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ABSTRACT

B a s i c wa t e r p r o p e r t i e s 2 e x p e r i me n t i s c o n d u c t e d t o
d e t e r mi n e d i s s o l v e d c h e mi c a l t h a t c o n t a i n i n wa t e r s u c h a s c h l o r i n e ,
s u l f a t e , c h r o mi u m , i r o n , a n d p h o s p h o r u s . A s a mp l e o f „            

    i s t a k e n t o b e t e s t e d . T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s e xp e r i m e n t
i s t o d e t e r mi n e wh e t h e r i t r e a c h t h e r a n g e o f t h e d i s s o l v e d h e a v y
m e t a l s ( c h l o r i n e , s u l f a t e , c h r o mi u m , i r o n , a n d p h o s p h o r u s ) i n wa t e r
wh e n a c e r t a i n v o l u me i s t a k e n t o b e e x p e r i me n t e d . F r o m t h e r e s u l t s
o b t a i n e d , t h e q u a l i t y a n d s a f e t y o f t h e wa t e r c a n a l s o b e d e t e r mi n e d .
C h l o r i n e , s u l f a t e , p h o s p h o r u s , i r o n a n d c h r o mi u m wh i c h e xi s t i n t h e
s a mp l e o f w a t e r a r e t h e p o l l u t a n t s t h a t t o b e d e t e r mi n e d b y u s i n g
the Portable Spe ctrophoto meter DR 2400. It is also be used to
m e a s u r e t h e wa v e l e n g t h a n d t h e m a s s o f t h e p o l l u t a n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o
t h e d e n s i t y s h o wn b y t h e a p p a r a t u s . T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e h e a v y
m e t a l s i n t h e wa t e r s a m p l e a r e a s f o l l o ws ; c h l o r i n e t o t a l ( 0 . 3 6 mg / L ) ,
c h l o r i n e f r e e ( 0 . 1 0 mg / L ) , s u l f a t e ( 2 5 . 0 mg / L ) , p h o s p h o r u s r e a c t i v e
( 0 . 4 3 mg / L ) , i r o n ( 0 . 9 6 mg / L ) , a n d c h r o mi u m h e x a v a l e n t ( 0 . 0 0 m g / L ) .
The experi ment i s co mpl eted and co nducted suc cessful l y.

INTRODUCTION

      
         
                               
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( s o u r c e : h t t p : / / w w w . w e p a - d b . n e t / p o l i c i e s / s t a t e / m a l a y s i a / r i v e r . h t m)

T h e s t a t e m e n t s a b o v e s h o w s t h e r e a l i t y o f t o d a y ¶ s wa t e r
q u a l i t y , wh e r e m o s t o f i t i s c o n t a mi n a t e d b y h e a v y m e t a l s , s u c h a s
l e a d ( P b ) , me r c u r y ( H g ) , C a d mi u m ( C d ) , a n d c h l o r i n e ( C l ) . T h e
e x p o s u r e a n d e xi s t e n c e o f t h e s e h e a v y m e t a l s a r e a p p a r e n t l y o n e o f
t h e ma i n t h r e a t s t o h u m a n ¶ s h e a l t h . T h e s e me t a l s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d
e x t e n s i v e l y a n d t h e i r c i r c u ms t a n c e s o n h u ma n h e a l t h r e g u l a r l y
r e v i e we d b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s s u c h a s t h e W o r l d H e a l t h
Organization (W HO).

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For thousands of years have heavy metals been u sed by
h u ma n s , a n d a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a d v e r s e h e a l t h e f f e c t u p o n e xp o s u r e
o f t h e s e h a z a r d o u s m e t a l s a r e b e i n g i n f o r me d t o p u b l i c a wa r e n e s s ,
t h e h a r mf u l s i t u a t i o n s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l g o i n g o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n
many no t-so-developed countries.

The perspective of people regarding the heavy metals pollution


is that it is associated only in areas where great deals of industries
a r e o p e r a t i n g . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , r o a d wa y s a n d a u t o m o b i l e s a r e n o w
considered as large possible sources for such hazardous heavy
m e t a l s . Z i n c , c o p p e r a n d l e a d a r e t h e mo s t c o m m o n h e a v y m e t a l s
wh i c h b y c h a n c e a r e r e l e a s e d f r o m r o a d t r a v e l s , wh i c h a c c o u n t s f o r
a t l e a s t 9 0 p e r c e n t s o f t h e t o t a l me t a l s i n r o a d r u n o f f .

"   


      
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( s o u r c e : h t t p : / / w w w . f a i r f a x c o u n t y . g o v / n v s w c d / n e ws l e t t e r / h e a v y m e t a l .
h t m) 

As a matter of fact , heavy me tals ca n be very har mful to one¶s


h e a l t h i f a d r i n k i n g wa t e r c o n t a i n i n g s u c h d e a d l y m e t a l s i s

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c o n s u m e d . T h e a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n c l u d e d i s t u r b a n c e i n g r o wt h
a n d d e v e l o p me n t , t r i g g e r i n g c a n c e r , o r g a n d a ma g e , n e r v o u s s y s t e m
d a ma g e , a n d i n e xt r e m e c a s e s , c a u s i n g f a t a l .

R e s e a r c h s h o w s t h a t y o u n g s t e r s a r e mo r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o b e
a f f e c t e d t o t h e t o xi c i t y o f t h e h e a v y m e t a l s , a s t h e r a p i d l y
developing body syste ms in foetus , infants and young children are
f a r mo r e s e n s i t i v e t h a n t h e a d u l t s . T h e e f f e c t s i n c l u d e l e a r n i n g
d i f f i c u l t i e s , me m o r y i mp a i r me n t , d a m a g e t o t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m , a n d
b e h a v i o u r a l p r o b l e ms s u c h a s h y p e r a c t i v i t y a n d a g g r e s s i v e n e s s .
I r r e v e r s i b l e b r a i n d a ma g e r e s u l t s f r o m o v e r d o s e o f t h e m e t a l s .

H u ma n s a r e t h e r e f o r e n e e d e d t o b e h i g h l y a wa r e wi t h t h e
h a r mf u l e f f e c t s t h e w a t e r c o n t a i n i n g h e a v y m e t a l s c o u l d b r i n g t o
o n e ¶ s h e a l t h . H e a v y m e t a l p o l l u t i o n i s a q u i c k l y g r o wi n g p r o b l e m f o r
o u r o c e a n s , l a k e s , a n d r i v e r s . R i g h t n o w i t ma y n o t b e t h e b i g g e s t
p o l l u t i o n p r o b l e m, b u t ju s t wa i t i n g f o r i t t o g o a wa y o r t o l e t i t s o l v e
i t s e l f i s n o t g o i n g t o h e l p . W e n e e d t o b e a wa r e o f t h e p r o b l e ms
h e a v y m e t a l c r e a t e s , s o we a l l , i n o u r o w n l i t t l e wa y s , c a n c o n t r i b u t e
to the solutions. Heavy metal pollution is a threat to hu man health,
a n i ma l s , p l a n t s , a n d t h e p l a n e t i t s e l f , a n d i s ma i n l y c a u s e d b y
i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s . W h i l e s o me o f t h e m e t a l
p o l l u t a n t s c o me f r o m f e r t i l i z e r s a n d s e wa g e , t h e b i g g e s t s o u r c e o f
heavy metal pol l uti on defi ni tel y i s i ndustri al i zati on.

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O B J E C T IV E

T h e ma i n o b je c t i v e o f t h i s e x p e r i me n t i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e
dissolved heavy metals in wa t e r sa mple collected from „ 
       
    wh i c h i s c h l o r i n e t o t a l , c h l o r i n e f r e e , s u l f a t e ,
p h o s p h o r u s r e a c t i v e , i r o n a n d c h r o mi u m h e xa v a l e n t . B e s i d e s t h a t ,
t h e r e a r e a l s o si d e o b je c t i v e o f t h i s e xp e r i me n t , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s i n g
t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s e n c e o f h e a v y m e t a l s i n wa t e r s o u r c e s .

THEORY

P o l l u t e d d r i n k i n g wa t e r c a n b e f o u n d a n y wh e r e . E v e n i n c i t i e s
o r c o u n t r i e s t h a t c l a i m t o h a v e h e a l t h y wa t e r s u p p l i e s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l
c a s e s r e g a r d i n g p o l l u t e d wa t e r b e c a u s e t h e l o c a l wa t e r m a y c o n t a i n
u n i q u e b a c t e r i a t h a t h u ma n ¶ s b o d y i s n o t u s e d t o . U n s a f e d r i n k i n g
wa t e r s o u r c e s c a n s p r e a d s e r i o u s d i s e a s e s , s u c h a s p o t e n t i a l wa t e r -
borne i ll nesses l i ke Hepati ti s A, Typhoi d Fever, vi ral gastroenteri ti s,
c h o l e r a , c y c l o s p o r i a s i s a n d s c h i s t o s o mi a s i s . M o s t o f t h e s e d i s e a s e s
h a v e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s y s t e m s , b u t t h e y a l l r e s u l t i n a b d o mi n a l
p a i n , c r a mp i n g a n d d i a r r h o e a .

The United States of America are o ne of the countries tha t


operates nu merous hea vy industrial factories and have rec ords of
p o l l u t e d e n v i r o n me n t , w h i c h e xp l a i n s l o t s o f n e ws a n d r e p o r t s
s t a t i n g t h a t m o s t t a p a n d we l l wa t e r i n t h a t c o u n t r y i s n o t s a f e f o r
d r i n k i n g p u r p o s e r e c e n t l y . T h e h e a v y me t a l s p e n e t r a t e a n d p o l l u t e
o u r n a t u r a l wa t e r s o u r c e s a l o n g wi t h t o xi c b a c t e r i a a n d o t h e r

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c h e mi c a l s , m a k i n g p e o p l e s i c k a s w e l l a s c a u s i n g l o n g t e r m h e a l t h
c o n s e q u e n c e s s u c h a s l i v e r d a ma g e , c a n c e r a n d o t h e r s e r i o u s h e a l t h
p r o b l e m s . I t i s e v e n b e l i e v e d t h a t a l m o s t a l l o u r s o u r c e s o f wa t e r ,
i n c l u d i n g mu n i c i p a l wa t e r s y s t e m s , we l l s , l a k e s , r i v e r s , a n d e v e n
g l a c i e r s , c o n t a i n s o me l e v e l o f c o n t a mi n a t i o n . E v e n s o m e b r a n d s o f
b o t t l e d wa t e r h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o b e p o l l u t e d a n d h a r mf u l i n a d d i t i o n
t o p l a s t i c c h e mi c a l l e a c h i n g f r o m t h e b o t t l e .

à       , f o r e x a m p l e s , i s u s u a l l y a d d e d t o wa t e r t o d e a c t i v a t e
a n d d e s t r o y d i s e a s e - c a u s i n g mi c r o o r g a n i s ms a n d i s t h e m o s t wi d e l y
u s e d a s d i s i n f e c t a n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t c a n r e a c t wi t h n a t u r a l l y
o c c u r r i n g o r g a n i c c o mp o u n d s f o u n d i n wa t e r s u p p l y , wh i c h i n t u r n s
p r o d u c e h a z a r d o u s c o m p o u n d s , k n o wn a s d i s i n f e c t i o n b y - p r o d u c t s
( D B P s ) . T r i h a l o me t h a n e s ( T H M s ) a n d h a l o a c e t i c a c i d s a r e c o m m o n
DBPs. It is undeniably potentially carcinogenic especially to organs
such as kidney and liver. Due to this, federal regulations in the
U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a r e q u i r e r e g u l a r mo n i t o r i n g o f t h e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e c o m p o u n d s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e ms o f
m u n i c i p a l wa t e r s y s t e m s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e W H O s t a t e s t h a t t h e
r i s k s t o h e a l t h f r o m D B P s a r e e xt r e m e l y s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n wi t h
inadequate disinfection.

T h e S e c o n d a r y D r i n k i n g W a t e r R e g u l a t i o n s r e c o m me n d a
m a x i mu m c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 2 5 0 m g / L f o r s u l f a t e i o n s ( S O 4 2 - ) .   

i s i n f a c t o c c u r s i n a l mo s t a l l n a t u r a l wa t e r s . S u l f a t e i s i n d e e d o n e
o f t h e m a jo r d i s s o l v e d c o n s t i t u e n t s i n r a i n wa t e r . H i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
o f s u l f a t e i n d r i n k i n g wa t e r c a u s e a l a xa t i v e e f f e c t wh e n c o m b i n e d
wi t h m a g n e s i u m a n d c a l c i u m. B a c t e r i a wh i c h i n f a c t a t t a c k s a n d
reduces sulfates, causes t he for mat ion of hydrogen sulfide gas
(H2S).

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0   o ccurs naturally in rocks and other mineral
deposits. Technically, the rocks release the phosphorus as
p h o s p h a t e i o n s wh i c h a r e s o l u b l e i n w a t e r a n d t h e m i n e r a l i z e
p h o s p h a t e c o m p o u n d s b r e a k d o w n . P h o s p h a t e s ( P O 4 3 - ) a r e f o r me d
f r o m t h i s e l e me n t . P h o s p h a t e o c c u r s i n l i vi n g a n d d e c a y i n g p l a n t s
a n d a n i ma l s a s f r e e i o n s o r we a k l y c h e mi c a l l y b o u n d e d i n a q u e o u s ,
t o s e d i me n t s a n d s o i l s , o r a s mi n e r a l i z e d c o mp o u n d s i n s o i l s , r o c k s
a n d s e d i me n t s . T h e p h o s p h o r u s i s o f t e n s c a r c e i n t h e w e l l -
oxygenated waters and low levels of phosphorus results in the
l i mi t a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n o f f r e s h wa t e r s y s t e m s . P h o s p h a t e s a r e
g e n e r a l l y n o t t o xi c t o h u m a n s o r a n i m a l s u n l e s s t h e y a r e p r e s e n t i n
high levels of concentration. 6 * *     
*                 *      
                   *           
  9                       *         -! ( Source:c
h t t p : / / w w w . s e r c o n l i n e . o r g / p h o s p h o r u s / b a c k g r o u n d . h t ml ) T h e b u i l d - u p
o f p h o s p h a t e i n t h e l a k e wa t e r o r a n y s u r f a c e w a t e r e c o s y s t e m l e a d s
t o o v e r p r o d u c t i o n o f l a k e o r wa t e r b o d y wh i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e
i mb a l a n c e i n t h e n u t r i e n t a n d m a t e r i a l c y c l i n g p r o c e s s . T h e r e wi l l b e
massive produ ction of phytoplankto n and therefore cau se variety of
p r o b l e m s r a n g i n g f r o m a n o xi c wa t e r s t o t o xi c a l g a l b l o o m s a s w e l l a s
decrease in diversity, food supply and destroying the habitats.
E x c e s s i v e g r o wt h o f a l g a l d u e t o p h o s p h o r u s p o l l u t i o n i n c r e a s e
wa t e r t r e a t m e n t s c o s t s , d e g r a d e s f i s h i n g a n d b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a s
we l l a s i mp a c t s t o u r i s m a n d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s .

T h e ma xi m u m c o n t a mi n a n t l e v e l ( M C L s ) o f     i s 0 . 3 m g / L .
Iron i ngesti on i s not general l y unheal thy and absol utel y necessary i n
s ma l l a mo u n t s . H o w e v e r , r e s e a r c h h a s f o u n d t h a t e xp o s u r e t o h i g h
levels of iron can lead to heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Iron is
o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n s u p p l e me n t s a n d e n r i c h e d p r o d u c t s . I t a l s o
c o n t a i n s i n r e d me a t , t h e r e f o r e e a s i l y t o b e c o n s u m e d .

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à         

   r e f e r s t o c h e mi c a l c o mp o u n d s t h a t
c o n t a i n t h e e l e me n t c h r o mi u m i n t h e + 6 o xi d a t i o n s t a t e . I t i s u s e d
f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , t e xt i l e d y e s , wo o d p r e s e r v a t i o n ,
leather tanning, and as anti-corrosion and conversion coatings as
we l l a s v a r i e t y o f n i c h e u s e d . H e xa v a l e n t c h r o mi u m c o m p o u n d s a r e
g e n o t o x i c c a r c i n o g e n s . C h r o n i c i n h a l a t i o n o f t h e c o mp o u n d s
i n c r e a s e s r i s k o f l u n g c a n c e r . B e s i d e s , c h r o mi u m h e x a v a l e n t a l s o
c a u s e s s h o r t t e r m h e a l t h p r o b l e ms s u c h a s s k i n i r r i t a t i o n o r
u l c e r a t i o n , wh e r e a s t h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f e x p o s u r e i n c l u d e
d a ma g e t o l i v e r , k i d n e y c i r c u l a t o r y a n d n e r v e t i s s u e s .

E XP E R I ME N T A L P R O C E D U R E

†           à          
                      ! 0 !  "   # 

1. The stored progra m nu mber for free and total chlorine (Cl2)
p o w d e r p i l l o w i s e n t e r e d . ( 8 0 E N T E R ) a n d d i s p l a y w i l l s h o w: D i a l
nm to 530
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L Cl2.
3 . T h e 1 0 - mL c e l l r i s e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e c o m p a r t m e n t .
4 . A 1 0 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e .
5 . O n e c o n t e n t s o f D P D T o t a l C h l o r i n e P o wd e r P i l l o w i s a d d e d t o t h e
s a mp l e cell k n o wn as p r e p a r e d s a mp l e . The s a mp l e then is

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c o v e r e d wi t h s t o p p e r a n d s h a k e d f o r 2 0 s e c o n d s . S t o p p e r i s t h e n
r e mo v e d .
6 . T h e S H I F T T I M E R b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d a t h r e e - mi n u t e r e a c t i o n
p e r i o d wi l l b e g i n .
7 . A n o t h e r s a m p l e c e l l k n o wn a s t h e b l a n k wi t h 1 0 - m L o f s a m p l e i s
fi ll ed and then pl aced i nto the cel l hol der. The l i ght shi el d then i s
c l o s e d . A l l t h e s e a r e d o n e ju s t a f t e r t h e t i me r b e e p s .
8 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . 0 0 mg / L C l 2
9 . W i t h i n t h r e e mi n u t e s a f t e r t i me r b e e p s , t h e p r e p a r e d s a m p l e i s
place into the cell holder then the light shield is closed.
1 0 . R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t i n
mg / L C l 2 wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d .

†    $ à  %    !0!" # 

1. The stored progra m nu mber for free and total chlorine (Cl2)
p o w d e r p i l l o w i s e n t e r e d . ( 8 0 E N T E R ) a n d d i s p l a y w i l l s h o w: D i a l
nm to 530
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L Cl2.
3 . T h e 1 0 - mL c e l l r i s e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e c o m p a r t m e n t .
4 . A 1 0 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e k n o wn a s t h e
blank and then it is placed into the cell holder and the light is
closed.
5 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . 0 0 mg / L C l 2
6 . A n o t h e r c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h t h e 1 0 - m L o f s a m p l e .

c
c
7 . O n e c o n t e n t s o f D P D F r e e C h l o r i n e P o wd e r P i l l o w i s a d d e d t o t h e
s a mp l e cell k n o wn as p r e p a r e d s a mp l e . The s a mp l e then is
c o v e r e d wi t h s t o p p e r a n d s h a k e f o r 2 0 s e c o n d s .
8. I mmediately a mi n u t e after reagent addition, the stopper is
r e mo v e d . T h e p r e p a r e d s a m p l e i s p l a c e i n t o t h e c e l l h o l d e r t h e n
the light shield is closed.
9 . R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t i n
m g / L C l 2 wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d .

†    à 


 & 
' ( " # 

1 . T h e s t o r e d p r o g r a m n u m b e r f o r s u l f a t e ( S O 4 2 - ) p o wd e r p i l l o w i s
e n t e r e d . ( 6 8 0 E N T E R o r 9 ? ? E N T E R ) a n d d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w:
Dial nm to 450
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L SO42-.
3 . A 2 5 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 2 5 - mL o f s a m p l e .
4 . O n e c o n t e n t s o f S u l f a V e r 4 S u l f a t e R e a g e n t P o wd e r P i l l o w i s
a d d e d t o t h e s a m p l e c e l l k n o wn a s p r e p a r e d s a mp l e . T h e s a m p l e
i s s wi r l e d t o d i s s o l v e t h e mi xt u r e . A w h i t e t u r b i d i t y i s d e v e l o p e d .
5 . T h e S H I F T T I M E R b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d a f i v e - mi n u t e r e a c t i o n
p e r i o d wi l l b e g i n . T h e c e l l i s a l l o we d t o s t a n d u n d i s t u r b e d .
6 . A n o t h e r s a m p l e c e l l k n o wn a s t h e b l a n k wi t h 2 5 - m L o f s a m p l e i s
fi ll ed and then pl aced i nto the cel l hol der. The l i ght shi el d then i s
c l o s e d . A l l t h e s e a r e d o n e ju s t a f t e r t h e t i me r b e e p s .
7 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . mg / L S O 4 2 - .

c
c
8 . W i t h i n f i v e mi n u t e s a f t e r t i me r b e e p s , t h e p r e p a r e d s a mp l e i s
place into the cell holder then the light shield is closed.
9 . R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t i n
m g / L S O 4 2 - wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d .

†     !  0     )
*   +  0 ( ,   
0   '    ,    *   -  *  *  #   "   # 

1. The stored progra m nu mber for r eactive phosphorus, a scorbic


a c i d me t h o d , p o wd e r p i l l o ws i s e n t e r e d . ( 4 9 0 E N T E R ) a n d
d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w: D i a l n m t o 8 9 0
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L PO43- PV
3 . T h e 1 0 - mL c e l l r i s e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e c o m p a r t m e n t .
4 . A 1 0 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e .
5. One contents of Phos Ver 3 Phosphate Powder Pillow is added to
t h e s a mp l e c e l l k n o wn a s p r e p a r e d s a mp l e . A n d t h e n i t i s s wi r l e d
i m m e d i a t e l y t o mi x .
6 . T h e S H I F T T I M E R b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d a t wo - m i n u t e r e a c t i o n
p e r i o d wi l l b e g i n .
7 . A n o t h e r s a m p l e c e l l k n o wn a s t h e b l a n k wi t h 1 0 - m L o f s a m p l e i s
fi ll ed and then pl aced i nto the cel l hol der. The l i ght shi el d then i s
c l o s e d . A l l t h e s e a r e d o n e ju s t a f t e r t h e t i me r b e e p s .
8 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . 0 0 mg / L P O 4 3 - P V
9 . T h e p r e p a r e d s a mp l e i s p l a c e i n t o t h e c e l l h o l d e r t h e n t h e l i g h t
shield is closed.

c
c
10. R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t
i n mg / L P O 4 3 - wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d t h e r e s u l t s o f f o r m s
P, PO43- and P2O5.

†    †  .  


,  % '" # 

1. The stored progra m nu mber for iron (Fe) Ferro Ver po wder pillow
i s e n t e r e d . ( 2 6 5 E N T E R ) a n d d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w: D i a l n m t o 5 1 0
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L Fe FV.
3 . T h e 1 0 - mL c e l l r i s e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e c o m p a r t m e n t .
4 . A 1 0 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e .
5 . O n e c o n t e n t s o f F e r r o V e r I r o n R e a g e n t P o wd e r P i l l o w i s a d d e d t o
t h e s a mp l e c e l l k n o wn a s p r e p a r e d s a mp l e a n d t h e n s wi r l e d t o
mi x .
6 . T h e S H I F T T I M E R b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d a t h r e e - mi n u t e r e a c t i o n
p e r i o d wi l l b e g i n .
7 . W h e n t h e t i me r b e e p s , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w: m g / L F e F V a n d
a n o t h e r s a mp l e c e l l k n o wn a s t h e b l a n k wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e i s
filled.
8. Then pl aced i nto the cel l hol der. The l i ght shi el d then i s cl osed.
9 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . 0 0 mg / L F e F V
10. W i t h i n t h i r t y mi n u t e s a f t e r t i me r b e e p s , t h e p r e p a r e d s a mp l e i s
place into the cell holder then the light shield is closed.
11. R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t
i n mg / L i r o n wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d .

c
c
†     % à   /

   0  à0 1    
2+!  3*
- 3# 
4# " #

1 . T h e s t o r e d p r o g r a m n u m b e r f o r c h r o mi u m h e x a v a l e n t ( C r 6 + ) i s
e n t e r e d . ( 9 0 E N T E R ) a n d d i s p l a y w i l l s h o w: D i a l n m t o 5 4 0
2 . T h e wa v e l e n g t h d i a l i s r o t a t e d u n t i l t h e s c r e e n s h o ws t h e d i a l
n u mb e r t h a t e q u a l s t o t h e o n e t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d . W h e n t h e
c o r r e c t d i a l wa v e l e n g t h i s d i a l e d , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l q u i c k l y s h o w:
Zero Sa mple then: mg/L Cr 6+
3 . T h e 1 0 - mL c e l l r i s e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e c o m p a r t m e n t .
4 . A 1 0 - m L s a m p l e c e l l i s f i l l e d wi t h 1 0 - mL o f s a m p l e .
5 . O n e c o n t e n t s o f C h r o m a V e r 3 R e a g e n t P o wd e r P i l l o w i s a d d e d t o
t h e s a mp l e c e l l k n o wn a s p r e p a r e d s a mp l e . A n d t h e n i t i s s wi r l e d
i m m e d i a t e l y t o mi x .
6 . T h e S H I F T T I M E R b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d a f i v e - mi n u t e r e a c t i o n
p e r i o d wi l l b e g i n .
7 . A n o t h e r s a m p l e c e l l k n o wn a s t h e b l a n k wi t h 1 0 - m L o f s a m p l e i s
f i l l e d . W h e n t h e t i me r b e e p s , t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : m g / L C r 6 + a n d
then placed into the cell holder.
8 . Z e r o b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d t h e d i s p l a y wi l l s h o w : Z e r o i n g « t h e n :
0 . 0 0 mg / L C r 6 +
9 . T h e p r e p a r e d s a mp l e i s p l a c e i n t o t h e c e l l h o l d e r t h e n t h e l i g h t
shield is closed.
10. R e a d b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d a n d i t wi l l s h o w: R e a d i n g « . T h e r e s u l t
i n mg / L C r 6 + wi l l a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d t h e r e s u l t s o f f o r m s P ,
PO43- and P2O5.

c
c
APPARATUS / REAGENTS



 

± Pour-Thru Cell
± Portable Spectrophotometer DR 2400
± 2 5 0 ml E r l e n m e y e r f l a s k
± 1 0 - mL a n d 2 5 - m L c e l l r i s e r
± Clippers
± 2 5 - mL g r a d u a t e d c y l i n d e r

)
 

± Sa mple water
± D P D T o t a l C h l o r i n e P o wd e r P i l l o w
± D P D F r e e C h l o r i n e P o wd e r P i l l o w
± Sulfa Ver 4 Sulfate Reagent Powder Pillow
± P h o s V e r 3 P h o s p h a t e P o wd e r P i l l o w
± Ferro Ver Iron Reagent Powder Pillow
± C h r o ma V e r 3 R e a g e n t P o wd e r P i l l o w
c

c
c
R E S U LT

Sub sta nce Reagent Colour of Range (mg/L) Re sul t (m g/L)


sol uti o n
Chlorine, total DPD total
chlorine Colourless 0.02 ± 2.00 0.36
powder pillow
Chlorine, free DPD free
chlorine Colourless 0.02 ± 2.00 0.10
powder pillow
Sulfate Sulfa v er 4 Slightly
reagent cloudy 2.0 ± 70.0 25.0
powder pillow sol uti o n i s
f orm ed
Pho sp hor u s Phos v er 3 Pale blue
reactiv e phosphate sol uti o n i s 0.02 ± 2.50 0.43
powder pillow f orm ed
Iron Ferro v er Iron Light orange
reagent sol uti o n i s 0.02 ± 3.00 0.96
powder pillow f orm ed
Chromium Chroma v er 3 Colourless 0.01 ± 0.70 0.00
Hex av al ent powder pillow

S A MP LE C A LC U LA T I O N S


  2à    
à 

The concentration of Chlorine (Cl2) = 0.36 mg/L

T h e v o l u me o f a s a m p l e = 1 0 ml / 1 0 0 0 = 0 . 0 1 L

T h e ma s s o f C h l o r i n e ( C l 2 ) = 0.36 mg/L x 0.01 L

= 3.6 x 10- 3 mg

c
c

  à   % à 

The concentration of Chlorine Free (Cl 2) = 0.10 mg/L

T h e v o l u me o f s a m p l e = 1 0 ml / 1 0 0 0 = 0.01 L

T h e ma s s o f C h l o r i n e F r e e ( C l 2 ) = 0 .10 mg/L x 0.01 L

= 1 . 0 x 1 0 - 3 mg



  ,
  ( 

The concentration of Sulfate (SO 42-) = 25.00 mg/L

T h e v o l u me o f s a m p l e = 1 0 ml / 1 0 0 0 = 0 . 0 1 L

T h e ma s s o f S u l f a t e ( S O 4 2 - ) = 25.00 mg/L x 0.01 L

= 0 . 2 5 mg


  (0    )
*   

The concentration of Phosphorus, Reactive = 0.43 mg /L

T h e v o l u me o f s a m p l e = 1 0 ml / 1 0 0 0 = 0.01 L

T h e ma s s o f P h o s p h o r u s , R e a c t i v e = 0.43 mg /L x 0.01 L

= 4 .3 × 10 - 3 mg

c
c

  + . 
%

The concentration of Fe = 0.96 mg/L

T h e v o l u me o f s a m p l e = 1 0 ml / 1 0 0 0 = 0.01 L

T h e ma s s o f F e = 0.96 mg/L x 0.01 L

= 9.6 × 1 0-3 mg


  0à  / 

  à01

T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h r o mi u m , H e xa v a l e n t = 0.00 mg/L

T h e v o l u me o f s a m p l e = 0.01 L

T h e ma s s o f C h r o m i u m , H e xa v a l e n t = 0.0 0 mg/L x 0 .01 L

= 0 .00 mg

D IS C U S S I O N

Based on the results obtained, ther e are certain errors that


mi g h t h a v e b e e n d o n e wi t h o u t p u r p o s e a n d t h u s l e a d t o e r r o n e o u s
data.

F i r s t a n d f o r e mo s t , t h e r e a d i n g f o r e a c h s a m p l e i s o n l y d o n e
o n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l a c k o f i n s t r u m e n t s a n d l o n g t i me c o n s u mi n g
f a c t o r s e v a d e f r o m t a k i n g a t l e a s t t wo r e a d i n g s f o r e a c h s a mp l e , a n d

c
c
therefore an average value cannot be obtained to ensure the
accuracy and precision of the results.

N e xt , t h e i m p r o p e r h a n d l i n g o f t h e r o u n d wa t e r s a m p l e m a y
a l s o c a u s e d i n a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g s . Any fingerprints or smudge i mprinted
on the outer surface of the round wate r sa mple can beco me an
unfavourably interference for the solutions to absorb wa velengths of light
in the spectrophotometer. Thus, the re ading of concentrations by the
instruments may not be accurate.

Besides, so me of the sa mples are sup posedly be immediately


inserted into the spectrophotometer aft er being poured in their
corresponding reagents. Thus, any careless procedures or unobservant
may lead to inaccuracy of the readings taken.

CONCLUSION

The concentrations of chlorine total in the water sa mple is 0.36


mg/L, Chlorine free is 0.10 mg/L, Sulfa te is 25.0 mg/L, Phosphorus
reactive is 0.43 mg/L, Iron is 0.96 mg/ L and Chro miu m He xavalent is 0.00
mg/L. Ba sed on the following data, the water sa mple is mostly
concentrated with sulfate and contains no chro miu m he xavalent, which
explains the colourless solution forme d, indicating no change or reaction
occurs to detect any presence of chro miu m in the water sa mple.
Nevertheless, the exceeding value of concentration of phosphorus

c
c
reactive and iron, which is 0.1 mg/L an d 0.3 mg/L respectively, requires
extensive water treat ment, as it might worriedly brings any health effects
to both hu mans and aquatic ecosyste ms.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Firstly, the outside surface of the round water sa mple is best wiped
first before inserted into the spectrophoto meter. This is to ensure that
there are no fingerprints on it which might interfere the reading analysis.

Secondly, the sa mple must be analyze d immediately after collection


and cannot be kept for later analysis. This is because the heavy metals
content of the water sa mple might differ fro m the ti me it is collected until
it is analyzed.

In addition, the collection of the water sa mple is preferentially near


the middle of the water strea m and at least at one ar m¶s length of depth.
This is because; most heavy metals are bounded at inner depth of any
water strea ms.

c
c
REFERENCES

1 . h t t p : / / w w w . wa t e r - r e s e a r c h . n e t / g l o s s a r y . h t m
2 . h t t p : / / e n . wi k i p e d i a . o r g / wi k i / H e xa v a l e n t _ c h r o mi u m
3 . h t t p : / / w w w . h e a l t h y - wa t e r - b e s t - f i l t e r s . c o m / h e a v y - m e t a l s - wi t h i n -
wa t e r . h t ml
4 . h t t p : / / w w w . f r e e d r i n k i n g wa t e r . c o m / w a t e r - e d u c a t i o n / q u a l i t y -
wa t e r - h e a v y m e a t a l . h t m
5 . h t t p : / / w w w . l e n n t e c h . c o m / p e r i o d i c / w a t e r / c h r o mi u m / c h r o mi u m -
a n d - wa t e r . h t m
6 . h t t p : / / e n . wi k i p e d i a . o r g / wi k i / C h l o r i n a t i o n

APPENDICES

DPD Total Chlorine Powder Sulfa Ver 4 Sulfate Reagent DPD Free Chlorine Powder
Pillow Pillowc

Phos Ver 3 Phosphate Ferro Ver Iron Reagent Chroma Ver 3 Reagent Powder
Powderc Powder Pillowc Pillowc

c
 c
Graduated Cylinder Portable Spectrophotometerccccccccccc
DR 2400.c

c
 c
c
c