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In any right triangle. The Pythagorean Theorem says that the three sides must follow this rule: 52 = 32 + 42 It works. Or. and when you measure its sides. This is equivalent to stating that the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the areas of the squares on the other two sides. the lengths are 3. h2 = a2 + b2 For example. as you can see: 25 = 9 + 16 The Pythagorean Theorem can also be expressed a different way. you will get the same answer as you do when you square each of the other two sides. in other words. It has a 90 degree angle. most well-known. consider the triangle at the right. and add the values together. the Pythagorean Theorem describes the relationship between the three sides of a right triangle. it would look like this: The theorem tells us that 52 = 32 + 42. 25 = 9 + 16 . The three sides are related in such a way that if you square the length of the hypotenuse. and widely used mathematical relationship in history. & 5 cm. 4. If you draw the triangle with squares on each side. the hypotenuse h is the longest side.INTRODUCTION y The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the oldest. added together. First described by the Greek mathematician Pythagoras 2500 years ago. It has been a fundamental part of math classes everywhere around the world for several thousand years.

Pythagoras theorem history part1 y The Pythagorean theorem plays a significant role in many fields related to mathematics. They used this concept to construct right angles and designed a right triangle by dividing a long string into twelve equal parts. Around 4000 years ago. . it forms the basis of trigonometry. History The history of the Pythagorean theorem can be divided as: knowledge of Pythagorean triples. The theorem is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.where a and b represent the lengths of the two other sides of the triangle and c represents the length of the hypotenuse. For example. and the proofs of the theorem. the relationship among the sides of a right triangle and their adjacent angles. 4 and 5 must be a right triangle. it combines both to geometry and algebra. the second side is four and the third side is five sections long. Mathematically. and in its arithmetic form. the Babylonians and the Chinese were aware of the fact that a triangle with the sides of 3. It states that 'the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two other sides of any right triangle will equal the square of the length of the hypotenuse'. such that one side of the triangle is three. the theorem is usually written as: a2 + b2 = c2 .

Heath. Bartel Leendert van der Waerden hypothesizes that the Pythagorean triples were identified algebraically. Plato established a method for finding Pythagorean triples which blended both algebra and geometry. In 400 BC. During the reign of Hammurabi the Great (1790 1750 BC). According to Sir Thomas L. it is not yet confirmed whether Pythagoras was the first person to have found the relationship between the sides of the right triangles.2nd century BC). Nevertheless. The Chinese text Chou Pei Suan Ching written between 500 BC and 200 AD had the visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem or 'Gougu theorem' (as known in China) for the (3. Pythagoras (569 475 BC). the Megalithic monuments in Egypt and Northern Europe comprised of right triangles with integer sides. authors like Plutarch and Cicero attributed the theorem to Pythagoras in such a way that the attribution was widely known and accepted.Pythagoras theorem history part 2 y Around 2500 BC. In India (8th . as no texts written by him were found. The first recorded use of the theorem was in China as 'Gougu theorem'. the Baudhayana Sulba Sutra comprised of a list of Pythagorean triples. the theorem has still got his name credited to it . used algebraic methods to construct Pythagorean triples.4. in the Euclid's Elements. the Pythagorean triples appear in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art along with the mention of the right triangles. a statement of the theorem and the geometrical proof of the theorem for an isosceles right triangle. However. the oldest existing axiomatic proof of the theorem is presented. there was no ascription of the theorem for nearly five centuries after Pythagoras lived. and in India as the 'Bhaskara theorem'. the Mesopotamian tablet Plimpton 32 consisted of many entries closely related to Pythagorean triples. During the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD). However.5) triangle. Around 300 BC.

we can prove that . This is what I think to be an interesting proof. . From the similar triangles. This is because BC and BG are both radii of and is isosceles. . Let s call the side AC to be b. BC=a. which is equal to c-b. This is given. It is number 89 in Loomis s book. . Similarly. and AD = AB-DB = c-a. we can prove that : is right. The rest of the proof is algebraic rather than geometric. is right. ) (or. There are many. stating that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides in a right triangle. and AB=c. extending AB to F and G: In this diagram. is a fundamental concept in geometry and trigonometry. is right. . Now we draw some additional lines. we draw two circles: Here. AG = AB+BG = c+a. . The two triangles have two shared angles: and . By substitution: This is the two circles method of proving pythagorean theorem . In a similar way. Since . ) Adding the two equations. Starting with a right triangle. by the use of two circles. we get: The line BF can be split into AF and AB which is equal to c+b since AF = AC. This is an application of Thales theorem since DG is a diameter. many ways to prove the Pythagorean theorem.PYTHAGORAS THEOREM METHODS y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y The Pythagorean theorem. we have the following ratios: (or. and A and B are the centers of circles and respectively. The line EB can be considered the difference between AB and AE.

name the height a. . The square root of 576 is 24. The angle between two walls.Pythagoras theorem problems y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Word problems using the Pythagorean theorem require you to draw or imagine a right triangle where two of the sides are of known length. The problem gives us the length of the hypotenuse and one of the legs. and the angle between the floor and a wall. Answer: The screen is 24" wide. Add these values to the formula and solve for b: 18² + b² = 30² 324 + b² = 900 Subtract 324 from both sides: b² = 576 Now find the square root of both sides to solve for b (use a calculator to find the square root of large numbers). and the diagonal is 30". remember the following: The diagonal across a rectangle creates two congruent right triangles. How wide is the screen horizontally? How to solve: The TV screen is a rectangle. and the diagonal c. the width b. Example 1: TV Screen Width You want to purchase a 30" television. The screen's height and width make up two legs of a right triangle with the diagonal as the hypotenuse. You know that TV and monitor screens are measured across the diagonal. When solving these problems. is usually a right angle. Therefore. and you also know that this screen is 18" high.

This music of the spheres could be replicated using a single stringed instrument called the monochord. Pythais. and the theory of music. and could be perceived by those who were trained to hear them.. He travelled widely in his youth with his father Mnesarchus. In Astronomy Pythagoras taught that the Earth was a sphere at the centre of the universe. and he was one of the first to realize that Venus as an evening star.PYTHOGARAS Pythagoras (560BC . .480BC) He was a Greek philosopher who was responsible for important developments in the history of mathematics. who was a gem merchant from Tyre. He recognized that the orbit of the moon was inclined to the equator of the earth. His family settled in the homeland of his mother. He taught that the movements of the planets travelling through the universe created sounds. was the same planet as the morning star. astronomy.

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