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For Gas Shielded Arc Welding, Oxy Fuel Cutting & Plasma Cutting
Published by: Air Products PLC
Designed and produced by: PDF Conceptual Design & Marketing
Copyright: Air Products PLC 1999 3rd Edition
Air Products Welders Handbook
Introduction Fusion welding Why use welding? Arc welding processes Welding terms MIG/MAG welding TIG welding Plasma welding Welding sheet Welding plate Welding pipes Defects in welds The right gas: MIG/MAG welding TIG welding Welding data: MIG/MAG welding Flux cored electrodes TIG welding Oxy-fuel gas cutting Plasma cutting Safety always Conversion data 30 33 34 37 44 46 inside back cover 26 29 2 3 4 5 6 10 17 18 20 22 24
Air Products Welders Handbook
The most widely used welding processes rely on fusion of the components at the joint line. In fusion welding, a heat source melts the metal to form a bridge between the components. Two widely used heat sources are:
high current low voltage supply
fuel gas flame
air must be excluded from heated area
Gas flame The molten metal must be protected from the atmosphere - absorption of oxygen and nitrogen leads to a poor quality weld. Air in the weld area can be replaced by a gas which does not contaminate the metal, or the weld can be covered with a flux.
Why use welding?
Welding is used because it is: q one of the most cost-effective methods of joining metal components q suitable for thicknesses ranging from fractions of a millimetre to a third of a metre q versatile, being applicable to a wide range of component shapes and sizes The joints produced by welding are: q permanent q strong, usually matching the strength of the components, q leak tight, q reproducible, q readily inspected by nondestructive techniques. Welding can be used: q in the workshop q on site for q sheet q plate q pipe q sections
A large number of welding processes and techniques are available. No process is universally best. Each has its own special attributes and must be matched to the application. Choosing the most suitable process requires consideration of a number of factors.
Factors in choosing welding process:
q type of metal q type of joint q production constraints q equipment availability q labour availability q health, safety and the environment q costs of consumables q labour costs q material thickness
plate or pipes are commonly welded by an arc process. 4 .Air Products Welders Handbook ARC WELDING Arc welding processes Fabrications involving sheet metal. Two of the most important processes use a gas shield to protect the weld metal from atmospheric contamination.
sealing run A run of weld metal deposited on the reverse side of a butt joint. along the line of the root. The correct term is parent metal. bead A single run of weld metal deposited onto the surface of the parent metal. Quoted in kg/hr (kilograms per hour).m/min (metres per minute) or in/min.WELDING TERMS Terms commonly used in gas shielded welding arc length Distance between the tip of the electrode and the surface of the weld pool.A metal or ceramic tube which confines the shielding gas to the weld area. pass or run The metal deposited during one traverse of the joint by an arc. 5 . With some metals the parent metal is heated before welding to avoid problems such as cracking or lack of fusion. electrode The flux coated rod in manual metal arc welding. In some applications. root run The first run deposited in a joint where further runs are needed to fill the groove. to build up the weld profile. Often incorrectly called the base metal. burn-off rate The rate at which the wire is melted. the term melt run may be more correct. the tungsten in TIG and plasma welding and the consumable wire in MIG/MAG welding. For TIG it is supplied as cut lengths of wire. The arc is formed between the parent metal and one end of the electrode. nozzle In TIG and MIG/MAG welding . deposited metal Material which is added. interpass temperature The temperature of the material adjacent to the joint between each run is the interpass temperature. Filler metal is not used. preheat temperature The temperature of the parent metal just before welding is started. base metal Incorrectly used to describe the metal from which the components of the joint are made. Sometimes incorrectly used in reference to the ratio of metal deposited to the amount of electrode melted . In TIG welding without a filler. filler metal Metal added to the weld pool during welding. parent metal The metal which is to be joined by welding. either from the electrode or filler wire. a maximum temperature is specified to avoid metallurgical changes in the metal. deposition rate The rate at which melted electrode metal is added to the weld pool. Quoted as a linear measurement .this is the deposition efficiency. melt run Melting the parent metal by passing a TIG arc along the surface.
Metal Inert Gas q MAG . drive rolls keep constant wire feed speed spool of wire The shielding gas can be: q pure argon q argon mixed with small amounts of other gases q helium or q carbon dioxide according to the metal being welded. See pages 9 and 26.Metal Active Gas q CO2 .carbon dioxide A low voltage (1840V). nozzle to plate distance-kept at about 19-25mm arc length work power supply unit keeps arc length constant gas nozzle shielding gas 6 . high current (60500A) arc between the end of a wire electrode and the work provides the heat needed for the welding operation.Air Products Welders Handbook MIG/MAG welding principles Gas shielded metal arc welding is a semi-automatic process which is suitable for both manual and mechanised operation. It is known by a variety of names: q MIG . The arc and the weld are protected from atmospheric contamination by a gas shield.
7 . thick walled pipes and sections in the flat position. MIG/MAG welding with a Ferromaxxgas shield gives a low hydrogen content in the weld. Synergic MIG/MAG is an advanced welding system which incorporates both spray and pulse transfer. Power sources for MIG/MAG are called constant voltage or potential.MIG/MAG WELDING Operation An electric motor feeds the wire into the arc and the power source keeps the arc length at a preset value leaving the welder to concentrate on ensuring complete fusion of the joint. known as the self adjusting arc. overhead vertical The appropriate technique for these types of joint is either Dip Transfer or Pulse Transfer. Welds which are located in positions where the metal tends to run out of the joint under the action of gravity are welded at lower currents (60/180A). Optimum conditions can be established for a range of applications which are readily reproduced by the welder. Special equipment is required for Synergic-MIG/MAG welding. joints in flat position The process can be operated at currents within the range 280500A for welding plates. This means that lower preheat levels are needed than with MMA welding. Modern power sources combine constant current and constant voltage (cc/cv) and are called inverters. Welding data for MIG/MAG applications are given on pages 30 to 33. These two techniques are also used for welding sheet material. known as controlled arc or drooping characteristic units. The term Spray Transfer is used to describe this type of operation. and constant current.
8 1. Inductance (in Dip Transfer) stabilises the arc and minimises spatter. voltage high correct low 0 0 Current controls: q heat input q size of weld q depth of penetration Wire diameter depends on the current required.6 0. -8 75 0 Voltage controls the profile of the weld. 450 . The table gives a guide to the selection of wire diameter but the exact relationship depends on the material and the shielding gas. the wire is pointed in the direction of travel (forehand technique). Wire feed speed sets the welding current. The welder controls the speed of travel to ensure that the weld pool does not run ahead of the arc as this would cause lack of fusion. This allows the arc to fuse the parent metal ahead of the weld pool and gives the best penetration.Air Products Welders Handbook Using MIG/MAG welding With MIG/MAG.550 Diameter (mm) 0. Weld quality in MIG/MAG welding is critically dependent on the skill of the welder and selection of the welding variables.0 1.2 Current range (A) 40100 40150 100280 120350 Wire feed speed (m/min) 25 36 312 418 8 .
Also used for copper and nickel. spray and pulse transfer and with metal and flux cored wires. flux cored wires can be used. high strength low alloy steels and stainless steels. Inomaxx and Alumaxx mean reduced welding costs. Ferromaxx 15 is the choice for welding carbon. Faster travel speeds with Ferro- maxx. spray and pulse transfer modes for all thickness. Inomaxx 2 is recommended for welding ferritic and austenitic grades of stainless steel of all thicknesses in dip. Pure argon is particularly effective for welding aluminium and its alloys. For carbon. 9 . high strength low alloy steels and coated steels of all thickness with solid wires in dip. carbonmanganese. high strength low alloy steels and coated steels in dip. cross section of flux cored wires Ferromaxx Plus is the multi-purpose gas for welding carbon. Ferromaxx 7 is recommended for carbon. Inomaxx is a range of gases specially designed for MAG and Pulse MAG welding stainless steels. carbon-manganese and high strength low alloy steels up to 10mm thick in dip. carbonmanganese. spray and pulse transfer modes. spray and pulse transfer modes. These offer the advantages of higher welding speeds and easier control of fillet weld profiles. flux joint Air Products gases for MIG/MAG welding Air Products welding gases enable the optimum results to be obtained with MIG/MAG welding of a range of metals. carbonmanganese. Ferromaxx is a range of selected mixtures of argon.MIG/MAG WELDING Flux cored wires Wires for MIG/MAG welding are usually solid. carbon dioxide and other gases to provide ideal arc conditions for spatter free welding of steels.
Tungsten inert gas welding Principles Tungsten inert gas shielded welding is usually called TIG welding. Usually the gas is argon.helium shielding gas for MIG welding aluminium and its alloys of all thickness in spray and pulse transfer modes (Alumaxx Plus is also the recommended gas for TIG welding aluminium and copper). See pages 2628 for choosing the right gas. 10 . Argon . The electrode is not melted and any filler metal needed to build up the weld profile is added separately. tungsten electrode weld pool Air Products gases containing helium give better penetration on metals with high thermal conductivity. but helium by itself or mixed with argon may be used for special applications. Both the molten metal in the weld pool. It uses an arc between a tungsten electrode and the work to fuse the joint. spray and pulse transfer and with metal cored wires. See page 29. the tip of the filler wire and the hot electrode are protected from atmospheric contamination by a shield of inert gas. Alumaxx Plus is the high performance argon .Air Products Welders Handbook Inomaxx Plus is the choice for welding all thickness of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels in dip.hydrogen mixtures can be used for stainless steel.
Heat input to the arc depends on the current chosen by the operator.TIG WELDING Operation TIG welding is suitable for both manual and mechanised welding. Using an arc starting device enables the arc to be struck without touching the electrode to the work. Travel speed is adjusted to match the time needed to melt the joint. it is added to the leading edge of the weld pool. the operator points the electrode in the direction of welding and uses the arc to melt the metal at the joint. Choice of current Both direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) can be used with TIG welding. In manual welding.usually 1 metre long. Arc length is controlled by the welder and is usually between 2mm and 5mm. Direct current with the electrode connected to the negative terminal of the power source is used for: q carbon steels q copper and its alloys q stainless steels q nickel and its alloys q titanium and its alloys q zirconium and its alloys Alternating current is used for welding: q aluminium and its alloys q magnesium and its alloys q aluminium bronze 25mm 11 . If filler metal is required. for example when making a fillet weld. Filler is supplied as cut lengths of wire .
12 . Crater filling Automatic gradual reduction of the current at the end of a weld run avoids the formation of a crater. Single phase transformer units are almost universally used for welding aluminium. They are often called drooping characteristic units.Air Products Welders Handbook Power sources for TIG Power sources for use with TIG welding must be capable of delivering a constant current at a preset value. Modern power sources have square waveform. The power source should be equipped with: q foot operated on/off switch q remote control for the current q crater filling device q an arc starting device q gas control valves q water control valves .for nozzle cooling at high currents. welding current welding current arc extinguished time crater or hole at crater of hole at end of weld end of weld Combined ac/dc power sources can be used where there is a mix of work. Rectifier units are commonly used for dc welding although motor generators may be more suitable for site use. Modern power sources combine constant current and constant voltage (cc/cv) and are called inverters. current reduced in steps weld surface smooth at end of weld run Use stainless steel wire brushes and wire wool to clean aluminium before welding. Welding data for TIG applications are given on pages 34 to 36.
4 3. For ac welding only a small bevel is needed as the end of the electrode becomes rounded when the arc is operated. Taken from BS EN26848:1991 13 . Always close the valve before returning a used cylinder to the stores. Thoriated tungsten electrodes contain 2% thoria (thorium oxide) and are used for dc welding. Contamination with other metals must be avoided as this lowers the melting point of the electrode.6 2.8 60150 170250 225330 350480 500675 60125 120210 150250 240350 330460 Do not completely empty a cylinder of gas. 1.2 4. For dc welding a sharp point is required. The diameter of the electrode is chosen to match the current.TIG WELDING Electrodes for TIG welding Pure tungsten electrodes can be used for TIG welding. The minimum current depends on arc stability.0 4. the end of the electrode is ground on a silicon carbide wheel to give the most appropriate profile. The maximum current a given diameter of electrode can carry is determined by the onset of overheating and melting. Electrode diameter mm Maximum operating current (A) Direct Current (dc) Alternating Current (ac) Before use. Zirconiated tungsten electrodes contain 2% zirconia (zirconium oxide) and are recommended for ac welding of aluminium. Thoriated and zirconiated types give easier starting and better arc stability and are generally preferred.
less surface oxidation. The efficiency of the gas shield is critically dependent on the design of the nozzle. At currents above 150A the torch body and possibly the nozzle are water cooled. welding speed and penetration on stainless steel. the electrode can project further from the end of the nozzle. Inomaxx TIG. cupro-nickel and nickel alloys. An argon-helium mixture which allows faster welding and deeper penetration on aluminium and its alloys and copper and its alloys. With this. See page 29 for choosing the right gas.helium hydrogen mixture which gives lower ozone emissions. giving better visibility of the arc and the weld pool. At lower currents. Alumaxx Plus. torch body ceramic nozzle gas gas gas lens tungsten electrode uniform laminar gas flow Gases for TIG welding Pure argon Suitable for all metals. A gas lens can be used to stabilise the gas shield. the flow of shielding gas provides sufficient cooling. An argon .Air Products Welders Handbook Torches for TIG welding TIG torches are rated according to the current they can carry without overheating. pencil torch pencil torch swivel head torch swivel head torch 14 . improves the weld profile. An advantage of the TIG process is the availability of a range of torches which enable welds to be made even on small components.
constant travel speed current amps pulse height mean pulse low level time pulse Pulsed TIG is particularly suited to the welding of sheet less than 1mm thick as it reduces the risk of burn through. a TIG arc becomes difficult to control.TIG WELDING Pulsed TIG At low currents. waveform for pulsed TIG welding 15 . The frequency of the pulses and their duration are set by the operator to the required heat input and degree of weld pool control. This is of great advantage in mechanised welding. Pulsing the current gives stable operation at low heat input levels. Conventional torches are used but the power source must be either specially designed for Pulsed TIG or in older equipment supplemented by an adaptor which supplies the pulses. The arc is operated at a low current onto which pulses of high current are superimposed.welding speed progressively increased from A-B pulsed TIG . Pulsed TIG is also used to weld cylindrical components as it avoids the need to increase travel speed to keep the weld width uniform. weld consists of overlapping circular weld pools direction of welding B A high level pulse pulse duration conventional TIG .
This is not normally a problem with aluminium and its alloys. but can cause poor quality welds in steels. especially stainless steel and reactive metals (such as titanium). In this technique.Air Products Welders Handbook TIG spot welding TIG spot welding provides an alternative to resistance spot welding where access is from one side only or it is not possible to fit the component between the arms of the spot welder. After a pre-determined time. the current is reduced progressively to allow the weld to solidify without a crater. Gas backing When the weld metal penetrates through the root in a butt joint. the electrode is held at a fixed distance above the surface of a lap joint. The arc melts a circular weld pool which penetrates through the interface between the sheets. usually from 0. clamp joint line clamp nozzle placed in contact sheet to give correct arc length work piece copper backing bar with holes at 5mm intervals argon flows through holes to protect underside of weld Removable plugs or dams in a pipe confine argon to weld areas TIG spot welding is not recommended for aluminium 16 .4 to 1 second. it is exposed to air and may become oxidised. Contamination can be avoided by providing a gas backing.
plasma gas shielding gas tungsten electrode Plasma arc welding relies on a special technique known as keyholing. metal melts at the front of the hole. Its principal advantage is that it gives controlled penetration. As the torch is moved along the joint. Either argon or an argon-hydrogen mixture can be used for the shielding gas. swirls to the back and solidifies. First a hole is pierced through the joint by the plasma arc. work piece arc plasma jet Plasma arc welding is mainly used for butt joints in plates and pipes. direction of weld 17 . The plasma arc process is also used for cutting. See page 44.TIG WELDING Plasma arc welding The arc used in TIG welding can be converted to a high energy jet by forcing it through a small hole in a nozzle. keyhole The gas surrounding the electrode is usually argon. This constricts the arc and forms the plasma jet.
dip or pulse transfer techniques must be used. Butt joint gap not greater than half sheet thickness Butt joints in sheet less than 1mm thick are TIG welded. The edges of the sheet can be flanged to avoid the need to use filler metal. With MIG/MAG.Air Products Welders Handbook TIG and MIG/MAG welding of sheet Both TIG and MIG/MAG processes can be used to weld sheet material. with no burrs. The gap between the edges depends on the joint type and sheet thickness. 18 . 'T' joint Corner joint no gap The edges of the sheet are cut square.
19 . The tacks are melted into the main weld.550 If this is not possible. preferably by clamping against a backing bar. 10 mm 50 mm 75 o _ 80 o See page 31 for welding conditions.WELDING SHEET METAL The sheets must be held in alignment. tack welds about 10mm long should be placed at 50mm intervals. Control of the angle between the gun and the surface of the sheet is critical in MIG/MAG welding. 75 0 0 -8 0 copper backing bar 450 .
5mm max g = 1mm max A = 50° Rf = 1 to 2mm g = nil g = 1/2t A = 65-70° Rf = 1.Air Products Welders Handbook MIG/MAG welding of plate Spray transfer can be used for butt joints in the flat position and for T-joints in both flat. horizontal and vertical positions. Up to 3mm thickness.0mm max Rf Double V A Rf 20 . the edges of the plate can be cut square. Double 'V' Single 'V' Type Square edge Thickness Low carbon steel and stainless steel Aluminium t g Single V A g Up to 6mm 6mm to 18mm Above 18mm g = 1/2t A = 60° Rf = 1.5mm max g = 1. A single or double bevel is used for greater thicknesses. The dimensions of the edge preparation depend on thickness and type of material.5mm max A = 80-90° Rf = 1. All vertical and overhead welding needs a low current technique dip or pulse transfer.5mm max g = 1.
root-run root run fixed into fixed into backing strip backing strip See page 32 and 33 for welding conditions. filling passes capping pass tack weld to hold backing strip root run The deep penetration characteristic of spray transfer makes it difficult to control the molten metal in a root run. as compared to pure carbon dioxide. Alternatively. root-run supported by groove in bar Improved metal transfer with copper backing bar argon based gases. makes root run control easier.WELDING PLATES The number of runs needed to fill the groove depends on the thickness. or MMA welding can be used. The root run can be deposited with dip. 21 . the underside of the root run can be supported by a backing bar which is removed after welding or a backing strip which is left in place.
If the weld must be made in a fixed position and changes from flat to vertical to overhead as the weld progresses round the joint . q butt q branch q flange roller manipulator one driven unit and one idler flat butt vertical branch overhead Before welding.use dip or pulse transfer for MIG/MAG.use spray. flange If possible. leading and trailing edges. the pipes can be clamped or tack welded to maintain alignment.Air Products Welders Handbook Pipe and tube joints There are three main types of welded joint used in pipework. tack welded and ground tack weld 22 . during welding the pipe should be rotated so that the weld is made in the horizontal position . dip or pulse transfer for MIG/ MAG.
Backed butt joint For ease of welding flanges. uniform root gap fillet butt The edge preparation is chosen to suit the process.WELDING PIPES Root runs can be made by TIG or MIG/ MAG with dip or pulse techniques or by MMA welding. Unbacked butt joint Flange joints are either fillet or butt welded. backing strip Protect the underside of the weld with Air Products argon or nitrogen See page 16 flange rotated 23 . the axis of the pipe should be vertical and the flange rotated. With TIG welding the bore of the pipe can be filled with argon or nitrogen to protect the penetration bead and to control its profile.
Air Products Welders Handbook Defects in welds Porosity q gas flow too high q blocked nozzle q draughty conditions q moisture on work or filler q paint or grease on surface of metal Lack of fusion q arc length too short q current too low q travel speed too slow in MAG welding q incorrect inductance setting (MAG) A A B B A-lack of inter-run fusion B-lack of side fusion Lack of penetration q current too low q root gap too small q root face too thick q poor technique q misaligned joint Undercut q travel speed too high q current too high q poor technique 24 .
WELDING DEFECTS Spatter q insufficient inductance (MAG) q short arc length q voltage too low (MAG) q rusty plate Tungsten inclusions TIG welding q electrode tip touching weld pool q current too high for electrode diameter q using thoriated electrode for ac Centre line crack q low voltage. 25 . Check the Standards before you start to weld. high current q high sulphur in steel q incorrect filler (stainless steel and aluminium) q incorrect use of preheat q high restraint Acceptance levels for defects are given in British Standards.
q Steel which contains chromium needs special consideration. Ferromaxx Plus and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used to weld these steels. Ferromaxx 15 gives better results on a wider range of material thicknesses with the benefit of reduced ozone emissions. General guidelines: q Penetration increases with the addition of helium. Ferromaxx 15. q Carbon dioxide can be useful for fillet welds in thickplate. Ferromaxx Plus CO2 Reduce spatter and improve profile with Ferromaxxand minimise post weld grinding. 26 . The choice depends on the composition of the steel and the operating requirements. q Choose Ferromaxx 7 if work is wholly thin material. Penetration also increases with higher carbon dioxide contents. q Ferromaxx Plus is the multipurpose high performance shielding gas which can be used in place of Ferromaxx 7 or Ferromaxx 15 and which also gives exceptionally low ozone emissions.Air Products Welders Handbook Gases for MIG/MAG welding Carbon . carbon-manganese and high strength low alloy steels Ferromaxx 7. There is a danger that carbon dioxide in the gas will react with the chromium to form a carbide. q Spatter increases with increase in carbon dioxide content. This renders the chromium in the steel less effective. q Ferromaxx gases give a smoother weld surface. It can be used successfully on thin materials but penetration in butt joints may be more difficult to control. The amount of carbon dioxide which can be tolerated depends on the chromium content.
5%Mo 2.5%Cr 1%Mo 5%Cr 1%Mo Ferromaxx 7 Ferromaxx 15 Ferromaxx Plus Carbon dioxide 4 4 4 4 See Note 4 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 See Note 4 4 8 8 8 Notes: In many applications Argon-2% oxygen is preferred for the welding of steels containing 5% Cr. Carbon-manganese Structural Carbon-molybdenum 1. Benefits of Ferromaxx less spatter smooth surface better profile stable arc gives uniform width 27 .THE RIGHT GAS Gases for MIG/MAG welding Type of steel Carbon. Always seek technical advice before recommending a gas for these steels.5%Cr 0.
Use for sheet and plate up to 9mm thick. automated and robotic welding. argon 28 . Produces less porosity. Excellent weld bead profiles and appearance with very little oxidation. Enhanced weld bead profiles and increased penetration. Stable arc conditions offer all-positional capability. Suitable for manual.Air Products Welders Handbook Gases for MIG/MAG welding Stainless steel Inomaxx Plus Inomaxx Plus = 63% argon. automated and robotic welding. Use for sheet and metals up to 9mm thick. Spray transfer only. 35% helium. Stable and controllable arc. 2% CO2 Alumaxx Plus = argon 70%. Suitable for very thick sections. spray and pulse transfer. argon + 75% helium argon Copper and alloys Alumaxx Plus Recommended for all material thickness in spray and pulse transfer. automated and robotic welding. helium 30% Recommended for all material thickness on dip. Offers all-positional capability with solid wires. Suitable only for spray transfer. automated and robotic welding. Suitable for manual. spray and pulse transfer. 2% CO2 Inomaxx 2 = 98% argon. Higher arc temperatures promotes better penetration and increased welding speeds. Improved welding speeds and penetration profiles. Recomended for materials up to 10mm thick on dip. Inomaxx 2 argon + 1% to 3% oxygen Aluminium and alloys Alumaxx Plus Recommended for all material thickness on spray and pulse transfer. Suitable for manual. Suitable for pure alluminium and all alloys. Suitable for pulse techniques. argon + 15% to 25% nitrogen argon Nickel and alloys Alumaxx Plus Recommended for all material thickness in spray and pulse transfer. Solid and metal cored wires. Suitable for manual.
all thickness Stainless steels .all thickness Nickel and alloys .all thickness Suitable for manual. orbital welding Nickel and alloys . hydrogen 2% Benefits of Alumaxx Plus gases q enhanced heat transfer q suitable for use on metals with a high thermal conductivity especially in thick sections q deeper penetration q faster welding speeds q lower ozone emissions Benefits of Inomaxx TIG gases q increased welding speed q improved penetration q less surface oxidation q lower gas consumption and overall costs q less post-weld cleaning q lower ozone emissions 29 . orbital and robotic welding. Aluminium and alloys . helium 30%. Austenitic stainless steels . Helium 75% argon 25% Inomaxx TIG argon + 1% to 3% hydrogen argon + 5% hydrogen Alumaxx Plus = argon 70%. Austenitic stainless steel . orbital welding.automated.automated.THE RIGHT GAS Gases for TIG welding Shielding gas Pure argon Alumaxx Plus Metal All commercially fabricated metals.all thickness Copper and alloys .all thickness Suitable for manual. orbital and robotic welding. Austenitic stainless steels Nickel and alloys. Thick section aluminium and alloys Thick section copper and alloys. automated. helium 30% Inomaxx TIG = argon 68%.all thickness Nickel and alloys . automated.
2 1.8 1. 8 400 300 200 100 1.6 0.6 Length of electrode wire per kilogram Current range (A) 40100 40150 100280 120350 150450 Electrode diam mm 0.8 1.2 m 1.6 Approximate length per kilogram (metre) Carbon steel Stainless steel Aluminium 125 95 55 30 122 93 54 29 364 276 160 87 m/min 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 350 400 Melting rate of carbon steel filler wires 700 600 Wire feed speed in/min 500 m m 0.Air Products Welders Handbook Useful data for MIG/MAG welding Optimum current ranges for steel wire Electrode diameter (mm) 0.0 1.2 1.0 1.6 m 50 100 150 200 250 300 450 Welding current A 30 .0 m m mm 1.
0 1.29 Alumaxx Plus Alumaxx Plus Alumaxx Plus Alumaxx Plus 1 1 Notes: (1) Gas flow rate: 14 to 16l/min (higher flow rates may be required with gases containing helium) (2) Welded from both sides (3) Pulsed transfer 31 .23 20 .200 180 .0 3.WELDING DATA Typical conditions for MIG/MAG welding sheet Sheet thickness mm swg in Carbon steel 0.8 0.110 110 .20 19 .2 1.100 100 .0 1.8 0.20 18 .6 0.0 1.6(3) 2.2 70 .100 70 .2 70 .200 180 .0 1.23 Ferromaxx Plus Ferromaxx Plus Ferromaxx Plus 1 5 /32 /4 1 } Ferromaxx Plus Ferromaxx Plus Ferromaxx Plus Ferromaxx Plus Stainless steel 1.200 17 .6 1.130 180 .8 1.130 150 .8 0.8 1.6 2.8 0.0(3) 3.19 18 .0 1.2 4.8 0.2 1.23 20 .2 6.2 6.90 75 .0 1.0(2) 16 14 10 4 1 5 /16 /64 /8 /4 1.0(2) 20 18 16 14 10 8 4 1 3 1 5 Joint Electrode gap mm dia mm Current A Voltage V Gas (1) /32 /64 /16 /64 /8 0.18 17 .26 Inomaxx Plus Inomaxx Plus Inomaxx Plus Inomaxx Plus 1 1 Aluminium and alloys 1.17 17 .130 180 .18 19 .8 0.200 16 .0(2) 16 14 10 4 1 5 /18 /64 /8 /4 1.8 0.65 80 .0 1.0 55 .2 1.0 1.0 1.8 1.95 90 .19 17 .9 1.21 22 .100 90 .6 2.0 6.0 1.20 26 .0 1.240 19 .20 20 .6 0.0 3.0 1.
32 .2 1.8 1.2 1.2 300320 3133 290310 3032 290310 3032 1 2 4 Stainless steel Inomaxx Plus Aluminium & alloys Alumaxx Plus 2022 2426 2426 1 4 2 3 Butt and fillet welds in vertical position use a triangular weave ensure fusion in the root w mm mm A V 6 10 12 (1) 12 (2) 1.6 1.6 1.0 1.0 1.Air Products Welders Handbook Typical conditions for MIG/MAG welding plate Butt joints in flat position Run Wire dia mm Current A Voltage V Fillet welds in flat position Leg length mm Wire dia mm Current A Voltage V Number of runs Carbon steel Ferromaxx Plus or Ferromaxx15 Root Second Filling Root Second Filling Root Second Filing 1.6 90100 260270 280300 8085 220230 265275 8595 210220 230240 1719 2931 3133 1921 2224 2527 6 10 12 1.0 8095 70180 8095 70180 1718 1920 1718 1920 1 1 2 2 (1) Root run deposited vertical-down (2) Filling run deposited with weave moving up the joint.2 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.2 0.0 1.
Typical welding conditions for flux cored wires Steel plate . single pass Note: 10mm leg length fillet weld flat position only 33 .2 1.4 3.525 400 .2 1.4 Wire dia mm 1.4 2.2 Wire dia mm 2.0 Wire dia mm 1.flat position Run Root Second Filling Run Root Second Filling (weaved) Leg length mm 4.0 2.450 450 .280 140 .375 400 .180 350 .525 Voltage V 18 25 25 Voltage V 18 18 20 Voltage V 25 30 32 All welds .4 2.0 10.2 1.flat and horizontal .2 Current range A 300 .vertical positions.FLUX CORED WIRES DATA Useful data for flux cored wires Wire dia mm 1.2 2.0 Current range A 100 .170 170 .350 200 .Ferromaxx Plus shielding gases at 20 l/min Butt welds .430 350 .430 Current A 130 .425 Optimum current ranges for steel electrodes Wire dia mm 2.200 Current A 325 .vertical position all runs Fillet welds .6 2.650 Current ranges vary according to cored wire type.165 150 .4 Current A 140 .5 6.
8 Stainless steel direct current thoriated electrode Carbon steel direct current thoriated electrode 34 .6 or 2.4 2.4 3.8 6.6 Welding current A 60 80 125 145 180 220 235 275 60 70 70 95 100 120 135 160 60 70 75 95 110 130 155 175 Shielding gas flow l/min 6 7 10 12 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 Aluminium alternating current zirconiated electrode 3.8 1.6 1.2mm no root gap gap=half sheet thickness up to 3.6 3.8 6.4 3.2 4.2 4.4 2.75 o removable backing up to 3.4 3.2mm 1mm 1.6mm 4.6 2.2 4.0 Electrode diameter mm Filler rod diameter mm 1.4 3.2 2.Air Products Welders Handbook Typical conditions for TIG welding Butt Joints Recommended joint preparation o 65 .8mm and thicker Metal thickness mm 1.0 4.0 1.2 4.2 1.0 1.6 2.6 2.2 4.0 1.6 3.8 6.4 3.6 3.2 4.8 1.2 4.
8mm .0 4.8 1.2 4.0.no gap over 4.TIG WELDING DATA Typical conditions for TIG welding T Joints .0 Electrode diameter mm 2.4 3.8 1.6 3.8 Welding current A 60 80 130 160 195 230 260 295 50 70 85 105 120 145 165 180 50 70 90 120 135 175 170 200 Shielding gas flow l/min 5 6 7 10 5 5 6 7 5 5 6 7 Aluminium alternating current zirconiated electrode Stainless steel direct current thoriated electrode Carbon steel direct current thoriated electrode 35 .8mm gap 4.0 or 4.2 4.80.4 3.2 4.4 3.2 Filler rod diameter mm 1.8 6.6 1.8 6.0 1.8m .8 6.6 2.6 3.4 3.4 3.0 1.0 1.2 4.2 1.4 3.2 4.4 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 or 2.2 3.mm gap Metal thickness mm 1.fillet welded ensure surface along joint line is free of oxides and grease up to 3.no gap up to 3.6 2.2 or 4.2 4.2mm .6 3.2mm .
4 3.2 4.4 or 3.2 4.0 4.Air Products Welders Handbook Typical conditions for TIG welding Corner joints no gap 1mm gap 4.2mm thickness Metal thickness mm 1.2 or 4.0 Electrode diameter mm 2.4 3.0 1.2 4.4 2.2 3.0 or 4.0 1.6 or 2.2 4.8mm and thicker up to 3.6 2.4 2.6 2.4 3.8 Welding current A 50 70 100 120 175 210 220 260 40 55 50 75 90 110 125 150 40 60 70 90 110 130 155 175 Shielding gas flow l/min 6 7 10 12 6 7 8 10 6 7 8 10 Aluminium alternating current zirconiated electrode Stainless steel direct current thoriated electrode Carbon steel direct current thoriated electrode 36 .6 3.2 4.2 1.6 3.8 6.4 2.8 1.6 2.0 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.6 1.8 6.6 3.8 1.2 Filler rod diameter mm 1.8 6.4 3.
copper etc The cutting action depends on a chemical reaction between oxygen and hot iron or steel. The heat from the reaction melts the metal which is blown from the cut by the oxygen jet. pipes and sections nozzle Metal Mild and low carbon steels Cutting response Very good Must use flux in oxygen jet. Do not use damaged nozzles if you want the best results. Poor quality cut Unsuitable preheat flame cutting oxygen jet Stainless steel molten slag and metal ejected from cut cut face Aluminium.Metal Metal Air Products oxygen has the right purity for fast cutting. A preheat-flame is used to raise the surface of the metal to the temperature at which the reaction takes place.OXYGEN CUTTING Oxygen-fuel gas cutting Principles Oxygen-fuel gas cutting is widely used to cut: q straight lines and shapes in plates q pipe end in preparation for welding q scrap metal It can produce a variety of edge profiles on plates. 37 .
The type of nozzle is matched to the fuel gas.Air Products Welders Handbook Equipment The essential equipment for cutting comprises: q cutting and torch hoses q oxygen regulator (14 bar max output) q fuel gas regulator (2 bar max output) Oxygen and fuel gas for the preheat flame are mixed in the nozzle. nut to connect to torch flow disk valve closed when gas flow reverses Witt Super 78 and Air Products Flashback arrestors. hoses must be fitted with hose protectors at the torch. For safety. head assembly cutting oxygen pre-heat oxygen pre-heat fuel seatings nut nozzle 38 .
OXYGEN CUTTING Preheat flame The preheat flame: q heats the metal to start the cutting action q heats the surface along the line of the cut to keep the cutting action going q disperses residual paint and oxide on the surface Fuel gas can be: Apachi+™ — propylene based gas. exclusive to Air Products PLC. Acetylene — colourless unsaturated hydrocarbon. Propane — liquified petroleum based gas. Choice of fuel gas depends on: Factor for choice Time to start cut Cutting speed Fuel gas cost Heating oxygen cost Ease of handling q q q = best choice Apachi+ qq qqq qq qq qqq q = worst choice Acetylene qqq qqq q qqq q Propane q qq qqq q qqq 39 .
slag adheres to face undercut. slag bridges bottom cutting stops top edge very rounded edge rounded undercut slag adhering to face slag adhering to bottom edge 40 .Air Products Welders Handbook Quality of cut The aim is to produce a cut with: q a uniform gap (kerf) q clearly defined edges q smooth faces q no adhering slag kerf width sharp edge smooth face no slag bridge The quality of a cut surface depends on a number of variables Variable Nozzle-to-plate distance Cutting oxygen pressure Cutting speed Condition too low too high too low too high too low too high Preheat flame too small too big Effect top edge rounded undercutting cutting stops irregular face variable width excessive melting.
and radius bars for circles. Variations in travel speed and nozzle-to-plate distance give irregular cut faces. . fixed template . . Improved results can be obtained by the use of guides for straight lines .OXYGEN CUTTING Operating techniques Manual cutting is used for short cuts and the removal of defective parts. It is difficult to achieve a uniform cut with manual techniques. constant distance 41 . . .
leading trailing nozzle nozzle Mechanised systems can be used to prepare the edges of plate prior to welding.Air Products Welders Handbook Operating techniques Mechanised cutting produces a superior finish to manual operation. More than one cut can be made at the same time. A variety of mechanised traversing systems are available or the torch can be moved along a straight line or by hand to produce a complex shape. 42 .
OXYGEN CUTTING Typical operating conditions Plate thickness mm Nozzle size . Precise settings depend on the type of nozzle.in Cutting speed in/min mm/sec Cutting oxygen pressure bar pressure psi flow rate l/hr Preheat gas pressure bar pressure psi flow rate l/hr Apachi+ oxygen Acetylene oxygen Propane oxygen . 43 .9 Note: These conditions provide a starting point.3 12 3/64 21 8.30 4 400 1350 430 475 400 1720 .5 4.21 3 295 1025 340 375 300 1275 .8 25 650 1.30 4 400 1350 430 475 400 1720 1.14 2 250 900 310 340 255 1080 .21 3 295 1025 340 375 300 1275 .1 50 1/16 11.2 45 2500 3.21 3 260 950 320 355 265 1125 .8 25 950 2.3 25 1/16 13 5.30 4 340 1150 400 440 350 1475 .2 45 3300 6 1/32 24 10.1 30 1150 2.5 35 1/16 12 5.8 40 2000 3.2 9 1/32 22 9.1 30 1600 2.9 18 3/64 15 6. nozzle-to-plate distance and the condition of the plate surface.
ceramic shroud tungsten electrode plasma gas shielding gas plasma (arc) stream 44 . The cutting is accompanied by a high noise level which can be reduced by operating the torch under water. whilst an outer shield provides protection for the cut surface.Air Products Welders Handbook Plasma arc cutting Accurate cuts can be made in stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminium by plasma arc cutting. The cuts are made by a high temperature. Plasma arc cutting is characterised by fast cutting speeds and is mainly used in mechanised systems. Argon. high velocity gas jet generated by constricting an arc between a tungsten electrode and the component. helium. The heat from the arc melts the metal and the gas jet removes the molten metal from the cut. nitrogen and mixtures of these gases are used for both the inner and outer shields. The arc operates in an inert inner shield.
4 94.plasma cutting parameter guide Plate Speed thickness mm mm/min 6 12 Aluminium 25 50 75 100 12 Stainless Steel 25 50 75 100 7607 2536 1268 507 380 304 2536 1268 507 406 203 Orifice size mm 3 3 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 Power kW 60 70 80 80 90 90 60 80 100 100 100 Flow rate l/min 82. Hytec 35 is used as the plasma gas. The shielding gas can be nitrogen or argon. 45 .6 94.4 For specific parameters and gas flow rates consult your equipment manual.4 94.4 94.4 94. Benefits of Hytec 35 q Increased cutting speed q Reduced oxidation q Narrow kerf less metal wastage q Clean cut surface q Handles thicker section material Hytec 35 .6 82.4 94.4 70.8 80.PLASMA ARC CUTTING Hytec 35 Hytec 35 is a gas mixture which has been specially formulated for plasma arc cutting.2 94. It contains 65% argon and 35% hydrogen.
Never allow oil or grease on cylinders and valves and always close the valve when not in use. guard or valve. Keep cylinders cool. 46 . Always wear suitable eye and face protection when dealing with gas. Never remove or obscure official labelling on a gas cylinder and always check the identity of a gas before using it.Air Products Welders Handbook Golden rules for safe handling of welding and cutting gases Safety always accidents never Always understand the properties and hazards associated with each gas before using it. Never lift a cylinder by its cap. Always store cylinders in the vertical position. Always use a proper trolley for moving cylinders. Always protect your hands! Wear stout gloves when handling gas cylinders. and ensure that they are properly secured. even for a short distance. Never use direct heat on a cylinder. Never smoke when dealing with gas. Always replace caps and guards. Never attempt to repair or modify cylinder valves or safety relief devices.
Republic of Ireland www. Dublin 12.Air Products Welding Specialists provide technical advice to companies and individuals in the welding industry throughout the UK and Ireland. Killeen Road. CW1 6AP Air Products Ireland Ltd Unit 950. Why not let our team of experts assist you with your welding queries. Our trained staff are on hand to provide the answers you need. ensuring you get the best weld every time. DIRECT Air Products 0800 389 02 02 Air Products PLC 1 Millennium Gate. Crewe.airproducts.com/maxx . Cheshire. Westmere Drive. Western Industrial Estate.
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