬L27) ADV formerly. thus ‫ ָכּנַ ס‬VB Q gather. P ‫ֵכּ ִלים‬ ‫ ִכּ ְליוֹן‬PN Kilyon ‫( ֵכּן‬L22) ADV so. receive [C3. P ‫ְמאוֹרוֹת‬ ‫ ַמ ֲא ָכל‬NOUN M food ‫( ִמ ְד ָבּר‬L10) NOUN M wilderness ‫ ָמדוֹן‬NOUN M strife. HI kill [C8] ‫( ָ֫מוֶ ת‬L29) NOUN M death ‫( ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬L12) NOUN M altar. ֻ etc. every. when. tribe P ‫ַמטּוֹת‬ ‫( ִמי‬L9) INTER who? ‫ ְמיַ ְלּ ָדה‬NOUN F midwife ‫( ַ֫מיִ ם‬L5) NOUN M water [‫]מין‬ ִ NOUN M kind. NOUN M everything ‫( ָכּ ָלה‬L14) VB Q be complete. anger ‫( ִכּ ֵפּר‬L13) VB PI appease. contention. appointed time ‫מוֹפת‬ ֵ (L23) NOUN M wonder. P ‫ֻלחוֹת‬ ‫ לוֹט‬PN Lot ‫ ֵלוִ י‬PN Levi ‫( ֫ ֶל ֶחם‬L7) NOUN M bread. plate. if. angel ‫אכה‬ ָ ‫( ְמ ָל‬L16) NOUN F work . board. and ‫ְמדוֹנִ ים‬ ‫דּוּע‬ ַ ‫( ַמ‬L26) INTER why? ‫ ִמ ְדיָ ן‬PN Midian ‫( ָמה‬L10) INTER what? how? ‫הוּמה‬ ָ ‫ ְמ‬NOUN F tumult. ‫( ֫ ָל ָמּה‬L20) INTER why? ‫ ֫ ֶל ֶמְך‬PN Lamech ‫( ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬L13) PREP for the sake of. language P ‫ְלשׁ ֹנוֹת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫( ְמאֹד‬L7) NOUN M strength. cut off.

battle ‫( ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬L2) NOUN M king ‫( ָמ ַלְך‬L4) VB Q reign. CONJ from before (‫ ִמן‬+ ‫)פּנֵ י‬ ְ ‫( ָמ ָצא‬L11) VB Q find [C4] ‫( ִמ ְצוָ ה‬L7) NOUN F commandment. approach [C5] ‫ נוֹד‬PN Nod ‫נוּח‬ ַ (L25) VB Q rest. C5] ‫( ַ֫נ ַעל‬L27) NOUN F sandal. HI cause to rest. function ‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬L15) NOUN F family. 225 ‫ נְ ֻאם‬NOUN M utterance (always CST) [‫( ]נָ ַאף‬L17) VB Q. number. royal power. young girl ‫( נָ ַפל‬L20) VB Q fall [C5] ‫ נְ ִפ ִלים‬NOUN MP giants. PREP in front of. leave [C3. tabernacle ‫( ָמ ַשׁל‬L14) VB Q rule ‫ ִמ ְשׁ ֶ֫מ ֶרת‬NOUN F guard. ‫ נַ ֲע ָרה‬F maiden. a marker of politeness. young boy. PI HI make bitter [C9] [‫]מ ְשׂ ֫כּ ֶֹרת‬ ַ NOUN F wages ‫( מ ֶֹשׁה‬L3) PN Moses ‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָכּב‬L18) NOUN M couch. groaning [‫ ]נָ ָבא‬VB NI. incline (something) [C5. C7] [‫( ]נָ ַכר‬L18) VB NI be recognized. assign. alternatively. custom ‫ ֵמת‬Q PTCP √‫מוּת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫( נָ א‬L13) illocutionary signal equivalent to I tell you . place of lying ‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬L13) NOUN M dwelling. HI recognize. PI commit adultery [C2] [‫ ]נְ ָא ָקה‬NOUN F groan. make quiet. strike [C5. be(come) king ‫ ִמ ְל ָכּה‬PN Milcah ‫ ַמ ְלכוּת‬NOUN F royalty. kingdom ‫( ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬L23) NOUN F kingdom. C8] ‫ נ ַֹח‬PN Noah ‫ נָ חוֹר‬PN Nahor ‫ ֫ ַנ ַחל‬NOUN M torrent. dominion ‫ ִמן־‬and •‫( ִמ‬L3) PREP from. F ‫נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬ ‫( נָ ַסע‬L20) VB Q pull up (tent pegs). regard [C3. C5] [‫( ]נָ ַבט‬L20) VB PI. few [‫]מ ַעל‬ ַ֫ NOUN M higher part (only ‫ ִמ ַ֫מּ ַעל‬above and LCV ‫ ַ֫מ ְע ָלה‬upwards) ‫( ַמ ֲע ָלל‬L21) NOUN M deed. HI turn. reign. torrent valley/run-off ravine (‘wadi’) ‫( נַ ֲח ָלה‬L26) NOUN F possession. deliver [C5] . HI look. PI appoint. watch. justice. alien. C7] ‫( נָ ַטע‬L23) VB Q plant [C3. station oneself. let remain. C5] ‫( נֵ ָכר‬L23) NOUN M foreign thing ‫( נָ ְכ ִרי‬L26) ADJ foreign. inheritance [‫( ]נָ ַחם‬L17) VB NI be sorry/regret. grain offering ‫( ְמ ַעט‬L19) ADV little. shoe DU ‫( נַ ֲע ֫ ַליִ ם‬L5) ‫ נָ ֳע ִמי‬PN Naomi (‘my pleasantness’) ‫( ֫ ַנ ַער‬L4) NOUN M lad. C5. vision [‫]מ ְרגָּ לוֹת‬ ַ (L27) NOUN FP place of feet ADV at [his] feet ‫ מ ִֹריָּ ה‬PN Moriah ‫( ֶמ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬L17) NOUN F chariot [‫]מ ַרד‬ ָ (L27) VB Q be bitter. practice ‫( ַמ ֲע ֶשׂה‬L28) NOUN M deed. set out.“fallen ones” ‫( ֫ ֶנ ֶפשׁ‬L3) NOUN F life. work ‫ ִמ ְפּנֵ י‬PREP. console [C2] ‫ נָ ָחשׁ‬PN Nahash ‫ נָ ָחשׁ‬NOUN M serpent ‫( נָ ָטה‬L22) VB Q stretch out. appointed [‫( ]נָ ַצל‬L20) VB NI be delivered. self [‫( ]נָ ַצב‬L28) VB NI take one’s stand. comforted. gaze [C5] ‫( נָ ִביא‬L4) NOUN M prophet ‫( ֫ ֶנגֶ ב‬L20) NOUN M south ‫ ֫ ֶנגֶ ב‬PN Negeb [‫( ]נָ גַ ד‬L20) VB HI declare [C5] ‫( ֫ ֶנגֶ ד‬L10) ADV. C5] [‫( ]נָ ָכה‬L25) VB HI smite. more than [A5] ‫ ָמנָ ה‬VB Q count. clan ‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬L8) NOUN M judgment. property. P ‫ִמ ְצו ֹת‬ ‫( ִמ ְצ ַ֫ריִ ם‬L5) PN Egypt [‫]מ ְקוֶ ה‬ ִ NOUN M collection. deliver oneself. HIT prophesy [C4. set down. in sight of. HI snatch away. such as please. rule ‫ ֶמ ְמ ָשׁ ָלה‬NOUN F rule. opposite to ‫( נָ גַ ע‬L20) VB Q touch. reach. ordain [C7] ‫( ִמנְ ָחה‬L13) NOUN F gift. strike [C3. extend. journey [C3. collected mass ‫( ָמקוֹם‬L6) NOUN M place P ‫ְמקֹמוֹת‬ ‫ ָמ ָרא‬PN Mara (‘bitterness’) ‫( ַמ ְר ֶאה‬L10) NOUN M appearance. C5] [‫( ]נָ גַ שׁ‬L20) VB Q draw near. be stationed.Glossary ‫ ֶ֫מ ַלח‬NOUN M salt ‫( ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬L14) NOUN F war. charge. PI comfort.

over ‫( ָע ָלה‬L14) VB Q go up [C1. HO be avenged [C5] ‫( נָ ָשׂא‬L13) VB Q lift up [C4. insects ‫ עוֹר‬NOUN M skin. P ‫ָע ִרים‬ ‫ ֵעיר ֹם‬ADJ naked ‫( ַעל‬L5) PREP upon. set [C5] ‫ נָ ָתן‬PN Nathan ‫ס‬ ‫( ָס ַבב‬L24) VB Q turn about. root up [C1. CONJ for the sake of. (L4) PREP with. Jordan valley ‫ ָערוֹם‬ADJ naked ‫ ָערוּם‬ADJ crafty. PI kiss [C5] ‫ ֶ֫נ ֶשׁר‬NOUN M vulture. go around. surround [C9] ‫ ָס ִביב‬ADV/PREP around. ִ etc. hurt. NI enraged. respond [C1. C5]. document. C3] ‫ ֵער‬PN Er ‫ ֫ ֶע ֶרב‬NOUN M evening. HI conceal [C3] ‫ ֵ֫ס ֶתר‬NOUN M hiding-place. iniquity ‫ עוּף‬VB Q fly. P ‫ ֵע ִצים‬wood [‫]ע ָצב‬ ָ NOUN M idol (always P ‫)ע ַצ ִבּים‬ ֲ ‫ ֶ֫ע ֶצב‬NOUN M pain.Glossary [‫ ]נָ ַצר‬VB Q watch. secrecy ‫ע‬ ‫( ֶ֫ע ֶבד‬L3) NOUN M servant ‫( ָע ַבד‬L13) VB Q serve. rushes. eagle ‫( נָ ַתן‬L9) VB Q give. ִ with suffix ‫ע ִמּי‬. CONJ while. mixture ‫ ֲע ָר ָבה‬NOUN F desert-plain. yet. on account of. guard. shrewd. remove [C8] ‫ ִסינַ י‬PN Sinai [‫]ס ַלח‬ ָ (L19) VB Q forgive [C3] ‫ ַסנְ ֵח ִריב‬PN Sennacherib [‫]ס ַער‬ ָ VB Q storm. toil ‫ ִע ָצּבוֹן‬NOUN M pain. C5] ‫ נְ ֵק ָבה‬NOUN F female ‫( נָ ִקי‬L16) ADJ clean. C7] ‫ ֵע ָשׂו‬PN Esau . footprint. leafage ‫עם‬. work [C1] ‫ ֲעבוּר‬only as ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬PREP. PI storm [C2. herbage ‫( ָע ָשׂה‬L11) VB Q do. ‫סוּסה‬ ָ F mare ‫ סוּף‬NOUN M reeds. C7] ‫ ֲענָ ק‬PN Anak P ‫ ֲענָ ִקים‬Anakites ‫( ָע ָפר‬L23) NOUN M dust. C3] [‫]ס ַפד‬ ָ VB Q wail. sensible ‫ ֲע ֵר ָמה‬NOUN F heap ‫ ָע ְר ָפּה‬PN Orpah ‫ ֵ֫ע ֶשׂב‬NOUN M herb. P ‫ ִע ְב ִרים‬Hebrews ‫( ַעד‬L5) PREP unto. NI avenge oneself. keep [C3. place. stallion. C7] ‫( ע ָֹלה‬L12) NOUN F burnt offering ‫ ָע ֶלה‬NOUN M leaf. also ‫ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬with me. book [‫]ס ַתר‬ ָ (L12) VB NI hide (oneself). PI recount. NI be bewailed ‫ ָס ַפר‬VB Q count. depart. see ‫[ ִא ָשּׁה‬A2] [‫( ]נָ ַשׁק‬L26) VB Q. as far as. declare [C3] ‫( ֵ֫ס ֶפר‬L8) NOUN M scroll. number. exempt [‫( ]נָ ַקם‬L25) VB Q avenge. at my side ‫( ַעם‬L2) NOUN M people ‫( ָע ַמד‬L6) VB Q stand [C1] ‫ ֲעמ ָֹרה‬PN Gomorrah ‫( ָענָ ה‬L22) VB Q answer. again ‫עוֹלם‬ ָ (L8) NOUN M forever. until [A5] ‫( ֵעד‬L26) NOUN M witness ‫( ֵע ָדה‬L17) NOUN F congregation ‫ ָע ָדה‬PN Adah 226 ‫ ֵעדוּת‬NOUN F testimony ‫ ֵ֫ע ֶדן‬PN Eden ‫עוֹבד‬ ֵ PN Obed ‫( עוֹד‬L15) ADV still. hinderpart ‫ ָע ַקר‬VB Q pluck. POLEL fly about ‫ עוֹף‬NOUN M flying creatures. NI be deceived. (animal) hide ‫( ָעזַ ב‬L7) VB Q abandon. in order that ‫( ָע ַבר‬L12) VB Q pass over [C1] ‫ ִע ְב ִרי‬PN Hebrew. forsake [C1] ‫( ַ֫עיִ ן‬L5) NOUN F eye DU ‫ֵע ֫ ַיניִ ם‬ ‫( ִעיר‬L2) NOUN F city. make. lament. HI deceive ‫ נָ ִשׁים‬NOUN FP women. about ‫ ְסד ֹם‬PN Sodom ‫( סוּס‬L4) NOUN M horse. sunset ‫ ָער ֹב‬NOUN M swarm (of flies). dirt. long duration. see ‫יַם־סוּף‬ ‫( סוּר‬L23) VB Q turn aside. dry earth ‫( ֵעץ‬L8) NOUN M tree. act [C1. take vengeance. antiquity ‫( ָעו ֹן‬L13) NOUN M transgression. toil ‫( ֶ֫ע ֶצם‬L14) NOUN F bone ‫ ָע ֵקב‬NOUN M heel. fowl. HI cause to depart. steppe. innocent.

NI spread. congregation [‫]קוָ ה‬ ָ VB NI be collected ‫( קוֹל‬L6) NOUN M voice. sound ‫( קוּם‬L23) VB Q rise. be quick [C9] ‫ ֵקן‬NOUN M nest ‫ ַקנָּ א‬ADJ jealous ‫( ָקנָ ה‬L15) VB Q buy. flock [‫]צ ָבא‬ ָ (L6) NOUN M host. establish. aforetime. extraordinary. C3. ‫( ] ָק ֵדשׁ‬L11) VB Q be holy. ‫ ֲע ִשׂ ִירי‬tenth [D] ‫( ֵעת‬L14) NOUN F time. ‫ ] ָק ֵצר‬VB Q be short. F sheep. PI bury [C3] ‫ ֶ ֫ק ֶבר‬NOUN M grave. F. C9] ‫( ָפּ ָרשׁ‬L21) NOUN M horseman ‫( ֶ֫פּ ַתח‬L17) NOUN M opening ‫( ָפּ ַתח‬L15) VB Q open [C3] ‫( ָפּ ַתר‬L25) VB Q interpret [C3] ‫צ‬ ‫( צֹאן‬L7) NOUN M. sacredness [‫]ק ַהל‬ ָ (L12) VB HI congregate [C2] ‫( ָק ָהל‬L19) NOUN M assembly. HI make successful. ‫( ַע ָתּה‬L13) ADV now ‫פּ‬ ‫ ֶפּה‬NOUN M mouth. sepulchre ‫( ָקדוֹשׁ‬L28) ADJ sacred. ‫ ָפּ ָרה‬F heifer. deed. insignificant [‫]ק ַטר‬ ָ (L12) VB PI. C3. extremity [‫ ָק ַצר‬. HI raise. outcry ‫( ָצ ַרר‬L24) VB Q show hostility [C2. cow [‫]פּ ַרד‬ ָ (L29) VB Q separate. HI do an extraordinary thing [C4] ‫ ִפּ ֫ ֶילגֶ שׁ‬NOUN F concubine [‫]פּ ַלל‬ ָ (L15) VB HIT pray [C9] ‫( ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי‬L6) PN Philistine. hard service [‫ ָצד ֹק‬. east.ע ָשׂ ָרה‬ ֲ P ‫ ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬twenty. HI make sacrifices smoke [C3] ‫ ַ ֫קיִ ן‬PN Cain ‫( ָק ַלל‬L24) VB Q be slight. HI divide. deputy. so that not (negative purpose) [‫]פּנֶ ה‬ ָ (L2) NOUN M (always P ‫ ָפּנִ ים‬face) ‫ ֶ֫פּ ֶסל‬NOUN M idol. NI be opened [C3] ‫ ָפּ ִקיד‬NOUN M commissioner. army. P supplied by ‫ָק ָטן‬ ‫( ָק ָטן‬L12) ADJ MS small. impatient. PI HI shorten [C3] [‫]ק ַצר‬ ָ (L28) VB Q reap. be successful. holy ‫( ֶ ֫ק ֶדם‬L20) NOUN M front. image ‫ ֫ ֹפּ ַעל‬NOUN M doing. be fruitful [C2. likeness ‫( ָצ ֵמא‬L19) VB Q be thirsty [C4] ‫ ָצ ַמח‬VB Q sprout. work ‫( ֫ ַפּ ַעם‬L15) NOUN M step. apartness. HI cause to sprout. acquire [C7] ‫( ָק ֶצה‬L28) NOUN M end. ears. laughing-stock ‫ ִציוֹן‬PN Zion ‫ ִצ ָלּה‬PN Silah [‫ ָצ ַלח‬. CST ‫ִפּי‬ [‫]פּ ָלא‬ ָ (L19) VB NI HIT be difficult.Glossary ‫ ֶ֫ע ֶשׂר‬NOUN FS ten. visit. overseer ‫( ַפּר‬L22) NOUN M young bull. harvest . time ‫( ָפּ ָקד‬L4) VB Q attend to. HI justify ‫( ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬L8) NOUN M righteousness ‫( ְצ ָד ָקה‬L29) NOUN F righteousness ‫( ַצ ִדּיק‬L9) ADJ righteous 227 ‫( ִצוָּ ה‬L27) VB PI command [C7] [‫]צ ַחק‬ ָ VB Q laugh. P‫ ִעתּוׄ ֹת עִ ִתּ י ם‬. erect [C8] ‫ קוֹץ‬NOUN M thorns. spring up. show experience [C3] ‫ ֶ֫צ ֶלם‬NOUN M image. PI consecrate ‫( ֫ק ֶֹדשׁ‬L10) NOUN M holiness. PI jest [C2] ‫ ְצחֹק‬NOUN M laughter. steer. trifling. PU broken down [C2] [‫]פּ ַרר‬ ָ (L24) VB HI break. ‫( ] ָצ ֵל ַח‬L15) VB Q prosper. C9] ‫ק‬ ‫( ָק ַבר‬L15) VB Q. P ‫ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬ Philistines ‫( ֶפּן‬L10) CONJ lest. PI confirm. appoint ‫ ָפּ ַקח‬VB Q open eyes. frustrate [C2. MS ‫. ADV anciently [‫ ָק ַדשׁ‬. grow ‫ ְצ ָע ָקה‬NOUN F cry. separate (something) [C2] [‫]פּ ָרה‬ ָ (L22) VB Q bear fruit. thorn-bush ‫( ָקטֹן‬L9) ADJ MS small. stand up. ‫( ] ָצ ֵדק‬L12) VB Q be righteous. C7] ‫( ְפּ ִרי‬L20) NOUN M fruit ‫( ַפּ ְרעֹה‬L6) PN Pharaoh ‫ ָפּ ַרץ‬VB Q break through/open/out. FS ‫ְק ַטנָּ ה‬ ‫( ָקטֹן‬L16) VB Q be small.

be glad. C3] ‫ ָק ַשׁר‬VB Q bind. expanse. approach [C2] ‫ ֶ ֫ק ֶרב‬NOUN M inward part. C9] ‫( ַרע‬L9) ADJ MS bad. ‫ ֵמ ָרחוֹק‬at a distance ‫ ָר ֵחל‬PN Rachel ‫( רחם‬L21) VB PI have compassion on [C1. HI utterly mock [C2] ‫ ָשׂ ַכל‬VB Q be prudent. look. HI look at. captain. greatness. P ‫שׂדוֹת‬ ‫( שׂוּם ִשׂים‬L23) VB Q put. HI condemn [C1. midst ‫יאה‬ ָ ‫ ְק ִר‬NOUN F proclamation ‫ ָק ַרע‬VB Q tear. C7] ‫יעי‬ ִ ‫ ְר ִב‬NOUN M fourth (see ‫)א ְר ַבּע‬ ַ [D] [‫ ִר ֵבּ ִעים‬. broad ‫ ְר ַח ְב ָעם‬PN Rehoboam ‫( ָרחוֹק‬L19) ADJ far. C7] ‫אוּבן‬ ֵ ‫ ְר‬PN Reuben ‫( רֹאשׁ‬L5) NOUN M head. who ‫( ָשׁאוּל‬L8) PN Saul ‫( ְשׁאוֹל‬L29) NOUN F underworld. leap. ponder. evil. much. distant. moving things ‫( ָרנַ ן‬L24) VB Q. make multiply [C1. distant. distance. C2] ‫ רחף‬VB PI hover [C2] 228 ‫ ָר ַחק‬VB Q be far. Sheol ‫( ָשׁ ַאל‬L10) VB Q inquire. move lightly ‫ ֶ֫ר ֶמשׂ‬NOUN M creeping things. split asunder [C2. C7] ‫( ר ֶֹעה‬L21) NOUN M shepherd (Q PTCP) ‫( ָר ָפא‬L19) VB Q heal [C1. far away. tend. NI was bound. persecute. PI make sport. which. FS ‫ָר ָעה‬ ‫( ֵר ַע‬L12) NOUN M friend ‫( ָר ָעב‬L9) NOUN M famine. C2. PI bind on. jest. remove [C1. abundance [‫ ָ]ר ַבב‬VB Q be(come) many. read aloud [C4] ‫( ָקרוֹב‬L19) ADJ near [‫ ָק ַרב‬. C7] ‫ ָר ַדף‬VB Q pursue. wind ‫ רוּת‬PN Ruth ‫ ָר ָחב‬ADJ wide. teach ‫ ֵ֫שׂ ֶכל‬NOUN M prudence.Glossary ‫( ָק ָרא‬L9) VB Q call. ‫( ] ָק ֵרב‬L5) VB Q draw near. MP ‫ַר ִבּים‬ ‫( ר ֹב‬L24) NOUN M multitude. PI dance. multiply. prince. PI pursue ardently. C2] ‫( ֵר ָיקם‬L29) ADV emptily. PU be chased away. HI show. glad [C3] ‫( ָשׂנֵ א‬L14) VB Q hate [C4] ‫( ָשׂ ִעיר‬L13) ADJ hairy ‫( ָשׂ ָפה‬L13) NOUN F lip. HI make much/ many. give insight. HI cause to skip [C1] ‫יע‬ ַ ‫ ָר ִק‬NOUN M extended surface. set [C8] ‫ ָשׂ ַחק‬VB Q laugh. appear. P ‫אשׁים‬ ִ ‫[ ָר‬A2] ‫ ִראשׁוֹן‬ADJ first [D] ‫אשׁית‬ ִ ‫ ֵר‬NOUN F beginning or chief (part) ‫( ַרב‬L14) ADJ many. hunger ‫( ָר ָעה‬L21) VB Q shepherd. left hand ‫ ָשׂ ֵמ ַח‬. HIT conspire [C3] ‫( ֶ ֫ק ֶשׁת‬L21) NOUN F bow ‫ר‬ ‫( ָר ָאה‬L22) VB Q see. ask [C2] . NI show oneself. pasture [C1. rule [C1. exhibit [C1. insight ‫ ְשׂמֹאל‬NOUN M left side. NOUN M distance. NI be rent. much ‫( ָר ָבה‬L22) VB Q be(come) many. PI make rejoice. ‫( ָשׂ ַמח‬L16) VB Q rejoice. chase. PI send far away. P ‫ָשׂ ִרים‬ ‫ ָשׂ ָרה‬PN Sarah ‫ ָשׂ ָרי‬PN Sarai ‫ ָשׂ ִריד‬NOUN M survivor ‫שׁ‬ •‫( ֶשׁ‬L18) CONJ that. C3] ‫שׂ‬ ‫( ָשׂ ֶדה‬L9) NOUN M field. rend. HI cause to be distant. place. proclaim. shore ‫( ַשׂר‬L11) NOUN M official. play. firmament ‫( ָר ָשׁע‬L9) ADJ wicked ‫( ָר ַשׁע‬L12) VB Q be wicked. C4] ‫ ָר ַקד‬VB Q skip about. PI give a ringing cry [C1. joined together. conspire together. ‫ ] ִר ֵבּ ַע‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to) the fourth generation ‫ ִר ְב ָקה‬PN Rebekah ‫( ֶ֫רגֶ ל‬L5) NOUN F foot ‫( ָר ָדה‬L22) VB Q have dominion. HI chase [C1] ‫( ַ֫ר ַהט‬L19) NOUN M water-trough ‫רוּח‬ ַ (L5) NOUN F spirit. vainly ‫ ָר ַמשׂ‬VB Q creep (on the ground). NI are pursued. C2.

‫( שׁאר‬L28) VB NI be left over, behind, remain;
HI leave over, behind [C2, C3]
‫ ִשׁ ֫בּ ֶֹלת‬NOUN F ear of grain; P ‫ִשׁ ֳבּ ִלים‬
‫( שׁבע‬L14) VB NI swear (an oath); HI cause to
swear (an oath) [C3]
‫( ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬L10) NOUN FS seven; MS ‫;שׁ ְב ָעה‬
ִ P ‫ִשׁ ְב ִעים‬
seventy; ‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ ְשׁ ִב‬seventh; ‫ ִשׁ ְב ָע ַ֫תּיִם‬sevenfold [D]
‫ ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬PN Sheba
‫( ָשׁ ַבר‬L12) VB Q break; PI shatter, break [C3]
‫ ָשׁ ַבר‬VB Q buy grain; HI sell grain [C3]
‫( ָשׁ ַבת‬L22) VB Q cease, desist, rest; HI put an
end to, destroy
‫( ַשׁ ָבּת‬L14) NOUN F sabbath, rest
‫ ַשׁ ַדּי‬PN Shaddai, Almighty
‫( שׁוּב‬L23) VB Q turn back, return; HI return
(something) [C8]
‫ שׁוּף‬VB Q bruise
‫( ָשׁ ַחט‬L17) VB Q slaughter [C2]
‫( שׁחת‬L12) VB PI, HI spoil, destroy [C2]
‫ ִשׁ ָירה‬NOUN F song
‫ ִשׁית‬VB Q put, set [C8]
‫( ָשׁ ַכב‬L9) VB Q lie (down)
‫( ָשׁ ַכח‬L10) VB Q forget [C3]
‫( ָשׁכֹל‬L16) VB Q be bereaved, childless; PI
make childless
‫( שׁכם‬L11) VB HI wake early
‫ ְשׁ ֶכם‬PN Shechem
‫( ָשׁ ַכן‬L6) VB Q settle, dwell
‫( ָשׁ ֵכן‬L28) ADJ inhabitant, neighbor
‫ ִשֹׁלה‬PN Shiloh
‫ ָשׁ ֵלו‬VB Q be at ease, prosper
‫( ָשׁלוֹם‬L14) NOUN M peace, well-being
‫( ָשׁ ַלח‬L9) VB Q send [C3]
‫( שׂלְך‬L11) VB HI throw, cast
‫( ָשׁ ֵלם‬L15) VB Q be whole; PI reward, pay
‫ ְשׁלמֹה‬PN Solomon
‫( ָשׁ ַלף‬L27) VB Q draw out, off
‫( ָשֹׁלשׁ‬L14) NOUN FS three; MS ‫ֹלשׁה‬
ָ ‫;שׁ‬
ְ P ‫ֹלשׁים‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ‬
thirty, thirtieth [D]
‫ ִשׁ ֵלּ ִשׁים‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to) the
third generation
‫( ָשׁם‬L3) ADV there
‫( ֵשׁם‬L9) NOUN M name; P ‫ֵשׁמוׄ ֹת‬
[‫]שׁ ַמד‬
ָ (L11) VB HI annihilate
ֵ ‫( ְשׁ‬L8) PN Samuel


‫( ָשׁ ַ֫מיִם‬L11) NOUN M heavens
‫ ָשׁ ֵמן‬VB Q grow fat; HI make fat
‫ ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬NOUN FS eight; MS ‫;שׁמֹנָ ה‬
ְ P ‫ ְשׁמֹנִ ים‬eighty;
‫ ְשׁ ִמינִ י‬eighth [D]
‫( ָשׁ ַמע‬L6) VB Q hear, listen; +‫ ְבּקוֹל‬obey [C3]
‫( ָשׁ ַמר‬L4) VB Q keep, guard [C3]
‫( ֶ֫שׁ ֶמשׁ‬L16) NOUN M/F sun
‫( ָשׁנַ ה‬L3) NOUN F year; P ‫ָשׁנִ ים‬
‫( ְשׁ ַ֫ניִ ם‬L8) NOUN M two; F ‫[ ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִם‬D]
‫ ִשׁנְ ָער‬PN Shinar (Babylonia)
‫ שׁען‬VB NI lean, support oneself [C2]
‫ שׁעע‬VB Q be blinded; HI blind [C9]
‫( ַ֫שׁ ַער‬L7) NOUN M gate
‫( ִשׁ ְפ ָחה‬L20) NOUN F maidservant
‫( ָשׁ ַפט‬L4) VB Q judge, govern
‫( ָשׁ ַפְך‬L13) VB Q pour out, shed (blood)
‫( שׁקה‬L19) VB HI water, give drink [C7]
‫( ָשׁ ַקט‬L28) VB Q be quiet, undisturbed,
inactive; HI show quietness, cause
‫ ָשׁ ַרץ‬VB Q swarm, teem
‫ ֶ֫שׁ ֶרץ‬NOUN M swarmers, swarming things
‫ ֵשׁשׁ‬NOUN FS six; MS ‫;שׁ ָשּׁה‬
ִ P ‫ ִשׁ ִשּׁים‬sixty; ‫ִשׁ ִשּׁי‬
sixth [D]
‫( ָשׁ ָתה‬L22) VB Q drink [C7]
‫( ְשׁ ַתּיִם‬L8) NOUN F two; CST ‫ְשׁ ֵתּי‬
‫ ָשׁ ַתק‬VB Q be quiet
‫ ַתּ ֲאוָ ה‬NOUN F desire
‫ ְתּ ֵאנָ ה‬NOUN F fig-tree; fig
‫( ֵתּ ָבה‬L25) NOUN F ark
‫ ֫תֹּהוּ‬NOUN M emptiness, formlessness
‫( ְתּהוֹם‬L29) NOUN M/F deep, sea, abyss
‫( ָ֫תּוֶ ְך‬L13) NOUN M midst (often in the
compound PREP ‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬in the midst of)
‫תּוֹע ָבה‬
ֵ (L12) NOUN F abomination
ָ (L4) NOUN F direction, instruction, law
‫( ַ֫תּ ַחת‬L11) PREP under, beneath
‫( ָתּ ָלה‬L25) VB Q hang [C7]
‫ ְתּמוּנָ ה‬NOUN F likeness, form
‫( ָתּ ִמים‬L21) ADJ complete, sound
‫( ָתּ ַמם‬L24) VB Q be complete, finished [C9]
‫ ַתּנִּ ין‬NOUN M serpent, dragon, sea-monster
‫ ָתּ ַפר‬VB Q sew together [C3]
‫( ָתּ ַפשׂ‬L18) VB Q lay hold of, wield
‫ ִתּ ְקוָ ה‬NOUN F hope

‫ ְתּ ָר ִפים‬NOUN M P teraphim (a kind of idol, a
means of divination)
‫ ַתּ ְר ִשׁישׁ‬PN Tarshish
ָ ‫ ְתּ‬NOUN F longing
ִ P ‫ ִתּ ְשׁ ִעים‬ninety;
‫ ֵ֫תּ ַשׁע‬NOUN FS nine; MS ‫;תּ ְשׁ ָעה‬
ִ ‫ ְתּ ִשׁ‬ninth [D]


Song Lyrics


Hinneh Mah Tov (Psalm 133:1)
‫וּמה־נָּ ִעים‬
ַ ‫ִהנֵּ ה ַמה־טּוֹב‬

Behold, how good and how pleasant
(is) the dwelling of brothers together

‫ם־י ַֽחד‬
ָ ַ‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת ַא ִחים גּ‬

’Esa ‘Einai (Psalm 121:1-2)
I lift up my eyes to the hills—
from where will my help come?
My help is from Yahweh,
maker of made heaven and earth.

‫ל־ה ָה ִרים ֵמ ַ֫איִ ן יָבֹא ֶעזְ ִרי‬
ֶ ‫ֶא ָשּׂא ֵעינַ י ֶא‬
‫ֶעזְ ִרי ֵמ ִעם יְ הוָ ה ע ֵֹשׂה ָשׁ ַ֫מיִם וָ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬

Mi Ha’ish (Psalm 34:13-15)
Who is the man who desires life, (and) loves
days to see goodness?
Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips
from speaking deceit.
Turn away from evil, and do good; seek
peace, and pursue it.

‫יָמים ִל ְראוֹת טוֹב‬
ִ ‫י־ה ִאישׁ ֶה ָח ֵפץ ַחיִּ ים א ֵֹהב‬
ָ ‫ִמ‬
‫וּשׂ ָפ ֶ֫תיָך ִמ ַדּ ֵבּר ִמ ְר ָמה‬
ְ ‫נְ צֹר ְלשׁוֹנְ ָך ֵמ ָרע‬
‫סוּר ֵמ ָרע וַ ֲע ֵשׂה־טוֹב ַבּ ֵקּשׁ ָשׁלוֹם וְ ָר ְד ֵפהוּ‬

‘Ose Shalom
He who makes peace in his heights,
He will make make for us
And for all Israel.
And say, say: Amen!
He will make peace, he will make peace,
Peace for us and for all Israel

ָ ‫ע ֵֹשׂה ָשׁלוֹם ִבּ ְמ‬
‫הוּא יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם ָע ֫ ֵלינוּ‬
‫וְ ַעל ָכּל יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫וְ ִא ְמרוּ ִא ְמרוּ ָא ֵמן‬
‫יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם‬
‫ָשׁלוֹם ָע ֫ ֵלינוּ וְ ַעל ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬

Mah Na’vu (Isaiah 52:7)
How beautiful upon the mountains are the
feet of the messenger
Who announces the salvation, who announces

‫ל־ה ָה ִרים ַרגְ ֵלי ְמּ ַב ֵשּׂר‬
ֶ ‫ַמה־נָּ אווּ ַע‬
‫יע ָשׁלוֹם‬
ַ ‫שׁוּעה ַמ ְשׁ ִמ‬
ָ ְ‫יע ָהי‬
ַ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִמ‬

Song Lyrics


Ufaratzta (Genesis 28:14)
And you shall break out
west and east and north and south

‫וּפ ַר ְצ ָ֫תּ‬
‫ָ֫י ָמּה וָ ֵ ֫ק ְד ָמה וְ ָצ ֫ ֹפנָ ה וָ ֶ֫נגְ ָבּה‬

veDavid (1 Samuel 16:12; 18:7; Songs 6:3b)
And David is beautiful of eyes,
He pastures among the lilies;
Saul has smote his thousands,
and David his ten-thousands!
Son of Jesse lives and lasts!

‫ה־ע ַ֫יניִ ם‬
ֵ ‫יְפ‬
ֵ ‫וְ ָדוִ ד‬
‫שּׁוֹשׁנַ יִ ם‬
ָ ‫הוּא ר ֶֹעה ַבּ‬
‫ִה ָכּה ָשׁאוּל ַבּ ֲא ָל ָפיו‬
‫וְ ָדוִ ד ְבּ ִר ְבב ָ ֹֽתיו‬
‫ֶבּן־יִ ַשּׁי ַחי וְ ַקיָּ ם‬

Yesh Lanu Tayish
Goat, goat, there is, there is, there is . . .
We have a goat,
and you have a goat,
and he has four feet,
and also a small tail,
la la la la . . .

‫ַ֫תּיִ שׁ ַ֫תּיִ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ‬
‫יֵ שׁ ֫ ָלנוּ ַתּיִ שׁ‬
‫וְ ַ֫תּיִ שׁ יֵ שׁ ְלָך‬
‫וְ לוֹ ַא ְר ָבּע ַרגְ ֫ ַליִ ם‬
‫וְ גַ ם זָ נָ ב ָק ָטן‬
. . . ‫ָלה ָלה ָלה ָלה‬

Ush’avtem (Isaiah 12:3)
And you shall draw water with joy
from the wells of salvation

‫ם־מיִם ְבּ ָשׂשׂוֹן‬
ַ֫ ‫וּשׁ ַא ְב ֶתּ‬
ֽ ָ ְ‫ִמ ַמּ ַעיְ נֵ י ַהי‬

Sisu et-yerushalayim (Isaiah 66:10)
Exult with Jerusalem,
And rejoice in her, all those who love her

‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫ִ֫שׂישׂוּ ֶאת־י‬
ָ ‫֫ ִגּילוּ ָ ֖בהּ ָכּל־א ֲֹה ֶ֫ב‬

Hava Nagila
Come, let us rejoice and be glad,
Come, let us exult and be glad.

‫ָ֫ה ָבה נָ גִ י֫ ָלה וְ נִ ְשׂ ְמ ָחה‬
‫ָ֫ה ָבה נְ ַרנְּ נָ ה וְ נִ ְשׂ ְמ ָחה‬

In this year. you'll see yet. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ Red grapes will ripen until evening. How good it will be. you'll see yet. ‫דוּמּים ְיַב ִ֫שׁילוּ ַעד ָה ֫ ֶע ֶרב‬ ִ ‫ֲענָ ִבים ֲא‬ ‫שּׁוּל ָחן‬ ְ ‫וְ יוּגְ שׁוּ צוֹנְ נִ ים ַל‬ ‫דוּמּים יִ ְשׂאוּ ֶאל ֵאם ַה ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬ ִ ‫וְ רוּחוֹת ְר‬ ‫ִעיתּוֹנִ ים יְ ָשׁנִ ים וְ ָענָ ן‬ You'll see yet. in the coming year. In this year. black and white. In this year. Children on vacation will play tag. old newspapers and clouds. you'll see yet. In this year. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ You'll see yet. in this year. How good it will be. Before the light.Song Lyrics 233 Bashana Haba’ah Next year we'll sit upon the balcony. A white heron will spread wings out in the light. you'll see yet. ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה נִ ְפרוֹשׁ ַכּפּוֹת יָ ַ ֫דיִם‬ ‫מוּל ָהאוֹר ַהנִּ יגָּ ר ַה ָלּ ָבן‬ ‫ֲאנָ ָפה ְל ָבנָ ה ִתּ ְפרוֹשׁ ָבּאוֹר ְכּנָ ַפיִ ם‬ ‫תוֹכן‬ ָ ‫וְ ַה ֶ֫שּׁ ֶמשׁ ִתּזְ ַרח ְבּ‬ You'll see yet. in the coming year. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ In this year. And the sun will shine in their midst. In this year. in the coming year. How good it will be. How good it will be. In this year. ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה נֶ ֵשׁב ַעל ַה ִמּ ְר ֫ ֶפּ ֶסת‬ ‫נוֹדדוֹת‬ ְ ‫פּוֹרים‬ ִ ‫וְ נִ ְספּוֹר ִצ‬ ‫תוֹפ ֶסת‬ ֶ ֫ ‫חוֹפ ָשׁה יְ ַשׂ ֲחקוּ‬ ְ ‫יְ ָל ִדים ְבּ‬ ‫ֵבּין ַה ַ֫בּיִ ת ְל ֵבין ַה ָשּׂדוֹת‬ You'll see yet. in the coming year. How good it will be. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ You'll see yet. And sleepy breezes will carry to wherever. How good it will be. And cold water will be brought to the table. you'll see yet. And we'll count migrating birds. in the coming year. Between the house and the fields. you'll see yet. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ You'll see yet. in the coming year. we'll spread palms out. ‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬ ‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬ .

praise Yah. a single one. . let everyone sing With one word... And whatever has not yet been. Praise Yah for whatever has been. Praise Yah for everything. Praise Yah and put hand in hand And sing with one heart: Praise Yah. ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל ַהכֹּל‬ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ָמ ָחר וְ ֶאתמוֹל‬ ‫וּתנוּ יָ ד ְבּיָ ד‬ ְ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬ ‫וְ ִ֫שׁירוּ ְבּ ֵלב ֶא ָחד ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬ . And it also suitable—what a wonderful world.. Praise Yah.Song Lyrics 234 Halleluya Praise Yah forever.. ‫עוֹלם ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ יָ ִ֫שׁירוּ ֻכ ָלּם‬ ָ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ָל‬ ‫בּוֹדָך‬ ְ ‫ְבּ ִמ ָלּה ַא ַחת‬ ‫תּוֹדה‬ ָ ‫ַה ֵלּב ָמ ֵלא ְבּ ָהמוֹן‬ ‫עוֹלם נִ ְפ ָלא‬ ָ ‫הוֹלם גַּ ם־הוּא ֵאיזֶ ה‬ ֵ ְ‫ו‬ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ִעם ַה ִשּׁיר‬ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל יוֹם ֶשׁ ֵמ ִאיר‬ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל ַמה ֶשׁ ָהיָ ה‬ ‫וּמה ֶשׁעוֹד לֹא ָהיָ ה ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬ ַ . Praise Yah tomorrow and yesterday. Praise Yah for the day which shines. The heart if filled with plenty of thanks. Praise Yah with the song.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.