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Ch04 Lecture

Ch04 Lecture

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John E. McMurry ‡ Robert C.

Fay

General Chemistry: Atoms First Chapter 4 Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry
Lecture Notes
Alan D. Earhart Southeast Community College ‡ Lincoln, NE

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds
Covalent Bond: A bond that results from the sharing of electrons between atoms.

Chapter 4/2

Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds

Chapter 4/3

Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bond: A transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. An electrostatic attraction between charged particles.Typically a metal bonded to a nonmetal. Ion: A charged particle. Cation: A positively charged particle. Metals tend to form cations. Anion: A negatively charged particle. Nonmetals tend to form anions.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 4/4

Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds
In the formation of sodium chloride, one electron is transferred from the sodium atom to a chlorine atom. 11 protons 17 protons 11 electrons 17 electrons Na +
1 2

Cl2

Na1+ 11 protons 10 electrons

+

Cl1-

17 protons 18 electrons

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/6

Chapter 4/7

Electron Configurations of Ions
Atoms
- e-

Ions Na1+: 1s2 2s2 2p6
+ e-

Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p5

Cl1-: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/8

Electron Configurations of Ions

Chapter 4/9

Electron Configurations of Ions
Atoms
-2 e-

Ions Fe: [Ar] 3d6
-3 e-

Fe: [Ar] 4s2 3d6

Fe: [Ar] 4s2 3d6

Fe: [Ar] 3d5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/10

Ionic Radii

Chapter 4/11

Ionic Radii

Chapter 4/12

Ionization Energy
Ionization Energy (Ei): The amount of energy necessary to remove the highest-energy electron from an isolated neutral atom in the gaseous state.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/13

Ionization Energy

Chapter 4/14

Ionization Energy

Boron has a lower Ei due to a smaller Zeff (shielding by the 2s electrons)

Ionization Energy

Oxygen has a lower Ei since the first electron is removed from a filled orbital

Higher Ionization Energy
M + energy M1+ + energy M2+ + energy M1+ + eM2+ + eM3+ + e-

Electron Affinity
Electron Affinity (Eea): The energy released when a neutral atom gains an electron to form an anion.

Chapter 4/18

The Octet Rule
Octet Rule: Main-group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with eight outer-shell electrons.

The Octet Rule
Octet Rule: Main-group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with eight outer-shell electrons. Metals tend to have low Ei and low Eea. They tend to lose one or more electrons. Nonmetals tend to have high Ei and high Eea. They tend to gain one or more electrons.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/20

Chapter 4/21

Ionic Bonds and the Formation of Ionic Solids
Born-Haber Cycle Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: 1 2 Na(s) Cl2(g) Na(g) Cl(g) + eNa1+(g) + Cl1-(g) 1 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 Na(g) Cl(g) Na1+(g) + eCl1-(g) NaCl(s) NaCl(s) +107.3 kJ/mol +122 kJ/mol +495.8 kJ/mol -348.6 kJ/mol -787 kJ/mol -411 kJ/mol
Chapter 4/22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Lattice Energies in Ionic Solids
Lattice Energy (U): The amount of energy that must be supplied to break up an ionic solid into individual gaseous ions.

Chapter 4/23

Naming Ionic Compounds
Cation Charges for Typical Main-Group Ions 1+ 2+ 3+

Naming Ionic Compounds
Anion Charges for Typical Main-Group Ions

3- 2- 1-

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/25

Naming Ionic Compounds
Some transition metals form more than one cation

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/26

Naming Ionic Compounds
Ionic Compound: A neutral compound in which the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges. Binary Ionic Compounds sodium chloride: magnesium oxide: aluminum sulfide: Na1+ Mg2+ Al3+ Cl1O2S2NaCl MgO Al2S3

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/27

Naming Ionic Compounds
Use Roman numerals in parentheses to indicate the charge on metals that form more than one kind of cation. Binary Ionic Compounds iron(III) oxide: tin(II) chloride: lead(II) fluoride: Fe3+ Sn2+ Pb2+ O2Cl1F1Fe2O3 SnCl2 PbF2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/28

Naming Ionic Compounds
Polyatomic Ionic Compounds sodium hydroxide: magnesium carbonate: sodium carbonate: iron(II) hydroxide: Na1+ Mg2+ Na1+ Fe2+ OH1CO32CO32OH1NaOH MgCO3 Na2CO3 Fe(OH)2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/30

Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Metallic Bright, silvery Malleable Relatively soft

‡ ‡ ‡

Good conductors of electricity Very reactive Occur only in salts

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/31

Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals
Reaction with Halogens 2M(s) + X2 2MX(s) M = Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs X = F, Cl, Br, or I

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/32

Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals
Reaction with Oxygen 4Li(s) + O2(g) 2Na(s) + O2(g) K(s) + O2(g) 2Li2O(s) Na2O2(s) KO2(s) oxide peroxide superoxide

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/33

Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals
Reaction with Water 2M(s) + 2H2O(l) 2M1+(aq) + 2OH1-(aq) + H2(g) M = Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/34

Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals
Reaction with Ammonia 2M(s) + 2NH3(l) 2M1+(soln) + 2NH21-(soln) + H2(g) M = Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/35

Chemistry of the Group 2A Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals

‡ ‡ ‡

Metallic Bright, silvery Occur only in salts

‡ ‡

Relatively soft (harder than 1a) Not as reactive as 1a

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/36

Chemistry of the Group 2A Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
Reaction with Halogens M + X2 MX2 M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba X = F, Cl, Br, or I

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/37

Chemistry of the Group 2A Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
Reaction with Oxygen 2M + O2 2MO M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/38

Chemistry of the Group 2A Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
Reaction with Water M(s) + 2H2O(l) M2+(aq) + 2OH1-(aq) + H2(g) M = Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/39

Chemistry of the Group 7A Elements: Halogens

‡ ‡

Nonmetals Exist as diatomics in elemental form

‡ ‡

Very reactive Occur only in salts and minerals

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/40

Chemistry of the Group 7A Elements: Halogens
Reaction with Metals 2M + nX2 2MXn M = Metal X = F, Cl, Br, or I

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/41

Chemistry of the Group 7A Elements: Halogens
Reaction with Hydrogen H2(g) + X2 2HX(g) X = F, Cl, Br, or I

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/42

Chemistry of the Group 8A Elements: Noble Gases

‡ ‡

Colorless and odorless Nonmetals

‡ ‡

Very unreactive Occur naturally as atomic gases
Chapter 4/43

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chemistry of the Group 8A Elements: Noble Gases
Reactions Xe(g) + F2(g) Xe(g) + 2F2(g) Xe(g) + 3F2(g) XeF2(s) XeF4(s) XeF6(s)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/44

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