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Airbus Fuel Accuracy

Airbus Fuel Accuracy

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Published by: dougcoex on Oct 12, 2010
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08/18/2013

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Operational Liaison Meeting FBW aircraft

Fuel accuracy

Content
Introduction What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft?
Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI)

Why Fuel quantity discrepancies:
On ground? In flight?

Conclusion

FQI System description
The FQI system is a computerized system that measure:
the total fuel mass the total fuel volume fuel quantity in each tank

Fuel Volume and mass are determined using
Fuel probes (capacitance is proportional to fuel level) densitometers

FQI System description Example of Probes location in an A320 aircraft .

FQI System description Fuel Quantities are displayed on the ECAM A320 A330 .

FQI System description Fuel Quantities are displayed on the ECAM A320 FQI is inaccurate .

Each tank’s fuel quantity on ground can be determined: reading the MMI dipstick number reading the aircraft attitude (grid square letter and number) using the MMI table 1 A320 MMI Wing Tanks MMI Table (Liters .Manual magnetic Indicators MMIs are installed in each wing tanks.

Content Introduction What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft? Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI) Why Fuel quantity discrepancies: On ground? In flight? Conclusion .

discrepancies reported between: uplifted quantity measured by the bowsers uplifted quantity measured using FQI Those discrepancies may be due to: Bowser quantity and density error APU fuel used FQI accuracy .Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? At the end of refueling.

75% of fuel uplifted APU fuel used: To be taken into account when comparing FOB pre-refuel and FOB post-refuel depends on external condition and generator load APU fuel consumption: between 100 and 150Kg/h .5% of fuel uplifted Density tolerance (both temperature accuracy and density reading error): 0.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? Bowser quantity and density tolerances: Volume tolerance: generally less than 0.25% of fuel uplifted Total bowser tolerance: 0.

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? The FQI is a gauging system. Bias and tolerances can affect FQI system accuracy: tank manufacturing tolerances FQI computer inaccuracies tolerances in density determination water that causes FQI over-reads wing deflection .

FQI accuracy on ground Single Aisle Aircraft FOB 0 to 0.5% FOB) UNDERREAD Decrease linearly to -1% Max FOB .5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB) Long Range Aircraft: FOB Below 2% Max FOB 2% Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD Decrease linearly to 0 +(0.5% Max FOB 0.5% Max FOB +0.(0.5% FOB) .5% Max FOB +0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD 0 1% FOB UNDERREAD .(0.

5% FOB) FAR/JAR 25.5% FOB) Long Range Aircraft: FOB Below 2% Max FOB 2% Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD Decrease linearly to 0 +(0.5% Max FOB +0.(0.5% Max FOB 0.5% FOB) UNDERREAD Decrease linearly to -1% Max FOB .5% Max FOB +0.FQI accuracy on ground Single Aisle Aircraft FOB 0 to 0.1337: Each fuel quantity indicator shall be calibrated to read “zero” during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank is equal to the unusable fuel supply .(0.5% Max FOB +0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD 0 1% FOB UNDERREAD .

05 0 -0.05 -0.15 0.2 -0.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T 0.25 0 2 4 6 8 10 Actual FOB Tonnes 12 14 16 18 20 .2 0.1 -0.15 -0.25 0.1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (GROUND) MAX FOB=113T 1.5 0 20 40 60 Actual FOB Tonnes 80 100 120 .5 1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? Max discrepancy = Max [Fuel load(per bowser).Fuel added on ECAM (FQI end-FQI start)]= [±Bowser dev ± FQI dev(end) ± FQI dev(start) +APU fuel (refuel)] .

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? EXEMPLE: (A320-200) ACTUAL FOB before refueling: 3T ACTUAL FOB after refueling: 18T Max TOTAL Bowser inaccuracy : APU Fuel used for 30minutes Max FQI deviation* TOTAL: 115kg 50kg 220kg ______ 385kg The FQI deviation is only significant when FQI Over/ Under-readings before and after refueling are very different .

2 0.15 0.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T 0.25 0.25 0 2 4 6 8 10 Actual FOB Tonnes 12 14 16 18 20 .2 -0.15 -0.05 0 -0.1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.1 -0.05 MAX FQI deviation during refueling -0.

5 1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.5 0 20 40 60 Actual FOB Tonnes 80 100 120 .5 0 -0.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (GROUND) MAX FOB=113T 1.5 -1 -1.

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? What about MMI use? MMI accuracy: +/-5% FOB .

5 -1 -1.5 1 FQI/MMI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 Actual FOB Tonnes 12 14 16 18 20 .5 0 FQI MMI -0.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T 1.

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (FLIGHT) MAX FOB=113T 8 6 4 FQI/MMI TOLERANCE Tonnes 2 0 0 -2 20 40 60 80 100 120 FQI MMI -4 -6 -8 Actual FOB Tonnes .

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground? What about MMI use? MMI accuracy: +/-5% FOB Do not use MMI to check FQI system Only use MMI when FQI is inoperative .

Content Introduction What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft? Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI) Why Fuel quantity discrepancies: On ground? In flight? Conclusion .

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? .

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? .

Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? When performing this check. discrepancies come from: BLOCK FUEL accuracy FU accuracy FOB accuracy .

keep in mind that the FU indication does not take into account APU fuel consumption .FU accuracy FU is the integration of the Fuel Flow over time The accuracy of the Fuel Flow meter depends on: Fuel flow rate Temperature conditions But.

5% For normal Cruise conditions ~+/-1% .FU accuracy FU accuracy: Estimated to be better than +/-1.

6 -0.USED 67 tonnes F.7 0.6 0.1 -0.4 -0.2 0.7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Deviatio n tonnes FOB tonnes F.4 0.USED 31 tonnes F.5 0.3 0.5 -0.USED 103 tonnes .1 0 -0.USED Deviation 0.FU accuracy on long Range Aircraft Maximum F.3 -0.2 -0.

3% Max FOB +0.3% Max FOB +0.95% FOB) .FQI accuracy in flight Single Aisle Aircraft FOB 0 to 0.64% Max FOB .(1% Max FOB +0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD 0 1% FOB UNDERREAD .(0.5% FOB) Long Range Aircraft: FOB Below 2% Max FOB 2% Max FOB to Max FOB OVERREAD Decrease linearly to 0 +(0.5% Max FOB 0.95%FOB) UNDERREAD Decrease linearly to –0.

3 -0.2 -0.1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0 -0.1 -0.4 0 2 4 6 8 10 Actual FOB Tonnes 12 14 16 18 20 .Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (Flight) MAX FOB= 19T 0.3 0.2 0.

5 20 40 60 80 100 120 -1 -1.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (FLIGHT) MAX FOB=113T 2 1.5 1 FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes 0.5 -2 Actual FOB Tonnes .5 0 0 -0.

and the F. the FQI system has the maximum deviation. USED deviation moves in the same sense . but with the opposite sign to the FQI at departure.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? The maximum theoretical Combined FOB and FU deviation in indication is possible when: At departure the FQI system has the maximum deviation (positive or negative) At time X.

Fuel check with 10 Tons on board: MAX Theoretical Combined FOB and FU deviation: 1.Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight? EXEMPLES: A340 aircraft which takes off with 113 Tons on board. Fuel check with 10 Tons on board: MAX Theoretical Combined FOB and FU deviation: 2.749 Tons Comparing FOB departure-FOB+FU is a good practice ! .554 Tons A340 aircraft which takes off with 41 Tons on board.

continue to perform the FOB check. being confident on the Fuel Quantity Indications displayed on ECAM . only use MMI when FQI is inoperative In flight.Conclusion Your FQI system has a good accuracy On ground.

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