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Submitted by


Mechanical Engineering
Department SRMS

Under the Guidance of



➢ Declaration
➢ Acknowledgement
➢ TATA MOTORS- An Introduction
➢ TATA Journey-Year by year
➢ Organisation Structure
➢ TATA MOTORS-Lucknow Plant
➢ What is a CROWN wheel

➢ Gears Manufacturing and its uses
➢ Detailed Study of GLEASON NO.610
➢ Productivity Improvement
➢ My Role
➢ Overview


I hereby declare that the project work entitled: 1.

NO.610 HYPOID GEAR MACHINE is an authentic
record of my own work carried out at TATA MOTORS,

requirements of four week summer project , under the

guidance of MR.TANUJ SONKER


Certified that the above statement made by the

student is correct to the best of our knowledge and




Industrial training is a crucial period in engineering

curriculum since it exposes a student to the real world
which he or she is going to enter after the completion
of the graduation. This is the period during which an
engineer actually becomes an engineer by gaining the
Industrial experience. I am very thankful to God who
has given me the opportunity to get training in TATA
MOTORS, LUCKNOW one of the most renowned
organization of India. I would like to express my deep
gratitude to my Project Head MR. TANUJ SONKER
,CX-CWP for having provided me with the wonderful &
conductive environment to work in and realize what
really industry is, he has been ever helpful and
supportive. Last but not the least I would like to thank
MS. JASNEET RAKHRA (Manager HR) for providing
me the opportunity to add a new dimension to my
personality. I will remain indebted to her for her
generous ways of dealing with industrial trainees.

SUDHANSHU,B.Tech. 2nd year,SRMS CET,Bareilly


Tata Motors is a part of the Tata Group manages its
share-holding through Tata Sons. The company was
established in 1935 as a locomotive manufacturing unit
and later expanded its operations to commercial
vehicle sector in 1954 after forming a joint venture with
Daimler-Benz AG of Germany. Despite the success of
its commercial vehicles, Tata realized his company had
to diversify and he began to look at other products.
Based on consumer demand, he decided that building a
small car would be the most practical new venture. So
in 1998 it launched Tata Indica, India's first fully
indigenous passenger car. Designed to be inexpensive
and simple to build and maintain, the Indica became a
hit in the Indian market. It was also exported to Europe,
especially the UK and Italy. In 2004 it acquired Tata
Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, and in late 2005 it
acquired 21% of Aragonese Hispano Carrocera giving it
controlling rights of the company. It has formed a joint
venture with Marcopolo of Brazil, and introduced low-
floor buses in the Indian Market. Recently, it has
acquired British Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), which includes
the Daimler and Lanchester brand names.


➢ 1868: Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata starts a private

trading firm, laying the foundation of the TATA
➢ 1874: The Central India Spinning, Weaving and
Manufacturing Company is set up, marking the
Group's entry into textiles.
➢ 1902: The Indian Hotels Company is incorporated
to set up the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower, India's
first luxury hotel, which opened in 1903.
➢ 1907: The Tata Iron and Steel Company (now Tata
Steel) is established to set up India's first iron and
steel plant in Jamshedpur. The plant started
production in 1912.
➢ 1910: The first of the three Tata Electric
Companies, The Tata Hydro-Electric Power Supply
Company, (now Tata Power) is set up.
➢ 1911: The Indian Institute of Science is established
in Bangalore to serve as a centre for advanced
➢ 1912: Tata Steel introduces eight-hour working
days, well before such a system was implemented
by law in much of the West.
➢ 1917: The Tatas enter the consumer goods
industry, with the Tata Oil Mills Company being
established to make soaps, detergents and cooking
➢ 1932: Tata Airlines, a division of Tata Sons, is
established, opening up the aviation sector in
➢ 1939: Tata Chemicals, now the largest producer of
soda ash in the country, is established.
➢ 1945: Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company
(renamed Tata Motors in 2003) is established to
manufacture locomotive and engineering products.
Tata Industries is created for the promotion and
development of hi-tech industries.
➢ 1952: Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime
Minister, requests the Group to manufacture
cosmetics in India, leading to the setting up of
➢ 1954: India's major marketing, engineering and
manufacturing organization, Voltas, is established.
➢ 1962: Tata Finlay (now Tata Tea), one of the
largest tea producers, is established. Tata Exports
is established. Today the company, renamed Tata
International, is one of the leading export houses in
➢ 1968: Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), India's
first software services company, is established as a
division of Tata Sons.
➢ 1970: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company is
created to publish educational and technical books.
Tata Economic Consultancy Services is set up to
provide services in the field of industrial,
marketing, statistical and techno-economic
research and consultancy.

➢ 1984: Titan Industries - a joint venture between
the Tata Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial
Development Corporation (TIDCO) - is set up to
manufacture watches.
➢ 1991: Tata Motors rolls out its millionth vehicle.
(The two-million mark was reached in 1998 and the
third million in 2003.)
➢ 1995: Tata Quality Management Services
institutes the JRD QV Award, modelled on the
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Value Award of
the United States, laying the foundation of the Tata
Business Excellence Model.
➢ 1996: Tata Tele services (TTSL) is established to
spearhead the Group's foray into the telecom
➢ 1998: Tata Indica - India's first indigenously
designed and manufactured car – is launched by
Tata Motors, spearheading the Group's entry into
the passenger car segment.
➢ 1999: The new Tata Group corporate mark and
logo are launched.
➢ 2000: Tata Tea acquires the Tetley Group, UK. This
is the first major acquisition of an international
brand by an Indian business group.
➢ 2001: Tata-AIG - a joint venture between the Tata
Group and American International Group Inc (AIG) -
marks the Tata re-entry into insurance. (The
Group's insurance company, New India Assurance,
was nationalized in 1956). The Tata Group
Executive Office (GEO) is set up to design and
implement change in the Tata Group and to
provide long-term direction.

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➢ 2002: The Tata Group acquires a controlling stake
in VSNL, India's leading international
telecommunications service provider Tata
Consultancy Services (TCS) becomes the first
Indian software company to cross one billion
dollars in revenues. Titan launches Edge, the
slimmest watch in the world. Idea Cellular, the
cellular service born of a tie-up involving the Tata
Group, the Birla Group and AT&T, is launched. Tata
Indicom, the umbrella brand for telecom services
from the Tata Tele services stable, starts
➢ 2003: Tata Motors launches City Rover – Indicas
fashioned for the European market. The first batch
of City Rovers rolled out from the Tata Motors
stable in Pune on September 16, 2003.
➢ 2004: Tata Motors acquires the heavy vehicles
unit of Daewoo Motors, South Korea. TCS goes
public in July 2004 in the largest private sector
initial public offering (IPO) in the Indian market,
raising nearly $1.2 billion.
➢ 2005: Tata Steel acquires Singapore-based steel
company NatSteel by subscribing to 100 per cent
equity of its subsidiary, NatSteel Asia.
➢ 2009: Tata Motors launched Tata Nano, world’s
cheapest family car.

11 | P a g e
(Lucknow Plant)

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There are three divisions in TATA Motors,

Training division

The Training Center at the Lucknow plant aims at

providing high quality Apprenticeship Training. In
addition, the Centre provides both internal and external
training, support to operators, supervisors and
managers in areas like special skills and technology,
safety, personnel practices etc.
The Lucknow plant, after a major restructuring
exercise, executed a smooth transition from function-
based to process-based structure. By this structure,
process owners are required to meet stretched targets,
and in order to do so, are required to encourage
individual learning and development of employees. A
structured process is being followed to establish and
reinforce an environment that encourages innovation.

Assembly division

Lucknow Plant started with the assembly of Medium

Commercial Vehicles (MCVs) to meet the demand in the
Northern Indian market. However, in 1995, the unit
started manufacturing bus chassis of Light Commercial
Vehicles (LCVs) and SUMOs. The facilities for
manufacturing the spare parts were set up and started
supply of Crown wheel & pinion (CWP) in 1994.
Subsequently, G-16 & G-18 Gear Parts started in 1998.
With the availability of G-16 gear parts manufacturing
facility, the Plant also started assembly of G-16 Gear
Box to meet in-house requirement for SUMO vehicles in

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the year 2000.Now TATA Motors Lucknow has started
assembling of CNG MCV`s to meet the consumers
demand. TATA Motors is also producing Rear Engine

Manufacturing Division
In TATA Motors Lucknow Crown Wheel and Pinion are
manufactured by various gear cutting process.
Machining (grinding and heat treatment) of Gear Box
parts is also done here. These gears are used in gear
boxes or as spares. Now TATA Motors is assembling
Gear Box of ACE (Newly launched small –CV) in
Lucknow itself. The Manufacturing unit of Tata Motors
at Lucknow is the latest manufacturing facility of Tata
motors and is located towards East of Lucknow plant.


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A crown wheel is a type of circular gear wheel with
teeth that extend perpendicular to the base. While a
traditional gear features teeth that sit parallel to the
edges of the base, a crown wheel's teeth sit on the
surface of the wheel, forming a crown-like shape.
Crown wheels are considered a type of beveled gear,
which is the general term for all gears with teeth
located on the surface of the wheel rather than the
edges. The teeth on a beveled wheel may be placed at
any angle to the surface, while the crown wheel teeth
are distinguished by the fact that they are positioned at
a 90-degree angle to the gear.
These gears are often used along with a pinion to
rotate a mechanical device. They are used in many
automotive applications, as well as in industrial and
manufacturing equipment. Many vehicles rely on crown
wheel and pinion systems to create the vehicle's
forward motion, or to rotate the axles. A crown wheel
gear is also used with a pinion to operate a traditional
mechanical clock.
While standard gears line up edge to edge, crown
wheels mesh at an angle with pinions or other gears.
Rather than being located in the same plane, the two
gears are positioned at an angle, or perpendicular to
one another. This allows the teeth in the gears to fit
together and transfer motion or force between various
operating components.
There are three basic types of crown wheel for buyers
to choose from. Standard models have squared-off
teeth that sit parallel to the top of the gear. This design
results in a high level of vibration and noise when these
gears are used. Spiral gears use teeth with angled

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edges, resulting in quieter performance, but also in
faster wear and more maintenance. Hypoid crown
wheels are similar to spiral models, but work with an
offset pinion to create better strength and
Users should select crown wheel gears carefully to
match the needs of the application. The size and
pattern of the teeth on the wheel must fit exactly with
all adjacent gears or pinions. It is also helpful to choose
higher quality gears, because are more precisely made
to minimize noise and vibration. The material used to
manufacture these gears is also a critical factor. If one
gear is harder than the adjacent one, it will rapidly
wear away the edges of the softer gear, shortening the
life of the installation.



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A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or

cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to
transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem
are called a transmission and can produce a
mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus
may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices
can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a
power source. The most common situation is for a gear
to mesh with another gear, however a gear can also
mesh a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack,
thereby producing translation instead of rotation.
The gears in a transmission are analogous to the
wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the
teeth of a gear prevent slipping.
When two gears of unequal number of teeth are
combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with
both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two
gears differing in a simple relationship.
In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such
as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear,
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refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical
gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even
when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or
when the device does not actually contain any gears,
as in a continuously variable transmission.

Comparison with other drive

The definite velocity ratio which results from having
teeth gives gears an advantage over other drives (such
as traction drives and V-belts) in precision machines
such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity
ratio. In cases where driver and follower are in close
proximity gears also have an advantage over other
drives in the reduced number of parts required; the
downside is that gears are more expensive to
manufacture and their lubrication requirements may
impose a higher operating cost.
The automobile transmission allows selection between
gears to give various mechanical advantages.

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1.External vs. internal gears

Internal gear
An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the
outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, an
internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner
surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an
internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90
degrees. Internal gears do not cause direction reversal.

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Spur gear
Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type
of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk, and with the
teeth projecting radially, and although they are not
straight-sided in form, the edge of each tooth thus is
straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation.
These gears can be meshed together correctly only if
they are fitted to parallel axles.
3. Helical

Helical gears
Top: parallel configuration
Bottom: crossed configuration
Helical gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The
leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of
rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is
curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a
segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in a
parallel or crossed orientations. The former refers to
when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the
most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are

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The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur
gear teeth causing them to run more smoothly and
quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth
first make contact at a single point at one side of the
gear wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows
gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then
recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point
on the opposite side. In spur gears teeth suddenly meet
at a line contact across their entire width causing stress
and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at
high speeds and can not take as much torque as helical
gears. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed
applications and those situations where noise control is
not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated
when the application involves high speeds, large power
transmission, or where noise abatement is important.
The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line
velocity exceeds 25 m/s.
A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust
along the axis of the gear, which needs to be
accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a
greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing
teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant.
For a crossed configuration the gears must have the
same pressure angle and normal pitch, however the
helix angle and handedness can be different. The
relationship between the two shafts is actually defined
by the helix angle(s) of the two shafts and the
handedness, as defined:
E = β1 + β2 for gears of the same handedness
E = β1 − β2 for gears of opposite handedness

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Where β is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed
configuration is less mechanically sound because there
is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in
the parallel configuration there is a line contact.
Quite commonly helical gears are used with the helix
angle of one having the negative of the helix angle of
the other; such a pair might also be referred to as
having a right-handed helix and a left-handed helix of
equal angles. The two equal but opposite angles add to
zero: the angle between shafts is zero – that is, the
shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference (as
described in the equations above) is not zero the shafts
are crossed. For shafts crossed at right angles the helix
angles are of the same hand because they must add to
90 degrees.
4. Double helical

Double helical gears

Double helical gears, or herringbone gear, overcome
the problem of axial thrust presented by "single" helical
gears by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V
shape. Each gear in a double helical gear can be
thought of as two standard mirror image helical gears

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stacked. This cancels out the thrust since each half of
the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. Double
helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to
their more complicated shape.
For each possible direction of rotation, there are two
possible arrangements of two oppositely-oriented
helical gears or gear faces. In one possible orientation,
the helical gear faces are oriented so that the axial
force generated by each is in the axial direction away
from the center of the gear; this arrangement is
unstable. In the second possible orientation, which is
stable, the helical gear faces are oriented so that each
axial force is toward the mid-line of the gear. In both
arrangements, when the gears are aligned correctly,
the total (or net) axial force on each gear is zero. If the
gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the
unstable arrangement generates a net force for
disassembly of the gear train, while the stable
arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the
direction of rotation is reversed, the direction of the
axial thrusts is reversed, a stable configuration
becomes unstable, and vice versa.
Stable double helical gears can be directly
interchanged with spur gears without any need for
different bearings.
5. Bevel

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Bevel gear
A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with
most of its tip cut off. When two bevel gears mesh their
imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their
shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an
arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The
angle between the shafts can be anything except zero
or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal numbers of
teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter
The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with
spur gears, or they may be cut in a variety of other
shapes. Spiral bevel gear teeth are curved along the
tooth's length and set at an angle, analogously to the
way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to
spur gear teeth. Zerol bevel gears have teeth which are
curved along their length, but not angled. Spiral bevel
gears have the same advantages and disadvantages
relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do
to spur gears. Straight bevel gears are generally used
only at speeds below 5 m/s (1000 ft/min), or, for small
gears, 1000 r.p.m.
6. Hypoid

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Hypoid gear
Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the
shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear
conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in
fact hyperboloids of revolution. Hypoid gears are
almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90
degrees. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to,
relative to the angling of the teeth, contact between
hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more
gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth. Also, the
pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral
bevel pinion, with the result that gear ratios of 60:1 and
higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears.
This style of gear is most commonly found in
mechanical differentials.

7. Crown

Crown gear

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Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of
bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the
plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth
resemble the points on a crown. A crown gear can only
mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although
crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur
gears. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an
escapement such as found in mechanical clocks.
8. Worm

Worm gear
Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is usually
meshed with an ordinary looking, disk-shaped gear,
which is called the gear, wheel, or worm wheel.
Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to
achieve a high torque, low speed gear ratio. For
example, helical gears are normally limited to gear
ratios of less than 10:1 while worm-and-gear sets vary
from 10:1 to 500:1. A disadvantage is the potential for
considerable sliding action, leading to low efficiency.
Worm gears can be considered a species of helical
gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat large
(close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long
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in the axial direction; and it is these attributes which
give it its screw like qualities. The distinction between a
worm and a helical gear is made when at least one
tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. If this
occurs, it is a 'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm
may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for
several turns around the helix, the worm will appear,
superficially, to have more than one tooth, but what
one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at
intervals along the length of the worm. The usual screw
nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called
single thread or single start; a worm with more than
one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. The
helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. Instead,
the lead angle, which is equal to 90 degrees minus the
helix angle, is given.
In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always drive the
gear. However, if the gear attempts to drive the worm,
it may or may not succeed. Particularly if the lead angle
is small, the gear's teeth may simply lock against the
worm's teeth, because the force component
circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to
overcome friction. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are
called self locking, which can be used to advantage,
as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a
mechanism by turning the worm and then have the
mechanism hold that position. An example is the
machine head found on some types of stringed
If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical
gear only a single point of contact will be achieved. If
medium to high power transmission is desired, the

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tooth shape of the gear is modified to achieve more
intimate contact by making both gears partially
envelop each other. This is done by making both
concave and joining them at a saddle point; this is
called a cone-drive.
Worm gears can be right or left-handed following the
long established practice for screw threads.
9. Non-circular

Non-circular gears
Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes.
While a regular gear is optimized to transmit torque to
another engaged member with minimum noise and
wear and maximum efficiency, a non-circular gear's
main objective might be ratio variations, axle
displacement oscillations and more. Common
applications include textile machines, potentiometers
and continuously variable transmissions.

10. Rack and pinion

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Rack and pinion gearing
A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as
a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of
curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force by
meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns; the rack
moves in a straight line. Such a mechanism is used in
automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering
wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s).
Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry,
where, for instance, the tooth shape of an
interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the
rack (infinite radius), and the tooth shapes for gears of
particular actual radii then derived from that. The rack
and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway.
11. Epicyclic

Epicyclic gearing

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In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes
moves. Examples are sun and planet gearing (see
below) and mechanical differentials.
12. Sun and planet

Sun (yellow) and planet (red) gearing

Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting
reciprocal motion into rotary motion in steam engines.
It played an important role in the Industrial Revolution.
The Sun is yellow, the planet red, the reciprocating
crank is blue, the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is
14. Harmonic drive

Harmonic drive gearing

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A harmonic drive is a specialized proprietary gearing
15. Cage gear
A cage gear, also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion
has cylindrical rods for teeth, parallel to the axle and
arranged in a circle around it, much as the bars on a
round bird cage or lantern. The assembly is held
together by disks at either end into which the tooth
rods and axle are set.

General nomenclature

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Rotational frequency, n
Measured in rotation over time, such as RPM.
Angular frequency, ω
Measured in radians per second. 1RPM = π / 30
Number of teeth, N

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How many teeth a gear has, an integer. In the case
of worms, it is the number of thread starts that the
worm has.
Gear, wheel
The larger of two interacting gears.
The smaller of two interacting gears.
Path of contact
Path followed by the point of contact between two
meshing gear teeth.
Line of action, pressure line
Line along which the force between two meshing
gear teeth is directed. It has the same direction as
the force vector. In general, the line of action
changes from moment to moment during the
period of engagement of a pair of teeth. For
involute gears, however, the tooth-to-tooth force is
always directed along the same line—that is, the
line of action is constant. This implies that for
involute gears the path of contact is also a straight
line, coincident with the line of action—as is indeed
the case.

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Axis of revolution of the gear; center line of the
Pitch point, p
Point where the line of action crosses a line joining
the two gear axes.
Pitch circle, pitch line
Circle centered on and perpendicular to the axis,
and passing through the pitch point. A predefined
diametral position on the gear where the circular
tooth thickness, pressure angle and helix angles
are defined.
Pitch diameter, d
A predefined diametral position on the gear where
the circular tooth thickness, pressure angle and
helix angles are defined. The standard pitch
diameter is a basic dimension and cannot be
measured, but is a location where other
measurements are made. Its value is based on the
number of teeth, the normal module (or normal
diametral pitch), and the helix angle. It is
calculated as:

in metric units or in imperial units.

Module, m

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A scaling factor used in metric gears with units in
millimeters who's effect is to enlarge the gear
tooth size as the module increases and reduce the
size as the module decreases. Module can be
defined in the normal (mn), the transverse (mt), or
the axial planes (ma) depending on the design
approach employed and the type of gear being
designed. Module is typically an input value into
the gear design and is seldom calculated.
Operating pitch diameters
Diameters determined from the number of teeth
and the center distance at which gears operate.
Example for pinion:

Pitch surface
In cylindrical gears, cylinder formed by projecting a
pitch circle in the axial direction. More generally,
the surface formed by the sum of all the pitch
circles as one moves along the axis. For bevel
gears it is a cone.
Angle of action
Angle with vertex at the gear center, one leg on
the point where mating teeth first make contact,
the other leg on the point where they disengage.

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Arc of action
Segment of a pitch circle subtended by the angle
of action.
Pressure angle, θ
The complement of the angle between the
direction that the teeth exert force on each other,
and the line joining the centers of the two gears.
For involute gears, the teeth always exert force
along the line of action, which, for involute gears,
is a straight line; and thus, for involute gears, the
pressure angle is constant.
Outside diameter, Do
Diameter of the gear, measured from the tops of
the teeth.
Root diameter
Diameter of the gear, measured at the base of the
Addendum, a
Radial distance from the pitch surface to the
outermost point of the tooth. a = (Do − D) / 2
Dedendum, b
Radial distance from the depth of the tooth trough
to the pitch surface. b = (D − rootdiameter) / 2

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Whole depth, ht
The distance from the top of the tooth to the root;
it is equal to addendum plus dedendum or to
working depth plus clearance.
Distance between the root circle of a gear and the
addendum circle of its mate.
Working depth
Depth of engagement of two gears, that is, the
sum of their operating addendums.
Circular pitch, p
Distance from one face of a tooth to the
corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the
same gear, measured along the pitch circle.
Diametral pitch, pd
Ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter.
Could be measured in teeth per inch or teeth per
Base circle
In involute gears, where the tooth profile is the
involute of the base circle. The radius of the base
circle is somewhat smaller than that of the pitch

38 | P a g e
Base pitch, normal pitch, pb
In involute gears, distance from one face of a tooth
to the corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on
the same gear, measured along the base circle.
Contact between teeth other than at the intended
parts of their surfaces.
Interchangeable set
A set of gears, any of which will mate properly with
any other.
Helical gear nomenclature
Helix angle, ψ
Angle between a tangent to the helix and the gear
axis. Is zero in the limiting case of a spur gear.
Normal circular pitch, pn
Circular pitch in the plane normal to the teeth.
Transverse circular pitch, p
Circular pitch in the plane of rotation of the gear.
Sometimes just called "circular pitch". pn = pcos(ψ)
Several other helix parameters can be viewed either in
the normal or transverse planes. The subscript n
usually indicates the normal.
Worm gear nomenclature

39 | P a g e
Distance from any point on a thread to the
corresponding point on the next turn of the same
thread, measured parallel to the axis.
Linear pitch, p
Distance from any point on a thread to the
corresponding point on the adjacent thread,
measured parallel to the axis. For a single-thread
worm, lead and linear pitch are the same.
Lead angle, λ
Angle between a tangent to the helix and a plane
perpendicular to the axis. Note that it is the
complement of the helix angle which is usually
given for helical gears.
Pitch diameter, dw
Same as described earlier in this list. Note that for
a worm it is still measured in a plane perpendicular
to the gear axis, not a tilted plane.
Subscript w denotes the worm, subscript g denotes the
Tooth contact nomenclature

40 | P a g e
Path of Plane of
Line of contact action Line of
action action

Lines of contact Length of

Arc of Limit
(helical gear) action
action diameter

Face advance Zone of

Point of contact
Any point at which two tooth profiles touch each
Line of contact
A line or curve along which two tooth surfaces are
tangent to each other.

41 | P a g e
Path of action
The locus of successive contact points between a
pair of gear teeth, during the phase of
engagement. For conjugate gear teeth, the path of
action passes through the pitch point. It is the
trace of the surface of action in the plane of
Line of action
The path of action for involute gears. It is the
straight line passing through the pitch point and
tangent to both base circles.
Surface of action
The imaginary surface in which contact occurs
between two engaging tooth surfaces. It is the
summation of the paths of action in all sections of
the engaging teeth.
Plane of action
The surface of action for involute, parallel axis
gears with either spur or helical teeth. It is tangent
to the base cylinders.
Zone of action (contact zone)
For involute, parallel-axis gears with either spur or
helical teeth, is the rectangular area in the plane of
action bounded by the length of action and the
effective face width.
42 | P a g e
Path of contact
The curve on either tooth surface along which
theoretical single point contact occurs during the
engagement of gears with crowned tooth surfaces
or gears that normally engage with only single
point contact.
Length of action
The distance on the line of action through which
the point of contact moves during the action of the
tooth profile.
Arc of action, Qt
The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth
profile moves from the beginning to the end of
contact with a mating profile.
Arc of approach, Qa
The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth
profile moves from its beginning of contact until
the point of contact arrives at the pitch point.
Arc of recess, Qr
The arc of the pitch circle through which a tooth
profile moves from contact at the pitch point until
contact ends.
Contact ratio, mc, ε

43 | P a g e
The number of angular pitches through which a
tooth surface rotates from the beginning to the
end of contact.In a simple way, it can be defined as
a measure of the average number of teeth in
contact during the period in which a tooth comes
and goes out of contact with the mating gear.
Transverse contact ratio, mp, εα
The contact ratio in a transverse plane. It is the
ratio of the angle of action to the angular pitch. For
involute gears it is most directly obtained as the
ratio of the length of action to the base pitch.
Face contact ratio, mF, εβ
The contact ratio in an axial plane, or the ratio of
the face width to the axial pitch. For bevel and
hypoid gears it is the ratio of face advance to
circular pitch.
Total contact ratio, mt, εγ
The sum of the transverse contact ratio and the
face contact ratio.
εγ = εα + εβ
mt = mp + mF
Modified contact ratio, mo
For bevel gears, the square root of the sum of the
squares of the transverse and face contact ratios.

44 | P a g e
Limit diameter
Diameter on a gear at which the line of action
intersects the maximum (or minimum for internal
pinion) addendum circle of the mating gear. This is
also referred to as the start of active profile, the
start of contact, the end of contact, or the end of
active profile.
Start of active profile (SAP)
Intersection of the limit diameter and the involute
Face advance
Distance on a pitch circle through which a helical
or spiral tooth moves from the position at which
contact begins at one end of the tooth trace on the
pitch surface to the position where contact ceases
at the other end.
Tooth thickness nomeclature

Thickness thickness Tooth thickness
relationships measurement
45 | P a g e
over pins

Span Long and

measuremen short
t addendum
Circular thickness
Length of arc between the two sides of a gear
tooth, on the specified datum circle.
Transverse circular thickness
Circular thickness in the transverse plane.
Normal circular thickness
Circular thickness in the normal plane. In a helical
gear it may be considered as the length of arc
along a normal helix.
Axial thickness
In helical gears and worms, tooth thickness in an
axial cross section at the standard pitch diameter.
Base circular thickness

46 | P a g e
In involute teeth, length of arc on the base circle
between the two involute curves forming the
profile of a tooth.
Normal chordal thickness
Length of the chord that subtends a circular
thickness arc in the plane normal to the pitch helix.
Any convenient measuring diameter may be
selected, not necessarily the standard pitch
Chordal addendum (chordal height)
Height from the top of the tooth to the chord
subtending the circular thickness arc. Any
convenient measuring diameter may be selected,
not necessarily the standard pitch diameter.
Profile shift
Displacement of the basic rack datum line from the
reference cylinder, made non-dimensional by
dividing by the normal module. It is used to specify
the tooth thickness, often for zero backlash.
Rack shift
Displacement of the tool datum line from the
reference cylinder, made non-dimensional by
dividing by the normal module. It is used to specify
the tooth thickness.
Measurement over pins
47 | P a g e
Measurement of the distance taken over a pin
positioned in a tooth space and a reference
surface. The reference surface may be the
reference axis of the gear, a datum surface or
either one or two pins positioned in the tooth space
or spaces opposite the first. This measurement is
used to determine tooth thickness.
Span measurement
Measurement of the distance across several teeth
in a normal plane. As long as the measuring device
has parallel measuring surfaces that contact on an
unmodified portion of the involute, the
measurement will be along a line tangent to the
base cylinder. It is used to determine tooth
Modified addendum teeth
Teeth of engaging gears, one or both of which
have non-standard addendum.
Full-depth teeth
Teeth in which the working depth equals 2.000
divided by the normal diametral pitch.
Stub teeth
Teeth in which the working depth is less than
2.000 divided by the normal diametral pitch.
Equal addendum teeth
48 | P a g e
Teeth in which two engaging gears have equal
Long and short-addendum teeth
Teeth in which the addendums of two engaging
gears are unequal.
Pitch nomenclature
Pitch is the distance between a point on one tooth and
the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. It is a
dimension measured along a line or curve in the
transverse, normal, or axial directions. The use of the
single word pitch without qualification may be
ambiguous, and for this reason it is preferable to use
specific designations such as transverse circular pitch,
normal base pitch, axial pitch.

Base pitch Principal

Pitch Tooth pitch relationships pitches
Circular pitch, p
Arc distance along a specified pitch circle or pitch
line between corresponding profiles of adjacent
Transverse circular pitch, pt
Circular pitch in the transverse plane.

49 | P a g e
Normal circular pitch, pn, pe
Circular pitch in the normal plane, and also the
length of the arc along the normal pitch helix
between helical teeth or threads.
Axial pitch, px
Linear pitch in an axial plane and in a pitch
surface. In helical gears and worms, axial pitch has
the same value at all diameters. In gearing of other
types, axial pitch may be confined to the pitch
surface and may be a circular measurement. The
term axial pitch is preferred to the term linear
pitch. The axial pitch of a helical worm and the
circular pitch of its worm gear are the same.
Normal base pitch, pN, pbn
An involute helical gear is the base pitch in the
normal plane. It is the normal distance between
parallel helical involute surfaces on the plane of
action in the normal plane, or is the length of arc
on the normal base helix. It is a constant distance
in any helical involute gear.
Transverse base pitch, pb, pbt
In an involute gear, the pitch on the base circle or
along the line of action. Corresponding sides of
involute gear teeth are parallel curves, and the
base pitch is the constant and fundamental

50 | P a g e
distance between them along a common normal in
a transverse plane.
Diametral pitch (transverse), Pd
Ratio of the number of teeth to the standard pitch
diameter in inches.

Normal diametral pitch, Pnd

Value of diametral pitch in a normal plane of a
helical gear or worm.

Angular pitch, θN, τ

Angle subtended by the circular pitch, usually
expressed in radians.

degrees or radians


51 | P a g e
Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears
change direction. It exists because there is always
some gap between the trailing face of the driving tooth
and the leading face of the tooth behind it on the
driven gear, and that gap must be closed before force
can be transferred in the new direction. The term
"backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the
gap, not just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one
could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example,
"0.1 mm of backlash." A pair of gears could be
designed to have zero backlash, but this would
presuppose perfection in manufacturing, uniform
thermal expansion characteristics throughout the
system, and no lubricant. Therefore, gear pairs are
designed to have some backlash. It is usually provided
by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half
the desired gap distance. In the case of a large gear
and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually
taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full
sized teeth. Backlash can also be provided by moving
the gears farther apart.
For situations, such as instrumentation and control,
where precision is important, backlash can be
minimised through one of several techniques. For
instance, the gear can be split along a plane
perpendicular to the axis, one half fixed to the shaft in
the usual manner, the other half placed alongside it,
free to rotate about the shaft, but with springs between
the two halves providing relative torque between them,
so that one achieves, in effect, a single gear with
expanding teeth. Another method involves tapering the
teeth in the axial direction and providing for the gear to
be slid in the axial direction to take up slack.
52 | P a g e
Shifting of gears
In some machines (e.g., automobiles) it is necessary to
alter the gear ratio to suit the task. There are several
methods of accomplishing this. For example:
• Manual transmission

• Automatic gearbox

• Derailleur gears which are actually sprockets in

combination with a roller chain
• Hub gears (also called epicyclic gearing or sun-
and-planet gears)
There are several outcomes of gear shifting in motor
vehicles. In the case of air pollution emissions, there
are higher pollutant emissions generated in the lower
gears, when the engine is working harder than when
higher gears have been attained. In the case of vehicle
noise emissions, there are higher sound levels emitted
when the vehicle is engaged in lower gears. This fact
has been utilized in analyzing vehicle generated sound
since the late 1960s, and has been incorporated into
the simulation of urban roadway noise and
corresponding design of urban noise barriers along
Tooth profile

Profile of a spur

53 | P a g e
A profile is one side of a tooth in a cross section
between the outside circle and the root circle. Usually a
profile is the curve of intersection of a tooth surface
and a plane or surface normal to the pitch surface, such
as the transverse, normal, or axial plane.
The fillet curve (root fillet) is the concave portion of the
tooth profile where it joins the bottom of the tooth
As mentioned near the beginning of the article, the
attainment of a non fluctuating velocity ratio is
dependent on the profile of the teeth. Friction and wear
between two gears is also dependent on the tooth
profile. There are a great many tooth profiles that will
give a constant velocity ratio, and in many cases, given
an arbitrary tooth shape, it is possible to develop a
tooth profile for the mating gear that will give a
constant velocity ratio. However, two constant velocity
tooth profiles have been by far the most commonly
used in modern times. They are the cycloid and the
involute. The cycloid was more common until the late
1800s; since then the involute has largely superseded
it, particularly in drive train applications. The cycloid is
in some ways the more interesting and flexible shape;
however the involute has two advantages: it is easier to
manufacture, and it permits the center to center
spacing of the gears to vary over some range without
ruining the constancy of the velocity ratio. Cycloidal
gears only work properly if the center spacing is exactly
right. Cycloidal gears are still used in mechanical

54 | P a g e
An undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth
when any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line
drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of
juncture with the fillet. Undercut may be deliberately
introduced to facilitate finishing operations. With
undercut the fillet curve intersects the working profile.
Without undercut the fillet curve and the working
profile have a common tangent.

Gear materials

Wooden gears of a historic windmill

Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-
metallurgy and even plastics are used in the
manufacture of gears. However steels are most
commonly used because of their high strength to
weight ratio and low cost. Plastic is commonly used
where cost or weight is a concern. A properly designed
plastic gear can replace steel in many cases because it
has many desirable properties, including dirt tolerance,
low speed meshing, and the ability to "skip" quite well.
Manufacturers have employed plastic gears to make
consumer items affordable in items like copy machines,

55 | P a g e
optical storage devices, VCRs, cheap dynamos,
consumer audio equipment, servo motors, and printers.
The module system
Countries which have adopted the metric system
generally use the module system. As a result, the term
module is usually understood to mean the pitch
diameter in millimeters divided by the number of teeth.
When the module is based upon inch measurements, it
is known as the English module to avoid confusion with
the metric module. Module is a direct dimension,
whereas diametral pitch is an inverse dimension (like
"threads per inch"). Thus, if the pitch diameter of a
gear is 40 mm and the number of teeth 20, the module
is 2, which means that there are 2 mm of pitch
diameter for each tooth.

56 | P a g e
Gear are most commonly produced via hobbing, but
they are also shaped, broached, cast, and in the case of
plastic gears, injection molded. For metal gears the
teeth are usually heat treated to make them hard and
more wear resistant while leaving the core soft and
tough. For large gears that are prone to warp a quench
press is used.




Hypoid Gear Machine sets new standards in precision
high speed roughing and finishing of medium and
large non-generated hypoid and spiral bevel
gears.The No.610 Machine offers many production
and advantages where quantities are insufficient to
justify separate roughing and finishing
machines.Desinged primarily for use in the
57 | P a g e
truck,tractor and off the road equipment field,the
No.610 accomodate gear members upto 20” in
diameter and a minimum ratio of 2-1/4-1.maximum
whole depth is 1.000”.
When the work head is in the horizontal
level- load position,the work can be rapidly and
conveniently loaded.This feature provides the added
benefit of safety.The work spindle is widely separated
from the cutter,when the gears are mounted or
An overhead tieprovides a fixed relationship
between cutter and work.When the work head is
raised into the cutting position,the tie is hydraulically
clamped.Hydraulic pressure on the clamp is
maintained through the cutting cycle.
A new hydraulic mechanism rigidly clamps
the work spindle to the housing,providing increased
rigidity during cutting and loading to improved surface
finish and tooth spacing.The clamp is automatically
released each time the work is indexed.In additionto
the overhead tie and the work spindle clamp,rigidity is
assured as the cutting forces are directed vertically
downwards against the machine bed.When the work
head is raised into cutting position,the rotating cutter
contacts the work,so that the blades pass down the
tooth slotlocated at the lowest point on the roughed

58 | P a g e
gear.This design utilizes the weight of the machine in
obtaining maximum rigidity.


59 | P a g e
1.FORMATE-No generating motion is
employed.Roughed out gears are finished accurately
and quickly by the single cycle cutter,which rotates
uniformly completing one tooth with each
revolution.Indexing takes place in the large gap of the
cutterand the machine stops automatically at the
completion of the last tooth.
Roughing is accomplished by a simple depth
feed motion of the cutter into the work .indexing takes
place when the cutter withdraws from the tooth
slot.One tooth slot is roughed with ech revolution of
the feed cam.The number of turns of the cutter
depends on the depth of the tooth slot.
2.CYCLEX-For low production quantities,the CYCLEX
method may be used to rapidly produce
FORMATE,hypoid and spiral bevel gears in one
operation from the solid.
In this form of CYCLEX cutter,the roughing
and semi-finishing blades are of gradually increasing
height and the two finishing blades are located so that
their top and cutting edges are slightly below those of
the other blades.
During the cutting cycle.the cutter makes a
number of revolution for roughing operation,as the
cutter is fed into the work by means of cam.Since the

60 | P a g e
finishing blades are set lower than the preceding
blades they do not engage the work during this
position of the cutting cycle.
As the semi-finishing blades are passing
through the tooth slot at full roughing depth,the cutter
speed is reduced.The cutter is then quickly
advanced,and the two finishing blades complete the
tooth profile shape. The cutter is then rapidly
withdrawn so that the roughing blades do not contact
the work. Further withdrawal of the cutter provides
clearance necessary for indexing.
3.HELIX FORM-As each blade of a HELIX FORM cutter
passes through a tooth space,the cutter is advanced
axially then quickly withdrawn, before the following
cutter blade enters the tooth space. The combined
motion makes the path of the cutter tip tangent to the
root plane of the gear being cut.
The cutter computes one tooth with each
revolution. Indexing takes place when the large gap in
the cutter is beside the blank.
The HELIX FORM method of cutting produces
gear tooth surfaces which are close to the true
mathematical conjugacy with the mating pinion. It
also minimises development.

61 | P a g e

62 | P a g e
Figure 4GLEASON 610


63 | P a g e


AND CYCLEX-A blank is mounted on the work spindle
and chucked manually. The cycle starts and the dual
control buttons are activated, the work head raises to
the cutting position, is hydraulically clamped for rigidity
and the feed and coolant motor starts.
The cutting cycle is controlled by the feed
cam which feeds the cutter into the work. Indexing
64 | P a g e
and Chamfering is done during a dwell in the feed
cam while the cutter is in the rear position. In the case
of CYCLEX cutting set-in takes place at full depth as
the two finishing blades pass through the cut. After
all the teeth have been cut, the machine
automatically stops, the work head unclamps and
lowers to the loading positon.


roughed gear is mounted on the work spindle and
chucked manually. The cycle starts and dual control
buttons are activated, the work head raises to the
cutting position, is hydraulically clamped for rigidity
and the feed and coolant motors start. The cutter
completes one tooth with each revolution and
indexing take place in the large gap of the cutter.
After all the tooth have been cut, the machine
automatically stops , the work head unclamps and
lowers to the loading position.

the hydraulic unit warm the oil when the hydraulic
unit is running because the hydrostatic bearings for
65 | P a g e
the cutter spindle require warm oil. The heaters are
set at the factory for 150 degrees fahrenheit and the
thermostat cuts out when the temperature reaches
90. Light will come on and enable the machine to
2.GROUND LIGHTS-These lights show if a wire has
come loose somewhere and is touching the machine.
Normally these lights each have a dull pink glow . If
some wire becomes grounded, one light will dim and
the other will brighten significantly.
3.FILTER LIGHT-If filter becomes clogged , this light
will come on. The machine will be inoperative until
this filter is cleaned. The machine does not stop in the
middle of a cycle , but completes it and will not start
the next.
counter is set by the operator to the number of pieces
to be cut before the cutter is to be sharpened.
5.SHARPEN CUTTER LIGHT-This light comes on
when the machine has cut the amount of blanks
preselected on the production counter, signifying that
the cutter should be sharpened.
6.MAIN LINE SWITCH-This switch connects and
disconnects the machine with the input power supply.

66 | P a g e
cutter, rotate this handle to the ‘lock’ position, then
engage and secure the latch.
8.HYDRAULIC START BUTTON-After the main line
switch is closed, depress this button to start the
hydraulic, hydrostatic bearing and lubricating pump
9.OVERSIZE BORE LIGHT-When this light is ‘ON’, it
indicates the bore of the blank chucked on the arbor is
too large and the arbor drawrod has travelled too far.
This would make it unsafe to cut the part because
there would not be proper workholding pressure . The
light must be ’OUT’ to run the machine.
10.HYDRAULIC STOP MACHINE-Depress this button
to stop all machine functions. In an emergency, it is
more effective to depress this button than the cycle
11.GAGE CUTTER LIGHT-When ON , this light
indicates that the cutter is at the full depth. This light
must be ON when gaging the cutter for length.
12.LOAD POSITION LIGHT- This light is ON ,when
the feed cam stop zone is adjacent to the cam
follower. To begin an automatic cycle, this light must
be ON.

67 | P a g e
13.RESET BUTTON-It is necessary to depress this
button prior to changing from a manual cycle to an
automatic cycle(not vice versa).
14.AUTOMATIC LIGHT-When ON , this light indicates
that an automatic machine cycle can be started by
depressing the cycle start and the dual control button.
15.WORK SPINDLE LIGHT-This light comes ON when
the work spindle revolves 360 degrees. A cam on the
work spindle under the index plate contacts the 360
degrees switch. This indicates the work spindle has
made one revolution and all the teeth are cut. If the
index switch is OFF and the 360 degrees switch is
contacted , the machine can be run during setup and
not index off this position.
16.CYCLE START BUTTON-This button along with
the dual control button is used to jog the machine
from the main control panel when a manual mode is
selected and remote jog switch is set to RUN. This
button is also used to start an automatic cycle along
with the dual control button when an automatic mode
has been selected.
17.CYCLE STOP BUTTON-The machine can be
stopped at any time during an automatic cycle with
this button.
18.INDEX SWITCH-When ON , the machine can be
run in an automatic cycle.

68 | P a g e
cam and cutter spindle can be rotated by hand. The
machine can only run with this switch in the ON
SWITCH(CYCLEX MACHINE)-Change this switch
setting when setting up to cut a new job, different
type of cutter than previously used. Set to:
a)Finish-for Single Cycle and HELIX FORM cutters, the
main motor will run at slow speed.
b)Rough-for TRIPLEX cutters, the main motor will run
at high speed.
c)Cyclex-for CYCLEX cutters , the main motor will run
at high speed during the roughing portion of the cycle,
and will run at low speed when in finishing portion of
the cycle.
switch is used in setting up the outside chamfering
tool and may only be used when in manual cycle
mode. When the machine is to be operated in the
automatic cycle mode, set this switch to OUT.
switch is used in setting up the inside chamfering tool
and may only be used when in manual cycle mode.
When the machine is to be operated in the automatic
cycle mode, set this switch to OUT.

69 | P a g e
23.REMOTE JOG BUTTON-This button is used to
enable the feed cam to be easily put on center must
be set to JOG for this button to be operative, and will
make operator station inoperative when set on JOG as
a safety feature.
24.CUTTER ROTATION SWITCH-This switch allows
the use of both left hand and right hand cutters .
25.MAIN MOTOR SPEED SWITCH-Set this switch to
high speed when roughing and to low speed when
26.MANUAL CUTTER ROTATION-The cutter spindle
may be rotated manually by rotating the upper speed
pulley shaft when the brake is off. DO THIS ONLY
HYDROSTATIC SPINDLE. The probable would be
either the cutter spindle or its housing would be
turning this switch counter clockwise , the work
holding equipment is dechucked. By turning this
switch clockwise , the work holding equipment is
28.DUAL CONTROL BUTTON-This button is used in
conjunction with the cycle start buttonto begin either
a manual or auto cycle. Both buttons must be
depressed at the same time.

70 | P a g e

71 | P a g e


cutters from 5”to 18” may be used on this machine. A
marking screw , on the face of cutter head ,identifies
the blade setup by giving the point width and point
diameter of the setup. The blades are held in place in
the slots by bolts. The last blade of each set is marked
with the following information: the point width, set
serial number, ordering number and the blades
pressure angles.

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73 | P a g e





a)maximum 10” 254mm

b)minimum 2.75” 70mm



74 | P a g e
4.WHOLE DEPTH 1.000”

5.ROOT ANGLE 60 to 80 degrees

6.FACE WIDTH 3” 76mm


8.NUMBER OF TEETH 20 to 75






1.CUTTER SPEED(feed per minute)FOR ROUGHING 8’-200’


2.FEEDS(seconds per tooth)FOR ROUGHING 3-35

3.CUTTER SPEED(feed per minute)FOR FINISHING 30’-100’ 24m-


4.FEEDS(seconds per tooth)FOR FINISHING 3-9


1.MAIN MOTOR 2 SPEED(10HP/5HP) 1800/900 RPM

1500/750 RPM



3000 RPM

75 | P a g e



1.FLOOR SPACE 118”*86-1/2”


2.HEIGHT 70” 1780mm


a)net 16,500lbs 7,483kg

b) gross 17,500lbs 7,937kg



76 | P a g e

45/7 240
41/7 255
48/7 210
35/9 270
41/6 240

Graph showing per day output



Carbon 0.17-0.22
Silicon 0.15-0.35
Manganese 1.0-1.4
Chromium 1.0-1.3

77 | P a g e
Iron Rest


Metal cutting is the outwardly simple process of
removing metal on a work piece in order to get a
desired shape by using a tool, either by rotating the
workpiece (as in a lathe) or by rotating the tool (as in a
drilling machine). But behind this simple process lie
numerous parameters that play their roles, from a
small to a big way, in deciding many things in the act of
metal cutting, including the speed of doing the job, the
quality and accuracy of the finish, the life of the tool,
the cost of production, and so on.
Some parameters involved in the metal cutting process
are in fact closely related with some other parameters
in the metal cutting process; playing with one will have
an influencing effect on another. Thus, even after
several years of experience, process planning
engineers may find difficulty in confidently declaring
themselves as experts in metal cutting!

78 | P a g e
1) Material machinability:
The machinability of a material decides how easy or
difficult it is to cut it. The material’s hardness is one
factor that has a strong influence on the machinabilty.
Though a general statement like a soft material is
easier to cut than a harder material is true to a large
extent, it is not as simple as that. The ductility of a
material also plays a huge role.
2) Cutting Tool Material:
In metal cutting, High Speed steel and Carbide are two
major tool materials widely used. Ceramic tools and
CBN (Cubic Boron Nitride) are the other tool materials
used for machining very tough and hard materials. A
tool’s hardness, strength, wear resistance, and thermal
stability are the characteristics that decide how fast the
tool can cut efficiently on a job.
3) Cutting speed and spindle speed:
Cutting speed is the relative speed at which the tool
passes through the work material and removes metal.
It is normally expressed in meters per minute (or feet
per inch in British units). It has to do with the speed of
rotation of the workpiece or the tool, as the case may
be. The higher the cutting speed, the better the
productivity. For every work material and tool material
combo, there is always an ideal cutting speed available,
and the tool manufacturers generally give the
guidelines for it.
Spindle speed: Spindle speed is expressed in RPM
(revolutions per minute). It is derived based on the
cutting speed and the work diameter cut (in case of
turning/ boring) or tool diameter (in case of drilling/

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milling etc). If V is the cutting speed and D is the
diameter of cutting, then Spindle speed N = V /(Pi x D)
4) Depth of cut:
It indicates how much the tool digs into the component
(in mm) to remove material in the current pass.
5) Feed rate:
The relative speed at which the tool is linearly
traversed over the workpiece to remove the material.
In case of rotating tools with multiple cutting teeth (like
a milling cutter), the feed rate is first reckoned in terms
of “feed per tooth,” expressed in millimeter
(mm/tooth). At the next stage, it is “feed per
revolution” (mm/rev).
In case of lathe operations, it is feed per revolution that
states how much a tool advances in one revolution of
workpiece. In case of milling, feed per revolution is
nothing but feed per tooth multiplied by the number of
teeth in the cutter.
To actually calculate the time taken for cutting a job, it
is “feed per minute” (in mm/min) that is useful. Feed
per minute is nothing but feed per revolution multiplied
by RPM of the spindle.
6) Tool geometry:
For the tool to effectively dig into the component to
remove material most efficiently without rubbing, the
cutting tool tip is normally ground to different angles
(known as rake angle, clearance angles, relief angle,
approach angle, etc). The role played by these angles
in a tool geometry is a vast subject in itself.
7) Coolant:

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To take away the heat produced in cutting and also to
act as a lubricant in cutting to reduce tool wear,
coolants are used in metal cutting. Coolants can range
from cutting oils, water soluble oils, oil-water spray,
and so on.
8) Machine/ Spindle Power:
In the metal cutting machine, adequate power should
be available to provide the drives to the spindles and
also to provide feed movement to the tool to remove
the material. The power required for cutting is based on
the Metal removal rate – the rate of metal removed in a
given time, generally expressed in cubic centimeters
per minute, which depends on work material, tool
material, the cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate.
9) Rigidity of machine:
The rigidity of the machine is based on the design and
construction of the machine, the age and extent of
usage of the machine, the types of bearings used, the
type of construction of slide ways, and the type of drive
provided to the slides all play a role in the machining of
components and getting the desired accuracies, finish,
and speed of production.
Thus, in getting a component finished out of a metal
cutting machine at the best possible time within the
desired levels of accuracy, tolerances, and surface
finish, some or all the above parameters play their
roles. As already mentioned in the beginning, each of
the parameters can create a positive or negative
impact on other parameters, and adjustments and
compromises are to be made to arrive at the best
metal cutting solution for a given job.

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10)Process Cycle
The time required to produce a given quantity of parts
includes the initial setup time and the cycle time for
each part. The setup time is composed of the time to
setup the milling machine, plan the tool movements
(whether performed manually or by machine), and
install the fixture device into the milling machine. The
cycle time can be divided into the following four times:

1. Load/Unload time - The time required to load the

workpiece into the milling machine and secure it to
the fixture, as well as the time to unload the finished
part. The load time can depend on the size, weight,
and complexity of the workpiece, as well as the type
of fixture.
2. Cut time - The time required for the cutter to make
all the necessary cuts in the workpiece for each
operation. The cut time for any given operation is
calculated by dividing the total cut length for that
operation by the feed rate, which is the speed of the
cutter relative to the workpiece.
3. Idle time - Also referred to as non-productive time,
this is the time required for any tasks that occur
during the process cycle that do not engage the
workpiece and therefore remove material. This idle
time includes the tool approaching and retracting
from the workpiece, tool movements between
features, adjusting machine settings, and changing
4. Tool replacement time - The time required to replace
a tool that has exceeded its lifetime and therefore

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become to worn to cut effectively. This time is
typically not performed in every cycle, but rather
only after the lifetime of the tool has been reached.
In determining the cycle time, the tool replacement
time is adjusted for the production of a single part by
multiplying by the frequency of a tool replacement,
which is the cut time divided by the tool lifetime.

My Role

As a summer trainee, I was placed in the

TRANSMISSION DEPARTMENT & was given the task of
studying ,observing and analyzing the work being done
in the TRANSMISSION FACTORY and to explore the
possibilities of improving the productivity of GLEASON
NO.610 HYPOID CUTTER MACHINE which was being
used in CROWN manufacturing process.
Thus,for increasing the productivity of the
process being carried out at the TRANSMISSION
FACTORY , I have sorted out following points:-

1. Change in the CROWN WHEEL material.

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2. Change in the CUTTING TOOL material.
3. Change in the cutting speed and spindle speed.
4. Change in the cutting depth.
5. Change in the feed rate.
6. Change in the cutting tool geometry.
7. Cutting –with and without use of coolant.
8. Change in machine power.
9. Effecting the rigidity of machine.
10.Decreasing the process cycle time like:
• Loading and unloading time of crown wheel
• Cycle time
• Idle time
• Cutting Tool replacement time
• Change in the machine setting
Now we will have a look at each of the points as given
above on the productivity of the machine.

1. Change in the CROWN WHEEL material-The

CROWN wheel material used at the present is 20Mn
CR-5. But there are other options available for the
CROWN wheel material that can be used such as
16MnCr5 and 42CrMo4v can used. The advantages
of these materials over 20Mn Cr5 have been shown
graphically as below:

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2. Change in the CUTTING TOOL material-HSS is
the cutting tool material that is widely used
nowadays as a cutting tool material. But cutting
tools of carbide ,cubic boron nitride(CBN) which has
hardness of 50 Rc and cutting speed of 30-
310m/min etc.could be used which will be more
advantageous and productive as a cutting tool
material.HSS can also be used profitably by coating
it with various materials like applying a copper
coating or a TiN(Titanium Nitrate) coating on the
cutting tool.
The cutting speed and tool life of an cutting tool
can be related by the TAYLOR’s equation as below:

Where V=cutting speed in m/min
T=tool life in min.
C=cutting speed for a tool life of
n=Taylor’s exponent

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Tool material Typical ‘n’ value

HSS 0.08-0.2

Cast alloy 0.1-0.15

Carbides 0.2-0.5

Ceramics 0.5-0.7

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Comparasion of these materials in the process of
cutting can be viewed pictorially as below:

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3. Change in the cutting speed and spindle
speed-This option is presently not possible in the
case of GLEASON No.610 Machine because of the
rigidity of the machine. The GLEASON No.610 uses
a pulley based system for the energy conversion ,
that is electrical energy to mechanical energy to
supply rotational motion to the cutting tool which is
as shown:







Fig.Pulley system used in GLEASON No.610

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4. Change in the cutting depth-This is another
method to mprove the productivity and efficiency
of the machine. Presently the machine works on
the principle of indexing and renders a single cut
each time. If we could decrease the cutting depth
than it is possible that it would less strain on the
cutter and also increase the cutter life which is
presently changed after manufacturing around 350-

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400 pieces.

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Fig.vectorial representation of forces

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5. Change in the feed rate-This option is also not
available with this machine due to its rigidity.
6. Change in the cutting tool geometry- Cutting
can be significantly reduced by changing the
geometry of the cutting tool.The various shapes
and studies related to these shapes have been
shown diagrammatically as below:

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Fig.shape of a cutter

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7.Cutting –with and without use of coolant-
Presently coolant is used in large scale in the process of
cutting. This cause wide loss in the form of economic
losses as the coolant oil that is recovered afterwards is
very less in comparasion to the quantity that is being
used. To minimize these losses techniques like dry
cutting and of ice cooled cutters are used. In dry
cutting process no coolant is used. This causes
decrease in economic expenditure whereas in ice
cutting technology the cutter is internally cooled which
causes very less or minimal usage of coolant.Fette is
now introducing to the world the idea of internally
cooled gear cutters. The ICE cutters can be used for
either wet or dry cutting. Although this tool is currently
under study , there are enough benefits to introduce
the product and concept to the market. The concept is
quiet simple ; having coolant orifices projected at each
cutting tooth with a central coolant line to keep the
core temperature constant. The tool can operate in
severe applications with outstanding results. One early
test has shown a 40 percent increase in tool life on a
test gear. This is quiet an exciting result , but the true
savings be in the elimination of the chip welding to the

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8.Change in machine power-No change in power
supplied to the machine is possible due to the rigidity
of the machine.
9.Effecting the rigidity of machine-As there is
minimal of option available for changing the rigidity
of the machine as the machine mostly works on the
mechanical process. So there is no space available for
this option to come into effect.
10.Decreasing the process cycle time like:
• Loading and unloading time of crown wheel
• Cycle time
• Idle time
• Cutting Tool replacement time
• Change in the machine setting
I have calculated the production figures and the
problems that occurred during one week of the
production in all the shifts A,B and C and found out the
following result:
type B C
5/7/10 45/7 70 50 58 Cutter
change in
shift B
6/7/10 45/7 91 50 31 Unavailabilit
y of material
in shift B
7/7/10 45/7 32 13 0 Cutter
changed in

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shift A
8/7/10 41/6 2 60 55 Setting of
9/7/10 41/7 50 41 3 Chamfer tool
breaks three
times in shift
10/7/10 41/7 23 30 65 House
done in shift
11/7/10 41/7 70 70 65 Cutter
changed in
shift B and
hydraulic oil
filled in shift
12/7/10 41/7 70 70 60 Cutter
changed in
shift B and
hydraulic oil
filled in shift

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The cycle time for both rougher and finisher machine is
around 4.2 minutes. That is both rougher and finisher
finish one crown wheel in this estimated time. The
cycle time of rougher and finisher also includes the
loading and unloading time taken by the operator
respectively, which is mostly around 1-1.5 minutes.
Thus , the total estimated cycle time is approximately
5-5.5 minutes. Thus by minimizing the movement of
operator the cycle time can be significantly brought
down to 4.5-5 minutes. This reduction will have a
positive impact on productivity.
Many a times it is seen that the bottom neck
machine which is the rougher machine is idle due to
inefficiency of the operator and his extra movements.
This time can also be significantly reduced if the
operator gets the material directly on his working area.
Presently the operator has to himself put the material
on the conveyer belt located at a distance of about 150
metres. If this distance is reduced than the idle time of
bottom neck rougher machine will almost be negligible.
There is also significant loss of time in the cutter
changing and machine setting changing process. This
time needs to be reduced.

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