10- Thiazine dyes :These dyes are analogues of the oxazines , an atom of sulphur replacing oxygen in the hetrocyclic ring

These dyes have phenzonium nucleus as chromophore with amino group para to the ring nitrogen as auxochromes Any of a group of basic dyes whose molecules contain the thiazine heterocycle. Among the thiazine dyes, methylene blue is of the greatest industrial significance.

The blue, green, and black sulfur dyes are sometimes regarded as thiazine dyes

11- Anthraquinone dyes :The general formula shows the chromophore to be a quinoid ring. This class of dyes may have either hydroxyl groups or amino groups attached to the general structure

The edge of its long wave extends into the visible spectrum ( max 327 nm ) . it is not itself a dye. The introduction of relative simple electron donors gives anthraquinone compounds which according the strength of eloctron donors ( OH <NH2< NHAr) absorb in any desired region of the visible spectrum.

Dye based on anthraquinone and related polycyclic aromatic quinoners of great importance many of most light fast acids , mordant, disperse and vat dyes are of this class. The chromophoric is in the quinoid group > c=o. Example


Disperse red-11 )

Indanthrene blue RS

12-Indigoid dyes :certain vat dyes belong to this group


13- Phthalocyanine dyes :Phthalocyanin dyes have the general formula to the right.At the point marked x various groups are attached. These vary with each dye.

Phthalocyanine forms upon heating phthalic acid derivatives that contain nitrogen functional groups. Classical precursors are phthalonitrile and diiminoisoindole. In the presence of urea, the heating of phthalanhydride is a useful route to H2Pc. These reactions are more efficient in the presence of metal salts. Other precursors include , o-cyanobenzamide, , and phthalimide. Several of these starting materials are

Using such methods, approximately 57000 tons of various phthalocyanines were produced in 1985. Halogenated and sulfonated derivatives of copper phthalocyanines are commercially important. These compounds are prepared by treating CuPc with chlorine or oleum

14-Cyanine dyes :Synthetic dyes with the general formula R2N[CH=CH]nCH=N+R2 5« R2N+=CH[CH=CH]nNR2 (n is a small number) in which the nitrogen and part of the conjugated chain usually form part of a heterocyclic system, such as imidazole, pyridine, pyrrole, quinoline and thiazole,


15-AZINE DYES :Azine class is one of the oldest known class of dyes and the first synthetic dye . Mauviene belongs to this class. The azine ring str. is given


16- Stilbene dyes :These dyes have Stilbene group (- CH=CH-)as a chromophore. These dyes can be found in direct dyes and fluorescent brightening agent . Stilbene dyes of importance are mostly direct yellow dyes for cellulosic bers, especially paper. There have been several red and blue stilbene-containing dyes reported, but they have not (ca 1996) been developed to commercial importance. Example chrysophenine

Blankophor R (F.B.A)

17- Azoic dyes :Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble azo dye is produced directly onto or within the fibre. This is achieved by treating a fibre with both diazoic and coupling components. With suitable adjustment of dyebath conditions the two components react to produce the required insoluble azo dye. This technique of dyeing is unique, in that the final color is controlled by the choice of the diazoic and coupling components. These dyes cannot be applied directly on the fibers as dyes. Actually, these dyes are produced within the fibers itself. For this production, first the fiber is impregnated with one component of these dyes and then the fiber is treated in another component of these dyes. In this way the AZO dyes are formed. This specialty makes these dyes very fast to.washing,within,the,fabric,market. When these dyes are used upon the cellulose fabric then initially this fabric starts to suffer from poor rub fastness. This is due to the deposition of the free pigments on the surface of the fabric. This problem can be rectified by boiling the fabric in soap.

Example .of azoic dyes -Naphthol-AS

Fast blue ±GC base



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