NASA SP-290

/N-.o7

__ .t!o

TIIItI|INI{

I)KSll;l

a,id AI'I'I, II:AI'IIiN

(NASA-SP-290) APPLICATION

TURBINE (NASA)

DESIGN 390 p

AND

N95-22341

Unclas

HlI07

0041715

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION

NASA

SP-290

'lrlllel|lNl IDK Iq ,N annal IDIDI,q;A"I' IqlPm A I

Edited by Arthur J. Glassman Lewis Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information Program--1994 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC

Available NASA

from the Center for AeroSpace Landing Road MD 21090-2934 Catalog Card Number: 94-67487 Information

800 Elkridge

Linthicum Heights, Price Code: A17 Library of Congress

PREFACE
NASA and space turboshaft pellant-driven power organic interest trains, Center, presented Program. 1972-73. concepts, cooling, The edited for an Any Two are the sets units given U.S. of units and reference for fluids, has an interest as in turbines Airbreathing well provide Closed-cycle metal power engines turbine-system entitled 1968-69 course aspects and was as power fluids for include related turbine rocket turbine have spacecraft. land-vehicle and interest "Turbine part of somewhat of turbine fluid-dynamic losses, ground-based and Design the revised technology concepts, blade efforts and and were primarily engines power propulsion engines been Other (cars, studied for using for trucks, electrical at Lewis Application" Graduate again covered presented including turbine design, revised blade and or a to aeronautics provide aircraft, and inert jet and l%ogases, of buses, power. Research was Study in applications. propulsion, turbines spacecraft. and electric propulsion course during The Various velocity mechanical notes written for publication. for selected consistent commonly after the set used introductory

as auxiliary

auxiliary providing

long-duration etc.) a

applications

for turbine of the

In view

In-House

thermodynamic

fundamental

diagrams,

aerodynamic

design, operation, and performance. and used for the course have been Such turbine topics. of symbol units. as unity units will sets single not satisfy of set required the units These of required equations and are equations for the U.S. a publication course, a can means serve for

as a foundation self-study,

presented. values units and both SI

consistent A those

constant the covers

definitions.

customary by including defining

all constants

customary

for the SI units. ARTHUR J. GLASSMAN

,°°

111

i _

,_

CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE

PREFACE

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . .

111

...

°

THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS by Arthur

AND

FL UID-D

YNAMI

C 1
1 14 19 20

J. Glassman

....................
..............

BASIC CONCEPTS AND RELATIONS ....................... APPLICATION TO FLOW WITH VARYING AREA REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

,

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

by Arthur

J. Glassman

....

21 21 45 62 63 65

TURBINE FLOW AND ENERGY TRANSFER .................. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS ......................... REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS ......................................... GLOSSARY .........................................

.

VELOCITY DIAGRAMS by Warren Warner L. Stewart ...................................

J. Whitney

and
69 70 84 95 96 98

MEAN-SECTION DIAGRAMS ............................ RADIAL VARIATION OF DIAGRAMS ....................... COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR VELOCITY-DIAGRAM REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

STUDIES

.....

,

BLADE Arthur

DESIGN J. Glassman

by Warner

L. Stewart

and lOl
102 118 124 125

..................................

SOLIDITY .......................................... BLADE-PROFILE DESIGN .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

,

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

by Theodore
ANALYSES ........................

Katsanis
............

......

127
130 147 154 155

STREAMAND POTENTIAL-FUNCTION VELOCITY-GRADIENT ANALYSIS REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

.

INTRODUCTION by William

TO BOUNDARY-LAYER ...............................

THEORY 157
............ .............. 157 160 172 188 188 191

D. McNally

NATURE OF BOUNDARY LAYER ......................... DERIVATION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EQUATIONS SOLUTION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EQUATIONS CONCLUDING REMARKS .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
V

iI

PAG'E__

I_T_NTtON_!.Ly BLANg

CHAPTER

PAGE

o

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

by Herman

W. Prust,

Jr ....

193
195 201 217 221 223

BOUNDARY-LAYER PARAMETERS ........................ BLADE-ROW LOSS COEFFICIENTS ....................... BLADE-ROW LOSS CHARACTERISTICS .................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

o

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

by Richard

J. Roelke

........

225
225 231 238 243 246 247

TIP-CLEARANCE LOSS ................................ DISK-FRICTION LOSS ................................. PARTIAL-ADMISSION LOSSES ........................... INCIDENCE LOSS .................................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS ..........................................

o

SUPERSONIC

TURBINES

by Louis

J. Goldman

.........

249
250 263 266 272 277 278

METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS ......................... DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC STATOR BLADES ................. DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC ROTOR BLADES .................. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

....

10.

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINES

by Harold

E. Rohlik

.......

279
284 295 302 305 306

OVERALL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS .................... BLADE DESIGN ..................................... OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE ........................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

11.

TURBINE

COOLING

by Raymond

S. Colladay

...........

307
307 314 328 330 332 340 345 347

GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................. HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE ................ CONDUCTION WITHIN THE BLADE WALL .................. COOLANT-SIDE CONVECTION ........................... FILM AND TRANSPIRATION COOLING ..................... SIMILARITY ........................................ REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

12.

EXPERIMENTAL DYNAMIC and Harold

DETERMINATION PERFORMANCE by Edward J. Schum ................................

OF AEROM. Szanca 351
352 374 387 388

TEST FACILITY AND MEASUREMENTS .................... TURBINE PERFORMANCE .............................. REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................

vi

CHAPTER 1

Thermodynamic andFluid-Dynamic Concepts
ByArthur. Glassman J
This cepts are the of chapter concepts is intended needed processes of these subjects Flow is assumed of this used symbol units. all chapter. set of units will sets set not satisfy of units These required required the and are for for the the the equations constant SI covers U.S. units both presented. values and sets customary are the of consistent definitions. A single constants those consistent commonly after customary by and defining the to to review and analyze in some and a of the fluid understand turbine. A fundamental mechanics. the more flow conThese and complete

thermodynamics

compressible

energy-transfer treatment textbooks. the Two given U.S. units units purposes Any

occurring

can be found in reference 1 and in many to be steady and one-dimensional for

of equations

including

as unity

SI units.

BASIC

CONCEPTS Equation

AND of any has State

RELATIONS

Before gases, we interrelated.

we can must The gases

get know

very how

far of

with pressure, gases

kind volume, resulted In

of calculation and in certain ideal

involving are and laws The laws these or real.

temperature

study concerning are

generalizations of behavior,

their referred to

behavior. as being

discussing

either

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

ideal the The

gas real

is only gas can gas

hypothetical only equation approach

and of state is

obeys

various certain

simplified conditions.

laws

that

under

ideal

R* pv=--_-

T

(1-1)

where P
V

absolute specific

pressure, volume,

N/mS; m3/kg;

lb/ft 2 fta/lb 8314 mole); K; °R used as
R $

R*

universal gas constant, (lb mole) (°R) molecular absolute weight, temperature, R*/M,_ is often kg/(kg

J/(kg lb/(Ib

mole)(K); mole)

1545

(ft) (lb)/

The

quantity

a single

quafftity

such

that

R-----_-_ where law. R is the Thus, 1 p =V

(1-2) or (ft)(Ib)/(lb)(°R). volume in the ideal gas

gas

constant, used

in J/(kg)(K) of specific

Density

is often

instead

RT = pRT

(1-3)

where In sures within small. ideal high tures, proposal relation. most perature

p is density, general, or the high a real

in kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3. gas and will the approximate conditions attractive ideal under forces behavior which between the at low free presspace are the as

temperatures, which are be accurate while gases hundred have Even and only

gas is large

molecules

For gases gas law may deviations

above their critical to within 5 percent for gases ideal found gas most be below behavicr of state universally over useful their may appear

temperatures, up to pressures critical resulted the satisfactory, range a high values equations degree

as 50 atmospheres, of real of several None are and applicable pressure. to use is required. similarity (ratio pressure basis The method of these

temperapressure. in the p-v-T and of temare of

of 2 to 3 percent from been the

at 1 atmosphere have to express a limited of these unless at equal

Deviations

equations to a single

cumbersome accuracy The and forms behavior. 2 temperature reduced the

cannot

justified

in behavior of (ratio of

of substances T, to of pressure, simple general

of reduced To) pc) gas a real pressure,

temperature,

critical for is

temperature, estimating to

p,

to critical

of a relatively

method correlation

incorporate

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

correction law:

term,

called

the

compressibility p=zpRT

factor,

into

the

ideal

gas (1-4)

where The and of the other as with tion and sures. molal state error. should A of data

z is the reduced gas.

compressibility factor and pressure,

factor. is a function factor are from and The of reduced temperature of the nature and here average correlatemperatures and by using region with However, is always can law. show gas presthe of of reduced texts an is assumed pressure charts of one to be independent as a function in many from presented reference is derived is not

compressibility Values and One This for a large data are be extended used pseudocritical of the of where the not for do take error figure 1-1. for all the may The

of compressibility reduced of the type number any

temperature sources. figure

2 is reproduced in rigorous

correlation of gases gas. mixtures are that gas that within the use that the with

agreement

compressibility-factor if pseudocritical temperatures components. is a large would region. gas ideal law factor result concerned

to gas

pressures averages conditions Fortunately, never

to calculate properties critical 1-1 conditions fall granted of use properties shows ideal

reduced of the

approximated there law are this ideal of the

Examination

of the

in a large in our we valid. the

we

calculations quick

usually

determination

compressibility

approximate

associated

Reduced temperature, 1.20 T/Tc_ 1.10 1.00
N

_

_--

_._

______

•90 .80 • 70
t_

--

1. 1_50

.60 .50

--

1.20

.30!

I \ -1.1o
_-'LO0 1.0 I 2,0 I 3,0 1 4.0 I 5.0 f 6.0 I 7.0 I 8.0 I 9,0 F 10.0

Reduced pressure, P/Pc

FIGURE

1-1.--Effect

of

reduced

pressure factor. (Curves

and

reduced from ref.

temperature 2.)

on

com-

pressibility

3

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Relation In is the position, and a flow enthalpy enthalpy pressure: process,

of

Energy the energy be

Change term

to

State

Conditions with work of and heat com-

associated as p) or Btu/lb. a

h. For can

a one-phase expressed h=fcn(T,

system

of constant function

chemical

temperature (1-5)

where enthalpy

h is specific can

enthalpy, as

in J/kg

A differential

change

in

be expressed

Oh dh:(-O-T) The partial derivatives as follows. By can be

v dT+(00-_h)rp expressed

dp in terms of

(1-6) determinable

properties

definition, Oh Cv=(-_'_),

(1-7) pressure, equations in J/(kg)(K) of thermodynamics or Btu/ is

where

cp is heat One

capacity basic

at

constant

(lb) (°R).

of the

differential

dh=

Tds + j

vdp

(1-8)

where s is specific entropy, conversion constant, 1 or derivative determined with from respect equation to

in J/(kg)(K) or Btu/(lb)(°R), 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu. Therefore, pressure (1-8), at constant

and J is a the partial is, as

temprature

Oh'_

T los\

1

One

of the

Maxwell

relations

states

that

(1-10)

Substituting yields

equations

(1-7),

(1-9),

and

(1-10)

into

equation

(1-6)

dh=c,dT+

j

[v--

Ov T (_-_)p_

dp

(1-11)

Equation change between 4 in two

(1-11) terms states

is the of the

rigorous state

equation conditions, rigorously

for and as

a differential the enthalpy

enthalpy change

is calculated

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

Ts

1

P*

_V (1-12)

If law,

we

now

assume set

that

the

gas

behaves

according

to

the

ideal

gas

we can

RT v------P and

(1-13)

( Ov'
By using these on last two equations in

R
equation to zero, (1-12), and the there

(1-14)
effect remains of

pressure

enthalpy

change

is reduced

Ah: Empirical books and equations textbooks

frTcz, dT of T are available example,

(1-15) in hand-

for ca as a function for most gases

of interest. bT+cT yields 2

If, for

cp=a-tthen integration of equation (1-15)

(1-16)

Ah=a( Although calculations, If and it can /'2, then one be might there equation assumed

T2-- T1) +_ b (_--_)+3 not want reason that (1-15) to use this type it for

(_--T_)

(1-17)

of expression computer

for hand calculations. T_

is no

to avoid ca is constant becomes

between

temperatures

_=c.( This gases, of some be within assumption there average a few is an value percent excellent for cv will true

T2-- T1) one give for an monatomic approximation gases; for

(1-18) other use should

is a significant

variation of the

in c_ with value. for Constant small, For

T. However, that

the

Relation In usually loss, a turbine, can there be

of State the heat

Conditions loss to be

Entropy and adiabatic the the

Process flow flow process with no

is normally adiabatic.

assumed change

is no

in entropy.

Therefore,

constant-entropy

(isentropic) process is the ideal process for flow in the various parts of the turbine (inlet manifold, stator, rotor, and exit diffuser) as well as for the overall turbine. Actual conditions within and across the

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

turbine are usually determined in coniunction necessary For can a one-phase with some to be able to relate system state

from

isentropic process calculations It is, therefore, process. entropy for an isentropic composition, and pressure (1-19) be expressed as

efficiency or loss term. conditions chemical of temperature s----fcn (T, p) can of constant

be expressed

as a function

and

a differential

change

in entropy

ds----(_), From equations (1-8) and (1-7),

dT÷(_)r we get

(tp

(1-20)

Substituting

equations

(1-21)

and

(1-10)

into

equation

(1-20)

yields

ds=_

dT--j

0v (0-T),

dp

(1-22)

For

a constant-entropy

process,

ds=0

and

Equation relating

(1-23) temperature

is the

rigorous, and pressure

but

not

particularly

useful,

expression process. (1-14)

conditions and

for an isentropie substitute equation we get

If we assume into equation

ideal-gas-law (1-23) and

behavior perform the

integration,

, _dT----

Rln_

(1-24)

By

using

a relation

such

as equation

(1-16),

integration

yields

1Rln_=aln_--kb(T2--T_)+2 J p_ Like equation (1-17), equation (1-25) also

(T_--T_)

(1-25)

is more

suitable

for use

in

a computer calculation With the additional peratures 6 T_ and

than in a hand calculation. assumption that cp is constant (1-24) becomes

between

tem-

T2, equation

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

Jc_ ln T2--R T1-and p2=('%'_ p, \T1/ But Jcp R where capacity equation 3" is the ratio of heat

p2 ln- pl

(1-26)

Jc,/R (1-27)

3' 3"-- 1 at constant pressure to

(1-28) heat into

capacity

at constant (1-27) yields

volume. Substitution of the more familiar form

equation

(1-28)

p,
_-_----\_] (1-29) Where should specific heat ratio give a reasonable 3" is not constant, approxlmation. Conservation The rate of mass flow through the use of an average value

of Mass an area A can be expressed as (1-30)

w=pAV where w A V rate flow fluid For across across of mass flow, kg/sec; area, m2; ft 2 velocity, m/see; flow (and ft/see nonnuclear) path is, process, must equal the the rate rate of mass of mass lb/sec

a steady any any

flow flow

section of the flow other section. That

plA, VI = p2A2 V2 This (1-31) expresses is referred the principle to as the Newton's All conservation are consequences that an unbalanced in the direction force is proportional the body. equations, of Newton's of conservation continuity Second equation. Law of etc., Law Motion dealing of with of mass, and

(1-31) equation

theorems, Second

momentum which states

Motion,

force that ac_s of the unbalanced to the product

on a body will cause it to accelerate force in such a manner that the of the mass and acceleration of

7

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Thus, F= m a g where F m
a

(1-32)

unbalanced mass, kg; acceleration, conversion

force, lbm m/sec2 constant,

N;

lbf ; ft/sec 2 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)

g But

1 ; 32.17

dV a =--d- 7 where (1-32) t is time, yields F=m g Since the mass is constant, equation dV dt (1-34a) can also be in seconds. Substituting equation (1-33) into

(1-33) equation

(1-34a) written as

F=I g Equation fluid Since (1-34a) is equal mass can (1-34b) to per also the specifies rate of as that

d(mV__) dt the unbalanced of momentum is the mass flow force acting with rate,

(1-34b)

on

the

of change time

(mV)

time.

increment be written

equation

F =w g A useful derived

dV

(1-35)

be

relation, sometimes called the from second-law considerations. in figure resistance the downstream in the upstream direction is 1-2. Gravitational (force) and direction

equation Consider forces

of are

motion, an element assumed

can of neg-

fluid ligible. of

as indicated A fIictional is subjected acting in fluid

is indicated and

as R s. The fluid-pressure Therefore,

element and the net

to fluid-pressure

boundary-surface-pressure

forces

friction forces acting force in the downstream

direction.

F=pA

+(p+

d-_)dA--(p+dp)

(A+dA)--dRt

(1-36)

Expanding, yields

simplifying,

and F=

dropping -- Adp-dR I

second-order

differentials (1-37)

8

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

The

mass

of the

element

is m:pAdx (1-38) (1-34) yields

Substituting

equation

(1-38)

into F_

equation dV dt

pAdx g

(1-39)

Since

(1-40)
equation (1-39) can be written in the F_pAV g Equating (1-37) with (1-41) now yields form dv

(1--41)

F=--Adp--dRs= and dp + VdV+

pA VdV g dRs 0

(1-42)

p-F--i-A--

(1-43)

p+dp 2

A+dA
f % ,% f

Flow

p dx V

p+dp

V+dV

dRf FIGURE 1-2.--Forces on an element of fluid.

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

If we now

let (1-44)

where

ql is heat

produced

by

friction,

in J/kg

or Btu/lb,

we have (1-45)

dpp __V_VdgV+Jdq1= For isentropic flow, dqs----0. Conservation For system electrical a steady-flow or or part of of that etc., part energy, (and nannuclear) must If have we system. we still V2/2g, of

0

Energy process, equal can the neglect internal energy Z, the energy chemical energy heat entering that energy, u, flow q, and

a system

a system

energy

leaving

to consider potential

energy pv, mechanical

kinetic energy work I¥,. Thus,

P lvl

"Jr- V12

_j[_Z1

p2l'2_l__ ,

V2" _2_4_W Tr 2 .4 Z

(1-46) s

u,+--jwhere u Z q W, For by specific specific internal potential

_gj energy,

-j+q=u:+ J/kg; J/kg; Btu/lb (ft)

j-2g

J-J--

energy,

(lbf)/lbm Btu/lb be neglected. In addition,

heat added mechanical a gas system,

to system, work (lone the

J/kg; Btu/lb by system, J/kg; energy can

potential

definition

h=u + -j
Thus, equation (1-46) reduces
"{72

pv

(1-47)

to
V 2

(1-48) gd Equation (1-48) is the it. Total The in flow Thus, V2 h ' _-h + 2gJ 10 (1-49) sum of the enthalpy and and Conditions the kinetic energy is always appearing quantity. basic form g of the steady-flow energy balance

as we will be using

problems,

it is convenient

to use

it as a single

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

where The that cept

h' is total concept corresponds is most can

enthalpy, of total to the when

in J/kg enthalpy total In

or Btu/lb. leads can be us The according to the as and concept the of total conheat (1-15), (1-50) Combining equation (1-50) defined behavior temperature constant

temperature.

Total useful

temperature

enthalpy. that case,

total-temperature to equation

ideal-gas-law

capacity

be assumed.

h'--h=cp(T'--T) where with T' is total temperature, yields in K or °R.

equation

(1-49)

T' = T+ 2gJcp
The attained to rest The pressure use temperature, total, of a fluid equation total when temperature a gas and brought p. Since (1-29) at static Thus, these two T' can be

V2

(1-51)
of as the called temperature V is brought stagnation pressure static we can

thought T and used can p'

temperature total terms pressure isentropically between temperature are

velocity

adiabatically.

is also be regarded

interchangeably. as the a velocity V and

or stagnation, to rest the to write relation

from and

p is isentropic,

(1-52)

where With should its use energy be seen, tion, heat change, pressure,

p'

is total regard

pressure, to the

in N/m 2 or lb/ft _. above-defined total conditions, certain points and the

be emphasized. The concept of total enthalpy is general, involves no assumptions other than those associated with balance is a very For use an of but as we have useful only systems total to the isentropic considered for it. Total temperature, the burden and or total behavior reaction recommended. with the static and not convenience involving temperature assumptions path for easing ideal-gas-law chemical is between associated

as will of calculaconstant a phase Total temperatotal

it is rigorous the

capacity.

in addition

ture, involves conditions. Flow Let occurs work. each us now, with This part

Process terms heat is the

With of total transfer one

No

Heat

and

No examine

Work a process nor heat losses) that in

in

conditions, (adiabatic occurs the rotor,

neither process

process) (neglecting at constant

mechanical radius, when 11

that

of the

turbine

(including

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

the

velocities Substitution

are of yields

expressed equation

relative (1-49)

to the into

moving equation

blade). (1-48) and rear(1-53)

rangement

h2' -- hi' = q--W_ The energy balance for q and a flow W_ now equal looks something as we were we get like first the First Law

of Thermo-

dynamics If we set

process,

exposed

to it in college.

to zero,

h_' =-h,' Therefore, constant. that total for Further, temperature adiabatic from flow also with no (1-18) work, and total (1-50), enthalpy it can

(1-54) remains be shown

equations remains

constant.

TJ =T/
Note enthalpy Total and tions, (1-55) it can that the and and pressure process total the does temperature is another ideal-gas-law that for not have to be isentropic constant. equations flow with (1-22), no work, From in order

(1-55)
for total (1-52), assump-

to remain matter. and adiabatic eJd' l _= P_' p2'

constant-heat-capacity

be shown

(1-56)

Only

for isentropic For flow

flow with

(ds=0), loss

therefore, (ds>0),

does there is

total

pressure

remain in total

constant. pressure.

a decrease

Speed An wave important propagation

of

Sound

and of

Velocity gases called, is the the

Ratios speed of pressureFrom

characteristic or, as otherwise theory

speed

of sound.

small-pressure-disturbance

a=_/g(-_p), where From to a= The factor called 12 ratio of fluid velocity V _gRT to sound characteristics velocit_y a is speed the ideal of sound, gas law in m/sec and or ft/sec. process relations, this

(1-57)

isentropic

reduces (1-58)

a is an important This ratio is

in determining the flow the Mach number M:

of a gas.

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPT_

M= --V
a

(1-59)
only for identifying to flowcertain static (1-58),

Mach

number

is a useful also the

parameter

not

behavior regimes, but expressions. Consider temperature, (1-59), and given (1-28) with

for simplifying and generalizing relation of total temperature (1-51). (1-51) Combining yields equations

in equation equation

T'

l_I_7__

M 2

(1-60)

Another velocity critical velocity

ratio

often

used

is the

ratio

of fluid

velocity

to

V V Vc,--acr where sound is equal condition (1-60), V. at is critical critical to the at velocity velocity, condition, of sound in m/sec in m/sec at the M----1. or or ft/sec, ft/sec. and The a. critical The from

(1-61) is speed velocity critical equation of

critical

condition.

is that condition where the critical condition

Consequently,

2 T.=3"+ and substitution of equation (1-62) 1 T' into equation (1-58) yields (1-62)

acr=_/_lgRT' Thus, for the as the while perature The critical (1-28), the The because in any the entire static ratio the Mach in relation velocity and flow process value process, temperature of fluid velocity critical number the velocity ratio. velocity is not denominator). between ratio (1-51). T T '-1 3,--1(V) _ 3"-t-1 2 static results and from total combining temperature equations in terms (1-61), Its of the with constant value to ratio (since total of the temperature (Vc,=a,) speed of sound

(1-63)

(no heat remains

and

no work),

critical changes.

velocity

constant (a) changes called number temof the (1-63),

whilethe

critical

velocity preferred is a square

is sometimes over root Mach

critical

use is often there

is directly

proportional

to velocity, of static

(1-64) 13

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

APPLICATION The the (flow the in the turbine. equations through process is isentropic). loss-free varying-area already turbine

TO

FLOW are

WITH sufficient losses about rotor,

VARYING to analyze that the and there behavior exit in a turbine,

AREA completely are no of the losses use flow we can

presented passages, there

flow

provided are

Although to learn passages Effect

something (stator, of the yields Flow relations Prot)er the

diffuser)

of the

Regime a,mon_ manipulation equation pressure, velocity, previ-

We area ously
flo_v:

are change,

going and

to

examine

Much equations

number.

of the

presented

following

for isentropic

_(I_M_

)dV V-(1) change is less for

1--M 2alp 7M 2 p all Much

dA A numbers amt (2) the in area flow), way By passage the

(1-65) change depend equal to static which of definition, in : in of on 1

Equation velocity the whether (sonic let pressure static Let A. changes

(1-65) is opposite the flow), Much that

shows

that and than

to the number a nozzle and the flow

in l)ressure with than

directions

in velocity or greater

pressure

changes 1 (subsonic flow).

1 (supersonic is a varying-area

us specify pressure

in which passage

decreases us examine Subsonic 1. Increasing

a diffuser various (M<I): cases

is a varying-area from equation

increases. (1-65)

pressure

(dp>0): area increases (dA>0).

Velocity decreases (dV<0) and This is the subsonic diffuser.. 2. Decreasing pressure (dp<0): and Velocity increases (dV>0) This is the subsonic nozzle. B. Supersonic 1. Increasing Velocity This 2. Decreasing Velocity This C. Sonic Both Area critical, mum-area 14 flow is the flow (M>I): (dp>0): (dV<0) (dp<0): (dV>0) nozzle. and zero occur 1) : (dp>0) must section equal can and and

area

decreases

(dA_0).

pressure decreases supersonic pressure increases supersonic (M=

area

(tecreases

(dA_0).

is the

diffuser. area increases (dA>0).

increasing change condition

decreasing (dA=0). only at the

(dp<0) Thus, inlet,

pressure. the exit, sonic, or or mini-

of a varying-area

passage.

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

You dition must portion.

may (M= have

also

want

to note either up

that portion

in order followed Nozzles with

to cross by an

the the

critical flow

con-

1) going

or down

in velocity,

passage

a decreasing-area Flow

increasing-area

in

Since diffuser nozzles. entering nozzle. the the (and throat) mences lowered, At some What Mach nozzle. tion the tions velocity, gas

we

are

concerned

primarily

nozzle

flow

rather

than

flow in turbines, we will narrow We will further limit the discussion the This nozzle is subsonic, us to the with at the T'. static as pt. and gas a static The When since first case from (and exhaust, pressure this nozzle.--Let corresponds is supplied temperature as p, and is designated and flow value and number Therefore, happens the throat of p,, M= the rate consider

the discussion to flow in to the case where the flow is the the case of most interest. Assume where a static is comto pc. to sonic that condiin to equaa (in the simple previously. (zero pressure at the less with velocity) p' static nozzle than Pt still p', and exit flow equal convergent

Convergent nozzle total)

A2 mentioned a reservoir total) right

is maintained

or outside,

pressure

designated

pe is a little increase, throat further? be remains

pressure velocity velocity throat.

pt is equal both at the lowered 1 cannot throat pressure,

to pc. As p_ is progressively becomes We have in in the The static according a equal seen critical

1 at the than flow how the is

if pc is now greater the at (1-29)

attained

convergent pressure

at the much critical

(M= throat (1-62)

1) no matter remains and

p_ is lowered.

which

P'=P_'=P' Once the the The with the pe is reduced flow nozzle an within and increase the then process equations that the (p'/p,) means below nozzle. expands from are throat greater that the p,, The the

{ 2-_-_ "_/(_-') \_,+ 1/ exhaust expands from pressure from with p' has no

(1-66)

effect the

on

gas

to pt=p, (which later),

within nozzle. occur and

further and will

Pt to pe outside shocks a little

expansion

Pt to Pe occurs not valid condition than nozzle

in entropy

be discussed

isentropic The fact ratios (p'/p_r)

for this part of the remains constant or equal mass to the flow

process. for nozzle pressure remains state, 1 at value correin 15

pressure ratio constant the mass the the throat

critical also

rate

under these conditions. Thus, flow rate reaches a maximum and thereafter flow remains can be constant The pr6ver_

for a fixed value when no that matter this

upstream M becomes to what condition

exhaust

pressure

is reduced.

fact

st)on(is

to maximum

mathematically.

A nozzle

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

this more the sure the flow

condition involved nozzle ratio exhaust p'

is said case and

to be choked. nozzle.--Let of the with gas T'. us from will less now the consider nozzle. same 1-3, p' reservoir showing this (curve occurring of the lowered and the throat AD still AB at passage (curve velocity velocity in fig. diffuses the somewhat assume of presIf 1-3), throat maintained plots discussion. in fig. the convergent-divergent Figure than Again,

Convergent-divergent to be supplied against pressure with this case, diffuser. at some the sonic higher

at pressure

temperature nozzle the length, pe is a little

supplement

commences

lowest

pressure

(pt_P_). In as a subsonic 1-3), equal that the to Eventually,

the divergent section As pe is progressively throat decreases value Pt, and of p_, the (curve gas the

is acting AC in fig. increases. becomes 1-3). Note

pressure

p, at the particular velocity, than

or Mr----1

p_ is still

subsonically

_X._I / rpt
I/

I
/ /r Pe

I
Th roat

I I I I

-

A ,ll

B

.B

&

-- _r- .....

-_'_"_'_'_

.=
N Z

K

H

E

Length

FmuR_;

1-3.--Nozzle

flow

processes.

16

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

in

the

diveruent pt:pc._pe), to achieve is less than the critical p_ place is a_ain because where nozzle,

section. we the

Since see that

the the

throat nozzle

condition pressure

is now ratio

critical (p'/pe) to

(with required nozzle achieve If only condition

critical

condition

in

a convergent-divergent

the nozzle condition lowered, equation the the critical throat

pressure ratio (p'/p_:p'/pc,) required in a simple convergent nozzle. the throat condition state must can remains remain us that exist. value. the constant, the Thus, at the throat as and the critical (1-65) showed

is the with the mass

convergent

flow must remain critical condition and If the the convergent of the flow part of This pressure flow subsonic supersonic that does the is area, mass case pendently divergent to discharge servation relations. shows that isentropic isentropic The flow Observing optical in the waves. changes temperature is a rise process weak. normal shock. flow occurs Strong shocks) Weak direction means flow. Shock may in static

constant at is maintained part conditions to only and be of the

its maximum at the throat, nozzle the and for as any well It the some therefore, these pressure as is in figure values Pe_pt Pe_Pt cannot throat.

As long as the nozzle is choked to behave indethe area conwhich assume either 1-3) fig. or 1-3). by occur shock state Total there the because the AE, to allow fig. AE,

continues isentropic given the 1-3 of by ratio p_ will

beyond supersonic then exhaust one

throughout of throat satisfy curve

of the

nozzle,

energy, continuously. between to

isentropic

process,

is represented

falling

unreasonable p_ that AD, (curve (curve

is impossible

diffusion expansion take gas place, flow

to some

be isentropic. conditions changes flow are the fluid density in the and even pressure

under

nonisentropic

reveals that surfaces of abrupt These apparent discontinuities waves be across with shocks and shocks (and of the that are of very as remains there small thickness, considered a shock pressure, occurring constant

instantaneously. but, though

is a loss in total

an increase in entropy. occur normal to the result occur are shock thus in subsonic at some called small oblique supersonic, shock.

Shocks may be strong or flow (and are thus called downstream with respect and the the of the to the velocity number angle shocks), but

velocities

downstream is less Let for the If the D, than

remains of the the

Mach

upstream

us now region exhaust

complete of pressure pressure shock the

discussion between

of convergent-divergent points a little point D and below the

nozzles 1-3.

ratios

E in figure value part such

p, is reduced at some rises

at point of the that nozzle

a normal and

occurs

in the

divergent to a value plane

nozzle, isentropic

l)ressure diffusion

instantaneously from the

subsonic

occurs

shock

to the

17

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

exit. with and normal

The AK LF

flow being being shock H,

process the moves

in this

case

is illustrated KL As exit, At some being and

by

the the the

path normal

AKLF, shock, the is and

an isentropic isentropic toward such normal nozzle

expansion, diffusion. the shock is AEH. points and the E, H weaker and nozzle as AMNG.

pe is reduced value at the

further, flow process exit,

represented ing the to point flow For occur higher nozzle When flow the path

by a path the in the

of pe correspondnozzle

will be right

values because than exit, is again

of pe between it is too p_. In with the this shock strong case,

E,

a normal in shock previously, values to

shock occurs the

cannot pressure at point the E. final

would weaker

result oblique

a static

becoming isentropic.

as p_ approaches

p_ corresponds completely the from

to point nozzle-exit

as mentioned For static lower pressure

nozzle outside

of p_, the pe occurs

expansion nozzle It should esses do tions abrupt, a shock shown not

in a nonisentropic be pointed in figure exactly place out 1-3 over effects from are

manner. that the previous In and distance. the The shown and general in figure the subsonic 1-3. Tables flow and Charts many in as discussion actuality, pressure flow Also, the real-fluid and shock rise, the proceffects although consideraof are however,

idealized.

occur takes may

instantaneously a finite that make

produce similar

downstream

different

isentropic. to those

processes,

qualitatively

Thermodynamic-Property In sets books order of and to facilitate and charts Some properties reports.

Flow-Function and listed and its

thermodynamic have of these of been are air

calculations, and published 3 to 7. products 3 and with the

tables

constructed

as references combustion capacity and also

Thermodynamic functions charts ture. and The tables

of temperature include

are the

presented variation

in references in heat of air

4. These temperaindividual oxygen, 4 as

thermodynamic of air water and its vapor,

properties combustion and are argon) also

components carbon and properties well dioxide,

products are

(nitrogen,

presented the effect

in references 5. The of pressure,

5. Compressibility presented

factors in reference

presented

in reference

5 include

as temperature. compressible-flow of Mach number functions (TIT', pip', p/p',A/Ac,, and 7

Isentropic others)

as functions values normal

are presented ratio. shock Also

in references included are Reference _hock velocity

4, 6, and tables and 6 preequa-

for various charts sents tions 18 for

of heat-capacity and oblique

calculations. and critical

a listing in terms

of compressible of both Mach

flow number

function and

function ratio.

THERMODYNAMIC

AND

FLUID-DYNAMIC

CONCEPTS

REFERENCES
1. 2. KUNKLE, pressed NELSON, JOHN Gas L. C.; S.j WILSON, OBERT, SAMUEL NASA E. F.: Eng., D.; How col. WILLIAM Products AND to 61, COTA, Use no. W.: from the RICHARD New . . 1954, of 3500 A.; ED: Com-

Handbook. AND

SP-3045,

1969. . Generalized pp. ° R. 203-208. NACA

Compressibility 3. ENGLISH, Properties TN 4. 2071, ROBERT of 1950. Air

Charts. E.; and
AND

Chem.
WACHTL,

7, July Charts 300 ° to

Thermodynamic

Combustion

KEENAN, JOSEPH Inc., 1948. HILSENRATH, LILLA; KIAN, ties ties of of

H.;

AND

KAYE,

JOSEPH:

Gas

Tables.

John

Wiley

and

Sons,

5.

JOSEPH;

BECKETT, J.; MASI,

CHARLES JOSEPH

W.; F.;

BENEDICT, NUTTALL, W.: Tables

WILLIAM RALPH of and L.;

S.;

FANO,

HOGE, YERAM Gases Air,

HAROLD S.;
AND

TOULOUProperPropNitrogen,

WOOLLEY,

HAROLD of

Thermal Transport

Comprising Argon, Steam. STAFF: 1135, Carbon NBS

Tables Dioxide, Circular

Thermodynamics Carbon 564, Monoxide, National and Charts

Hydrogen, Bureau for of

Oxygen, Nov. l, 6. AMES

and 1955.

Standards, Flow.

RESEARCH Rep.

Equations,

Tables,

Compressible

NACA 7. LEwis

1953. COMPUTING Ratios STAFF: from Tables 1.28 to of 1.38. Various NACA Mach TN Number 3981, 1957.

LABORATORY for

Functions

Specific-Heat

19

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

SYMBOLS A
a aj c_ b_ c

flow

area,

m2; ft _

acceleration, m/seC; ft/sec 2 speed of sound, m/sec; ft/sec general constants for polynomial, heat capacity at constant pressure, unbalanced conversion force, N; constant, lb 1 ; 32.17 eq. (1-16) J/(kg)(K); (lbm) Btu/(lb)(°R)

F g h J M M_
m

(ft)/(lbf)(seC)

specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu Mach mass, absolute heat heat number, weight, lb pressure, N/mS; lb/ft 2 Btu/lb J/kg; Btu/lb (°R) 1545 (ft)(lbf)/ to system, by J/kg; kg; added produced defined kg/(kg by eq. mole); (1-59) lb/(lb mole) molecular

P q ql R RI R*

friction,

gas constant, J/(kg) frictional resistance universal (lb mole) gas constant,

(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) force, N; lb 8314 J/(kg

mole)(K);

(°R) J/(kg) (K) ; Btu/(lb) K; °R (°R)

8

specific absolute time, specific

entropy, sec internal absolute volume, work rate, flow

T t

temperature,

energy, velocity, m3/kg; done kg/sec;

J/kg; m/sec; ft3/lb by

Btu/lb ft/sec

V
V Ws w x

fluid specific

mechanical mass length, specific ratio

system,

J/kg;

Btu/lb

lb/sec

in; ft potential of heat energy, factor, capacity volume lb/ft 3 condition condition (M: 1) J/kg; defined at constant (ft)(lbf)/lbm by eq. (1-4) to heat capacity pressure

Z
Z

compressibility at constant

P

density, critical critical exhaust throat

kg/m_; state flow

Subscripts: c cr e t Superscript: ' 90

absolute

total

state

CHAPTER 2

Basic Turbine Concepts
ByArthur. Glassman J
This efficiency, nitions, the the blades end chapter and and diagrams, of this introduces performance and blading chapter. turbine dimensionless geometry are geometric, parameters. defined flow, energy-transfer, by Terms in the means of defito at referring

characteristics

primarily

GLOSSARY,

TURBINE

FLOW Analysis

AND

ENERGY System

TRANSFER

Coordinate energy-transfer coordinate system of rotation, and These three variation wheel. form

An bine through directed ally gentially

analysis requires

of the some

flow

and

processes system. consists For

within fluid directed directed radial, of flow flow use

a turflowing raditanand in the t)aramaverage planes

convenient wheel, axis

a turning parallel the to three average) For many the directions plane

a logical

of one

coordinate

to the axis rotating

one one are 2-1. planes.

coordinate coordinate the axial,

through

of rotation, indicated

tangential These radial-axial blade eters. values. are of

in figure

coordinates depicts radial types and

Analysis desired the and

the

circumferentially-averaged of the ignore values we can

(or blade-tocircumferential just

axial

of calculations, is called value Velocity are

(or blade-to-blade) Such Calculations usually the third made at some

variation in the constant calculations

of parameter axial-tangential (rather diagram, usually

a calculation

an axisymmetric or radialthan as made well

analysis. tangential conditions) planes. When 21

for average in these

coordinate.

as blade-to-blade

velocity-variation,

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

2

Vu

FIGURE

2-1.--Velocity

components

for

a generalized

rotor.

flow turbine, nantly plane

is predominantly the axial, is used. such as

radial, in an

such plane axial-flow

as

at

the

inlet When the

to flow

a radial-flow is predomi-

radial-tangential

is used. turbine,

axial-tangential

Velocity One is the tions. shapes For interest. ered other of flow _2 of the fluid To and flow For relative blade relative most, with velocity assist types, in and flow to the row if not in the and we use across in and rotating

Vectors the most,

and

Diagrams variables flow different and absolute velocities of relative in this similar later and that energy coordinate in depicting velocities must chapter, to the velocities flow analysis we will transfer direcblading are of and in

important of turbine in the analyses the rotors, In terms

be concerned

analysis its variation these the across

us in making

velocity-vector stators, the

diagrams. be consid-

blade.

parameters

to be discussed passage.

a rotating

can be analyzed

in a manner

in a stationary

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

Velocity-diagram downstream inside ferential represent The velocities. Relative
or

calculations various In blade making rows.

are rows the

made

at

locations diagrams,

upstream the

and circumvectors relative

of the blade

or at just velocity

infinitesimal velocity and that velocity the

distances

the

variations in flow the circumferential velocity diagram the In making

are not average both

considered. The of the flow. the absolute note diagram,

shows velocity

velocity=Absolute

velocity--Blade

(2-1)

where W V U Since consider relative absolute blade blade the velocity velocity velocity velocity vector vector vector is always that

W=V--U

(2-2)

in the is, the

tangential blade

direction, speed. So,

we need we can

only write

magnitude,

W= The shows this absolute velocity the velocity and diagram components diagram relative in figure of the to be 2-2 absolute drawn

V--U represents and in an be equation axial-tangential expressed in terms (2-3) and plane, of

(2-3) also the their

relative

velocities.

Assuming

velocities

can

Absolute Relative angle angle of flow, cl7 I I I

of flow,

V V x = Wx

VU

FIGURE

2-2.--Typical of absolute

velocity-vector and relative

diagram velocities in

having the same

tangential direction.

components

23

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

components

in the

axial

and

tangential 2

directions

as (2-4) (2-5)

V2:V_2q-V,, and W 2=W2+ where V V= Vu W IV= W_ magnitude axial tangential magnitude axial tangential of V, m/see; component of W, m/see; component ft/sec

Wu 2

component

of absolute

velocity,

m/see; velocity,

ft/sec m/see; ft/sec

of absolute ft/sec velocity,

component

of relative

m/see;

ft/sec m/see; ft/sec

of relative

velocity,

If this diagram (fig. 2-2) were drawn the values marked as axial components From figure 2-2, we see that we can W_,=V,,--U

in the radial-tangential plane, would be radial components. write (2-6)

A are shown gram and in valid.

sign of the

convention components exact same 2-2. of we

must of We 2-3. the will and

be

established since shape have, and and for instance,

for not as the

the all the

angles velocity example the

and

the

tangential

velocity, could In this

diagrams diagram diacomponents are directed (2-6) that is velocity

geometrical

in figure shown flow angles

example,

in figure directions,

tangential velocities that equation

absolute adopt

relative obvious stick with

opposite

it is not

Therefore,

the

convention

Relative angle of flow,

13_

r-Absolute angle of flow, cI

._ t FIGURE 2-3.--Typical absolute

Wu

Wx = Vx Wx = Vx U ---I components of

velocity-vector ap.d relative

diagram having tangential velocities in opposite directions.

24

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

all are we

angles in the can

and

tangential of the that in positive analysts above then opposite see figure

components blade to the equation 2-3, value use positive of a rotor. Also, many if you direction should by used of at velocity blade (2-6) where the and

of velocity and velocity. remains a above a location negative work than In many analysts rather have someone small are

are With valid

positive this for

if they are

direction

negative

if they convention, the value value for all for

in the diagram minus Not Some

direction now a larger all use turbine the and shown

velocity of Vu Wu. cases.

positive

U yields

a negative convention immediately directions cases this with the

convention switch

upstream at locations working defined direction velocitysure information. that

of a rotor immediately with with

downstream values. to the

avoids angles axial to use

negative respect

tangential generated convention

as we are using. diagram you are aware

Therefore, of the

occasion else,

information

make this

in generating

Energy The tively of the a the of the 1 and sumed. regarded being The mutually in magnitude rise to an change a radial nents the basic simple generalized angular by at fluid 2 are as inlet rotor any at any the energy-transfer and is only to a fluid velocity. path, radii points traversing Fluid and 1 and velocity the velocity velocity must radial the

Transfer for all turbomachines Second 2-1 axis point the at Law represents of rotation 1, passes 2. The angle, of steady inlet for and the the mass into The the rotor gives velocity rotor bearing. rise compofor and state outlet of the is rein of Motion a rotor and through directions points is asare flow three change gives The to

relation a form a rotor. with enters 2 are the at is discharged

of Newton's Figure 0-0 rotor any at

as applied

turbomachine,

at point arbitrary

rl and

r2. A condition the values can discussed components be taken by velocity axial nor motion change that results average vectors

Further, considered. and

vectors

representing outlet

be resolved previously. through a thrust components the radial of the

perpendicular of the axial force, axial

components which of the Neither on the

in magnitude bearing have any load. effect

angular It is the of velocity fluid

(except and

effect

of bearing

friction). components of the

in magnitude corresponds in the

radius

of the transfer. Net outlet

tangential

to a change desired energy

in angular

momentum

and

rotor products

torque

is equal

to

the

difference times radius,

between or

the

inlet

and

of tangential

force

r:(F_r)_--(F,,r)2

(2-7) 25

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

where net F_ r torque, m; ft equation to V=V (1-34) in the and tangential setting direction, w=m/t yields integrating from N-m; force, lb-ft N; lb tangential radius,

Applying V=O

at t=O

at t=t,

_w_ Vu F,,--g where w g rate of mass flow, constant, equation kg/sec; lb/sec (lbm) (2-7) (ft)/(lbf)(seC) then yields conversion 1; 32.17 (2-8) into

(2-8)

Substituting

T =--

W

g

Yu,

lrl

_

w V,.2r2

=-

g (V_.lrt--V_.2r2) to the product of torque

(2-9)

Power angular

(rate

of energy

transfer)

is equal

and

velocity: p_r_ w _(rlV_ 1--r2V_ 2)

J -gJ

.

,

(2-10)

where P J Since
roo:V

net

power,

W;

Btu/sec rad/sec 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu

angular conversion

velocity, constant,

(2-11)

we can

write p=W gj (UIV_.,-U2V,.2) P=whh' (2-12)

But (2-13) or Btu/lb. Substituting equation

where (2-13)

h' is total into equation

enthalpy, (2-12)

in J/kg yields

(2-14)
J t

where machines between between 26

Ah' is here (2-14) and the the fluid two

defined is the and UV_ the

as hi--h2. basic the rotor terms. work must The equation equation. way be accounted equation for All all the forms energy of turbotransfer difference it Euler

Equation

is called

for by the (2-14)

is stated,

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

can with fluid will

be seen the

that

Ah' must balance, as positive.

be positive equation the Euler with diagrams radial Actually, although the

for a turbine. (1-46), equation 2-4, are velocity in where into

This work another shows

is consistent done form. an for the by the This inlet the can

energy

is defined be done blade outlet. or the for

It is useful turbine and There inlet sarily

to transform with The outlet same the aid along section

of figure

which

axial-flow planes.

diagrams axial-tangential of velocity locations are

velocity to be no locations, radius.

is assumed at the

component these the case. we get

at either not also

neces-

following

derivation

be made From

a general (2-4)

three-dimensional and (2-5),

equations

Vx *: V 2- V= _ and Wx_=W*--W,, Substituting equation (2-6) into (2-16) _ gives

(2-15) (2-16)

Vx, 1 = Wx, 1

Wu, 1

Ul

of rotation ''e*

Direction
V_. _z E'

,__i/_,,"- Vx, 2 = WX,2

u2

\
'- Vu, 2

FIGURE

2-4.--Rotor

section

with

inlet-

and

exit-velocity-vector

diagrams.

27

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

W,_=W*-(V,,-U)
Since Vx= Wz, combining equations (2-15)

2
and (2-17) U2 yields

(2-17)

V 2- V,,2=W Therefore,

_- V,,2+2UV_

(2-18)

UV,,= 1 (V_+U2-W
Now, adding subscripts for inlet and outlet

2)
yields

(2-19)

U1V.,,

1 (V_+U2

W2 )

(2-20)

1 U2V _ _:-2 (W+U_2-W_ _) Inserting yields Ah'--2gJ Equation relation. By (2-22) definition, 1 (V2 V2_+U__U2_+W2_ Wt2 ) these values into the Euler equation (eq. (2-14))

(2-21)

finally

(2-22)

is an

alternative

form

of

the

basic

energy-transfer

,

,

Vl _

V__
2gJ (2-23) equation (2-23)

Ah'=hl--h2=hl+-_--h2. Therefore, shows that comparison of equation 1 Ah:h_--h2=_gj Thus, in static change of terms transfer. the U 2 and enthalpy in absolute are W 2 terms across kinetic the (UI2-U22 of equation rotor, while across to as energy referred Blade As mentioned tum the of the rotor. fluid The change is actually fluid flows a centrifugal previously, that in results following tangential transferred through force acts (2-22)

with

+W22-W_ (2-22) the the the

2) the represent three of

(2-24) change the pairs energy

represent V 2 terms These

rotor.

sometimes

components

Loading change transfer and in the of energy figure and passage 2-5 the tangential from concern way momenthe fluid the to the of cause

it is the in the discussion to the the on

of this energy blades, 28 As the

momentum wheel. curved

in which each of the pair

between

it in the

direction

pressure

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

Stations

1

2

f
Flow

sur,_ce J \\1
/ /- Suction surface "_ ]
I

Flow

Axial chord

pll

Pl

m

--P2 Suction surface--,'

Axial distance
FIGURE

2-5.--Blade

row

with

surface

static-pressure

distribution.

29

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

(concave) surface. Since the free to move in the direction must be established its curved and toward passage surface. resulting to balance through the flow in the suction The

fluid is constrained of the centrifugal the centrifugal pressure (convex) pressure

and, therefore, force, a pressure force and turn the

not force fluid

path. The the suction at the

force is directed surface. Thus, surface on and the

normal to the pressure lowest blade at the

is highest distribution

of static

pressure

surfaces axial point

is illustrated distance. At where the tion value. flowing point, trailing crease the

in figure 2-5, where pressure or near the blade leading edge

is plotted against there is a stagnation

velocity becomes The stagnation to On the the exit the along two the pressure

zero and the pressure point is the dividing sides blade surface, and curve The of the surfaces the then blade. static increase in the decreases

reaches its stagnapoint for the fluid From pressure back figure curves the toward will up 2-5 stagnation the to the blade deexit often

around edge. below

suction pressure

pressure. The pressure-distribution the the blade-loading blade force diagram. acting in the

illustrated area between direction.

is called represents

tangential

Relative Flow flow moving similar in a rotating passage passage can by

Conditions be analyzed considering relative total in a manner conditions total enthalpy enthalpy. similar in a manner to

in a stationary

relative

to the

passage. Let us first define to the definition of absolute

h"__h+2_
where examine through to equation h" the is relative what happens (2-25), rotor. total enthalpy, (2-24)

J
in J/kg or Btu/lb. as the Now fluid

(2-25)
let us

to relative

total

enthalpy we substitute

flows

If in equation we get

for W 2 according

h '2'-- h ','-Therefore, through For quently, constant We enthalpy. 3O can the purely we see that rotor axial no change for the also This define flow, rotor the where flow relative only there speed, process.

U_-- UI_ 2 gJ total is no the enthalpy is a change change relative total of the in the in radius enthalpy to relative T". fluid blade and,

(2-26)

flowing speed. conseremains total When

changes in blade

if there

a temperature the relative

that

corresponds temperature,

is called

total

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

ideal-gas-law we can write where c_ T heat

behavior

and

constant

heat

capacity

can

be

assumed, (2-27)

h"--h=%(T"--T) capacity at constant K; pressure, °R with equation W 2 T" From and equation relative total (1-51) and -= T _- 2gJc-_ (2-28), related
V__W 2

J/(kg)(K);

Btu/(lb)(°R)

absolute

temperature, equation (2-27)

Combining

(2-25)

then

yields

(2-28) we see as follows" that the absolute

equation are

temperatures

T'--

T"--

-2gJc_ write T_') shows U_-- V12 2gJcp like remains defined a relative relative constant as the total for pressure that

(2-29)

For

the

rotor

flow

process,

we can

h_'--h_'=cp(T_'-Combining this with equation T_'-(2-26) T_'--

(2-30)

(2-31) enthalpy, purely of axial a fluid a static

Therefore, depends flow Relative brought pressure through

relative only on a rotor. total to rest

total blade pressure

temperature, speed can and be from
]!

isentropically

velocity

W and

p. Therefore,

where p" _, relative total pressure, N/m2; at lb/ft 2 pressure to heat capacity at

ratio of heat capacity constant volume this equation and

constant

From

equation

(1-52),

we also

see that

p"
p' For crease, the rotor or remain and flow on process, the

(T"y/(-,-')
=\--_-;,T/ (2-33) total on purely pressure the change axial can flow, increase, relative detotal total 31

relative depending losses. For

constant,

in relative

temperature

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

pressure it must We

will remain decrease. can define

constant

only Mach

if the number W
a

flow Mr_

is isentropic; as

otherwise,

a relative

M,_=

(2-34)

and

a relative

critical

velocity

as

Wct=a_.,_=_l where

gRT"

(2-35)

We,
act, ttt

critical speed gas

velocity, of sound

m/sec; at relative J/(kg) similar

ft/sec critical condition, m/sec; ft/sec

R Then, and

constant,

(K) ; (ft) (lb) / (lb) (° R) to the way we derived equations (1-60)

in a manner (1-64), we can

get T" --1+ T 2--1 M_e_ (2-36)

and T,,--1 3,+1 Reaction The enthalpy) portant energy classifying of reaction, types fraction that way of of total energy by a exit transfer a change turbine kinetic (change in static stage. energy used Reaction The is one in both in absolute is one in is the parameter change in in way total imof kinetic degree for static total total total _ (2-37)

is obtained classifying of the row. The simply, diagrams,

enthalpy change important cases

as a fraction a blade or more

parameter the reaction. and

is used

for classifying

of velocity

it is also

an important as the

correlating losses. Stage reaction.--Stage enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy through we can across across across across the write stator. tile the the the rotor

reaction stage. stage rotor, Note is the since

is defined of the the as the above that same total

as a fraction

change change cha_lge

in absolute absolute in absolute remains of stage

enthalpy detiIlition

constant reaction,

According

to the

R_'_--hl' where ditions 32 R,tc is stage reaction, and and

hl--h_ --hi subscripts rotor, 1 and 2 refer

(2-38)

the

to con-

upstream

downstream

of the

respectively.

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

The

preceding

equation

for equations

reaction (2-22)

can

be and

expressed (2-24)

in terms into equation.

of

velocities. Substituting (2-38) yields

R.,,-Reaction (U_2--U_ Zero stage rotor, can 2) and reaction design. and all the be positive, (W2_--Wl_). is one If Rst0=0, work

(U?-U22) + (W 2-W ?) V22)+ (U2 U22) (W22_W2) +
negative, or zero, depending on the

(2-39)

values

of

important there done by

value is no the

that

characterizes in static is a result

a particular enthalpy of the in the change in

change stage

absolute kinetic energy across the stage. This stage is called an impulse stage. In the general case where the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at different and radii, enthalpy an equal an impulse in one effect. change For stage in the purely may other axial result direction flow, of relative WI= W2. basis of from by the any having a change (U 2) by only. the in static Thus, of static effect direction contributed centrifugal change

contributed velocity

relative-velocity

enthalpy must be caused by a change an axial-flow impulse stage must have Some pressure definition people in the in terms define rotor impulse rather than pressure is due on the no

no

change the same

in

static This as that the

change

in static For

enthalpy. flow,

of static difference coincide.

is approximately to losses.

used herein. The definitions exactly Simple windmill, from the lawn rotation. Blade-row energy energy to that kinetic blade-row stage For at the blade energy reaction. a stator examples or the sprinkler

isentropic

of impulse paddle nozzle. that wheel ejects

turbines operated the water reaction blade These or row are

are by

the the

child's impingement

pinwheel, turbine thus as of the the the

the is

of a fluid causing kinetic kinetic relative change Therefore, by in

a stationary

A simple

example from is as a the

of a reaction nozzles, defined fraction kinetic rotor, to that

reaction.--Blade-row within row. For the exit. a blade-row corresponds represents

develol)ed

energies

stator to the

axial-flow in static similar

change

enthalpy.

reaction

an effect

represented

blade

row,

reaction

is defined

as

R,,

V1_-- V°2----1 V12 For a rotor

V°2 Vl 2 blade row, reaction

(2-40) is defined

where
as

Rs, is stator

reaction.

33

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

R

--W22--W1_=
to-W22

l
-

W12
W22

(2-41)

where tions stream In velocities equations first

R,o is rotor upstream of the some rotor,

reaction. of the stator, the of and than kinetic (2-41)

The

subscripts downstream reaction This that

0, 1, and of the

2 refer stator,

to condiand downterms similar of to

respectively. blade-row energies. except (i.e., is defined definition velocities than V2). is in appear

literature, instead (2-40) rather

the

to the

power

squared

V rather

Turbine For formation velopment when this the fact presented gas-law shown peratures pressure, veniently all adiabatic expansion of work)

Expansion processes, kinetic for This later

Process the maximum or energy ratio from and the With pressure energy transfer trans(de-

(development of mechanical process equations graphically and that (but

energy) a given can

is obtained previously the ideal-

is isentropic. a little

be proven discussion.

we will not

do it here),

we will illustrate previously by temtemperature, we can conexpansion diagram. against with from

in this

constant-heat-capacity energies and energy and temperature entropy all the by being ideal

assumptions, we have changes can be represented Therefore, and with actual variables (isentropic) of interest,

changes.

and

represent

processes in a turbine The temperature-entropy entropy increasing for lines temperature

means of a temperature-entropy diagram is a plot of temperature pressure. decreasing Since pressure, entropy as can and

of constant

increases be seen

Constant-entropy-

b.-

E
Pl > P2 > P3 E
b--

I
Entropy, s

FIGURE

2-6.--Typical

temperature-entropy

diagram.

34

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

the

discussion 1, by a shown the pressure the into four

of in

the

coastant-entropy-1)rocess or A increasing diverge; temperature increasing. the each be turbine shown combined T-s, 2-6. At constant-entropy values therefore, difference

thermodynamics diagram of at looks process temperature increasing between process T-s a single any will diagram. diagram. like is repre-

in the and values two be

chapter example sented entropy, of constant For divided These The the given

temperature-entropy, figure line. curves the is also of clarity, steps, with will then

a vertical pressure entropy, curves four diagrams purposes

expansion in a separate into

four diagrams represent the stator expansion process relation between absolute and relative conditions

(fig. 2-7 (a)), at the stator

P()" id P'L

_,,_Jc-T_= T_ TO

Ti
Tj'

------7

vl
p?

T1 Tl, kJ NJCp 0 (a) (b) T1

i.--

p_
/

P_'
T_'

Ti' : T_'

/

T_
2gJcp >2gJCp P2 T2

hl--_
T2 ....

CPl

(c)

l Entropy, s

(d)

(a)

Expansion

process

across

stator.

(b)

Relation relative

between conditions between conditions at steps at

absolute stator relative rotor of an exit. exit.

and

(c)

Expansion

process

across

rotor.

(d)

Relation absolute

and

FIGURE

2-7.--Temperature-entropy flow

diagrams turbine.

for

flow-process

axial-

35

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

exit blades

(fig.

2-7(b)), 2-7(c)), at the

the rotor shows and

rotor and the exit the curves after by the were

expansion relation (fig. 2-7(d)). expansion represent expansion. vertical isentropic, 1,id. The increase that than we the

process between process the The

relative relative across static between with final state and kinetic

to the and the

moving absolute The total at each state If that from by ideal in be (1-51).

(fig.

conditions Figure four state point the state the by the indicated small pressures and

2-7(a) before the by

stator.

constant-pressure is represented total the expansion 0 to state arrows. actual process 1 with It

absolute energy the static

distance the actual the be

state subscript can

point

in accordance

equation would

process kinetic

proceeds as indicated energy by the

a small be noted is less

in entropy, developed through

developed the rotor

process

would analyze

process. As mentioned terms of relative the absolute and are gies terms represent expansion. If the related and total expansion of the the For expansion static The

previously,

flow

conditions. Figure 2-7(b) shows the relation between relative total states at the stator exit. These states and across conditions. and relative axial the the absolute rotor The total flow the and is shown four is relative in figure before so would and that kinetic 2-7(c) curves after T;'= indicated the T_'. enin are indicated in the figure.

isentropica]ly, temperatures process relative

constant-pressure

pressures assumed, state

simplicity, were 2,id. by

isentropic,

final

be that

by the subscript state 2, as indicated Here by the again it can actual

The actual process proceeds from state 1 to the small arrows, with an increase in entropy. that the relative would and be kinetic energy by states related at one relative by being, Note the ignore that line 2-8, the alone. across subscript where subIn the 2,id the developed an at ideal the isenstage is less the figure and 2-7 static, than relative 2-7(d). absolute are now developed total are energies into and

be noted

process between in

process. The relation rotor exit

absolute states kinetic

is shown

These

tropically, and the exit are indicated. The shown state through enthalpy point figure script figure entire 36 (p_, 2-7(c), the 2,id 2-8, stage four as diagrams figure

relative of figure The the

combined total, are the ! time indicated

diagram total arrows the the in

2-8. for

absolute For right state line. expansion to the The

processes the

turbine state

expansion points. on the the point

appropriate T2._d), state refers the (both which the the

differences is not to

indicated is on same ideal 2,id and

of the

figure.

constant-entropy in figure figure the 2-7(c), rotor In ideal

as in(licated across l_,_t_fing

it is on

0 constant-entropy refers rotor).

subscript stator

expansion of the

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

T_" T_
i1 ii

To T_? T_' '_
p-

=_ _Po \

P2

Ah'

(h6Ahid
lh ---j,,J

T1
T_
Ca

E

T' 2, id

I

Ahid (h 6 " h2, id )

T2 TZ id

Entropy, FIGURE 2-8.--Temperature-entropy

s for a stage of an axial-flow turbine.

diagram

is,

therefore, from

ambiguous figure from 2-8 an

but that by ideal

is commonly the T owork T_) turbine is less

used than

in both from the (as the work

senses. real that

It turbine could

is

obvious process

obtained process

(as represented

be obtained To-- T;. ,d).

represented

by

Blade-Row Since parameter used actual blade for turbine this blade purpose rows do not

Efficiency operate efficiency, by the ideal isentropically, One exit common kinetic which we need as the of the a

to express

blade-row is blade-row divided

performance.

parameter energy

is defined

exit kinetic energy row. For the stator,

V_I

(2-42)

where

_

is stator

efficiency. 2-7(a). By

The

relation

between

V_ (1-51),

and

2 Vl._a

is

indicated in figure (1-55), we get

applying

equations

(1-52),

and

L For the rotor

\pod

(2-43)

Wi _'°=W_, ,d
where Vro is rotor in figure efficiency. 2-7(c). The For relation axial between flow, W_ and

(2-44)
W_._d

is indicated

purely

37

TURBINE

D]_SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

W_,,d=2gJc_,T;' Thus, with inlet conditions in than and

1-\-_,/ efficiency of known kinetic

j for a given exit static energy as is blade

(2-45)

row,

it is possible Blade-row expressed

to calculate performance as a loss rather

exit velocity terms

for a specified

pressure. sometimes

as an efficiency, e=l--n

(2-46)

where total

e is the pressure.

kinetic-energy performance Several the

loss coefficient. also can be expressed of this type used ideal for Axial
t

Blade-row differing by dimensionless. actual dynamic

in terms have to make dynamic this been

of a loss used,

in

coefficients

each

normalizing parameter Inlet total pressure, exit head have all been used

the coefficient head, and exit as follows:

purpose

Stator:
I

rotor:
/I It

y,

po--pl,
Po
f f

YTo-_P-'
ff

--P2,,
PI
_f

(2-47a)

v'

Po--p___._ "--P;--Pl
! !

,, yT o__P, --P2 p_ --p_
I¢ t!

'

(2-47b)

V"

"Po--Pl

Y"o

P_
P2

p2
--P2

(2-47c)

• 't--P--_--pl

where between pressure stated,

Y,

Y', the

and

Y"

are can

total-pressure loss a Mach and transfer the coefficient be derived.

loss These

coefficients. and the relations

Relations totalsimply

kinetic-energy they involve Turbine

various are not

loss coefficients and

number Stage

dependency.

Efficiencies when isentropic, The energy above which the expansion we need parameter as the transfer. The are or from that a

Turbine process parameter that ratio This we use

or stage is isentropic.

energy Since turbine

is maximum is never or stage

process

for expressing is the energy is known ways sections

turbine transfer as the

performance. (isentropic) or adiabatic the

or stage

efficiency,

is defined efficiency. definition

of actual efficiency

to ideal isentropic

several different discussed in the Overall stage or the we 38 stage turbine are process. to

that we can to follow. efficiency ratio energy of actual transfer condition

apply refers energy based to the

e_ciency.--Overall It is the the ideal or stage

to the transferred on exit and

overall

turbine turbine flow Note at

in the

isentropic pressure. are not,

inlet

discussing

aerodynamic

efficiency

present,

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

considering seal friction. We will turbine. however, energy. absolute in figure Now to do total

mechanical define actual energy energy enthalpy consider basis

inefficiencies energy is the transfer transfer across the transfer one as

due

to items as the by shaft

such

as bearing done by

and the

work

This actual Actual total 2-8.

definition

used

most herein

people; work and ideal is the this

occasionally, l)lus exit kinetic decrease is indicated available inlet, the is available in

is defined defined turbine

as shaft or stage, the

we must work on the

whether of static because work. used

to define or total the inlet

energy At the

conditions. kinetic

state

is ahvays

used

energy

for conversion conditions are used. plenum, energy shaft for expand the If the then could work

to shaft sometimes the have

At the turbine or stage exit., static and total conditions are sometimes kinetic is just a case, because with total state energy wasted. have it would zero would in tile would stages they on the on energy basis most gas and, are may basis the we use is dissipated, This been the exit be wasted static desirable energy. the as in a kinetic to state to In exit

turbine

exhaust-flow energy In static the such work been turbine. exit case, 1)ut to use

exit kinetic

if it could

converted

in the

computation down to the ideal

of ideal

state exit

exit. kinetic equal above not be basis serves

this desirable static state. If we were the loss. are shaft kinetic The carried work.

considering energy from energies to the the the the turbine total before turbine state last other

a multistage only next the stage, stages are last the leaving stage

turbine stage other where rated

situation, as a but to static exit purof this to velocity the total cases based inlet The and are on exit total a wasted,

be considered converted of their a useful work example be expanded a high between the inlet The of these work

kinetic over Thus,

is rated

of its exit

condition, while total conditions. In pose, from case high leaving The total exit effi('iency total rel)resented in(licated the exit total kinetic energy) efficien('y between the cases the the is the velocity the and where entire exit

turbine-exit is rated conditions. turbine. leaving the the on

kinetic the The the engine, ideal

of ideal obvious must therefore,

computed

jet-engine

Here

is not based on ideal is ideal 2-8.

a waste. work available the static between efficiency. for each the ideal is culled available tile be total seen that decrease efficiency.

efficiency exit based by

static on the the

('.on(litions work called enthall)y It can must based than

conditions in figure

conditions

con(tition than that higher two

be less (as long on the exit static static with efficiency, increasing

as there condition. with exit.

is some Thus, the

is always

difference energy. 39

increasing

kinetic

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Overall

turbine

efficiency

_ and

stage

efficiency

_tg

are

defined

by

similar equations. The inlet and exit conditions, stage. Overall turbine

subscripts instead static

in and ex are used to denote turbine of the subscripts 0 and 2 used for the can be expressed as

efficiency

(2-48a)

For the ideal-gas-law reduces to

and

constant-heat-capacity T',.--T',_ V / p,, \(_-l)/_l

assumptions,

this

T;.
Overall turbine total efficiency is expressed

J
as

(2-48b)

hh' h;.--h',_ _' = .-_-7-, =h' _'

(2-49a)

For the ideal-gas-law reduces to

and

constant-heat-capacity

assumptions,

this

._, _ T_

T'_.--T',_ [1 --\p_--_-/ _('-'>"] (P-_= are similarly defined but overall performance efficiency (2-49b)

Stage

total

and

static

efficiencies e3_ciency

with

the

appropriate Relation efficiency turbine. stages effect (2-48b) a given which ture figure perature stage though the the gram, 4O

subscripts. of turbine is useful However, to stage a true efficiency.--The overall of the turbine of the of the as a measure of the

it is not

indication

comprising the turbine. There is an inherent thermodynamic hidden in the overall turbine efficiency expression. If equation or (2-49b) stage gas the gas is then all the overall pressure would entering losses entering capable individual turbine of stages. can as be shown 2-9. by The means solid of a temt)erature-entropy verticnl line O-2,id diarepresents figure for a stage of the 2-8, were written ratio the of one the of and stage. stage following delivering stages still may for a stage, stage For appear stage have it could the be seen energy to as can form work. the on same the the that transfer, teml)eratemeven and for efficiency, is prol)ortional a turbine, in the (T_T2,_,).

be (To--T_),

be __een from This following efficiency, ratio

of a higher Therefore, stage

additional del)ends

efficiency

pressure

number This effect such

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

Pk
k _ \\ 1
b---

E
¢D

i '

\\ A,'i .,tg

\
_\ Ahld: stg

E
¢D b--

\I:

\\

Ahld, stg

2,id

Entropy, s
FIGURE

2-9.--Temperature-entropy

diagram turbine.

showing

reheat

effect

in a multistage

isentropic dashed taking The difference with p_), that greater constant E-F ing the which and the sum the line place

expansion 0-2 in three work ideal values the

from stages, obtained work

inlet the each for

pressure process having each As lines Hence, by the of work lines stages, that represented from

Po to of overall the same stage

exit

pressure

p_.

The _' _'sto.

represents

turbine stage

efficiency efficiency previously,

actual

is ,7_tg Ah_,.stt, pressure second C-D work for stage is greater this stage E-F

where the (p_ stage an(l, to is for

Ah_d. stg is

a stage.

mentioned for the

of temperature isentropic by of by virtue than work turbine work A-B. the B-2,id. for it can ideal the

between of entropy. represented Thus, the inefficiency actual With three work be seen

of constant the the line

increases than

increasing represented stage ideal is the B-2,id.

isentropic will C-D, and Z Ah;dstg by

previous and

efficiency,

be greater.

Similarly, representthan of 0-A, A-h_, A-B,

is greater

0-A,

2; Ahld. stt representing is greater the sum

of these,

41

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

The these

total two

actual be values

turbine must

work by

obtained either Thus, ' 7'

from

the

expansion _tg

from

Po and

to P'2 can

represented

Ah',d or

Z Ah'_.,t,,

be equal. -'Ah'

(2-50)

or

, _-_

z ah,_.,,, Ah'_

(2-51)

Since greater This between The stages

2_ Ah'_d,s,g than effect

_Ah_d,

the

turbine

overall

isentropic

efficiency This external for must

is not

the stage isentropic efficiencies, or _' _tg. in turbines is called the "reheat" effect. with the which for process is also calculating stage pressure of adding called overall ratio heat turbine p_/p_ from an "reheat".

be confused

source several stage

stages, equation of constant _t_ is

efficiency and

constant

efficiency

-,
_1 --

I--

1--_,t_ 1 --\_oo/

1--\_-£]
( p i t nt(.y_ l)l_, ]

J)

(2-52)

where n is the number be found in reference The on the not higher sirable In order ciency fact that stage ratio, pressure

of stages. 1. efficiency raises of two of their is helped all reheat small a gas where a true

The

derivation from turbine

of this efficiency,

equation

can

differs machines by

depending ratios one be is of deeffiand and for isen-

an important aerodynamic the

consideration. of different behavior, effect. would from increment It efficiency have reheat this

A comparison pressure as the would

of turbine a true

efficiencies comparison ratio

pressure to be able

to express

aerodynamic effect, stage.

for a turbine. to be the p

to eliminate

of an infinitesimally T, suppose stage

Infinitesimal-stage temperature temperature an infinitesimal tropic-efficiency (T--dT),

eff_ciency.--Starting is expanded d T is the we write efficiency

pressure (p--dp) using of temperature

to pressure vp. By

of isentropic

the

definition,

d T = _pT E l --(ppdp and dTT_ _1o[1--(I 42

) (_- ' ) /_]

(2-53)

__)(_-

z,l_]

(2-54)

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

These

equations definition. should than

are

not Some be

quite

rigorously ignore

in accord the fact

with that

the the

isentropicactual work authors across seems to differen-

efficiency differential tial make the be the Using evaluation rather the

authors

proportional static-temperature that there that expansion (2-54) so that

to the

total-temperature differential. in kinetic the Other energy it ahvays

the stage,

assumption temperature series

is no change is used in

infinitesimal static the

d T'----d T. However,

infinitesimal-efficiency (1-#x) n= 1 +nx for

expression. approximation yields of equation

dT 7_1 dp T --_ 7 I' Integrating between the turbine inlet
Tfn

(2-55)

and

exit

yields

In _(2-56) z/P--7-"Y

1 In p_"
Pex

Equation

(2-56)

can

be written

as

The dynamic efficiency from called we get

infinitesimal-stage efficiency, is also method where a l)olytropic for the the known

efficiency exclusive as the the process of an the

_p is SUl)posedly effect of pressure efficiency. process , and the v from exl)onent for

the This

true ratio. name

aeroThis arises is law,

l)olytropic polytropic

of expressing n is called process.

irreversible

path the ideal

as pv"= process gas

constant,

Substituting

l)olytropic

T,n

{p,n'_

(n-l)/n

\p,,!
Equations process relate were l)olytropic (2-57) and efficiency (2-58) as and are the very similar, and if as the

(2-5s)
turbine we couhl

to be expressed

a ])olytroi)ic polytrol)ic

process, exponent

then

n--1
n

-),--1
?

(2-59)

If we neglect

inlet

and

exit,

kinetic

energies

for

the

overall

turbine 43

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

process, ciency.

we Actual

can

relate

turbine drop

overall could

efficiency be expressed

to as

polytropic

effi-

temperature

T_ _Te_='_T_,
or

E1 --\_-_,/ y"-l)/_ (Pe_

1 J

(2-60)

_1

(_-e_)

_'{(_-

1)/_]

L -\_/
Equating (2-60) with (2-61) then yields

k
J

(2-61)

_=1--\_/

(2-62)

This proach unity. ciency

relation each However, levels,

is illustrated other at the two as higher

in

figure ratio can

2-10. and ratios, differ

The

two

efficiencies each at lower

apeffi-

pressure efficiencies

efficiency especially signiticantly.

approach

pressure

.9-Turbine
¢-

pressure

r_tio /.,///

_.,,_

09 ---.8 B

b---

.5

1
.7 Turbine

I
,8 poly_ropic efficiency, ffp

I
.9

I
1.0

FIGURE

2-10.--Relation

between Specific

turbine heat ratio

overall 7, 1.4.

and

polytropic

efficiencies.

44

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

DIMENSIONLESS Dimensionless classify number introduced turbine of the and parameters geometry, serve and

PARAMETERS to correlate classify turbine velocity diagrams, A use are of

performance. parameters for the

more commonly used dimensionless discussed in this section. The basis is dimensional Dimensional analysis. Analysis that allows

dimensionless

parameters

Dimensional comprising light taining the sional that number some procedure on the two variables

analysis a physical nature or the more necessary physical

is a procedure relation relation. number variables. to include relation equation term the forming 1)rocedure may The

a group they groups,

of variables throw each will once some the conbe and states of a of

to be arranged

so that

of the

It is a procedure of dimensionless number all the between is the variables them. The of such

for grouping groups basis in the of the group. from reference problem basic

into

a smaller

minimum analysis a complete of of the

at least

to represent

of dimenform powers The formal 1, which of fluid physical ratios geometrical rather than change of the analysis based effect Mach Froude exnumbers of relations. of pertinent

as a formal physical each and terms, variables

7r-Theorem, a product

which

be expressed

representing dimensionless

a dimensionless groups including to the the nature terms of velocities. general

for

obtaining

variables is presented served as the basis for Application flow yields relations. dimensions, term the implies actual The ratios that magnitude

in many texts, this discussion. analysis into ratios dimensionless and linear (as a ratio

of dimensional considerable resultant of forces, shape of each insight

of the

represent The

of linear dimension

dimensions), by itself,

is a con trolling

factor. Another term expresses of pressure in the fluid to the fluid. based on These viscous effects; number), number, pressing are the The matic, similitude. ]'his on an is a basic fluid. flow There of a real Reynolds Weber parameter expresses expresses effects, parameters of dimensionless dynamic If two quantities operating ideal attributes the the forces; which which real fluid significant concept and

the ratio of the force due to the inertia force due to the motion characteristic other that which for dimensionless modify the which expresses expresses a gas effects. the Reynolds flow. as ratios _o are the such of geometric, idea that of reduces and Of and these Mach effects; of ideal the an are fluid, number, groups,

parameter

various

include

number, (which

surface-tension to the the terms

an elasticity

compressibility gravitational in general, for gas groups leads conditions

kineor dimen45

similarity all the

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

sionless of the obtained.

terms separate

have

the

same then

value,

regardless similar implies

of the physical

individual conditions

values are the ratios similar-

variables, physical

exactly similarity

Complete

(1) geometric are everywhere the velocity

ity, which means that the linear same; (2) kinematic similarity, are the same; and (3) dynamic of the different forces are the physical can similarity is the inexpensive to the than is ever operation full-size severe be approached sufficiently experiments machine. with

dimension ratios which means that similarity, same. It but closely

which means that is doubtful whether for most of smaller be performed use practical utility. linear with ambient to be of great

the ratios complete purposes One the it use

attained,

of similarity relatively applicable the rather operation

of models can the fluid

scale

so that results involves

Another condition.

of similarity

of machines at some

at or near

conditions

design

Turbomachine Application flow results in are rows parameters the blade of dimensional the previously

Operational analysis to the

Parameters general set of problem parameters. of fluid These

mentioned

important for the of turbomachines.

detailed examination of flow within In addition, dimensional analysis operational characterin the relation of head flow rate, of the of the and fluid. more power The impor-

has great utility in the analysis of the overall istics. For any turbomachine, we are interested (for compressible in conjunction following variables tant relations : Volume Head, Power, Rotative Characteristic Fluid Fluid Fluid From drop lation, density, viscosity, elasticity, these variables, flow H, J/kg P, rate, flow, _4th are this size, used relates speed, to ideal and the work),

properties some

to demonstrate or ft3/sec

Q, m3/sec

or (ft)(lbf)/lbm

W or Btu/sec speed, N, linear rad/sec or rev/min D, nt or ft

dimension,

p, kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3 u, (N) (sec)/m E, five _-or lbm/(ft) 2 groups in order can be formed. the If we manipu(sec) N/m 2 or lbf/ft

dimensionless constants groups can

the dimensional the five

conversion

to ease as

dimensionless

be expressed

_fcn The Q/ND 46 capacity, 3, which or flow is called

_2_' rate, the

p-N3D 5' is exl)ressed capacity

u

' pN2D2/ il_ (limensionless It can be

(2-63)

form further

by

coefficient.

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

rel)resented

as Q VA VI) 2 V V (2-64)

Thus, the capacity coefficient is equivalent to V/U, and a given value of Q/ND 3 implies a l)articular relation of fluid velocity Io blade speed or, in kinematic terms, similar velocity diagrams. The head is expressed in dimensionless form I)v H/N21) ', whi(,h is called the head coefficient. This can be rel)rcscnted as H H N 2D,_a: -_

(2-65)

Thus, a given value of t./N2D 2 iml)lies a particular rclatiol_ of hea_l to rotor kinetic energy, or dynamic similarity. The term P/pN3D 5 is _t power coefficient. It represents the actual power And thus is related to the capacity and hea(t coefficients, as well as to the efficiency. The term pND2/u is the Reynolds number, or viscous effect coefficient. Its effect on overall turbine 1)erformance, while still iml)ortant, can be regarded AS secondary. Ti_e Reynolds number effect will be discussed separately later in this chapter. The term E/aN2D 2 is the compressibility coefficient. Its effect depends on the level of .XIach number. At low NIach number, where the gas is relatively incoml)ressible, the effect is negligible or very secondary. As NIach number increases, the compressibility effect becomes increasingly significant. Velocity-Diagram Parameters

We have seen that the ratio of fluid velocity to blade velocity and the ratio of fluid energy to blade energy are inq)ortant factors required for achieving similarity in turbomachines. Since completely similar machines shouhl perform similarly, 'these factors become iml)ortanl as a means for correlating performance. Since the fa('tor._ I_/'U aud H/U z are rclatc(I to the velocity (liagrams, factors of this type ar(, refcrrc(I to as velocity-diagram I)aramcters. Several velocity-(liagram parameters are co,mnonly us(,_l ill t_,rt)illc work. NIost of these arc ,ise(l I)rim'trily with rcsl)e('t to axial-ttox_ turbines. One of these parameters is the speed-work parameter X::U 2

gJ/W 'Fh(_ re(:ipro('al of the sl)ce(l-work parameter is also oflcn use_l, aml it 47

(2-66

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

is referred

to as the

loading

factor 1 ¢=X--

or loading g JAb' U2 write

coefficient

(2-67)

For

an axial-flow

turbine,

we can

(2-68)

Therefore,

equations

(2-66)

and X=

(2-67)

can

be expressed

as (2-69)

1

U

¢--AV_ is the U
p_ "_fj

Another

l)arameter

often

used

blade-jet

speed

ratio

(2-70)
in m/see velocity st, atie or ft/sec. The across jet, the

where ideal stage

V_ is the expansion or turbine.

jet, from

or spouting, is defined inlet is, total

velocity, as the to exit

or spouting,

velocity That

corresponding (:onditions

to the

Vj2= 2gJ,_h,,_ Substitution of equation (2-71) back into equation (2-70) yields

(2-71)

U _= -7-= _ 2gJAh,d A relation parameter the static can between the definition zXh' n =Sh-_ The resultant relation is v= _/____ _ This must speed shows also ratio that related is related frequently if efficiency onh is a funclion other. actual While diagram of ()ne of these the speed-work diagram, and to the parameter the Is veloc)tv blade-jet by speed ratio and (.2-66) the and

(2-72)

speed-work (2-72) and

be obtained

use of equations

efficiency

(2-73)

(2-74) parameters parameter blade-jet the flow efficiency. it

be a function

of the to the to the used

is directh Another 48

velocity

velocity-diagram

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

factor,

or flow

coefficient

(2-75)
The flow coefficient can be related to the loading coefficient as follows:

v, / v,
By using equation (2-69) and the velocity-diagram (V,,. ,'_ al kAVu / geometry, we get (2-77)

_=#

cot

The term Vu. I/AV,, cannot be completely specific types of velocity diagrams, such next each can angle. It related parameters. next one section of the chapter. efficiency. or the two flow is thus to each This and Where We seen that In be will for these shown type generally For are other required. is usually to four for chapter, of the this function different term becomes type types a function of velocity (a different for each in terms

generalized. However, for as will be discussed in the of loading diagram). the and coefficient Therefore, flow the coefficient stator exit are to these case in the in the next only alone for

of velocity of the

diagrams,

be expressed

loadingcoefficient velocity-diagram efficiency an more general can idealized diagram is required use the general

parameters be related specific real case for

other.

addition,

a somewhat

a particular at speed Lewis ratio.

of velocity

is specified,

velocity-diagram

parameters a more

correlating parameter correlation, be the

speed-work efficiency

blade-jet of these coefficient, Relation

parameters and the of show a single axial type turbine

One parameter must the loading coefficient. Parameters how static speed ratio. (W_: assume _'= static diagram that

Efficiency

Velocity-Diagram specific the (U_= U_) ease

We can that with stage through be

will now related we have constant of this this

for an idealized to axial-flow velocity

efficiency Assume W2) stage for 1). The a flow

mathematically

blade-jet

impulse A velocity Further

(V_._=V_,2). in figure is isentropic 2-11.

is shown stage is exit

(total energy.

efficiency The

only loss, therefore, definition is

kinetic

efficiency

h'o-h'2 Ah' ,7-- h£--h2. ,_ --_h,_ Substitution of equation (2-68) into equation (2-78) yichts

(2-78)

49

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

a1

Vu,1 j/
V2

Wu, 2

FIGURE

2-11.--Velocity-vector

diagram

for

an

axial-flow,

impulse

stage.

UAV,, = gJAh,.,t The change in fluid tangential velocity is

(2-79)

zxV,,=V_,,-V_,z
From the assumptions we adopted, W_. 2= --W_. 1 From equations V,.2=W,.5+ (2-6), (2-81), and (2-80), we get 1- U) + U=V_.I+2U (Wl---- W2) and (W,._= W,.2) and the

(2-80) sign (2-81)

convention

U=-W,._+U=-(V,.

(2-82) and AV.=V..,I--V.,2=V..1--(--V..,+2U)--2V..I--2U From the velocity-diagram geometry V_, 1= V1 sin m Since flow is isentropic and the Vl=_ Substitution 50 of equations (2-84) turbine 2gJAh_e and (2-85) into equation stage is of the impluse (2-84) type (2-85) (2-83) (2-83)

(h2, _d=h_=hl),

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

yields AVe=2 Substitution of equation sin al_/2gJAhia-2U (2-86) back into 4U _ 2gJAh_ speed ratio from equation (2-87) (2-72) (2-88) case and any constant ratio for of equa2-12 equation (2-79) (2-86) yields

4U sin al _--4'2gJAh_a Now using the finally yields definition of blade-jet n=4z, Equation stator only. an 0.88 jet tion exit The (2-88) angle, variation with ratio and shows static a stator at a blade-jet can be found the setting that

sin a,--4_3 particular is illustrated of 0.47. by The

for this and angle speed

efficiency exit

is a function

of blade-jet in figure

speed efficiency

is parabolic

example is reached speed (2-88)

of 70 °. A maximum ratio

optimum

blade-

mathematically derivative equal sin al 2

differentiating

to zero:

Vo_t--

(2-89)

I
.2

I
.4 Blade-jet

I
.6 speed ratio, v

I
.8 1.0

FIGURE

2-12.--Effect

of axial-flow,

blade-jet impulse

speed stage.

ratio Stator

on

static exit

efficiency angle, 70 °.

of

an

isentropic,

51

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Since the

the sine

stator of the

exit angle

angle does

is normally not vary

in the greatly, with are,

range the

of 60 ° to 80 °, where optimum of this very the speed total blade-iet type would and the and, is a

speed ratio for most cases of interest be in the range of 0.4 to 0.5. Equation specific. ideal indeed, very Likewise, While case, good the it does. (2-88) the We basic and levels find other figure and that parameter 2-12 values trend for

a turbine of course, case remain blade-jet static

idealized from ratio same;

for a real should case, both

will differ

parabolic

a real for

correlating so are the

and

efficiency.

velocity-diagram Design Parameters

parameters.

The operation turbomachines tion (2-63). This less parameters dimension D variables machines would variables Such groups. speed be

of dimensional analysis led to the dimensionless does not, however, exhaust that would apply are possible. be desirable to Also, because, apply can as / Q \l/2/N2D2\3/4 parameter is found be a range in found this by

on the variables relating to parameters shown in equathe number of dimensionthe linear remaining turbospeed remaining speeds. previous specific as the N having of the rotative of two the of the

A parameter not because values of geometrically not case, at combining D having values

would desirable would parameters The N8 and

similar

of all sizes.

a parameter

to a turbomachine that excludes

all rotative

is known

NQI/2

When exit

used

for

a turbine, exit. Thus,

the

volume
NE),/2

flow

rate

is taken

at the

stage

or turbine

(2-91)

The Ds and

parameter is found as

that

excludes

N

is known

as the

specific

diameter

( H D_=\-_VD2] With the volume flow rate

,,_1/4 (V) taken at the 1/2-

DH1/, Q1/2 exit or turbine

(2-92) exit, (2-93)

stage

D,-Commonly, are 52 quoted but with not rotative exclusively, speed

DH1/4 Qi/_x the N in values revolutions for these per

parameters minute, exit

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

volume flow rate H in foot-pounds of units, to be the Specific presented specific the less because it is specified

Qe_ in cubic per pound, speed units and are value total-to-static not

feet per second, ideal work, and diameter D in feet. With diameter The but value can (hh_). be related blade to the speed is are head not truly for consistent. (5h;_), H is usually

or head, this set taken

specific

dimensionconvenience, previously

total-to-total as the speed velocity

sometimes,

and specific diagram

diameter parameters. _ND K

The

U-where K is the head is dimensional constant

(2-94) (27r rad/rev or 60 sec/min). The

H=JAh_d=J_d Combining (2-94) and equations (2-91), (2-95) yields (2-93),

(n) -_ and (2-72) with

(2-95) equations

The eters. all The

ratio Some

of total definitions authors thus

efficiency of ideal prefer interrelation by

to static work to the use used the can

efficiency same ratio equation be

appears the work in (2-74) ideal from

because various equation terms into definition

of the paramin the (2-96). of equation

differing cases,

in defining

eliminating

efficiency

parameter parameter

expressed

speed-work (2-96)

substituting

NsD8 ' :-- K -v/g_'X "/l"

(2-97)

Specific coefficient.

speed The

and specific exit volume

diameter flow rate Qe_=A_V_

can is

also

be related

to the

flow

(2-98) ft 2. Combining (2-98) equations yields

where (2-91),

A_x

is the

exit

flow and

area, (2-75)

in m 2 or with

(2-93),

(2-94),

equation

NsD,

3=-- KD2 _'_A_ diameter be used are to related correlate to the

(2-99)

Since diagram

specific

speed

and

specific can

velocitythen 53

parameters,

which

efficiency,

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

specific efficiency. Specific

speed speed

and

specific and specific

diameter diameter

can

also contain

be

used variables

to

correlate that the

velocity-diagram flow rate, and equation diameter also often (2-99), are dictate

parameters do not. These are diameter their use leads to terms, such as D2/Aex that referred the type imply shape. to Thus, as specific shape speed since sometimes referred of design Overall parameters.

and volume appearing in and the specific They shape are will

sometimes

to as design

parameters,

to be selected. Parameters that entire be some that used we have When represent to correlate parameters and stages. encountered been discussing can

The these for applied

dimensionless to a stage the to the similarity and overall values are

parameters or to the thus can might the the parameters turbine,

be applied equal

turbine.

applied similar

to a stage, conditions When identify as overall a help

efficiency. serve

of these

the type of design that rapid means for estimating The parameters: Overall specific speed following are

be most appropriate number of required commonly

most

__

No1/2

N.----Overall specific diameter "_ Overall speed-work parameter

___e, H3/4

(2-100)

D"_H1/'

(2-101)

(2-102) gj_'_ Overall blade-jet speed ratio ,

;=

U..

(2-103)

The script Of nificant erally for that

subscript (--) these refers

av refers to the its only, on the specific value while nature speed overall

to value

some for

average the entire specific always for evolved values

condition, turbine. perhaps speed the

and

the is most

supersiggen(2-100)

parameters, is almost the can of the

because depend

determined other the geometry. to show

by Equation Let

application

considerations overall

parameters considerations

be restated of overall Q,_=wv,_

contribute

to the

value

specific

speed.

(2-104)

54

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

where flow

ve_ is specific rate be expressed

volume as

at exit,

in m3/sec JP

or ft3/lb.

Also,

let

mass

w----_

_'H
and (2-105) into

(2-105)

Then, (2-100)

substitution yields

of

equations

(2-104)

equation

-_,=1_.7 Thus, three gas useful choice by the in other of N and The the terms. and the overall The specific first term The

/

vex kll21 can

t

,=\ be expressed depends as the only This product which second term

oo)
of can is a ; performance, on the specified

speed reflects second cycle

expected term conditions.

be reasonably

estimated. thermodynamic the have Often, the product

for evaluating is available) application. cases, P, manner

effects that different fluids on the turbine. The third both by the rotative rather application. specific speed the overall speed than and the

(in cases where term is dictated are specified values the tur-

power

N_/J__,

individual influences

is established in which

axial flow

axial flow One-stage, _'_

A

flow

[
.2

I
.3

I
.4

I
.5

I
.6

I
.7

I
.8

I
.9

I
1.0

I
1.1

I
1.2

I
1.3

Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless

I
20

I
30

I
40

I
50

I
60

I
70

I
80

I
90

I
100

I
110

I
120

I
DO

I
140

I
150

I
160

) Specific speed, Ns, ( ft3/4 )(Ibm314 )/(min)(sec 112)(ibf3/4 t FIGURE 2-13.--Effect of specific speed on turbine-blade shape.

55

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

bine bine ratio speed.

passage and For for the the of hub

shape oneradius radius

is illustrated and to two-stage, tip radius turbines, Thus,

in figure axial-flow, decreases

2-13

for example

a radial-flow turbines. increasing number speed

turThe specific

with the

axial-flow ratio.

increasing the overall

of stages for any

decreases

specific

application indicates the type The values of some of the proximation Dividing for stage of the equation specific number (2-100) speed yields N_

or types of design overall parameters required specific for

that will be required. give us a rapid apa given application. (2-91) by equation

of stages for overall

speed

Qe_

1/2 (2-107)

If we neglect change per

the stage,

reheat we can

effect, write

which

is small,

and

assume

equal

head

H=nH Further, these yields n:(NsY/3 last if the two expansion effect conditions and ratio assume into is not that equation too large, (2-107) we and can

(2-108) neglect the of

compressibility

Qe_:-Q_:._t_.

Substitution rearrangement

(2-109)

\NJ
Since assume specific application number discussed from stage speed. basis metrically parameter assuming suming equal the stage specific can in order speed tell speed us is a correlating value level specific (2-109) a given and effect overall equation 2, where of estimate speed-work parameter. however, value Or, (2-102) blade per stage, speed parameter of stage speed gives us on of efficiency. for specific Thus, known an this is often value for of be the the efficiency, speed with from estimate estimate is presented. obtained for the overall blade on the parato the for is stage experience a reasonable

to achieve assumed The

requirement, of stages. in reference type overall

of compressibility a compressibility for number and of speed speed (2-66) overall the turbine parameter Knowledge requires of blade blade for for equation of stages

correction an assumed a value can may a knowledge

A similar

speed-work Often, of stress by

speed-work

parameter, a reasonable

be selected varied

considerations. Dividing equation work

if desired. a constant

for stage _peed-work (U2=U_v),

speed-work parameter, and as-

ah' =n h'
56

(2-110)

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

yields n==), useful for (2-111)

Equations studies

(2-109) associated

and with

(2-111) preliminary

are particularly system

parametric

analyses. Parameters in equation Another to w the (2-63) choice volume are of flow

Performance The perfectly variables, performance. rate Change which actual ideal ratio, number equivalent istic eluded viscosity constant. Now, as temperature. work work Q because of considerably turbomachinery correct however, The for for

Specification parameters presented flow for degree pressure on both the P,

compressible is often flow the expressed flow of power work initial rate

machines. expressing of

preferred

nondimensional Q changes constant. to H, and to Ah'. Since temperature a characterare inand weight, initial express Since Mach is pressure

mass any

w is preferred while

significant turbine, as depends

expansion, remains is

throughout pressure Instead is the depends

ratio preferred in total as well

preferred ratio term

for compressible

pressure

specific on the initial on

or drop temperature

enthalpy variable. of

as on the

we include depends

temperature temperature, elasticity. still R, which here, the the

as another introduction Rotative The specific implies

to introducing D are gas #. For operating constant simplicity with w=fcn(_h',

speed fluid heat

N and

dimension

of interest.

properties ratio

a molecular

3' is assumed

variables p'_,, p_,, the f Ah' T'_,, N, D, R, #) (2-112)

dimensional

analysis

produces .

following:

w_/RT,.

-, P; D_
ratio but

-- Icn_R-_n'

, -_ ) _/ RT,,,'_T"--7 'P_
assumed terms constant, modifying to see may law, there the what and flow,

ND

p,..

w

(2-113) would be

If the

specific

heat

had

not

been

some complicated, and speed terms. Let we can by using tionality us operate get out on

second-order, of the equation, above the

work,

some The

terms parameter ideal-gas

significance the propor-

of them.

mass-flow

be transformed

the continuity AocD _, so that

RT .

(2-114) 57

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Substitution (2-113) yields

of this

relation

into

the

mass

flow

parameter

of equation

Thus, the

the critical,

mass mass

flow flow

rate rate

is represented to the mass

nondimensionally flow rate when as the

by velocity

the

ratio equals

of actual The

or sonic, parameter

velocity. may be transformed ND

speed

U U oc ,-7-_,_, oc-_]RT't,, _RT,_ ac, Thus, Mach parameter implication fluid certain machine singular with the have fixed the rotative speed Division V/U, analysis Mach with dimensions, as for of the in order the is represented to critical of the the is that number, respect nondimensionally velocity, mass-flow for but to the which parameter of not must velocity. rotative but must becomes be inlet by only For speed by

(2-116)

the the must

ratio speed The the a a in

of rotor-blade number. gives

velocity

is a kind similarity. also

of rotor

kinematic

condition similarity, the critical the flow, rotor

of this a certain velocity of fixed variable temperature

have a given is not

therefore, fluid. for the

incompressible effect

associated expressed temperature as equation

All variables

dimensionless form to be correlated. For (2-113) a given can gas, be

of varying

dimensionless as

parameters

presented

expressed

(2-117)
p_---_ -_-Icn _T-'

For

a given

gas

in a given

turbine,

the

parameters

further

reduce

to

_=fcn

_-r,

--7'

-r-,

(2-118)

Depending tions (2-113), performance.

on

the

particular or

case, (2-118)

the can

parameters be used

presented to express

in equaturbine

(2-117),

Equivalent It and 58 is very specific useful and heat to report pressure This ratio.

Conditions under that standard molecular results conditions weight at obtained

performance and sometimes is done

of temperature

of fluid

in order

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

different easily sure, known of these Let constant. subscript can then used 101 as following

conditions to determine are 325 the

may standard weight, standard

be

directly

and

readily used: heat NACA

compared atmospheric

and

also The presK or are The basis

performance conditions or 14.696 29.0; and conditions, work, are

for any usually psia; specific or and speed

condition temperature, ratio,

we desire. 288.2 1.4. These air. on the

N/m _ abs

518.7 ° R; molecular NACA performance variables standard us use With the the

standard

of flow,

expressed

conditions parameters subscript equivalent as

known

as equivalent (2-113) standard the but

conditions. with diameter and conditions the

of equation std denoting conditions,

conditions similarity

eq denoting be expressed

P

!

(2-119)

P_. ah' RT_.--R_,. N / Rearrangement conditions ,

Pst_ Ah'eq l_,d N_q (2-121)

(2-120)

of

these

equations

then

yields

for

the

equivalent

p',. w,q.=w
Ah_q-----,_h

taT' ta ,
RT',_

(2-122)

,

(2-123)

N_q= N 4R--_ta T:,a / ,

(2-124)

by

As you may recall, assuming constant the case, Let The yield ratio since us now fluid. do not heat

we started off the discussion of these specific heat ratio for all conditions. specific add heat ratio can change effect that but out left with into are only depend a specific-heat-ratio corrections all conditions, that are terms, are terms number, effect under the

parameters This is not temperature the at above critical on both with, the With conditions commonly

always and used (sonic) specific and have

parameters.

specific-heat-ratio similarity However, and Mach small

velocity. only

cumbersome the equivalent

to work

a very

on equivalent

conditions.

commonly used are expressed as

specific-heat-ratio

59

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

8q--

V_.v_,,.J \p,.:
---t

(2-125)

_:,=t,h' ,,,_7 )
N_q_ where Nj(V_'d.) '

(2-126)

(2-127)

.>,,S. _2 V,;(,,,:,)
"\%,,+1/ (2-128)

_and, as you recall,

.d__Ly<.,-,,
'\,y+ 1/
2 27 V<,--_-_l gRT' ratio, equations (2-125) (2-129)

Therefore, 127) reduce Finally,

for

constant

specific (2-122)

heat

to

(2-

to equations we define

to (2-124).

0=(
kYcr.

Vc,
8ldl #

)2

(2-130)

and .--_--P-_",
Pstd

(2-131)

The

equivalent

conditions

are

then

expressed

as

w,q=w

_

_

(2-132)

_kh

#

_'_--

0 N

(2-133)

Neq=_ One operation of both reduce effect the point actual that can be seen flow of and from these than similarity speed. of jet Effect number was Both equations will cause of these example aircraft

(2-134) is that factors of this days.

at temperatures mass output

greater a powerplant.

standard

a reduction

equivalent performance Number form

A well-known

is the reduction

in takeoff Reynolds

on hot

The to 6O be

effect one of

of viscosity the

in the

of Reynolds

shown

dimensionless

parameters

affecting

turbomachine

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

performance.

While

its

effect

is secondary,

it is still

important. correlated

The in

effect of Reynolds number the following manner: Expressing efficiency 7' we can write as

on turbine

efficiency

is usually

A '

hh'_

'

Ah' 5h'
_h J

ld

(2-135)

,

• -7
If we assume that the only loss

,

=

,o,

(2-136)

is friction

loss,

(2-137)

where length.

f

is the friction factor, For turbulent flow,

and

L is the

characteristic

flow-path

1 fOCR--_0._ where and Re (2-137) is the into Reynolds equation number. (2-136) Substituting yields equations

(2-138) (2-138)

1--_'

1

(2-139)

Adding dividing yield

subscripts the equation

for

conditions for condition

1 and 1 by

2 to the

equation for

(2-139) condition

and 2

equation

Since

for geometric

similarity '_,_d, equation

L_/DI--:L_/D2 (2-140) 1--7; 1--72

and for dynamic to

mmilarity

V_/Ah_.,_-=V22/Ah

reduces

(Re_'_ °'2 \Re1/ Actually, on the losses, between is it has 0.2, the machine. and been but This fraction In found usually occurs of view

(2-141)

This exponent the all range the

is an for losses

ideal this are

correlation. type not type depending viscous loss

that varies

the in loss

of correlation

is not

of 0.1 to 0.2, to viscous suggested

because total of this,

attributable another

varies

machines.

of correlation

61

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

1--v_--A

{Re2"_ °_

(2-142)

where the and loss 0.3 be

A and the

B are

fractions A and in

such B serve turbine

that

A+B= the

1. In equation viscous the that at Lewis, loss fact values that as well of

(2-142) exponent, not all as the about to

exponent is viscous

is maintained loss. Recent

at 0.2 to reflect tests values here

coefficients presented compromise

to represent 1, indicate of 0.7 Reynolds

discussion a good

reference for correlating

to 0.4 for A and

corresponding

to 0.6 for number

B seem effects.

REFERENCES
1. 2.
SHEPHERD,

D.

G.:

Principles J.;
AND

of

Turbomachincry. WARNER L.:

Macmillan Use of of 1967.

Co., Similarity

1956. Param-

GLASSMAN, eters Ratio for

ARTHUR Examination

STED/ART,

of Turbines.

Geometry NASA TN

Characteristics D-4248,

tligh-Expansion-

Axial-Flow

62

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

SYMBOLS A
a

flow area, Reynolds speed heat Reynolds diameter, specific modulus kinetic

m2; ft 2 number correlation m/sec; at constant ft dimensionless; N/m2; coefficient, loss ft/sec number m; correlation

coefficient coefficient pressure,

in eq. in eq.

(2-142) (2-142) Btu/(lb)(°R)

of sound, capacity diameter,

B
C_

J/(kg)(K);

D D_ E
e

(sec I/2) (lbfl/4) / (ft I/4) (lbm 1/4) lb/ft 2 defined by eq. (2-46)

of elasticity, energy

F

]
g H h J K L M N

force, N ; lb friction factor conversion head, J/kg; constant, 1 ; 32.17 (Ibm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec 2) (ft) (lbf)/lbm

specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu conversion constant, length, rad/sec; 2_r rad/rev; m; ft rev/min (ft 3/4) (lbm 3/4)/ (rain) (sec 1/_) (lbf 3/4) 60 sec/min characteristic Mach number rotative specific number polytropic power, absolute volume speed, speed,

N,
?%

dimensionless;

of stages exponent W; flow Btu/sec N/m2; m3/sec; lb/ft 2 ft3/sec (°R) rate, J/(kg) number m; ft temperature, K; ft/sec m/sec; (defined mZ/kg; m/sec; kg/sec; loss ft/sec by eq. (2-71)), m/sec; ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec defined from from by eqs. (2-47) or radial or radial direction, direction, °R pressure,

P P

Q
R Re
r

gas constant, reaction Reynolds radius, absolute blade absolute ideal specific relative mass

(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm)

T U V Vj
V

speed, jet speed

m/sec;

velocity, volume, velocity, flow rate,

W
20

!:1
OL

total-pressure fluid absolute

coefficient, measured measured

angle angle

axial axial

deg fluid relative deg

63

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

7

ratio ratio

of heat of inlet

capacity volume total

at constant

pressure standard by

to heat

capacity

at

constant function efficiency 0 squared perature temperature speed-work viscosity,
y

pressure heat

to NACA ratio, defined

pressure (2-128) turbine NACA inlet tem-

of specific ratio to

eq. on on

of critical critical

velocity velocity defined by lb/(ft) (sec)

based based eq. eq.

standard

parameter, (N)(sec)/m_; speed kg/mS; ratio, lb/ft a lb-ft defined rad/sec

(2-66) (2-72)

blade-jet density, torque, flow loading angular

defined

by

p
T

N-m; coefficient,

by

eq. (2-75) by eq. (2-67)

¢

coefficient, velocity,

defined

Subscripts: av cr eq ex /d in loss opt p r rel ro st std stg u x 0 1 2 average critical equivalent exit ideal inlet loss optimum polytropic radial component relative rotor stator NACA stage tangential standard condition

condition

(M---- 1)

component

axial component at stator inlet at stator exit or rotor at rotor exit

inlet

Superscripts: --_ -' " 64 vector overall absolute relative quantity turbine total total state state

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

GLOSSARY The terms defined herein are illustrated in figure 2-14.

Tip-___

FLow _

I Blad_

_Hu b

I/-Suction Leading edge-/" Pressure surface J/

surface

Camber line-_ /-Trailing Axis-/
/ / /

edge

Tangent to camber / line at leading edge 4.
\ \

_ Opening, or th roat Chord

l Spacing. or pitch

Blade inlet angle 7 \...\ Axis-,, Flow inlet angle-/ FIo_ /
I

/

/

Incidence angle J /

/_-Tangent to camber line at trailing edge Flow exit angle

Axial chord Deviation ant -Blade exit angle

FIOURF

2-14.--Blade

terminology.

65

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

aspect axial

ratio. chord.

The The

ratio length a line

of the parallel of the angle and the

blade to the axial turbine between turbine angle

height turbine chord the axial

to the of the

chord. blade, as set axial in the length

of the

projection

turbine, onto of the blade. axial blade blade blade solidity. exit height. inlet trailing angle.

axis. It is the to the tangent the radius direction. by by the and the spacing. to the

The

ratio The edge radius The

between

camber hub. camber

line

at the

direction. at the to the tangent line

The angle.

at the angle and the blade.

tip minus the

at the leading edge bucket. Same as rotor camber tangents equal camber leading surface chord. onto The the camber-line line. angle. to the The sum

axial

external camber of the line line

formed leading formed blade

intersection trailing chord It edges. line

of the It is the the and from

to the

at the

angles of the

tangents. The mean profile. extends the edge to the trailing edge, and the suction surface. length chord of the line. perpendicular It is approximately halfway projection equal between of the to the pressure profile distance side

blade

linear laid

between chord line. up on where
surface.

the leading edge and If a two-dimensional

the trailing edge. blade section were is the blade

convex

a flat surface, the front and

the chord line the rear of the

line between section would

the points touch the

deflection. ference deviation

The between angle.

total the The

turning flow flow exit

angle inlet angle

of the and minus fluid

fluid. the the flow

It is equal flow blade exit exit

to the angle. at the

dif-

angle

angle. blade at the

flow exit angle. exit and the

The angle between the turbine axial direction. The angle the turbine section as hubratio. The The front, The flow

direction flow

flow inlet angle. blade inlet and hub. hub-tip hubleading mean nozzle pitch. pressure pressures radius 66 ratio. incidence The innermost ratio. Same

between the fluid axial direction. of the blade. ratio. hub blade. between to tip-radius ratio of the of the

direction

to tip-radius angle. edge. section. blade. The on

radius the blade the between blade.

to the inlet hub

tip radius. angle. and the tip.

inlet or nose,

angle

minus

The blade section halfway Same as stator blade. in the The highest. as hubto tip-radius direction surface adjacent are blades. concave

distance surface. Same

of rotatioll of the ratio.

corresponding this surface,

points

Along

BASIC

TURBINE

CONCEPTS

root. rotor

Same blade. The

as hub. A rotating ratio The of the angle as pitch. between blade. surface of the of the blade. Along this surface, the chord line and the turbine axial blade. chord to the spacing.

solidity. spacing.

Same

stagger angle. direction. stator suction tip. blade. surface.

A stationary The convex

pressures are lowest. The outermost section edge. The rear,

blade. blade.

trailing

or tail,

of the

67

CHAPTER 3

Velocity iagrams D
By Warren. Whitney nd J a Warner .Stewart L
As the indicated in chapter in the and design from their through step required specify to the methods to the diagram work were entirely chapter of the at the in chapter from 2. Various efficiency efficiency for and produce. one 2, one blade the of is the the of the row use flow, most to the of velocity work, geometry angles addition, expected capacity and the from velocity of the parameters in by chapter an idealized that for are radial Only variations and of the important is the The diagrams. rotative velocity is very velocity the velocities of the next. variables velocity absolute blade row Once speed diagrams. important that diagrams turbine. diagrams turbine 2, were and case. can the used. be associated and diswith their This The constage. The in the direction axial-flow in the to of and are the are

be considered fluid relative universally overall established, Their that blading significantly The relating cussed the relation chapter first sidered Usually, second diagrams and from turbines part general them in chapter velocity relation these

or analysis relation

of turbines speed

as it passes velocities described design the next to the diagrams affect

to the

requirements

evolution flow In level

blading

is required

constructing flow

dimensionless also was concerns the to the presented illustrated subject a single flow blade

to turbine is devoted of this representative the part that the are

of velocity diagram conditions radius radial in the radius.

diagrams.

average

conditions of this result variation considered

mean to the of forces with

is devoted balance speed chapter. blade

in this

69

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

MEAN-SECTION In this section, between their review, the (2-14) the hub velocity and by to 3-1 no can tip) the stage shows change diagrams are turbine.

DIAGRAMS occurring The and at the different their stage radius mean the types selection velocity 2 and through the the section average of diawhen diagram nomenstage,

(halfway conditions grams, staging In clature. equation indicating

assumed

to represent

encountered relation figure vector is required

efficiency, an in as illustrative mean

are discussed. relations be written described in chapter

Assuming

ah ' =--UA V_' gj where h' U V, g J This The rate, total blade enthalpy, speed, J/kg; m/see; component constant, constant, relates component conditions, the of and Btu/lb ft/sec of velocity, 1 ; 32.17 1 ; 778 stage the the (lbm) m/see; (ft)/(lbf) ftlsec (sec 2)

(3-1)

tangential conversion conversion equation axial state

(ft) (lb)/Btu specific work vector the to the relation (3-2) velocity to diagram. the flow

velocity area by
_0 Vz = P-_an

is related

where Vx w o Aan axial mass density, annulus angles the the studies shape. the such as U2 U _=gJAh'--AV,,-The 7O speed-work parameter is used in g JAb' AV_ 2 this chapter because (3-3) diagram component flow rate, of velocity, kg/see; lb/sec m/see; ft/sec

kg/m3; lb/ft 3 area, mS; ft 2 are axial velocity expected parameters because Such the key and velocity-diagram swirl is often efficiency are parameters parameter, velocities referred and used were which parameters (the to in as blading values discussed can tangential the swirl geometry. can be in because they not of but

Flow only the also link

component velocity) with related chapter In addition, velocity-

absolute affect

dimensionless diagram diagram include ways,

association

parameter

to the 2 and

speed-work

be expressed

in several

VELOCITY FI0w

DIAORAMS

VX,0 Station 0

Vx, al-'"

VI

w z v/Ivu,
Vx, 2

i" i'll

,,

I

!
FIGURE

../

u
WU,2

_/Vu .2

I

3-1.--Velocity-vector

diagrams

and nomenclature.

types normalize

are

related the

to

the

swirl

distribution by AV,.

and

it

is convenient

to

diagram

velocities

Velocity-Diagram After diagrams shapes on the related stator parameter. the can depending Diagram parameters, exit (V_._) and diagrams in this diagram. overall be design evolved. on the type such the and section: Diagram requirements Velocity diagram refers shape as stage rotor their exit type and

Types are the the and The and established, have value values swirl following swirl physical different of the constraint split the velocity sizes speed-work imposed between three the are and

diagrams to some

determines reaction (V_._).

of performancecommon

types of discussed (1) (2) (3) These shown velocity efficiency.

reaction (V_._---- 0) (W, = W2) (V_--W2

characteristics

Zero-exit-swirl Rotor-impulse Symmetrical three diagrams in figure 3-2. head The or the

diagram diagram diagram for

and

V2:W1) parameter the entire a loss are exit in

several

values many

of speed-work cases, thereof where either

Zero-exit-swirl

diagram.--In swirl zero-exit-swirl

component diagram,

represents

Vu., _ 1 hVu-and

(3-4a)

71

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Speedwork parameter Zero exit swirl

Diagram type

Impulse

Symmetrical

O.25

0.5

1.O

FIGURE

3-2.--Effects

of

speed-work stage

parameter

and diagram.

diagram

type

on

shape

of

velocity-vector

V_.2_ AV,-can be used an to reduce axial-flow the to such rotor definition loss. (UI= of U2) stage

0 (3--4b)

For (2-39)

having reaction

constant presented

axial in

velocity equation

(Vz.1=Vz.2), reduces

W2 R.,-1-

_, 2--

W2 u, 1 2+W ,2-W .t

(3-5)

where Rst_ W_ By (3-5) stage reaction component (2-6) of relative and as Rs,g= This 0.5, is equation which zero, which which, and is plotted indicates as can increase be in an For shown, in static figure impulse example, represents pressure 1 1--_-_ 3-3(a). diagram. rotor. at At At _---1, k=0.5, _=0.5, the rotor. the reaction the reaction negative reaction decrease Because is in of (3-6) is equations velocity, (3-3) m/sec; and ft/sec equation tangential using can equation be

(3-4),

expressed

indicates is encountered.

a conservative

Below _,----0.33,

reaction --0.5, velocity 72

a substantial across the

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

1.0--

Symmetrical_
\

.o_

ZeroS,

(a)

_- Impulse

I

/

I

1

I

.5-::3

N

Zero exit swirl-, 0

,m

(b)

I
0 .25

I

.

I

1
1.0

.50 .75 Speed-workparameter, _, (a) (b) Reaction. Exit swirl.

FIGURE 3-3.--Effects

of speed-work parameter and velocity-vector on reaction and exit swirl.

diagram

type

potentially avoided; X<0.5. Impulse stage reaction

high therefore, Figure

losses, 3-2

such

high the

negative diagrams zero-exit-swirl

reactions are seldom diagrams cases. and the

are

usually used for for the for (3-7)

zero-exit-swirl presents impulse, and this to Rst_=O

positive-reaction,

negative-reaction case, WI=W2

diagram.--For reduces

equation

From axial

equation velocity,

(2-6), the rotor

equation inlet and

(3-3), exit

and swirl

the

assumption can

of constant be expressed 73

velocities

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

as

V_, _ AVu-and
Vu

X+0.5

(3-8a)

_-_= The swirls exit are swirl characteristics at are _ values

_,--0.5 shown greater in figure than 3-3(b). 0.5, and

(3-8b) Positive negative

encountered

swirls are obtained and zero-exit-swirl figure because seldom, one in 3-2. Because positive if ever, which to have

at _ values less cases coincide. swirl swirl when velocity _ is greater third shape. decreases

than 0.5. At _=0.5, These effects are leaving a 0.5. turbine impulse work, than

the impulse illustrated in is a loss and are used is are diagrams

stage type and

used the the

Symmetrical specified

diagram.--A stator-exitsame

of diagram rotor-exit-velocity

commonly

triangles

In terms

of velocities, (3-9a) (3-9b) reaction reduces to

V1 =W2 and V2=W, Under this condition, the equation for stage 1 R,tg=_ From axial equation velocity, (2-6), the swirl equation velocity (3-3), and the assumption can

(3-10) of constant as

components X+ 1 2

be expressed

Vu. 1 AV_ and

(3-11 a)

Vu. 2 h_l A-V_= 2-These typical is the at 0.5. this (e.g., decreases, This the type reaction diagrams same as the the exit good and swirl characteristics in figure increases, is conducive for stages stages Stage A significant 74 aspect of a turbine but diagram the are shown 3-2. The at _= total exit in figure 1. As the

(3-11b) 3-3, value with of

illustrated zero-exit-swirl swirl reaction and middle

symmetrical remains efficiency, swirl

diagram constant making a loss

reaction

to high where

of diagram front

attractive

is not

of a multistage Efficiency design is the

turbine).

expected

efficiency.

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

The type blade on basic sented effects.

efficiency

is an

important

function

of,

among

other

things,

the

of velocity diagram surface. Therefore, the efficiency relations and used in References between herein 1 and chapter

used and the pressure the diagram selection of point used turbine hh' _--Ah_d 2, the up intended and of some as a basis stage diagram to 2 are parameters

distribution is greatly application. efficiency the for more this efficiency

on the dependent Some are preimportant can be

requirements

development.

As presented written as

static

(3-12)

where stage Ah' hh_ stage stage static Expressing static work, ideal efficiency J/kg; work Btu/lb based J/kg; on ratio of inlet total pressure to exit Btu/lb of actual ah' ,hh' +Lot'-b where
Lst Lro

pressure, ideal work

in terms

work

plus

losses

yields

Lro+

V22

(3-13)

stator rotor stage

loss, loss, leaving for stage (3-13)

J/kg; J/kg; loss,

Btu/lb Btu/lb J/kg; Btu/lb n' is the V]/2gJ. same except for the elimi(3-3)

y /2gJ
The nation into

equation of the equation

total

efficiency loss,

leaving yields

Substituting

equation

,1--

gJ(L,,TLro)

1

V2 2

(3-14)

In it was kinetic

relating assumed energy

the

stator that the

and the blade

rotor losses rows.

losses were That

to the proportional is,

diagram to

parameters, the average

across

L,,:K_, and L_o=K_o

V°2-b V_2 2gJ

(3-15a)

Wl2+W2_ 2gJ

(3-15b)

where/4

is constant

of proportionality. 75

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Equations efficiency. be found efficiency (1) axial work (eq. related (4) the work The erence presented that the determined associated (5) The The

(3-14) exact in references is as follows: velocities tangential and axial by values of previous curves for and the for the above eq.

and nature

(3-15) of

serve the

as the terms

the

basis and

for for

estimating can estimating and speed-

assumptions

equations

1 and are

2. Briefly, in are the or or

procedure of their in terms type means them

expressed

tangential of the

components. components according (3-4), components assumption an angle for the test the to (3-8), are expressed diagram (3-11)). by of an applicationto the are a range tangential selected on by relating parameter (2-6) being considered

(2) The

(3) The components The basis

evaluated

mass-flow

assumption. constant experience. can then be generated diagram are presented are the are total types. as obtained in figure actually symmetrical representative efficiency. 3-4. for This the from The refcurves diagram as and for characteristics diagram over of speedvarious method of proportionality

Efficiency parameter total2 by

static-efficiency symmetrical )4elds maximum

analytically

diagram, diagram, of those

in reference efficiency

2, approximates characteristics

a symmetrical diagram. The were not obtained for )_ values negative The For higher efficiency _-_0.5, other the decreases High diagram rather designer exit this The swirls chapter, static static the two efficiency more total types than must and parameter, than at and, for each reaction total diagram },, value the in that type, region.

curves for the zero-exit-swirl less than 0.5 because of the

diagram undesirable

efficiency

characteristics the highest of 1. The

are

presented occurs for to the all

in figure at efficiency values

3-4(a). is slightly

efficiency efficiency is equal

a speed-work of _. The at

s)_nmetrical-diagram

impulse-diagram efficiency is equal not are rather less to shown, than fiat.

zero-exit-swirl-diagram }_--1, although }, values rapidly. efficiencies, for static, still the before efficiency efficiency" exit velocity curves

symmetrical-diagram efficiency than _1 below with Even merit, previously either and 0.5, any where however, later 3-4(b). efficiency static },_0.5, efficiency of these total, the in of the

the

impulse-diagram becomes 0.5. less Between

As h is reduced are than such achievable about as the 0.5. of

therefore, greater is the aspects type

_ values efficiency consider

criterion effects, is selected. are lower

discussed

three-dimensional a diagram characteristics is substantially head

to be discussed in figure the The total highest

The because 76

presented than a loss.

represents

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

efficiency diagram, diagram. _=0.5,

for and For where

h values for the there impulse

less

than greater diagram, exit

0.5 than

is the For

obtained 0.5, the with efficiency

with the

the

impulse at

X values is no

zero-exit-swirl diagram,

is a maximum

swirl.

symmetrical

1.0

.8

f,,_.._=--_'---u-

.6
e-

-%
_6 .4 Diagram type Zero exit swirl Impulse Symmetrical .2

(a)

I

I

I

I

I

//
/

/

/

/// /

/

(b) 0 .2 .4

I
.6 ;_ Speed-work parameter,

I
.8

I
1.0

(a) (b) FIGURE 3-4.--Effects of speed-work on efficiency.

Total Static

efficiency. efficiency. and from velocity-vector ref. 2.) diagram type

parameter (Curves

77

TURBINE

DESIGN .90 --

AND

APPLICATION

Total efficiency, 7'

.80-t--

L_

• 70

iency, "q

1
6O 65

I
70 Stator exit angle, % deg

I
75

J
8O

FIGURE

3-5.--Effect

of stator exit eter X, 0.5.

angle on stage efficiency. (Curves from ref. I.)

Speed-work

param-

the The very

efficiency little

is a maximum

at to 0.5.

X= 1,

where

there

is

no

exit

swirl.

zero-exit-swirl-diagram as _, is reduced is affected but also to the reference and the about of about this level the shown are means The are total angle static best that If be angle of stress been swirls One type is related from the total by flow not

efficiency only the angles. 3-5, depends by

is highest the An

at _ = 1, but

decreases and V=, can be 1,

Efficiency diagram which obtained shows

speed-work through-flow example

parameter component effect exit stator is desired, from reference

velocity

of this of stator

1. Figure angle total

which upon is static

is taken which desired,

efficiencies

as functions

angle. is to be exit a the area. hence,

It is evident maximized. angle stator of The could It large use back are stream shows 78 should exit

efficiency the complete since the it

maximum

efficiency

60 °. If maximum 75 ° is indicated. does not

efficiency exist

However, therefore, annulus

freedom affects and,

selection rotor has exit

always and, by the values

through-flow influence

component angle that

of velocity is also influenced selection. at low

annulus

area

of

speed-work reductions and turbines turbines efficienc:_ swirl the of such turbines.

parameter, in static the flow 3) the (ref. 3-6(a) are lower is through diffuse

encountered, of increasing which 3-6. In to efficiency referred stators,

with the remove this as of

associated static the

efficiency.

of downstream to axial. presented staters that the

characteristics figure, 1X-stage the

turbines with Figure

in figure

down-

efficiencies

l_-stage

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

than are no

those due gain

of the to the of this

1-stage additional additional efficiency

impulse friction friction over

turbines. losses loss, that 0.35 in static

These of the the

lower

total turbine turbine For can

efficiencies stators. achieves until the X values

downstream

Because value below through

l_-stage 1-stage 3-6(b)). efficiency

in static about use 0.35,

of the (fig.

of X is below

approximately substantial gains stators.

be achieved

of downstream

1. O0

Diagram type

1-Stage ll-St_e ll-Stage l_-Stage

impulse impulse symmetrical impulse (two stators}

downstream

o

I

I

I

I

.60

¢.-

.40

0

.i

.2 Speed-work

.3 parameter, h

.4

.5

(a) (b) FmuR_; 3-6.--Effect of downstream

Total Static

efficiency. efficiency. stator on efficiency. (Curves from ref. 3.)

79

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Multistage

Turbine

Efficiency

When the turbine requirements are such that the speed-work parameter is quite low and high efficiencies are still desired, multistage turbines are used, and the required work is split amongst the various stages.

t-

o_ ro

stages Turbine

2 2

ta_

I

I

I

1

I

.!
o--

7° I
50

/

.f/..i

_ N

//,,,"
/,
•40 0 tb)

/ ,/,/"
I
• 10

1

I

]
.ZlO

I
.50

.20 .30 Overall speed-work parameter,

FIGURE 3-7.--Comparison

(a) Total efficiency• (b) Static efficiency. of efficiencies of 1-, l_/r -, and 2-stage from ref. 4.)

turbines.

(Curves

8O

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

Two-stage turbine the stage with the results reduction two exit

$urbines.--The in about of stage work. by

addition doubling As the

of a second average in stage to adjust stage shown previously,

stage an

to

a 1-stage through in and addition, split

X value In work turbines 2-stage

increase

_, is accompanied stages swirls

an increase possible

efficiency. the stage

it becomes efficiency 4. The compared the

so as to maximize

efficiency. of 2-stage of 1-, 1Y2-, and 3-7. turbine At has an is preturbines

A study sented (from higher than the ref. total the 2- and

of the 4) are

characteristics efficiencies in figure 2-stage

in reference

overall static

speed-work efficiency between for total smaller turbine for are exit a exit split first type and the the swirl no 50:50 stage. swirl work has and of output.

parameter,

_, of 0.50, efficiency turbine. 24 1-stage and the turbine 2-stage values reaction. between 1-stage turbine 1-stage

a 2-percentage-pointthe difference points The 2-stage loss work 3-7 and swirl with for zero work impulse stator. This a type each of the the total figure split exit

and a 9-percentage-point-higher As _ is reduced increases points static occurs smaller efficiencies by varying criteria efficiency zero-exit-swirl efficiency stage At associated as an impulse 3-8 (a) In in figure compounded. (or is achieved and _=0.125, diagram and diagram At _=0.5, for to 0.15, static to 5 percentage efficiency. for the of the in work positive diagrams with efficiencies because fraction presented stage of no

efficiencies percentage total is a much obtained good and turbine

efficiency difference than 2-stage The maximum while negative work split for

leaving

imposing and

is maximized is achieved

symmetrical maximum second first The stage.

As _ is reduced, maintained produced increased second diagram kno_:a turbine (fluid by stages as in the the to 75:25.

an increasing the features represents

fraction

optimum

as well

second-stage general, turbine in the first

is illustrated velocity is a two-stage velocity increase)

of turbine

a velocity-compounded in which stator all expansion and all subse-

three-stage)

quent blade rows merely turn As k is reduced below 0.125, maintained, but work fraction. Figure two-stage stator. exit The swirl 3-8(b) turbine, diagram and with of this with increasing the

the flow with no change the velocity-compounded exit velocity for swirl and decreasing for without X=0.125 A study made

in velocity. condition is first-stage type with of zero

illustrates the shown both type

diagram turbine the equal. was

another case of the

counterrotating is again speeds of turbine blade

a second-stage efficiency 5. Effiwere the the 81

characteristics ciencies obtained second-stage

in reference

higher than those for conventional because of the elimination of one work depends upon the swirl

two-stage turbines blade row. Because the first stage,

leaving

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

(a) (a) Velocity-compounded turbine. FIGURE 3-8.--Velocity-vector diagrams Overall speed-work

fb) (b) Counterrotating for special types parameter _, 0.125. turbine. 2-stage

of

turbines.

second 75:25 are lack also

stage, for the

in

general, of the

would diagram).

be

a low-work The and ratio. their engines the Such for rockets. use used turbines

stage and Because compactness

(work work of their due utilized

split splits

is

illustrated at low as

efficiencies

functions potential row, applications turbines.--In requirements than turbines, turbines efficiency stages (for two

blade-speed ), levels direct-lift the

high to the in such

efficiency advanced n-stage and ably speed more

of a blade

counterrotating many dictates stages vapor for nuclear are turbines of cr stage and as _,=_

are

being for

V/STOL in which applications production,

aircraft. of work considerinclude and of are blade are

applications required. hydrogen zero-exit-swirl work stage

combination

of turbines power

fan-drive turbopump The impulse examined speed related were

characteristics _<0.5) Overall (2-111)) 6. Equal

multistage and

turbines stages (for constant

composed h>0.5) stage parameters

in reference assumed. as eq. (derived

speed-work

(3-16) Total total stage, obtained the stage effect efficiency and where static stator efficiencies. discussed for a first inlet For stage for velocity overall 2, a

where general is equal

n

is the stage

number

of stages. and were from the reheat or last

(stator-inlet

velocity to stage were exit then

is axial) velocity) obtained

efficiencies

(intermediate

as functions

of X. Overall in chapter

efficiencies static 82

efficiency,

neglecting

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

w

o+
where first-stage exit total general-stage to exit Ah_, , general-stage to exit This small. equation By using static total ideal work ideal ideal based J/kg; work work

n_'

,
of inlet total

(3-17)

on ratio Btu/lb

pressure pressure pressure

to

pressure, pressure, pressure, the

based J/kg; based J/kg; effect,

on ratio Btu/lb on ratio

of inlet of inlet

total total

Btu/lb which reference equation 6 shows (3-17) to be

neglects the

reheat

stage-efficiency

definition,
Tb

becomes

_--

1,.4_n

2+1_

(3-18)

Overall on the

total basis

efficiency of stage

differs total

only

in that

the

last

stage

is evaluated

efficiency.
n

Therefore,

_'--

1, f n--1,

(3-19)

The are Figure efficiency This function aspect may ations here. large total imposed, shown because

multistage in this 3-9(a) (in of level ratio, vary This shows

efficiency figure total as factors case, other 3-9, 0.88)

characteristics which was efficiency well etc.) as in from at low

obtained obtained when those all

in from stages

this

manner 6. k----1. is blade and varieither high is a limiting at

presented

reference are number, shape The the

as a function all

of _. The

is reached (stator

efficiency, blade solidity,

described Reynolds to diagram value. (0.1 number The although turbine described static however,

herein,

of many upward figure

angle, addition the

or downward with illustrates varying that

indicated are, _, values

in efficiency increases efficiencies lower in figure of the

diagrams of stages are on expected. trends,

concern

or less), to achieve

in the or, 3-9(b) leaving

number if some show loss. used ratio. ratio must

required the

restriction be similar

of stages efficiencies levels at lower

efficiencies

Another in terms overall 2 (eq. ing ratio

commonly of diagram speed as the kinetic the tubine.

method This

of presenting is to plot parameter blade speed speed with the ratio was

performance of in chapter correspondpressure to speed-work 83

parameters of the

efficiency

as a function

blade-jet (2-72)) across

to a velocity total-to-static is related

to the

energy

associated Blade-jet

TURBINE 11

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

'_

.S .6_

..... Number of stages

Limiting efficiency

(_

I

_ I z l Illl ....

I

l

I J I llJl

.8 i_.5

• _

.4

32
I/ of stages/ 1

.z( b_
.01

t
.02

J I = I= I=1
.04

I

L

l = 1= I=1
.4 .6 .8 I

.06 ,08 .I .2 Overall speed-work arameter, p

FIGURE 3-9.--Overall

(a) Total efficiency. (b) Static efficiency. efficiency characteristics.

(Curves

from

ref.

6.)

parameter From of the effect specific actual the life), the

and

efficiency of stages

according in this and velocity level imposed of the design structural

to equation it is clear diagram and

(2-74). that have dependent speed must to the selections upon In represent by component the an type an important utilized. (dictated

discussions expected (actual the final among

section,

number on the work design,

efficiency or ideal) selection such

are very and blade

turbine integrity

diagrams (related

a compromise cycle compactness,

goals

as performance

requirements),

and weight.

RADIAL In assumed In 84 the first half having of

VARIATION this average a relatively chapter, conditions high

OF

DIAGRAMS velocity the entire diagram blade ratio was span. (about

a single over hub-

to represent

a turbine

to tip-radius

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

0.85 lower

or

greater), diagrams not The

such are radial

an

assumption however, and in average

is reasonable. substantial the flow diagrams conditions are due

In

the

case diagrams

of

hubor may span.

to tip-radius represent

ratios, the variations and

variations for must mean become will on the the

in the entire radial exist in section very consider velocity

velocity may blade

encountered,

mean-section

to the

variation the flow. diagrams important the radial diagrams.

in blade speed The considerations must in also the final

the that

balance of forces that were described for the end regions, This and their which section effect selection.

be applied diagram in flow

to the conditions

variations

Radial Consider 3-10(a). sulting pressure force path. the must an element When force. acting When force the there The of fluid flow pressure fluid to for and (fig.

Equilibrium in the 3-10(b)) serves the the of the (streamline) flow net turbine component must to fluid flow be field, as in figure the by rea

is a tangential force to keep path

of velocity, maintained the along this force. balance

circumferential on the required

centrifugal its curved path linear part from

moving along

through-flow

is curved pressure

(fig. 3-10(c)), curved Any

maintain as part

be accounted

acceleration of the of which is in the horizontal. is termed The The figure in the radial pressure 3-10(b). x direction, The radial

flow must have radial direction of forces will on

an associated pressure force, if the streamline is inclined to account formulated of fluid If unit (directed for these

balance equilibrium forces Fluid the

required now an be element force

factors

equilibrium. mathematically. are length radially indicated is assumed inward) is in acting weight net

is neglected. pressure

Fp.,et:(p+dp)(r+dr)dO--prdO--2

(p+?)

dr

sin dO 2 (3-20a)

where
F_, n_ g

net static angle

inward

pressure N'm rad

force,

N;

lb

P 0
r

pressure, of rotation, of rotation, higher-order

2; lb/ft _ m; ft (product of three differentials) and

radius

Neglecting setting sin

terms yields

(d0/2)=d0/2

F_. ,,, =rdpdO The mass m of the fluid being acted on by the pressure force

(3-20b) is 85

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

!_!ii2iiii!_i!_::: dr

J
(a)

p+dp + dpl2-_ P .____ dBI2 Vu e (-/dr_ or_ _ !p/ _ / / p+ dp/2

\ \
._____Vx

rVm.
ame .I vr

(b)
(a) (b) Rotation plane (r-e). FIGURE 3-10.--Radial Element of fluid in turbine (c) flow field.

(c)

Meridional

plane factors.

(r-x).

equilibrium

m=p[r(r+ which reduces to

dr)_--wr

_] d_f0 2r

(3-21a)

m=--prdrdO The ferential net pressure To flow, balance the radial force the results pressure from force is the force three factors

(3-21b) mentioned with circum-

previously.

centrifugal

associated

F_,c--m g 86

Vu _ r

prdrd0 g

Vu 2_p V2drd r g

0

(3-22)

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

The

radial

component force

of the with

pressure flow

force along

required the meridional

to

balance streamline

the

centrifugal is

associated

FT, 0-----m g where V,_ r,_ a,_e The velocity radius angle positive that radial along

V_,

cos rm,

a,_=

prdrdO g

V*. r_

cos

am_

(3-23)

meridional

streamline,

m/sec; streamline, streamline,

ft/sec m; deg and inclination angle (3-23) in this ft

of curvature of inclination directions in figure the balancing component

of meridional of meridional for streamline 3-10(c). of the the The pressure

curvature minus force pressure

are as indicated indicates case. the The linear

sign force

in equation outward is required

is directed streamline

to produce

acceleration

along

meridional

Fv • Z=--g Setting various the net

dVme " sin _---dt radial (eqs. pressure (3-22),

prdrdO g force (eq. and

dV,,_ - sin a,_ dt (3-20(b)) (3-24)) equal yields

(3-24)

to

the

components

(3-23),

_gdp p dr-Equation contributing plete line form. curvatures (3-25) For is the axial (1/r,_)

V_ r radial

V_, dVm_ cos a_e---sin a,_e r_, dt equilibrium not equation convenient flow), angles the (am,) and to use meridional are both includes in its

(3-25)

all comquite

factors.

It is, however, flow (or near-axial inclination and

stream(3-25) often be

small. Therefore, the last two terms are small as compared to the first neglected. Thus, we can write gdp pdr-The approximation radial represented equilib.rium. Radial In those other assumed total order effects to illustrate that the Variations nature second will radial (1-49)) is no (eq. by

on the right (rotational)

side of equation term and can

V_ r equation (3-26) has become

(3-26)

known

as "simple"

in

Velocity radial variations If streamline of velocity, as in velocity, and certain slope and is the

of the order be can

are usually assumptions there

will be neglected, made.

simplifying to be zero, enthalpy

component be written

definition

87

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

" -- 2gJ-Differentiating substitute for with dh (and respect since 1 jp to radius

2gJ and using equation

(3-z7)
(1-8) to

p= 1/v) yields dp dr 1 _ 2gJ d(V_ 2) 1 dr -_ 2gJ d(Vx 2) dr then Further, the

dh' ds dr --T-_r-_ If the flow entering the

(3-28) total if the in

turbine exit

is radially is radially

uniform, constant.

enthalpy

at the

first-stator

stator loss is radially constant, then the entropy at the first-stator exit is also radially constant. The rotor, as will be discussed later this chapter, may or may not probably turbine, on various have radially constant work (total enthalpy) loss. At enthalpy gradients due For entropy tion into extraction any place and imposed simplicity, are (3-26), equation radially the (3-28), and in the by the does not have therefore, radial the blade uniformity rows, that these radially gradients inlet

constant in total flow, the damping and substituted the

entropy mixing.

depend

of the

and the gradient the total enthalpy

to radial

it is here constant. "simple" we get

assumed With radial

assumptions expression,

and with

equa-

equilibrium

v. 2 , 1 d(V. 2) 1
-_ 2 In specify often, order to solve this of swirl dr --I-_ dr --0 to V, been has (3-29) independently and V_. Most specified (3-30a) as equation, velocity V,,: or, in terms of mean-section it is necessary r or between radius with Kr N

a relation a variation

between

V_ or V_ and

conditions,

vZ:=,,E:
Substituting (3-29) and equation then (3-30b) and between its differential the limits form of r,_ and into integrating

v.

(3-30b)

equation

r yields

V,.,_-V, where (3-31) 88 a_ is the valid

{1--tan' absolute for the

am flow special

( i)rc,r
I_\_/ angle case at the of N=0

-mean

,l

_I} radius. V_).

(3-31) Equation For this

is not

(constant

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

special

case,

integration

of equation

(3-29)

yields
r 71/2

v=V_=[1--2 A case the and absolute equation of interest flow angle (3-29) not covered to

tan _ _ by

In _.j

(3-32) is that V,-=-V= where tan a,

equation

(3-30b) In this case,

is radially

constant.

integrates Vu

V=(r'_

-sin'a

(3-33)

The for

radial

variations from radius flow the flow angle

in swirl above angle are

velocity, equations, of 60 °.

axial are The

velocity, presented radial on the

and flow angle, in figure in specified 3-11 axial swirl

as computed a mean and velocity

variations

largely

dependent

E _.._>= m_ 1.0

_

_

___"'Exp°nent'N1 0

.5 2.0

]

I

I
V u = Kr N

- J

Q .m

"N
L.

_ E "- :>_

Vu = KVx 1.C

_-2 -1

x

B e--

O

........
60[ -1

30
.7

<
.8

I
.9

I
1.0

I
1.1 r/r m

I ""-z
1.2

I
1.3

Ratio of radius to mean radius, FIGURE

3-11.--Radial

variations flow

of angle

velocity a,,,

and 60 °.

flow

angle.

Mean-section

89

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

velocity increases and flow

variation (value of N). As the swirl distribution exponent N or decreases from a value of --1, the changes in axial velocity angle with changing radius become associated lengths. larger to 1). The on stage chapter. more pronounced. As

seen, the axial velocities of N cannot be obtained can be used for design of rh/r,, illustrated in subsequent shorter variations discussed (values

and flow angles with all blade purposes and rt/rm in figure sections Free-Vortex becomes closer 3-11 of this

with certain values The range of N that as the effects velocity blades of the diagrams become radial are

Diagrams exponent N in equation (3-30a),

When then

a value

of -- 1 is used

for the

rVu=K This for is the such condition a swirl turbine. design is used radial variation in the of the for flow in a free is referred vortex, to as and a turbine

(3-34) designed design,

distribution

a free-vortex

or a free-vortex The turbines free-vortex in which

vast majority of axial-flow diagram is accounted for. If outlets, because diagram (3-31), variation then the is the in

this condition is specified at there is no radial variation UVu Thus, valid axial mass from entire design vortex An products both entering

both the stator and rotor in specific work, _x(UV_), leaving the rotor from the if N=--I Thus, mean-section in equation the radial

and

are radially

constant.

the specific work computed for the entire flow. Further, velocity Vx is radially flow per unit area the mean-section flow within an is one set of simplicity designs example

constant.

(pV_) is small, and the mass flow rate obtained velocity diagram can be used to represent the accuracy of the velocity of main 0.1 percent for for a in the most wide cases. use This of freedesign is reasons

for axial-flow

turbines. diagrams free-vortex tip sections of a blade in the diagram shape for this an swirl must for at the example is diagram with high the when A a a speed-work impulse distribution, standpoint taken hub low-radius-ratio section. be conservative, aerodynamic parameter

shown in figure 3-12 for the hub, mean, and with a radius ratio of 0.6. The radial variation is considerable. 1. The The associated while (_t----1.56). is the the in order efficiency). the tip Thus, critical Therefore, to ensure mean-section diagram hub for diagram a diagram section diagram, satisfactory diagram having is very free-vortex from special an care especially diagrams is nearly symmetrical )_m of reaction hub (lowest selecting blades, 9O (_h=0.56), section zero-exit-swirl

mean-section

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

45. 30....

Radius ratio, rh/r t = O.6

Hu_ section

rm/r t ° O.8

Mean section

rt/r t = 1.0

Tip section 3-12.--Radial variation flow. Stator mean-section exit eter Xm, 1. of velocity-vector diagrams for free-vortex angle a,,, 60°; mean-section speed-work param-

FIGURE

very

high

reaction

tip

diagram

can

also

be

troublesome

because There case

it is a illushub and a

increases Another considerable trated to

leakage across the potential problem radial 3-12, tip, variation the

blade tip clearance space. is that of rotor-blade twist. in rotor inlet angle some hub angle. varies results and tip For from the inlet causing of the

in figure

rotor thus

45 ° at the problems

--38 ° at the

a variation

of 83 °. This

in a blade sections

having of such

an overhanging bending stresses. blade is illustrated

tip section,

fabrication

The positioning in figure 3-13.

91

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

.-/*-

_ ip section

\\

n

FmURE

3-13.--Relative

positioning

of hub

and

tip

sections

of freeovorgex

turbine.

Non-Free-Vortex Free-vortex are often potential trated having vortex flow, design section for 0.6, 0.8, any closer 3-11, At the having The 92 0.889, the the sections, sections, or are the non-free-vortex in figure (N-------2) designs designs 3-14 are are are the the (N=I) with which shown 1.25. For For of 0.889 As the section. exist of 0.75 the are are so commonly the common used

Diagrams used heading with the that all other some design. for the The the The the designs The of the Illuscases superwheelmeansame of tip Gf tip

classified

under

of non-free to alleviate free-vortex in diagrams 3-11. design, design. ratios to the to the section

vortex.

in an attempt variations

disadvantages velocity

associated radial variations

illustrated constant-swirl design, free-vortex at a radius diagrams with with hubare, cases exit and 1.25 a blade

in figure (N=0) and (N: ratio at a huba hubcorrespond to tip-radius to a blade no the --1)

design,

solid-rotation, compared Also and values diagrams,

constar_t-flow-angle

r/r,_ of 1, are to tip-radius hub hub to tip-radius ratio diagrams as shown are the same

all cases. 1.111, r/r,_

radius

r/r,_ of 0.75, ratio and ratio and decreases, relatively to show in figure for all

correspond

respectively. r/r,_ values respectively. value mean values to the 3-14 no real any

a blade blade

arLd 1.111

particular

of r/rm corresponds There for axial the (az._:0). diagrams are rotor particular

of course, for which, diagrams

in figure

for those ratio, swirl

velocity. mean-section similar to diagram the free-

radius exit

swirl

distributions. zero constant-flow-angle

This is due to the selected quite

VELOCITY Radial swirl distribution

DIAGRAMS

Ratio of radius to mean radius, rlr m

Super vortex (N = -2)

Free vortex (N = -l)

Constant swirl (N = O)

Wheel flow {N = 1)

Constant flow angle

1. 250

(a)

(a)

1.111

(a)

1.flOf

O. 889

O.150

(a)

aNo real value for axial velocity. FIGURE 3-14.--Radial variation of velocity-vector distributions. diagrams for various swirl

vortex rotor-blade the stator The any case.

diagrams twist a small The radial

and, and

therefore, low hub stator

present reaction. has diagrams no (about severe

the twist, 12°). appear axial on

same while to have than velocity blades

problems advantage the

of high is that free-vortex of can-

A possible

constant-flow-angle has sort. The amount (N= blade variation super-vortex

of twist --2) is more of stator-exit

no advantage the is large with hubdiagrams free-vortex velocity ratios about designs number absolute below hub these Mach losses axial and the for free-vortex and

twist

for

not be sustained (Vx becomes radius ratios much below 0.8. The alleviate design. large below 0.85 and than those and about for for the the these relative constant-swirl the blade-twist here for the However, cannot 0.70 (N=0) and too the

imaginary) and

to tipdo is

wheel-flow variation with (N=O) In exit For are

(N--l) in hubdesign higher high cause

hub-reaction radial on blades 1) design. stator velocities

problems

of the

be sustained (N= at the

to tip-radius

constant-swirl

wheel-flow velocities free-vortex higher

addition,

design. flow design.

relatively could

turbines,

higher

than

of a free-vortex

93

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

M - 0.58

M/_ 0.77/ 4z" M =o.sr -

-8

Sectionat r/rt - O.68 (a)

Tip section, rlrt = 1

16. °--__ 6

_r \

_ "_'_
Mr "0./_,_ _'" &'i_

M,.oW
Mr" 1"01_'_ I1__, "7° _45. 3o /M0.74

-\

Sectionat rlr t - O.67 (b)

Tip section, rlr t- 1.0

FmURE

3-15.--Comparison twisted

(a) Free-vortex turbine. (b) Nontwisted turbine. of velocity-vector diagrams of free-vortex turbines. (Diagrams from ref. 9.)

add

non-

94

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

A design termed design should results design in figure exit tions

procedure

for

rotor design,

blades twist

of constant in the 8 and with study design. stator than rotor,

inlet

and

exit 7.

angle, Such a

a "nontwisted" completely be easy comparing velocity 3-15. is also to fabricate.

is presented

in reference which, 9 contain of reference velocity The twist

eliminates free-vortex diagrams A large closely twist exit, design in this used radial

therefore, experimental designs. at (N) the The stator condivalue of from positive is higher (0.72). 9 are shown

References designs for the vaIiation nontwisted

nontwisted

in axial

present rotor the The rotor

stator-exit has increased the hub the and hub design

correspond the At tip.

to a swirl-distribution-exponent is eliminated, design the blade-inlet (0.85) than to more swirl Mach 30 ° for at the at free-vortex

_. Although 10 ° for design. at the for the

free-vortex relative

nontwisted

is negative for the

number

nontwisted

However, over that same The work tion tions error section by compute turbine vortex additional As seen alleviate free-vortex Mach plexity. designs deviations been used It

the reaction at the hub of the nontwisted design is improved of the free-vortex turbine. The two turbines have about the

efficiency. non-free-vortex and, may may flow because flow not occur in mass rate designs of the represent if such the and With this therefore, complexity from the numbers, has from cannot rotor-twist designs been be results increased shown sustained improved flow flow radial per unit true a turbine conditions rate. The more all feature Thus, radial in axial the conditions, on the turbine hub design than variation velocity, and basis should and the tip design mean-section of the in in specific radial variacondimeanto gradient area. average

considerable be designed order

is designed between proper complex design disadvantage. the use

conditions.

A non-free-vortex

integrating work is, turbine.

of a non-free-vortex of a freethis to with hub comsmall 10, have however, designs associated as from in reference higher design However,

much

computerized is no real discussion, and in stator that over designs, turbine

procedures,

of m_n-free-vortex problems such increased spans. and blade

hub-reaction other twist, large all

problems deviations

free-vortex

free-vortex

as reported performance.

to obtain

COMPUTER

PROGRAMS

FOR STUDIES

VELOCITY-DIAGRAM

This diagram staging, the best

chapter selection, and

has radial

presented including variations.

some diagram of stages

of the types,

basic their that

aspects relation the

of velocityto efficiency, of requires 95

It is evident

determination

diagrams

and number

for a given

application

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

many designs, tion. such

considerations. meridional-streamline then such computer

If

it

is

desired are out

to of the

include and realm

non-free-vortex radial of hand to variation calculaperform

curvature analyses programs have

effects, been

in efficiency, Therefore, tasks.

evolved

One such The program the only radial allows entropy correlation program reflects values no real computer dependent independent tions This instead proven generated rotor and

computer includes equilibrium

program is described in references consideration of streamline-curvature equation radial loss exit information swirl of these meridional the (swirl solution velocity). 3-11. in a program variation The valid that as input. variation modification, in meridional modified turbine (meridional distribution input velocity because velocity) The and radial but gradients in flow. also reference and inputs. specifications, (Vme=V_/cos of with a large small of as In includes rotor However, variations from

11 and effects

12. in and

in enthalpy addition, an internal a basis. work for a,,_) variations these either

in determining for blade using uses exit the stator

it not loss This (which many there or is the in in condi-

as an input

13 as

distribution

swirl) for find

combinations cannot variable variable

solution

variation

existence

is indicated problem 14, ef swirl very with

by figure has resulted

as reported velocity has can be program designs velocity.

in reference

wherein velocity any

the and

radial shows

is used

successful

reasonable

in meridional

REFERENCES
1. STEWART, teristics ASME, 2. STEWART, WARNER in Dec. Terms 1961. L.: Analytical Terms Investigation of Work WARNER Turbine with NACA WILLIAM T.: of and L.: Single-Stage-Turbine Speed Analysis RM E56J19, and Speed Requirements. of Efficiency Stators 1957. Requireof Two-Stagein L.: of A Study Velocity of Axial-Flow Diagram Turbine Efficiency Paper Charac61-WA-37,

Parameters.

WARNER

Efficiency Characteristics in NACA RM E56G31, 1956. 3.
WINTUCKY,

WILLIAM T.; of and a of Work Efficiency NACA RM WILLIA_a RM

AND

STEWART,

Characteristics Terms 4. Turbine ments. 5. WINTUCKY, ments. ciency RM STEWART, WARNER

Single-Stage Speed

Downstream Analysis

Requirements. in Terms

L.; AND WINTUCKY, Characteristics E57F12, T.; 1957.

of Work

ANY STEWART, WARNER Efficiencies 1958. Investigation of Work and in Terms

L. : Analysis of Work and

.of Two-Stage Speed RequireEffiNACA

Counterrotating NACA 6. STEWART, WARNER

Turbine

E57L05,

L. : Analytical in Terms 1958.

of Multistage-Turbine Speed Requirements.

Characteristics E57K22b,

96

VELOCITY 7.
SLIVKA,

DIAGRAMS

WILLIAM R.; AND SILVE_RN, DAVID H.: Analytical Aerodynamic Characteristics of Turbines with Nontwisted NACA TN 2365, 1951.

Evaluation of Rotor Blades.

8.

HEATON, THOMAS R.; SLIVKA, WILLIAM R.; AND WESTRA, LEONARD F.: Cold-Air Investigation of a Turbine with Nontwisted Rotor Blades Suitable for Air Cooling. NACA RM E52A25, 1952. WARREN J.; STEWART, WARNER L.;
AND MONROE,

9. WHITNEY,

DANIEL

E.:

Investigation of Turbines for Driving Supersonic Compressors. V-Design and Performance of Third Configuration with Nontwisted Rotor Blades. NACA RM E53G27, 1953. I0. DORMAN, T. E. ; WELNA, H. ; AND LINDLAUF, R. W. : The Application of Controlled-Vortex Aerodynamics to Advanced Axial Flow Turbines. J. Eng. Power, vol. 90, no. 3, July 1968, pp. 245-250. 11.
CARTER, A. F.; PLATT, M.; AND LENHERR, F. K.: Analysis of Geometry and Design Point Performance of Axial Flow Turbines. I-Development of the Analysis Method and the Loss Coefficient Correlation. NASA CR-1181, 1968.

12.

PLATT,

M.;

AND

CARTER,

A. F.:

Analysis

of Geometry

and

Design NASA

Point

Per-

formance 1968. 13. 14.
SMITH,

of Axial

Flow

Turbines.

II-Computer of Turbine 467-470.

Program. Efficiency.

CR-1187, Aeron. Soc.,

vol.

S. F. : A Simple Correlation 69, no. 655, July 1965, pp.

J. Roy.

CARTER, A. F.; AND LENHERR, F. I_.: Analysis of Geometry Point Performance of Axial-Flow Turbines Using Specified Velocity Gradients. NASA CR-1456, 1969.

and DesignMeridional

97

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

SYMBOLS A flow area, m_; ft 2 force, N; lb constant, 1 ; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)

g h J K L
m

pressure conversion

specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1;778 (ft)(lb)/Btu proportionality loss, mass, swirl number J/kg; kg; Btuflb lb exponent lb/ft 2 of stages N/m_; m; ft J/(kg) °R m/sec; mS/kg; m/sec; kg/sec; flow angle, deg lb/ft 3 (K) ; Btu/(lb) (°R) constant

N

distribution

P R r
8

pressure, reaction radius,

T U V
t)

specific entropy, temperature, K; blade absolute specific relative mass fluid angle density, speed, velocity, volume, velocity, flow rate, absolute

m/sec;

ft/sec ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec deg

W
W o_

efficiency 8 k of rotation, kg/ma; speed-work parameter

Subscripts:
a

first stage annulus component hub general ideal component mean section meridional
net

c

due stage due

to circumferential

flow

h i /d 1 m
me

to linear

acceleration

net
r ro 8

radial rotor

component

component stator stage

due

to streamline

curvature

st

98

VELOCITY

DIAGRAMS

t
_g

tip tangential component axial component at stator inlet at stator at rotor exit exit or rotor inlet

0 1 2 Superscripts: -'

overall absolute

turbine total state

99

CHAPTER 4

BladeDesign
By Warner L.Stewart nd a Arthur . Glassman J
The design of a turbine of the established of velocity of stages. of the blading and covers blade conditions conditions chord can must integrity be expressed or axial profile chapter. chapter. design, Channel used solidity that which surface flow spacing some and overall by consists the This that diagrams. of the of three major of flow, with the steps. work, the The The and first is the These step efficiency third step of design. speed, dictates chord fabrication of blade (ratio part inlet basis of inof this geomelast the for is convelocities is

determination are usually the evolution number and/or required the size, This The the

requirements particular was diagrams

speed. second

application. in chapter involves

consistent discussed This blades. important overall the enough step

desired 3. The and

is the design

will produce

flow angles

by the velocity shape, chapter state state selected The which to spacing) many Blade

the determination aspects of blade of flow, which blade mechanical selection

of the more by the the selected value during

height fluid

of the

is set

requirements diagram, The with The chord in the exit turbine. to allow

and inlet usually siderations. and chord volves chapter. tries part in the assure spacing,

velocity consistent operation. of axial blade

throughout be long

to be a minimum

accurate as solidity first and

structural

nondimensionally (ratio will be discussed includes profiles, theory, the

to spacing),

considerations connecting

as well as the of this next procedures

is then which profile

discussed is the design,

in the

analytical

to accomplish

is discussed

_A_}l___

i_._f,9_i.(L

Y _,. A_

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

SOLIDITY One of the important solidity, value flow, aspects which and is the cost. and due of turbine ratio However, increased affecting diagram and the solidity. that to separated factors blade blading thereby loading concepts reduce of velocity desired from blading the chord spacing flow. This solidity design standpoint reduction eventually section selection. is the chord selection

of the blade A minimum weight, mechanical decreased itself cussion with

of chord

or axial

to spacing. of reducing by in dis-

is usually

cooling blade the

is limited results

considerations, efficiency aerodynamic the effect between and

will concern The on solidity will be a for use to

will include

requirements Also included studied solidity. are being

and the relation description suppress

of advanced separation Effect

permissible on inlet

of Velocity a typical set

Diagrams of blade around

Solidity as well in this chapter referring in the blade from with slightly

Figure as the figure pertains equations rows rather that and if the tions, height fluid used inlet and are

4-1

shows

ai_d (,xit diagrams The velocities in this When velocities discussion bla(t(_ rows. absolute

static-pressure shown we and than to rotor blade must figures. with are exit

distribution as absolute rows use Since stages, chapters.

a blade. The than

velocities. rather chapter exit

as well as to stator in this The

to a rotor,

relative

we are

concerned will differ

the angle

convention values. The

in previous taken and

tang(_ntial-velocity inlet values

component are positive direcof unit by the 2) is (4-1)

flow angle

as negative same then inlet 1 F,, =g smV.,2(

tangential-velocity if in the the two-dimensional blades, blade the

components direction. flow through

ar_ in opposite a passage exerted (subscript

negative considers

If one

between as it flows

two from

tangential

force

(subscript

1) to exit

V,, ,_- V,_ ,_)

where
Fu

tangential conversion blade density, axial tangential tangential 2. The

force,

N; lb 1; $2.17 s m/see ; ft/s(,c m/see; must shows ft/sec b(, _h(_ sam(, t h(_ blade, a typical _s the force of velocity, by the fluid 4-1 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (see 2) m ; ft lb/ft of velocity,

constant, kg/m'_;

8 P

spacing, component

V_ Vu This due

component forc_ exerted part

to the static-pressure lower

distribution of figure

around

as was

discussed

in chapter 102

static-pressure

BLADE Stations 1

DESIGN

surface-'" "_ /- Such'on'_--r-

Vx, 1

--L y2_Vu,

2

.,_-_...._

C X --------_

pl

P

Pl

13-

P2. "'" rs, mln Axial distance

FIOUP, E

4-1.--Typical

blade-row

velocity diagrams distribution.

and

surface

static-pressure

distribution between the flow in the

around two tangential

the blade curves direction.

row as a function the total Thus,

of axial blade

distance. force acting

The on

area the

represents

F,, = c_ where
C_

L'

(pp-

p_) d

(4-2)

axial

chord,

m; ft static static m; ft ¢z, is (4-3) 103 pressure, pressure, N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft lb/ft 2 2

Pv P,
X

pressure-surface suction-surface axial axial distance,

The

solidity,

{T x

_-

--

8

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Substituting

equations

(4-1)

and

(4-2)

into

equation

(4-3)

then

yields

a_ =

(4-4)

g
At this point, been first used is the we introduce the used actual

/0
two tangential blade loading loading that and

d
loading by coefficients blade Zweifel (l) (ref. total that loading. 1). have The This

to relate widely is based static

to an ideal assumes equal surface

coefficient to be constant In equation

introduced

coefficient on the and to the (2) the

on an ideal pressure pressure.

the static

pressure pressure and equal

pressure exit static

surface

to the inlet

oil the suction

to be constant

form,

t'
_, = where
_Z

(pp--

p.)

d (4-5)

pl' -- p_

Zweifel inlet exit static The second static of static can never

loading

coefficient N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 defined surface on that coefficient, this second except is equal surface. that This the loading hand, assumed minimum coeffiit must can ex_b is de-

pl r

total

pressure, pressure,

P_

coefficient pressure pressure exceed

is similarly on the (see a value suction of 1, and form, fig. 4-1) Zweifel

constant value cient ahvays

to the purposes, coefficient

for all practical loading

be less than

1. The

on the other

ceed a value fined as

of 1. In equation

/o
where p,,m,, is the N/m 2 or lb/ft2_ _. The pressed velocity as minimum components

(pp--

p_) d (4-6)

pl p-

ps

,min

static in terms

pressure

on

the and

suction flow

surface are

in ex-

of veloerity

angle

V_ = V sin a and V_ = V cos a 104

(4-7)

(4-8)

BLADE

DESIGN

where V
ot

fluid velocity, fluid flow angle, equations using the

m/see; deg (4-5)

ft/sec

Substituting (4-4) and

or

(4-6), relation

(4-7),

and

(4-8)

into

equation

trigonometric

sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a yields

mVQ (K1) sin 2a2

VQ (K1) sin 2a2 (4--9)

where inlet

K is the to that

ratio

of tangential at the and blade

velocity exit.

component

(Vu.1)

at the

blade

(V,.2)

Derivation velocity pressible and flow

of incompressible-flow loading With are with no loss.

relations.--Relations usually evolved by this assumption,

involving assuming density

solidity, incom-

diagrams,

p is constant,

Bernoulli's

equation P'= 1 P-k--z pV 2 zg (4-10) (K-1) into equation sin2a_ (4-9) (4-10)

can be used.

Substituting (K-1)

equation sin2a2

yields

-

(4-11)

¢ ,,W,,
where Let V_ is the velocity on the suction surface where parameter p = p_._,. D, as us now define a suction-surface diffusion

D_ =
V_ 2

(4-12)

Many parameters the deceleration indication this of the definition

of this type have been of the flow on the suction susceptibility (4-12)) (K_ = (eq. in equation 1) sin 2a2 =

used to represent a measure of surface. This deceleration is an blade to separate. Using (4-11) (Kyields 1) sin 2a2 (4-13)

of the flow on the

Equation constant coefficient can be seen

(4-13) for each _, which that

shows particular cannot

that exceed

the

solidity a value results

parameter requirement. of 1, does primarily not

a,_D, vary

or

a,_, loading

is it

velocity-diagram solidity

Since

greatly, suction-

decreasing

in increased

105

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

surface later gential 4-2(a). value and represents exit primarily solidity sents increases diffusion move value

diffusion in this velocity A value of K=tangential parameter

(higher The K ratio

D,), for

the

consequence parameter values a reaction blade, Positive same blades.

of which is plotted of exit blade and values flow

will be discussed against angle axial with the tana 1 in figure inlet, inlet (4-13), repreparameter diagrams any given an exit with and of K <encountered

chapter.

solidity several an represents blade. in the of rotor

of K=0 1 represents

impulse

a value and are

a negative

reaction velocities is equal there

of K represent equation solidity velocity that for

direction angles

in the tip sections

As seen from

to zero for all exit is no turning K values. must It impulse. solidity value Thus, can

for K = 1. This

the case where with from

of the flow. The if excessive as the be seen increase

decreasing toward

suction-surface

is to be avoided, reaction of 45 ° . (4-13) the can equation

of K, a xnaximum

of solidity

parameter

is obtained of the inlet

exit angle Equation angles

be

modified derived
2 COS COS

to a function in reference
o_2

to yield

1.

ax_z O/1

sin (m--

a2)

(4-14)

For brevity, (4-14) of the angle given In the each which shows flow for exit inlet

this is expressed that angles angle, angle relation the only. values solidity decreases can solidity

only

in terms parameter

of the _ angle can

coefficient

_,.

Equation in terms exit flow For angle. for R, a

parameter inlet (m> flow

be expressed against 4-2(b).

Solidity of the parameter with

is plotted with

several

in figure increasing solidity

increases

inlet parameter

region

of most

interest

0 °, a2 <-45°), exit. angle. one in terms this

decreasing 2 as
Wl 2

A third

be evolved,

of blade

reaction

was defined

in chapter

R--l---V= 2

(4-15)

Substituting

equation

(4-8)

into

equation

(4-15)

yields

R=

1-(

c°s a2_ 2
\cos al/

(4-16)

for

the

two-dimensional, of equation

incompressible-flow (4-16) 2 _=--x/l-Z- R sin Aa back into

case, equation

where (4-14)

V,a=Vx,2. then yields

Substitution

(4-17)

wkere 106

Aa is m--a2.

BLADE

DESIGN

Exit-flow angle,
m x O

% deg -45

__ X tD t..

E

1--

-75 or -15 -60 or -30 (a)

O

°.5

I

I

I

J
-1.5

0 -.5 -1.0 Tangential velocity ratio, K

3F

_lnlet-flow

angle,

Y,
I
-30 -45 -60 -75 Exit-flow angle, % deg

3 [--

!
,

Turn ing angle,

z_
deg ,_ or 120

g

2__--_...._

0 -. 25

0

.25 .50 Reaction, R

.75

I. O0

(a) Effect

of tangential-velocity ratio and exit-flow angle. (b) Effect of exit- and inlet-flow angles. (c) Effect of reaction and turning angle. FIGURE 4-2.--Effect of velocity diagrams on solidity.

107

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Equation reaction reaction that, creasing angle turnings Radial diagrams and value flows radial of axial (zero varying and

(4-17) turning for several

expresses angle. values The varies

the The the with

solidity solidity angle solidity turning the

parameter parametor in figure parameter unless radial both was the very

in terms is plotted 4-2(c). decreases for high

of blade against with inlow

of turning solidity little

It can be seen a turning

as indicated reaction. of 90 ° and are used.

previously,

parameter

is a maximum

or very

variation.--Chapter that velocity must occur equilibrium. diagrams, The exit Consider and ratio °, and hub from at the solidity. inlet of -70 Since

3 discussed in order there nature swirls), axial

variations varying shown variation to

in velocity blade vary in the inlet speed with desired and exit exit the

to satisfy solidity

will be a radial of this radial turbine constant rotor swirl the (4-14) are

variation having axial hub

will be illustrated axial a constant this ease,

by an example. hub-to-tip-radius flow angle flow values angles

a single-stage of 0.7, an impulse free-vortex and tip and equation

velocities, with For in the

a stator-hub solidity-parameter following

distribution. shown

corresponding

computed

table:

Stator

Rotor

Inlet angle, deg

Exit angle, deg

Solidity parameter,
ffx_z

Inlet angle, deg

Exit angle, (leg

Solidity parameter,
ffz_ z

Hub

0

- 70

0.64

54

--54

1.90

Tip

0

- 62

.83

--2

--63

.79

Note what are

again different negative.

that

the from

angle that that This us

convention of previous the is to how a loading

being chapters.

used

in this

chapter stator exit

is someangles the

Herein,

Assume enables

coefficient desirable solidity and must

_b_ is to be maintained condition, to the and directly solidity

constant assumption parameter.

radially.

reasonably

proportion the hub row

Let us now determine shown solidity radius 108 in the preceding blade variation (because in any

tip values physically be

of solidity consistent. to

parameter The radius) axial to and

table

can bc made is directly

blade

inversely

proportional

spacing

proportional

directly proportional to
parameter corresponding 0.64X0.7=0.45, fore, axial a considerable chord at the tip hub which axial can increase of the were rotor, held value

axial of taper

chord. If axial the from radius axial be half

For chord of the tip

the solidity

stator, held

the

axial

solidity then the be the

is 0.64.

were desired

constant, of 0.83. used solidities at the which from Taper but stress. axial velocity coefficient. hub

axial

parameter value is often

would so that

is almost with the constant, would of 0.79. so that solidities standpoint especially a radial

Theredesired is 1.90. of the larger is to

to hub

and yield solidity then the 1.90X0.7=

the higher parameter

at the tip. In the If axial axial than often radius cally used, axial this where turbine Effect the used and case chord corresponding 1.33, taper tip. axial at the desirable, blade turbines, tip value is still hub from with

solidity

parameter value blades the is not from results lower the cases,

desired in rotor yield

Therefore, axial chord desired

to tip increasing hub

can decrease

tip in the rotor desirable and radial the there fabrication solidity

only aerodynamically

is also mechaniTo simplify taper With is not the those effect on

of reducing for smaller of the loaded, term variation

in many selected variation blading

in loading mean-section in many will not

on the basis in loading is not highly

diagrams,

cocfficient

cases, have

especially

a severe

performance. of compressibility.--Thc

pl r-

p*,min

in equation shown loading

(4-9)

reduces (4-13). yields

to 1/D, For

for incompressible flow, division

flow

conditions, the (4-9)

as same

by equation coefficient (4-13)

a compressible

flow case having of equation

¢ as for incompressible

by equation

1 2g t_ V_D'
O"x

(4-18)
_*,inc plt-Ps,,nin

where equation between (1-61), equation

ax,,,c such

is the

incompressible (4-14), ratio, to and density,

flow or (4-17).

value

as

determined the (1-3), (eqs.

from relations (1-52), (4-12)),

an

as (4-13), velocity and

By introducing pressure definition

critical (1-63), (4-18)

and the

(1-64))

using

of D, (eq.

is modified

109

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

0"2:

(4-19) 7'+1 V-c, 2

O'X

, inC

where 7 Vc. Then, equation ratio of specific heat constant volume critical by using (4-19) velocity, binomial m/sec; expansion at constant pressure to specific heat at

ft/sec and by neglecting as the secondary terms,

can be approximated

O" x

- 1 a_,,._ The (V ratio approximation diffusion 4-3. The increases effect represented 1. The parameter compressibility from with value _'+1 by

e 2(7+1) equation ratio effect a value of ( V (4-20) values becomes is quite of critical more

(4-20)

good

for

Vcr)_ values in figure

up to about

solidity

_x/¢=._,_ is plotted

against velocity is no

suction-surface as D, either compressibility 2, the required

for several

pronounced of less than of (V/Vc_)_.

or decreases for any decreases

of 2. At D, = 2, there values

V,r) 2. For D, values increasing

solidity

1.50

--

Exitcritical-velocity ratio, (V/Vcr)2 1.2

.__1. 25 O

1.0 .6 0

.50

1

I

2 3 Suction-surface iffusionparameter, s d O

FIGURE

4-3.--Effect

of compressibility

on

axial

solidity.

110

BLADE

DESIGN

For

Do values

of more the

than

2, a region of good

that design

is only

of academic the

interest ratio D, values

because

it is beyond

limits

practice,

solidity

increases with increasing (V/V_r)2. should be maintained below about Relation It is well recognized pressor Correlation described This reflecting evolved parameter energy neglect is assumed parameter turning is defined on the suction that the =0), (Vp.,,i, blade is an of blade in reference includes and that important loss 2 and two solidity. ratio pressure surface the Dwith the

Experience has shown that 2 to avoid excessive losses. to Solidity of a turbine of both within blade

of Loss loading function a is used terms, An

or of a comand reaction. was field. was

solidity the reaction

compressor widely analogous one reflecting in reference

diffusion

parameter compressor parameter

and the second diffusion in kinetic energy. enough as If it to

diffusion 3, where

for the case of the turbine as the and then pressure

an overall kinetic is low

of the

sum of the minimum diffusion

decelerations

surfaces

to the exit velocity

overall
2

parameter

is defined

V,_.,-

V22+ V12 V_ 2 (eq. (4-12)) and R (eq.

(4-21 (4-15)),

)

With equation

the

use (4-21)

of the

definitions to

of D,

reduces

D=D,-R As seen from equation (4-13), _ =_D_ Substitution yields
2 COS COS _2 _1 .

(4-22)

(4-23) (4-14) into equation (4-22) then

of equations

(4-23)

and

D _z_

sm Aa--R

(4-24)

This

relation and (ref.

is like solidity. have 4)

that

for made

compressors, to correlate (ref.

with turbine 5)

the

two blade

terms loss

involving with both A

reaction Attempts overall

been and

suction-surface loss with could not parameter and

diffusion

parameters.

definite trend but complete blade different not Consider figure 4-4(a). loss give the with values

of increasing correlation diffusion of reaction loss. the effect

increasing diffusion be obtained. Such alone would giving on loss, from not the same

was established, a correlation of be expected, value since of D do in near 111

solidity

same first

of reaction is reduced

as shown

qualitatively high value

As reaction

a relatively

TURBINE unity, reaction tion flow of the The frictional on the of these

DESIGN AND APPLICATION occurs with from a gradual values reaction are highly desired increase cause the is caused discussed accelerating in many when solidity. unit flow unit required. The value in blade by the loss. Further rapidly. as the The blading increases, is increasing loss occurs suction-surface change 6) reductions This nature variaof the reaction because in

there in loss varies high effect

to negative (which

loss to increase in chapter to diffusing.

in boundary-layer negative avoided is used. A minimum the amount is reduced, because diffusion of as a result of

characteristics regime, although

applications, conventional As solidity is increasing. surface

is usually in figure

loss encountered of solidity at some surface hand, surface area the optimum per

on loss is indicated

4-4(b).

loss occurs other

As solidity

loss per

area

the increased

diffusion factors.

A minimum of the

opposing

Reaction, R

o .-I

(b)

Axialsolidity,ox

FIGURE 4-4.--Loss 112

(a) Reaction. (b) Solidity. trend with reaction

and solidity.

BLADE

DESIGN

parameter factors tribution, such

corresponding as Reynolds rate about and

to the number,

optimum shape

solidity of suction

is a function surface previously,

of many disvalues

velocity

of turning.

In gencral,

as mentioned

not exceeding

2.0 are used.

Selection Both optimum Zweifel tion the locus analytical solidity. loading and

of Optimum attempts to 0.8. can and

Solidity have been made value in figure represents to identify when the of the in equa4-5 (a)

experimental _b, is equal solidity The the

According coefficient axial

to reference

1, minimum By using be determined

loss occurs this

(4-14), blade-row of points

optimum inlet range and

as a function curve

exit flow angles, dashed blading. optimum the stagger
_X

this is plotted

for a wide In order

of angles. for impulse

(long-short) values angle in terms

to determine to determine

of actual

solidity,

it is necessary

as, because

_COS as

(4-25)

An analytical to the solidity figure determined measured The solidity were 4-5(b). with

blade obtained The in this four is seen

model and the

was axial

used

in reference Thus, and of inlet

6 to relate optimum exit angles,

stagger

angle in was 4-6. as

flow angles

solidity.

values

of actual solidity

as a function of reference the rotor data with

as shown efficiency in figure such efficiency

authors way different

6 compared of reference in reference to that as shown yielding presented solidity) 4-7

an optimum 7, where here 6 from

solidities,

determined

as optimum to be quite close

a figure

figure 4-5(b) for this case. function reaction in relative various optimum curves solidity the from the exit the nounced of figure exit

maximum

Loss coefficients blades

based

on cascade ratio replotted impulse curves larger region not the It must obtained blade

data blades here indicate

are of

in reference and against exit

8 as a for for the in As pro-

of pitch/chord terms, angles. For flat solidity. are rather from angle and are

(inverse

angle coefficients, solidity

(al = 0) and These the in the does

(al = - a_). These the importance values loss, and some increase becomes

in figure negative) any

of selecting deviation in loss. more departs as those

(more cause become

of exit angle,

of minimum minimum

optimum gets the loss

significant loss region severe that blade

smaller, value. the

penalties

more

as solidity curves shape velocity such

optimum Thus,

be recognized by using a given and

4-7 are usually optimized is somewhat

and varying distribution of such a

spacing.

shape

resultant and the

cannot be correlation

for each clouded.

solidity,

significance

113

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Inlet-flow

6--

\

\

angle,

\

\
\

\

_1_ \ -2

Typeof bladerow

_4

_ "" _. _ _ _ _

"_

-----Impulse -- ---- Decelerating

"_3-

40

\ \ \\\\\

\\

g'
1 (a)

o1.1_

I

I

I

I
Inlet-flow angle,

I

I

m

\ \
\

\

\ \ \
\70

% \ deg

\80
\ \ \ \ \
\

\
\

\ \ \ \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \

(b)

o
-20 -30

I

I

I

I
-70

I
-80

-40 -50 -60 Exit-flow angle,o2, deg

FIGURE 4-5.--Effect

(a) Axial solidity. (b) Actual solidity. of inlet and exit angles on optimum coefficient _= =0.8.

solidity.

Zweifel loading

114

BLADE

DESIGN

•9O _

Optimumsolidity from

Number blades

• _

. 88 • .86 .8 I 1.2 I [ 1.6 2.0 Solidity, o I 2.4

o
o

24 of 64

" I 2.8

FmURE 4-6.--Variation 10,--

of efficiency

with solidity

for four turbines Exit-flow angle, a2, deg i" -70
_ -60 I

of reference

7.

\
\ 8-i

------

Reaction blades(ol = O) Impulseblades = -a2) (al

\
_ _I

6'_

__

"_-40

4
I ""*-

_ .... %
_ _

>"
80

,,--7o

Ol

1.5

2.0 2.5 Solidity, o

3.0

3.5

FIGURE 4-7.---Effe(:t

of solidity and exit angle on blade-loss

coeffi(.ient.

The figure with that not and time mental factors

optimum 4-7 those are obtained for most curves impulse with results that exit the act

solidities plotted between exit-angle do cross (al = -a_) angle analytical pertain to determine

obtained exit and values. other not blading, results

from angle shown

the

cascade 4-8 the the

results and are

shown compared results and It is obvious

in

against analytically the each are just to one

in figure in figure and

4-5(b). analytical experimental variations can and

agreement good the

experimental Although for both the involve similar. blade

is the

analytical solidity

the reaction All that profile,

(c_ = 0) blading in optimum be said the there are that at this experimany we do 115

indicated many solidity

is that

assumptions, in a manner

particular optimum

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

------

Based analytical esultsof fig. 4-_b) on r Based experimental on resultsoffig. 4-7 Inlet-flow angle, al, deg

- 2

-a 2

1-0
E -(]2

o
-30

I
-40

I

I

I
-10

I
-80

-50 -_ Exit-flow angle,(]p deg
of optimum

FIGURE

4-8.--Comparison

solidities.

not are

yet more

fully results, ¢,

understand. used of 0.9 such values

Analytical to determine shown to 1. 1.0,

results, in figure which

such 4-7.

as those solidity Current higher

of figure are than design

4-5,

frequently

optimum

than

experipractice the 0.8

mental

as those

is to use recommended

is slightly

in reference

Ultralow-Solidity In the occurring some The approach boundary increasing the are blade. the success. Studies alternate tandem, test references The minated 116 is suppressed treatment layer the Two past, the limitation suction in blade to reductions of the high Such concept must layer

Blading in solidity blade. losses })e utilized do not could boundary layer been have, are rotor tests in the the have that which and region has such occur. of separation include layer explored perhaps, illustrated concepts blades removing by blowing, with better marginal potential 4--9. as the plain, in is one the or on been lower that separation solidities, separation

on the and

surface

To achieve

modification

the associated of the boundary solidity. by suction,

to reduced

treatments

energizing of the concepts concepts blades,

turbulence of these alternate and the concepts 9 and jet-flap

boundary

by use

of turbulators

Certain

blade jet-flap

tandem applying blade and

in figure as well

boundary-layer to stator blades 10, respectively. blades tandem

treatment Cascade and

are summarized 11 to 14. Turbine are presented

in references results

of low-solidity rotors

are presented

in references jet-flap that, 2), The

with 15 and

low-solidity operates diffusion the point

16, respectively. on the principle is utilized of separation. (perhaps although the front a high value foil is terthen diffusion

tandem

blade

of suction-surface at about

remaining

BLADE

DESIGN

Tandem blades

Jet-flap blades

FIGURE

4-9.--Low-solidity

blading

concepts.

takes The trailing the own

place

on the

rear

foil with mainstream

a clean

boundary

layer thc

and

with

perhaps out the the rear

20 to 30 percent

of the

air going

through

slot. jetting moves

jet-flap blade operates with edge perpendicular to the point around the Figure 1.2 the jet 4-10 trailing delivers shows In addition,

a secondary air stream main stream. This jet edge, some thereby force to the

stagnation lift.

substantially blade velocity

increasing througl_ distributions its

momentum.

experimental

1.0

(-1 Jeton (4 percentflow) 0 Jetoff .-._- -O..[:r

_,

Suctionsurface
IJ

_ e'-

6I I°

4

Pressure

surface

f_

I

2

__
, I
20

I

I

I
80

I
100

0

40 60 Axialchord,percent

FIGURE

4-10.---Jet-flap

experimental

velocity

distributions.

117

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

around longer

one such

blade

with for the with

the jet velocities edge. load

off and The

on. With loading surface

the and

jet on, there pressure

is no

a requirement shape, the the

on the suction coefficient _ more

surfaces

to be equal a rectangular unity. thus tial other Both sidered Also,

at the blade diffusion

trailing the

diagram

now approaches approaching reduced, the potenbe confor

closely

on the and the The

suction

is substantially concepts air flow offer

suppressing for solidity only purposes,

tendency

to separate. tandem-blade jet flap, however, a secondary will probably

the jet-flap-blade reductions. for applications such

where cooling.

is required

as blade

BLADE-PROFILE After determined This involves to and connecting designed channel exit must the blade from surface provide thc free the chord solidity profiles. stream. required length has of the The The inlet been inlet and

DESIGN selected the blade and exit parts and itself exit the must blade spacing and must the the loss. inlet the be and blade

considerations,

be designed. blade

determination a smooth,

geometries of the between

efficient surface flow turning Exit

transition profiles with

connecting minimum

provide

Consideration throat, trailing reference the blade discussion significant 4-11, new just station The diagram which within and edge loss. effect shows the the Trailing

of the suction consistent This

blade surface with

exit

section the

includes throat

the and

trailing the the As of the

edge,

the edge.

between of turbines, mechanical

trailing

edge.--In

the design

it is wise to utilize considerations. thickness causes thickness exit region. with the as part blade with The velocity the obtain blade this the

smallest shown in in a

17, an increase effect in chapter of the

in trailing-edge is discussed addition, effect 7. In

an increase turbine-loss also has

further in the

trailing-edge will be made at station

on the flow blockage blockage blade example diagram blade

Consideration exit-velocity

use of figure used. is located due to the at region. 2a than A

sections region. beyond used to

nomenclature 2a, which area at station trailing-edge

is constructed in a higher just been

trailing-edge results have

reduced

trailing-edge equations

blockage that

2, which

is located

"within-the-blade"

at 2a include

conservation

of tangential V,,.2, = V,,,2

momentum: (4-26)

and

continuity

:

(p
S COS or2

_)_

(4-27)

118

BLADE

DESIGN

Station 1

0

$

FIQU_E 4-11.--Blade

section and nomenclature.

where between

t is the

trailing-edge from equations 2a and

thickness, (4-26) The 2 to bc either to produce at station assumptions. flow 3Iach in the high inside a turbine fig. 4-11)

in meters and blade

or feet. by

The (since

flow angle the the to have

asa flow an

is determined stations are usually

(4-27) must

assuming

incompressible

changes

small)

or isentropic.

be designed angle determined angle blade

exit angle of a2a in order 2 outside the blade row. The preceding is often blockage the design Mach number and the to be station equations and specified can cause flow rate

a velocity-diagram 2a can also be the at the

as at station from the large 2)

Because number subsonic choked. the blade blade

as is often exit the (station

(65 ° or greater)

region, row

trailing-edge important such that with of

2a to become be obtained.

It is, therefore, will occur

to determine Throat.--Since,

whether

choking cannot

in general, opening o (see One in

row operates area, a rather velocity

as a nozzle, the determination critical diagram. suction aspect to give this

the flow accelerating of the the throat design procedure. use of the no change

up to the throat, technique conditions

or minimum becomes used

successfully and a straight

dimenIf one surface 119

sion makes assumes

"inside-the-trailing-edge" flow

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

between obtained equation:

the from

throat the

and velocity

station diagram

2a,

then

the

throat 2a by

dimension using the

can

be

at station

following

o(
= where throat o is the and the throat opening, that the If it is assumed "free-stream"

1
8 cos (T2a

cos a:_

(4-28)

in meters velocity station
0 -= 8 COS

or feet. loss do not change between the

and

2, then

q2

(4-29)

When the (4-28) measured

this and

method of the (4-29)) exit-flow indicates solidities

is used, throat angles close

the

effect but throat those

of trailing-edge not its length. dimensions. predicted at exit down angles that from exit

thickness Both Reference greater would methods

changes (cqs. This 60 ° and could be across (4-28) then at the section (up to, 8 compares

angle

position with

give similar

by equation

(4-29). than occur

comparison deviations due to lower the throat. The or If the from exit. (throat) divergent perhaps, achieved additional case, the following (4-29) flow the For

agreement

of up to 5 ° for exit angles

to 35 ° . This

deviation

as well as larger dimension as

gradients determined the blade-row

throat-opening applies within throat 5[ach to the the

equation velocity, condition choking numbers

case

wherc row must throat within For greater

flow is subsonic. for expansion

blade dimension

expands

to a supersonic to account 1.3, the such that i\[ach supersonic

this computed sonic exit must

be modified to the than the about channel

condition be located

at the back

numbers is obtained.

a convergentcan be and the In by this the

passage

low supersonic

1.3), it has if the throat flow required equation:

been found that satisfactory performance is still located at the exit of the channel, occurs exit downstream dimension from o would the throat. be computed

expansion channel

(4-30)
o = o_ \A _} where throat opening computed velocity, flow, m; ft m2; ft 2 flow, me; fC" from equation (4-28) or (4-29) for

058

supersonic Act A,, 120 flow area flow area

for sonic

for supersonic

BLADE

DESIGN

1.0

¢3

.9--

Rt

1.1
Mach

1

I
number

I

1.4

1

FIGUttE 4-12.--Variati(m

ill flow area with supersonic

flow Mach munl_er.

This exit,

area

correction, in figure the such 5[ach surface

with 4-12. downstream throat number

assumed from and

isentropic throat.--The edge as structural and associated surface

flow between selection on the suction integrity losses, area

throat of the surface type

and of

is shown between from region,

Suction surface be made edge design. A "straight unity) or transonic paragraph, on the tail problems solidity 5lost ture fusion ably at curw'd from effect the the

trailing

must level of the

considerations level (D_), and

in the desired resulting

trailingfrom

suction-surface

diffusion back" blading, uses this of the and the design and type blade the

blade when edges

is used trailing

low values by the associated the can become utilizes region.

of D,

(approximately High subsonic next in the low.

are specified

long

are permissible. discussion losses to prevent

as would and surface

be indicated in order the that edge keep are

of surface

flow acceleration Principal lowflimsy. of curvasome difangle of this (which curvature the effect in for the on the instead be lower is considerpreclude

with designs

a straight

low D, values some This and

long trailing and

structurally amount permits it adds the 0.8, than effect 4-13 the 0.8), selected

conventional throat and additional

gas-turbine h)ading integrity

blading

between to the exit. surface is small.

trailing-edge on the ()f the loaded great. 5Iach blade

tail of the blade, blading

structural

by introducing is used, t)y figure

a wedge

If eonv(,ntionally on loss is not exit-flow severe. number between velocity if the constant. curvature At higher

As indicated number numbers design The and type

ref. 8), if the

is less than (greater curvatures of curvature edge the

(,xit Mach Therefore, regions. the throat decreases distribution.

on loss can become higher 5[ach suction surface

should

trailing from throat

has an effect velocity edge

suction-surface is improved of remaining

In general,

distribution

to trailing

121

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Mach number 1.0

__o .-

j

m

_\\ L°7

.2 .4 .6 .8 Ratio ofblade spacing surfaceradiusofcurvature to

FIauR_

4-13.--Variation

of between

profile throat

h)ss

with and exit

Math (from

numl_er ref. _).

and

surface

curvature

Inlet The than erally number velocities diffusion numbers, to choke used and inlet and edges ellipses, leading-edge the exit-region radius geometry geometry. earl usually and then the case toward that inlet. a serious In inlet of a turbine At increases the be used, blade blade because through row is usually inlet, the the .\lach blade less critical large is genlead5 [ach high 5[ach as were

a relatively number row. and The high

leading-edge

low at the inlet blading. in the and care the

ing edge bccomes

concern can

for low-reaction lead the to high area

blading binding, values With and

of low-reaction i:_creased Equations and arc

excessively high inlet which

region

of suction-surface is not so severe (4-27), a blade-inlet to check this opening for bladeis arbitrary in the and as can leading such edge,

a tendency must blade bIade at the exit,

losses. (4-26)

be taken

contraction

for thc choking.

can also be used flow angle

to det('rmin(' 5[aeh usually number

"within-the-blade" circular limit result the region.

Although could can leading-edge pressure-surface

leading freedom The large

edges of

specified, with

velocity-distribution associated peaks edge. Other around peaks. on both

selection circular the suction-

curvatures velocity leading

in undesirable portions permit of the variations or eliminate

geometries, the leading

which

in curvature the velocity

be used to minimize

Blade-Surface Once task 122 the leadingand trailing-edge them with

Profile geometri('s a profih_ that, have yields been the selected, required the flow

remaining

is t:o join

BLADE

DESIGN

turning desigu Two pressure turn velocity of these procedures The the

and

a satisfactory must sufficient major flow occur as a result Radial as a result influence should the flow analysis and

velocity to impose across of the

distribution design the controls arc channel

around through (e.g., the

the

blade.

The rows 4-14. to the to both

procedure of the

describe

the flow conditions

the blade diffusion in figure required suction and,

to an accuracy Velocity

limits).

considerations

illustrated from

gradients surface flow. occur factors used

static-pressure in streamlinc velocity serves

difference position considerations. distribution,

variations

therefore, Since the design nature. design comthe

of radial-equilibrium the blade-surface be at theory in the ncxt least that programs chapter.

of a quasi-three-dimensional as the basis for these available to perform

channel

procedures putations

computer

are discussed

Pressure
surface7

_ Suction
_su rface

..-Pressure surface
Cross-channel

Suction surface_..
distance

(a)

__

-'Nl
,
_ I
¢";1

, 'lEi.:_.i:!_._.:._::..::::::_i_!| Tip : _i_ Rotorf_ii!i| _
°--

"'- Tip

NN

_::
/

,-Hub
Velocity (b)

(a)

Cross-channel (b) Radial

variation. variation. velocity variations.

FIGURE

4-14.--Turbine

blade-row

123

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

REFERENCES
1.
ZWEIFEL,

O.:

The

Spacing Brown

of

Turbo-Machine Rev., vol. C.;

Blading, 32, no.

Especially 12, Dec. 1945,

with pp.

Large

Angular 2. LIEBLEIN, sion

Deflection. SEYMOUR;

Boveri

436-444. L.: Diffu-

SCHWENK,

FRANCIS and

AND BEODERICK, Blade

ROBERT

Factor

for Estimating Blade Elements. L.;

Losses NACA

Limiting E531)O1, J.;

Loadings

in Axial-Flow-

Compressor 3. STEWART, amination Parameters.
4. STEWART,

RM ARTHUR

1953. MICHAEL Using R.: Ex-

WARNER

GLASSMAN, Turbine

AND VANCO, Characteristics

of Axial-Flow Paper
WARNER

Blade-Lolling ASME,
WARREN

Diffusion

67-WA/GT-8,
L.; WHITNEY,

Nov.
J.;

1967.
AND MISER, JAMES W.: Use of

Effective NACA 5. WosG, for Four
6. MISER,

Momentum RM E56B29, Y.; Based

Thickness 1956. AND STEWART, on Wake Turbine Rotors.

in

])escribing

Turbine

Rotor-Blade

Losses.

ROBERT Losses a Series Transonic
JAMES

WARNER Blades NACA
L.;

L.:

Correlation with

of

Turbine-BladeParameter and for Cascade

Element

Momentum in RM

Thickness

Diffusion

of Subsonic Turbine
W.; STEWART,

Two-Dimensional E55BOS,
WHITNEY,

1955. WARREN in Blade H.: Four of Rep. J.: Analysis

WARNER

AND

of 7.

Turbomachine RM JACK E56F21, A.; of NACA
l). G.; AND

Viscous 1956. WHITNEY, a RM

Losses ROSE L.;

Affected

by

Changes

Geometry. Experimental Rotor-Blade

NACA HELLER, Solidities.
8. AINLEY,

AND CAVlCCHI, Designed

RICHARD at

Investigation

Conservatively E52C17, 1952.
G.

Turbine An Examination Turbines.

MATHIESON,

C.

R.:

the

Flow

and 2891,

Pressure Aeronautical
9. BETTNER,

Losses

in

Blade

Rows Gt.

of

Axial-Flow Britain,
M. :

R&M

Research
L. ; AND

Council,
NOSEK,

1955. Summary of Tests Cascade on Two Highly Paper Sector.

JAMES

STANLEY

Loaded

Turbine

Blade ASME,

Concepts Nov. 1969. R.

in Three-Dimensional

69-WA/GT-5, 10. LUEDZRS, cepts 2, Apr. 11. STABE, Blade 12. NOSEK, tion 13. NOSEK, Jet-Flap 14. STABS, Stator 1971. 15. BETTNER, Solidity 16. 17. BETTNER, Solidity, PRUST, Geometry ing. NASA JA_ES Tandem JAMES Jet HERMAN and TN H. G.;

AND ROELKE, to Increase pp. 198-206. and ])esign

J.:

Some Blade

Experimental Loading. Cascade of 0.5.

Results J. Eng. Test TM Power, of

of Two vol. 92,

Conno.

Designed 1970, ROY with
STANLEY

Turbine

G.: Ratio

Two-Dimensional Chord to Spacing
JOHN

Turbine X-1991,

Stator 1970. Investiga-

of Axial
U.; AND

NASA

KLINE,

F.:Two-Dimensional

Cascade TM X-1836, 1969. Cascade

of a Turbine STANLEY Turbine ROY G.: Blade

Tandem M.;

Blade

Design. JOHN NASA F.: TM

NASA

AND KLINE, Blade. and Ratio

Two-l)imensional X-2183, Cascade to Spacing 1971. Test of 0.5.

Test

of a

Rotor

l)_ign with

Two-Dimensional of Axial Chord

of a Jet-Flap NASA TM

Turbine X-2426,

L.:

l)esign Rotor.

and NASA and NASA AND on 1972.

Experimental CR-1803, Experimental CR-1968, HELON, the Performance

Results 1971. Results 1972. RONALD M.:

of a Highly

Loaded,

Low

L.: W.,

l)esign Rotor. Jm;

of a Highly Effect of

Loaded, Trailing-Edge Stator

Low

Flap

Thickness 1)-6637.

of Certain

Turbine

Bind-

124

BLADE

DESIGN

SYMBOLS A
C

flow area, chord, diffusion

m_; ft 2 parameter 1; 32.17 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) of velocity ( V_ ._/V,._)

m; ft

D F g K
o

force, N; lb conversion constant, ratio throat absolute reaction blade absolute axial blade of inlet opening, pressure, spacing, m; ft

to exit tangential N/m2; lb/ft

components _

P R
8

m; ft thickness, m; ft ft/scc axial direction, deg deg to specific heat at m/sec; from from at a by equation by equation (4-6) (4-5)

t V
X

trailing-edge distance, stagger

velocity, angle angle

m; ft axial direction, constant

fluid absolute
o_8

ratio of specific heat constant volume density, solidity loading
_bz

pressure

kg/m'_; coefficient coefficient

lb/ft

defined defined

loading

Subscripts" cr inc max rain opt p s ss u x 1 2 2a critical incompressible maximum value minimum optimum pressure suction supersonic tangential surface surface component value

axial component blade row inlet blade within row exit edge of blade row trailing

Superscript" ' absolute total state

125

CHAPTER 5

Channel Analysis Flow
ByTheodore Katsanis

The chapter determine analysis

design

of a proper

blade

profile, of the

as indicated blade-row surfaces. This used for this that were

in the flow

last

section in order

of to the also

4, requires

calculation

field

the velocities on the blade theory for several methods programs

chapter presents calculation and developed at

discusses associated computer Lewis Research Center. The cannot nonsteady, passages. simplifying simplified surfaces Similar mean surface), directly, actual velocity be calculated viscous, To calculate assumptions to flow at this

NASA field of

distribution time

throughout because velocity of the flow through made. various The

a blade-row extreme geometrically therefore,

flow complexity

three-dimensional a theoretical must be

complex certain flow is Such

distribution, two-dimensional

three-dimensional surfaces.

on or through

are illustrated in figure 5-1 for the case of a radial-inflow turbine. surfaces are used for an axial-flo(v turbine. A flow solution on the hub-to-shroud shown but provides stream in figure surface does (commonly not (fig. yield for the 5-1 (c)) called the meridional velocities surface which a velocity mathematical solution of the and potentialyield dis5-1 (a), blade-surface blade-to-blade solutions,

information

required

(fig. 5-1 (b)) and orthogonal surface the desired blade-surface velocities. There tribution formulation of the problem, we are over two of the will parts to a method surfaces. and streamthe For the one of these problem, problem. discuss (stream-filament)

of analysis The second and first part

to obtain part is the is the

numerical formulation

mathematical

mathematical potential-function The

methods and

velocity-gradient

methods.

stream-

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Hub-to-shroud
stream surface -_ |

Blade-_,-blade surface]
I

(a)

0_)

,- Ortho_nm

(c) (a) Hub-to-shroud stream surface. (b) Blade-to-blade (c) Orthogonal surface across flow passage. FIOURE 5--1.--Surfaces used for velocity-distribution calculations. surface.

128

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

function solution. The

methods A similar

will be described type of analysis equation assumptions herein: relative point the is steady at any system. the ideal-gas given is rotating, surfaces. are

relative

to the

blade-to-blade

surface surface.

can be made

for the meridional is general the This does not not

velocity-gradient following The if the coordinate The flow blade

to be presented made to flow law

and can be used various means vary methods that with relative the time. to a

for solutions The (1) surface Thus, fixed (2) of analysis

on any of the discussed

in deriving the would blade.

velocity

on the blade

be steady

fluid obeys

p=pRT where p p R T absolute density, absolute pressure, kg/m_; J/(kg) N/m_; lb/ft S (K); (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) K; °R lb/ft 2

(5-1)

gas constant,

temperature,

or is incompressible (3) The

(p = constant). A nonviscous fluid therefore, has no boundary as if the free layer. stream

fluid is nonviscous.

The blade-surface velocity is calculated, extends to the blade surface. (4) (5) (6) inlet. (7) The The The For fluid total the has a constant heat and flow is isentropic. temperature streamthat and the total

capacity. pressure are uniform the across additional the

potential-function flow is absolutely curl Y = VX V =0 vector.

analyses, irrotational.

assumption

is made

Therefore, (5-2) this means that

where particles their particle particle net blade,

Y is the do at not may times shape

absolute change change. t and its location

velocity their For t-t-At. and

Intuitively, with shows instant frame figure 5-2

absolute example, In the shape

orientation absolute at a later the frame

time,

although the the to the

a hypothetical of reference, of time, relative but

changes the particle

rotation

is zero.

Of course,

in a frame because

of reference

has rotated,

of reference

has rotated.

129

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Direction of rotation

Time = t

r-l
LJ

Time-t+At

I

I

(Absolute frame of reference)

Time=t + At (Relative frame ofreference)

FIGURE

5--2.--Absolutely

irrotational

flow.

Some also techniques excellent given

numerical

techniques However,

for solving it must

the

mathematical that

equations there only a few. cascades

will An is

be discussed.

be emphasized

are many

for solving theoretical

these equations, and we will discuss discussion of flow in two-dimensional 1.

in Chapter

IV of reference

STREAM-

AND

POTENTIAL-FUNCTION Stream-Function Method several that ways, there

ANALYSES

The simplest cascade 130

stream as shown

function in figure

can 5-3.

be

defined

but two

perhaps blades

the of a

is in terms

of streamlines.

Suppose

we consider

It is assumed

is two-dimensional

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

1 .8
Mass flow fractbn

.6 .4

0

\\\\

FIGURE

5-3.--Streamlines

for a stator

cascade.

axial

flow here,

so that

the

radius flow

r from in the

the radial

centerline direction. The indicates blade and has

is constant There may

and be

there is no variation of the rotation about the centerline. Shown the line. blades Thus, passing in figure is w. The the upper between surface have

5-3 are a number number surface by each surface (which the upper

of streamlines. streamline of the lower

mass

flow between of w 0, and stream-

the fraction the given the value

is a streamline)

the lower streamlines

of the upper blade has the value of 1, while the remaining values between 0 and 1. Note that a value can be assois called function. the stream-

ciated with any point in the passage. This value function value and can be used to define the stream It will be recalled (or uniform) that mass flow can be calculated flow by w= pVA

for a one-dimensional

(5-3) 131

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

where
W

rate of mass fluid absolute flow area

flow,

kg/sec; to the

lb/sec m/sec; direction ft/sec of the velocity V, m2; ft _ expression:

V A This

velocity,

normal

can be extended

to a varying

flow by using

an integral

w= f a pV dA Since relative this stream-function (blade velocity rows), W, which analysis the fluid that any by
QI

(5-4) to both will blade be stationary expressed row reduces and rotating of

applies velocity

cascades

in terms to absolute

for a stationary our cascade two points

velocity V. We will assume the mass flow wl._ between fig. 5-4) can be calculated

has a uniform height b. Then, QI and Q2 in the passage (see

wl._ --/Q

_ pW,,b dq

(5-5)

-'_Q1

FIGURE

5-4.--Arbitrary

curve

joining

two

points

in

flow

passage.

132

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

where hand that The

Wn is the normal integral

relative

velocity

component

in the direction passing Q_ and

of the rightmeans Q1. is inthrough Q2 and

of the line going is a line of path integral

from

QI to Qt. This a streamline the points

sign convention

wl.t will be negative

if Qs is below between flow relative (5-5),

dependent With

for steady

to the cascade. expression can be written

the use of equation function

an analytical (x, y) :

for the stream

u at a point

/Q(_'Y) pWnb dq
o

u(x,

y) =
W

(5-6)
of the lower blade, This of path, example, the point that and the

where integral in figure Since tively calculate is still

Qo is any is taken 5--5. the easy

point along

on the

upper

surface

any curve in equation the point partial

between (5-6) Let

Qo and

(x, y).

is indicated it is relawe will (x0, y)

integral to calculate

is independent of u. For 5-6. Then Xo<X such

derivatives in figure

Ou/Ox

at the

(x, y).

in the flow passage,

as shown

/c_ pWnb u(x, y) -

dq-}- fc ffipW_b
W

dq (5-7)

FIGURE

5-5.--Curve

joining

(x,y)

with

a point

on the

upper

surface

of the lower

blade.

133

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

(Xo.Y)ff c2 (x,y}

FIGURE 5--6.--Curve

joining

horizontal line through (x,y) surface of the lower blade.

with

a point

on the upper

where zontal depend

C_ is an arbi'_rary line between on x. Along

curve and

between (x, y).

Qo and The and pW_b
o w

(x0, y),

and along

C2 is a horiC_ does not

(Xo, y)

integral

C2, we have

W, = -W_

dq = dx. Hence, dx

Ou (x, y) = -Ox or

(5-8)

Ou
Ox

aW,,b
w

(5-9)

In a similar

manner,

we can calculate Ou_ Oy pW_b w that the and OV._ flow is absolutely the above (5-10)

Now From

we will make the definition

use of the fact of the curl

irrotational.

operator [OV=

assumption, OV,_'_k=O (5-11)

curlV=fOV.

\or

OV=_ i

+(OV_

\ox

ov/

wherei, 134

j, and

k are the

unit

vectors

in the

x, y, and

z directions,

respec-

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

tively, m/sec

and

Vx,

V_, and in the

V,

are

the

absolute

velocity respectively.

components Since

(in we are

or ft/sec)

x, y, and

z directions,

considering

two-dimensional

flow only, V.=O (5-12)

and OVa_ Oz Hence, equation (5-11) requires OV:,=O Oz (5-13)

only that OV_ Ox OVx Oy (5-14)

Since V_= W_ and Vu-- W_+_r where equation _ is the (5-14) angular speed (in rad/sec) in terms OW3, Ox Actually, in this the particular flow is irrotational case. Now, from with OW_ Oy respect to the (5-10) moving and (5.9), (5.18) pb cOy w Ou pb Ox (5-19) into equation (_-17) coordinates and the radius (5-16) r is constant, as (5-15)

can be expressed

of relative

velocities

(5-17)

equations
w 0_t

W_ -

=
Substituting equations (5-18) and

(5.19)
yields

0 (1 cox; 0u\ since w and b are both constant. flow,

0 (10u_=

; oy/
and

0

(5-20)

For incompressible

p is constant,
0_U

02U

(5-91)
which called is Laplace's a harmonic equation. function. Any There function satisfying deal Laplace's of theory equation concerning 135 is is a great

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

harmonic complex The number solution Laplace's specifying along The in every figure flow /_ DE, 5-8. the first

functions variables. important of functions that two entire thing satisfies things: equation

that thing that (5-21)

is related to know satisfy or of the

to the theory here is that conditions. (5-20) and is the 5-7. (2)

of analytic there are and will be

functions a tremendous

of

equation equation region, region.

(5-21),

we must determined

find

a by

certain (1) must can this

boundary a finite

The solution a boundary region. region upstream that the the way FG, flow

to either condition A typical same in the angle along stream entire of u Along of

boundary that cascade we along Similarly, the flow defined, and FE,

be specified in figure consider

solution Since far and the From

two-dimensional passage,

is shown that part AH

the flow is the so that flow the on the is, the in the value direction

a finite is sufficiently

solution

as shown

It is assumed

is uniform is known. and that was CD,

of the

boundary that boundary u--0; than

it is assumed angle we can specify BC,

is uniform

_0,_ is known.

function boundary AB, along HG, HG

conditions and along that

ABCDEFGHA. and FE is exactly

Along a periodic

u= 1. Along

condition _ is the

exists;

1 greater where

it is along distance

AB and CD.

AH and DE, Ou/O_ the outer normal.

is known,

yl

Wx

x

FIGUI_E

5-7.--Two-dimensional

infinite

cascade.

136

CHANNEL FLOWANALYSIS

H

6/

"_'. E

Uniform flow n

Uniform flow

L
A y _-_x FIGURE 5-8.--Finite solution region. B P _ C W

Consider

the

differential

of u in the direction

of the velocity

W:

du = OxO'-u dx+_ The Along differential and AH, Ou Or and substitution from equation (5-22) Ou_ 07 However, du -"-dx Further, uniform Ou/Oy there. is constant Therefore, Ou [u(H)-u(A)'] .... 8y s where (5-25) s is the and blade spacing in equation in the (5-24) along 8u 8x is 0 because the velocity the vector stream

dy -- 0 function be tangent is constant to

(5-22) along a

streamline,

must

a streamline.

(5-23)

yields (5-24)

Ou dy Oy dx

tan _

(5-25)

AH,

since

it is assumed

that

the

flow is

1 s Substituting AH

(5-26)

y direction. gives along

equations

(5-26)

(5-27)
ia 8

137

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Similarly,

along

DE,

one can calculate

o,,, = We now have shown unique (5-20)), subsonic There After throughout function. this specify problem solution a boundary 5-8. These solution the condition boundary equation is always along

s the entire For boundary will always compressible if the flow

(5-28) of the region determine flow is strictly or (5-21). and velocities of the problem and from This stream is to this will of solving a (eq.

in figure

conditions (5-21). determined

to Laplace's

a unique throughout are numerous

region. techniques is obtained, can as the later. for solving by direct on the equation differentiation problem. blade or inverse, surface distribution. (5-20) blade-surface velocities

the stream the This a desired

function passage is what

be obtained The

is known

A method

will be discussed velocity that

indirect, this velocity

distribution will give

determine a blade shape not be discussed here.

Potential-Function For defined. streamlines. as the stream two-dimensional If lines The of equal potential irrotational potential function ¢ exists but the main are flow,

Method a potential they function in the same then can be to detail it can

drawn,

will be orthogonal

will not be defined properties (i.e.,

function,

and relations

will be given.

If the potential function be defined so that

the flow is irrotational),

-- = Vx Ox and - Vv Oy We will refer tional system for pure relative assumption axial to absolute to the of absolute flow, since velocities coordinate irrotational This the rotation here, system flow, since used. we must This, that if there respect have coupled the

(5-29)

(5-30)

flow irrotawith coordinate function in blades, the

implies

does not rotate.

does not exclude

use of the potential to the

has no effect

is no change

radius; that is, the flow is actually irrotational with as we saw in the discussion of the stream function. From the continuity relationship for steady flow,

o(pvx) +o(pv,) =o
Ox 138 Oy

(5-31)

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

Substituting

equations

(5-29)

and

(5-30)

in equation

(5-31)

yields

0(oo,o()
If the flow is incompressible, p is constant, a_ a2_ and

=0
So, the potential satisfy function flow, same the boundary same the satisfies both differential solution over the Laplace's the stream equation region entire equation. function (Laplace's shown Thus, and the pressible, function difference We specify BC and irrotational lies in the boundary FG, 0_ where V, is the velocity normal to the blade surface. Along AH, V, = 0

(5-33)
for incompotential The We can Along

equation). 5-8.

conditions. in figure boundary as follows:

can consider

conditions

(5-34)

(5-35)

and

along

DE,

oue

The

inlet

and

outlet

axial

velocities

are given
W

by the

equations

(v_) ,. and

p_nbs

(5-37)

W

(V_) o_t-

po_tbs condition exists. Since

(5-38)

Along uniform

AB,

GH,

CD, AH,

and

EF,

a periodic

the flow is

along

(0yy_),.,= Substituting

[_(H)-

_(A)Is

- (V_) _,

(5-39)

V_ = V: tan/_

(5-40) 139

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

into

equation

(5-39)

yields _(H) =¢(A)q-s(Vx)_, ¢ is exactly at the = ¢(D) outlet, +s(Vx)o,,, tan #o_, the lines FE and (5-42) CD. solution, value of a tan s(Vz)_,_ _,, tan _, greater

(5-41)
along HG

Because than

of the AB.

periodicity, Similarly, O(E)

along

Equation This The but

(5-42) completes a solution solution

gives the conditions,

the

difference however, an arbitrary these (5-33)

in ¢ along do not boundary

boundary

conditions

for equation determine conditions additive constant.

(5-32) a unique

or (5-33).

boundary only

within point,

If the

¢ is specified unique

at one

will determine flow, or to equation

to equation

for incompressible

(5-32), for strictly subsonic compressible As for the stream function, there are equation ary the (5-32) or (5-33) subject to the conditions. A method velocity distribution 2 and Choice 3. of Streamfor solving to determine

flow throughout the region. numerous methods for solving preceding or equivalent boundproblem of specifying shape is described in

the inverse the blade

references

or Potential-Function and incompressible, and the potential

Method there is little to function. In this

If the flow is steady, irrotational, choose between the stream function case, the conditions However, pressible choice The choice (the if any flow) of stream existence is made on the basis differential equation of the is not function of the three applicable, or potential stream

of ease of solution for the boundary is the same: Laplace's equation). (steady, we may function. is proven from the mass of path. Some used out the the continuity crossing requires assumpthat other on flow. three flow is flow This irrotational, be restricted or incomas to the then

assumptions

function

equation. For a line between that tion the is necessary flow was to the

the stream function to be defined, two points must be independent incompressible irrotational, for the axial-flow or steady. We which case for the blade flow to be unique.

the flow be either absolutely

additional assumption However,

turned

to be irrotational

relative

considered.

assumptions the stream This of mass The

could function flow

be made for other problems. Another restriction is that it can be defined only for two-dimensional since two the stream points, function and function coordinate this can is defined is meaningless be shown system. This if the in

can easily

be seen between of the

as a percentage

dimensions. existence potential given irrotational 140 relative to the is necessary

CHANNEL

FL_OW

ANALYSIS

because is, if

we must

have

equality

of mixed

second

partial

derivatives;

that

02_
m

02& (5--43) OyOx

OxOy then

0 V ----_ Ox _-Oy and the flow must flow; with the be that respect must be continuity irrotational. is, the made potential to assure equation. Solution there are many for to the

V.

(5-44)

A similar function coordinate

situation exists system being solution.

exists only used.

in threeflow is Finally, can be

dimensional irrotational an done assumption by using

if the This

a unique

Finite-Difference As posed stream flow. stated by before, stream-function detail function

Stream-Function ways of solving theory. of the direct incompressible, subject function. but equation

Method various We will problem to the The with points 5-9. (5-21)) problems consider for the boundmethod a lower in the Then a A can be in figure 1 and 0 is

or potential-function solution case of steady, Laplace's

in further

the finite-difference for the simplest we must potential for the 5-8. point four solve discussed

irrotational

In this case, for the step

ary conditions of solution rate region written typical 5-10. points denoted in figure tively. tions, mesh When The first shown at mesh The

in the section function finite

on the stream is quite solution. grid is shown equation stream mesh distance

similar,

of convergence

difference a rectangular grid the to Laplace's

is to establish approximation

of mesh in figure (eq.

in figure each mesh with

A typical where

finite-difference

function points the between

is unknown. is shown four points neighboring h4 as indicated u0 to u4, respecvalues

point

neighboring is labeled The distances

point

in consideration 1 to 4, as shown. similarly, The value the other

0, and

are labeled hi, and 5-10. With equation points. this

are h2, h3, and

of u at points series can

0 to 4 are labeled expansion by using only

the use of a Taylor (5-21) (Further the

for u in the x- and y-direcof u at 4.) is given in ch. 6 of ref.

be approximated of this expression
[ 2U3

explanation following
2Uo]

is done,

is obtained:
2U4

2ul h_(h_Th2)

2u_ 4-h2(h_+h2)

+h_(h_+h4)

2Uo ] _j=O (5-45) 141

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

N
I ] Ii'_ "_ _- .." _

. ! 1

!

"
li, ¸ ii I I _ i [ \_, I i\ I .

\
N

_
_\! " ' "

fl II, IJ.-"_
r A•

--'-..I

ilII i, I
_ 1

1 1

"F
Jl
!

E I

e

,l
'_\{

i

;
j i

il ,II II Ill LI] Lil
: I I I

.,
FIGURE 5-9.--Mesh used for a finite_lifference

: !
!

\\
solution.

I)

h2

h3
D

0

h4

,4

1

FIGURE 5-10.--Notation

for adjacent

mesh points and mesh spaces.

142

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

Solving

equation

(5-45)

for u0 yields
4 UO= E i-1

the

expression

aiui

(5--46)

where h 3+ h4 al= a0h--_ (5-47)

= --

h3--_- h4

aoh_

(5-48)

hi+h2
a3 --

aoh3

(5-49)

hl+h_ a4 aoh4 1 1 (5-51) (5--50)

1 1 ao=(h3Th4)(_T_)+(h.+h,)(_+-_,)

Equation boring used. but these Ou/O_ the

(5-46) points

holds

at every surface,

interior then

mesh the

point.

If one

of the point

neighcan be be used, at 5-9,

is on a blade points along conditions by equation

value

of u at that (5-46) alternate AH

At other points. is given

the boundary, can be used along (5-27). gives

equation to obtain

cannot

boundary

equations in figure then,

For example,

the upstream If point

boundary

0 is on line AH,

a finite

difference

approximation

Uo= u4+h4 Similarly, if point 0 is on line DE,

(tan-Bin)

(5-52)

Uo= u3-

h3 (tans-_°"'

)

(5-53)
can be derived 0 (fig. 5-11) the boundary. 1,s is a distance 5-11. Substituting by using the

For the boundary

the

points between that

along A and

AB

and

CD, If

equations the the point point in figure I is outside

periodic

boundary

condition. B, the point where

is on

However, s above this

it is known point

ul=ul.s-1, y-direction,

1 in the

as shown

143

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

H

2 31

G.

I

I

u2 "u2,-s

+1

A

2,-s

FIGURE 5-11.--Mesh condition in equation (5-46) gives
4

point on line AB.

uo=alui..-I-

_,
i--2

aiui--al

(5-54)

This The greater mesh HG. below

equation points than In this line below point

holds along the HG,

along HG

CD need

(fig. 5-8) not point must where be

also. considered, AB. The since since 2,-s they point is a are just 1 equation for the first 2 is on line distance 5-12. s

corresponding therefore, us=u_._._-l, negative condition
Zto = alltl-_

along the

be modified, point gives

case, this

2 in the

y-direction, (5-46)
-_-

as indicated

in figure

Substituting

in equation
a_Na ,_.

aaus _ a4u4 -{- as

(5-55)
FE (fig. 5-8). to each region are will of unbe in the as there is unknown be applied

This One mesh interest

equation point

also

applies (5-46) the same

to the or stream number the

first (5-52)

mesh to

line below (5-55) can is unknown equations function points.

of equations for which the to give These to simply that in n unknowns. values The

function of linear stream points. mesh

knowns. referred Suppose tions n. The and apply. 144

points there

where

as unknown The points

mesh

are n unknown

We then consecutively point, one

have

n equafrom I to will point,

can be numbered first point, At each i, could point. point,

of u will then up to un at the

be ui at the last

us at the second equation

so forth

equation

at a typical

be written

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

H
/

1,2

G

Ul "Ul, s - 1

FIGURE 5-12.--Mesh

point on first line below HG.

_"_aijuj

_-ki

(5--56)

The value around

values

of the

aij are determined five, at most, zero, is always of the except

by one aij are for the that

of equations zero, the can and the outermost aij matrix for the valuable there iterative is relaxation. point Storage unknown uj. be obtained

(5-47)
aii

through
= --1.

(5-55).

All but the

The points non-

of ki is always boundary. there solution These equations but an few and roundoff The the the simplest estimated hence

unknown is always

It can be shown a unique are type; to equation that

singular; techniques. of linear unknowns, small, the required. changing satisfy procedure The ever, time the factor. the change

solution

A numerical

(5-56) particularly is, where equation. with of u at

by iterative systems number To consists point, values of are start is of the of u. Howpoint

techniques of this terms error initial

in solving requirements methods. mesh This at every in the exci_ssive greatly the and the

are a large

in each is minimized estimate

iteration,

every

iterative value until and rate for that

procedure of u at each After

in succession

so as to

equation is repeated

point. there

this

is done change so that _, called relaxation, 4 that

is negligible converges slow,

procedure is required. When

is simple The

it always

for this

problem.

convergence in u at each w= 1, the It

is extremely

computer

convergence iteration procedure is proven

can be accelerated by a factor is straight in reference if 0 <:_ <2. there

by increasing overrelaxation when _:> 1, (or rate value of 145 of

it is overrelaxation. underrelaxation) convergence occurs

overrelaxation greatest

is convergent when

However,

1 < _ < 2. In fact,

is an optimum

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

between To give estimates estimate calculate

1 and

2 which factor

gives expression

the

most for the

rapid

convergence.

This procedure,

optimum 4. we will initial an initial

overrelaxation use a superscript are

can be calculated ul. That ui ° and

as explained overrelaxation value. by

in reference

an explicit denoted

on the

is, ui m is the m th iterate may be any Then, For if ui m is known

of ui. The example,

of ui°=0

is satisfactory.

for all i, we can

ui re+l, for i = 1, 2,...,

n in succession

uim+l-_-_

uim-_-0J

--

Z j-I

aijui

re+lj-i-i-1

aij_J

m'gf-]gi-

uim

(5-57)
any other

After method), tions

a solution (5-9) and

for

u is obtained to calculate as

by the

overrelaxation velocities with the

(or

it is necessary (5-10)

use of equa-

w(OZ)
Yz-

(5-58)
pb

and

o
W_ = pb au/Oy curve, blade must such surface, angle. Analyses and is best at the are called axial, the calculation by comLewis blading blade-toTURBLE, radial, with or the NASA for be estimated done, the either curve, two (5-59) The partial derivatives discrete or by The mesh values fitting points. and

au/ax

and

from

the

calculated differences, the from points. at unknown

of ui. This a smooth velocity On the the blade for

can be readily from the

by finite through

as a spline velocity

resultant

is calculated tangent

components is calculated

one component Computer

Programs the solution

Stream-Function equation which written programs program to analyze

As can of velocities puter. Research by blade which mixed solution 146

be seen,

of Laplace's procedure have been of flow

is a lengthy computer for the (region In Center

calculation programs analysis Most

done

Several

through The

turbomachine

stream-function analysis flow. is described

methods. shown in reference aqcordance method, The the TSONIC

of these

in fig. 5-9). with the

5, can be used flow must program,

constraints be subsonic described

associated throughout in reference

stream-function region.

the entire 6, super-

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

sedes addition, flow gradient

TURBLE extends equation (lower called flow Another a detailed or in the MAGNFY in the by problems.

in that the Transonic of the mass TANDEM, in tandem program,

it

performs solutions

all are

the

same (local

calculations supersonic by using section

and, velocities) a velocityto extend solution. rows

in

solution type

to transonic described

obtained in the next

a A

preliminary program to analyze splitters. 8, obtains blade and Flow indicated turbomachine described

flow rate) which or called in the are or 9 and

subsonic is described blade

stream-function in reference rows and described blades. flow. flow axialcan or _IERIDL, The or blade

7, can be used with of any in reference regions TANDEM surface, mixed-flow which subsonic is by as

slotted

MAGNFY leadingor slotted

solution region

or trailing-edge

slot

of tandem restricted (mean fig. by plane

programs meridional fig. can 4-14(b)

to subsonic hub-to-shroud of any called solutions

5-1(a)), a program

be analyzed

in references

10. Transonic equation

be obtained

the use of a velocity-gradient stream-function solution.

to extend

a preliminary

VELOCITY-GRADIENT As methods within additional give sonic, the called involves guided method blades. such guided defined. shown guided half must an possible basic indicated previously, are the limited region. however, solution in stream-function to solutions the subsonic the

ANALYSIS and that are potential-function entirely subsonic and to subthan is also equation can be extended regime. alone It other to obtain

of analysis the computation assumptions, approximate to use transonic, ones the

By use of a velocity-gradient solution flow transonic without the

a velocity-gradient or supersonic indicated earlier. analysis method that on the in figure and the other 5-9, and is, a solid degree 4-11, associated hand, less surface surface. than for

method solutions The because

of analysis

assumptions analysis and velocity-gradient

velocity-gradient curvature can only both Therefore, solidity suction velocity suction ends the provided and/or

is often equation

a stream-filament streamline,

or stream-filament, of analysis where boundary. passage most (high of the surface half a passage

position. within streamline of this turbine angles), the the a

A velocity-gradient passage; depends For region, On region, in figure as shown the orthogonals intersect

give solutions of all by usefulness small

of flow guidance

a well-guided

surface distribution row, only velocity

is within such

can be well as that the front is within on the

a low-solidity of the can case,

blade

surface

velocities In this latter

be computed

of the suction

the stream-function

analysis distribution

be used if better

definition

of the suction-surface

is required. 147

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Method The sidering narrow passage velocity idea of a velocity-gradient case. Suppose as shown in figure method we have 5-13. can We be demonstrated assume the height the by cona of the average

a simple passage

two-dimensional

flow through

to be b, and the can be calculated

width d. If the approximately W.,o -

mass flow is known, from continuity by
W

pbd across the width we are centrifugal 3 for consideration of the force

(5-60)

However, and With the

there

is a variation

in velocity velocity

passage, in. against of radial

in turbomachinery a force-equilibrium pressure gradient

it is this equation, as was done that

difference

interested

by balancing in chapter

equilibrium,

it can be shown

dW dq where radius q is the distance from of curvature for the

W ro (convex) surface, and The sign convention

(5-61)

the suction streamline.

re is the for rc is

important; rc is positive cave downward. For the can be integrated curvature for integration along from the to be equal

if it is concave upward, and negative if it is consimple case shown in figure 5-13, equation (5-61) a radial inner line by assuming to the to any ro r passage point radius W Wo the streamline radius. in the There passage, (5-62) radius results, of in magnitude

Row

FIGURE 5-13.--Flow

through a curved passage.

148

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

where
Wa r. r

relative radius radius The mass

velocity of inner, of passage,

on inner, or suction, m; ft the

or suction, surface,

surface, m; ft

m/sec;

ft/sec

flow through

passage

is expressed

as

w--rl

rm+d

pWb dr into (5-63) and integration,

(5-63) with

and

substitution density

of equation assumed,

(5-62) yields

constant

w

w. =

(5-64)

In a similar puted as

manner,

the

outer,

or pressure,

surface

velocity

can be com-

W

-

(5-65)

Thus, by not using

an estimate equation

of the (5-62),

blade-surface which to

velocities

can be obtained equation. If there were gradient equation. x, as shown W,, W_, and 5-14 flow.

simply We are some could Since in figure We. The are a, the

is a velocity-gradient passage, a velocity

necessarily

restricted

two-dimensional

variation of velocity in the height of the be calculated in that direction also. We will now we are coordinate 5-14. plane angle Also meridional interested system indicated component W_ and The consider with are a very radius the the the following Ws= W_ is the general r, angle velocity x axis. resultant in turbomachinery,

velocity-gradient we will use 0, and components, of W, the hold Also shown axis

a rotating

cylindrical

and W_. The in figure for the between

meridional W and the

is a plane between plane.

containing

x axis,

and/_,

angle

meridional

relations W sin/_

components: (5--66) (5-67) (5-68) (5-69)

W,_ = W cos/_ Wr = W_, sin a W_ = W_ cos a

149

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

W

FIGURE

5-14.--Cylindrical

coordinate

system

and

velocity

components.

In line, of the

addition as shown

to the The if the in figure

r-, 0-, and 5-15. _0. The

x-coordinate, is the distance m-distance meridional plane; meridional meridional upward. along

it is convenient along a meridional the true is less than streamline that is, the streamline streamline.

to use stream-

an

m-coordinate. line distance a streamline The radius We distance constant want neglected. positive

m-coordinate angle in the

stream-

The

is the projection 0-coordinate where sign Let The curve. is r_ is is 1/rc,

meridional of the of the gradient For the (rV_,) dW d--q=a dr jq+b

curvature

of curvature if the streamline the velocity this curve. along angular

of rc is q be the and

is concave

an arbitrary inlet, dO

case of constant at the dx

total

temperature

momentum

dq +c--dq

(5-70)

where
W arc COS ol COS 2

W sin _
r

/_+sin

a cos _ -----2_ dm

dW,n

sin _

(5-71)

150

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

Meridional streamline 7 _'
rc

Q r

m

J
Axis FIGURE 5-15.--The m-coordinate.

_x

b = - W sin a cos 2 _+cos re

a cos/_

dW_______ dm

(5-72)

c=Wsinasin[3c°s[3+rc°s_(ddWWm These ential vature, A great to tial (5-73). blades, distance We=0, equations any a, and number For equation are derived velocity-gradient involving 8. These channel, these of special example, in figure (into to the are as equations equation, streamline-geometry not cases suppose 5-16, page). and and We l_=0. known

). (B13)

+2_sina and (B14)

(5-73)

of reference to solve such reasonably equations passage where (5-70). 5-16, with

11.

In using

it is necessary parameters, precisely

a differas curwell. (5-70) no However,

in advance. from annular component dW/dn,

for a guided

parameters we can Let

can be estimated have an

can be obtained no velocity calculate q=n from

as shown normal then

in the tangenn is the Since be it can

(0) direction

streamline.

in equation figure

dO/dn=O

Further,

Outerwall--, Meridional streamline -,

Llnner wall

FIGURE

5--16.--Annular

passage

with

no

blades.

151

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

seen to

that (5-73),

dr/dn

= cos a and dx/dn

= - sin a. Then,

from

equations

(5-70)

dW_ dn Thus, tion for this (5--61). Computer Several machine NASA CTTD computer blading Lewis program, to use or velocity orthogonals orthogonals. are flow rate to as illustrated Computations passage. mass than blading, of the mediumThis by Research which This programs Center. has for One case, equation (5-70)

W rc reduces to the simple form

(5-74)

of equa-

Programs the that analysis methods was in reference which used of flow have been for many by the through written years more turboat the is the to axialgeneral 13. to and flow the

velocity-gradient is described program, can be used both from This made for the results 5-17, for can also

12 and is limited is described axial-, to tip along equations along hub-,

flow turbines. and easier The flow turbines CHANEL

program CHANEL compressors. variations and

now been

superseded

in reference radial-, are used

program

to analyze from hub

or mixedmeridionalmean-, mass along good

Velocity-gradient blade to blade

determine streamline tip-streamline surface, rate. blade for

in a flow solution which satisfies of these program indicated may be obtained used basic

for an orthogonal surfaces the gives

in figure program

a specified

a number be used The As only

to compute

maximum results more for lowguided

(choking) definition solidity sections plane

channel. blading. by this can

high-solidity because

previously, be needed for fully

can be provided solutions passage. methods plane the for uses the

program

Velocity-gradient and blade-to-blade analysis 14, which Since convenient onal-plane reference orthogonals. was more velocity-gradient quasi-orthogonals. presented reference centrifugal

have

also been The centrifugal lengths are

to obtain method

meridionalfor a meridiin it

solutions.

mixed-flow orthogonal to base along programs 11 for

impellers equation not known on program lines, turbine and

is presented along the streamline use were analysis impeller vaned plane and diffusers in advance,

velocity-gradient a computer fixed for

of the called are in of

equation Such

straight

which

meridional-plane impellers turbine equation,

in reference compressors.

a radial-inflow or radial for

15 for backward-swept

A program

a blade-to-blade impeller as

analysis

that uses quasi-orthogonals in reference 16. A further viously 152 use of the

for a radial-inflow velocity-gradient is to extend a subsonic

is described preto

mentioned solution

in this chapter,

stream-function

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

obtain the gradient

local flow

supersonic and

velocities. streamline Programs for

The

subsonic

solution required solutions

is used for the based

to obtain velocityon this and

angles equation.

curvatures transonic-flow

method are presented in references in reference 6 for a blade-to-blade

9 and 10 for a meridional solution.

solution

Orthogonal su Hace _/
/

j,f

su rface

.-Suction Tip orthogonal I surface

f
Midchannel stream line--,
i

Mean

Parallel to axis of rotation-_

i
Hub

T

FIGURE

5-17.--Turbine

blades

with flow

three-dimensional passage.

orthogonal

surface

across

153

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

REFERENCES
1. JOHNSEN, Axial-Flow 2. COSTELLO, Velocity 1950. 3. COSTELLO, Detailed scribed 1060, 4. VARGA, gram Surface 6. KATSANIS, on 1969. 7. KATSANIS, Calculating a Tandem 8. KATSANIS, Calculating face 9. THEODORE; Velocities Blade AND McNALLY, and Streamlines NASA McNALLY, TN WILLIAM on TN O.: FORTRAN Stream 1969. FORTRAN Program Stream for SurProgram Surface for of 5. KATSANIS, for GEORGE R.;
CUMMINGS,

IRVING

A.;

AND BULLOCK, NASA Method in

ROBERT SP-36, 1965.

O.,

EDS.:

Aerodynamic

Design

of

Compressors. GEORGE Distributions R.:

of

Designing

Cascade Potential L.;

Blades Flows.

with NACA

Prescribed Rep. T., 978. JR.: PreRep.

Compressible ROBERT for

AND

SINNETTE,

JOHN Blades

Computational Velocity 1952. RICHARD S. : Matrix AND Distributions

Procedure in

Design

of

Cascade

with NACA

Compressible

Potential

Flows.

Iterative MCNALLY,

Analysis. and TM Program

Prentice-Hall, I).: on 1969. Culculating Revised

Inc.,

1962. ProStream

THEODORE; Calculating

WILLIAM Streamlines X-1764, for

FORTRAN

Velocities NASA

a Blade-to-Blade

of a Turbomachine. THEODORE:

FORTRAN Stream

Transonic NASA TN

Velocities D-5427,

a Blade-to-Blade

Surface

of a Turbomachine.

a Blade-to-Blade D-5044, ]).:

Turbomachine. AND

THEODORE; Velocities

WILLIAM Region D-5091, on

in a Magnified NASA

a Blade-to-Blade

of a Turbomachine. THEODORE; Velocities of an Axial1973. or

1969. l).: FORTRAN I--User's Program Manual. for Flow NASA

KATSANIS, Calculating Surface TN

AND McNALLY, and Streamlines Mixed-Flow

WILLIAM on the Turbomachine.

Hub-Shroud

Mid-Channel

D-7343,

10.

KATSANIS, Calculating Surface NASA

THEODORE; Velocities of an TN Axial-

AND and

MCNALLY, Streamlines

WILLIAM on the Turbomachine.

1).:

FORTRAN H--Programmer's

Program Manual.

for Flow

Hub-Shroud

Mid-Channel

or Mixed-Flow 1974. Use of Arbitrary Meridional Plane

D-7344,

11.

KATSANIS, THEODORE: Distribution in the 1964.

Quasi-Orthogonals of a Turbomachine.

for Calculating NASA TN

Flow D-2546,

12.

KATSANIS,

THEODORE;

AND

DELLNER,

LOIS

T.:

A

Quasi-Three-Dimensional an Axial Flow Turbine

Method Blade. 13. KATSANIS, culation NASA 14.
HAMRICK,

for NASA

Calculating TM X-1394,

Blade-Surface 1967. Program and Choking

Velocities

for

THEODORE: of Surface TN D-6177, T.;

FORTRAN Velocities 1971. GINSBURG,

for Flow

Quasi-Three-Dimensional for Turbomachine Blade

CalRows.

JOSEPH

AMBROSE;

AND

OSBORNE,

WALTER

M.:

Method

of Analysis of Arbitrary 15. VANCO, Meridional D-6701, 16. KATSANIS, Distribution D-2809,

for Compressible Design. R.: of Plane 1972. THEODORE: on 1965. a Use of NACA

Flow Rep.

Through 1082, 1952.

Mixed-Flow

Centrifugal

Impellers

MICHAEL

FORTRAN a Turbomachine.

Program

for

CMculating

Velocities NASA

in

the TN

I--Centrifugal

Compressor.

Arbitrary

Quasi-Orthogonals Surface in a

for Turbomachine.

Calculating NASA

Flow TN

Blade-to-Blade

154

CHANNEL

FLOW

ANALYSIS

SYMBOLS A
ai

flow area, mS; ft 2 coefficients cascade passage distance constant distance distance absolute distance radius, blade absolute for equation height, width, between in equation m; ft m; ft mesh points, (5-56) m; ft m; ft (5-46)

b d h
ki

m
?t

along meridional streamline, normal to streamline, m ; ft pressure, along m; ft spacing, m; ft K; °R temperature, J/(kg) N/m2; (K); lb/ft curve, (ft) 2 m; ft arbitrary

P q R r
8

gas constant,

(lbf)/(lbm)

(°R)

T t
u

time, sec stream function absolute relative mass fluid velocity, velocity, flow rate, absolute m/see; m/see; kg/sec; angle ft/sec ft/sec lb/sec of inclination to blades, from out axial of the direction meridional boundary, in the plane m; ft

V W
W

meridional plane, deg fluid flow angle, relative (in the tangential distance in direction 0
P

direction), deg of outer normal

to cascade rad

angular density, potential

distance kg/m3; function

in direction lb/ft a

of rotation,

o3

angular velocity, tad/see verrelaxation factor

Subscripts: c in m n out p r s x y z curvature inlet meridional component outlet pressure component normal surface to streamline

radial component suction surface axial component in y-direction in z-direction 155 component component

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

8

tangential mesh-point

component designations

o 1
1, 4 3, 2, I

156

CHAPTER 6

Introductiono Boundaryt Layer Theory
By William McNally D.
As shown certain ducing work aspects Before causes. on the work. in chapter of ideal The portion design can be 2, the energy of the pressure that One ideal ratio energy more of the across that losses. to understand their a turbine to the important turbine and is not provides for converted difficult a proto

amount is considered of turbine losses The blade

is available of the

to be a loss. predicted,

is the prediction

it is necessary

primary cause of losses is the boundary layer that develops and end-wall surfaces. Other losses occur because of shocks, flows, operation. which disk is used losses. friction chapter to calculate _Iethods and (windage), gives an flow incidence, needed the are basic and partialThis introduction to boundaryto estimate viscous loss in the

tip-clearance admission layer viscous and next the theory,

the parameters mixing losses

(friction) associated chapter.

for determining

trailing-edge

presented

NATURE When velocities, thin the and hand, layer boundary conditions thc velocity a real the in the fluid influence immediate At the agree there nonviscous) of the layer. (such

OF

BOUNDARY flows on the edge those past of the of this calculated At

LAYER a turbine blade. the with the blade This the layer use on at normal is called of ideal other

as air)

of viscosity outer with flow fluid

flow is confined layer

to a relatively

neighborhood

flow is frictionless, wall, (no-slip the

(frictionless,

assumptions.

is zero in all directions

condition). 157

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

It is the frictional, velocity boundary point and laminar. surface sufficiently ness of the or changes Most are significant boundary tance. bulent flow are that turbulent layer It usually boundary amplified, pressure slide from layer A boundary at the

or viscous, layer

forces

in this thin value finite and fluid local negligible at a point 6-2(a) blade

layer

that

reduce

the 6-1.

fluid The

its free-stream, develops edge The other. from

frictionless a small blade portion layer, have

to zero at the thickness at the both

wall. stagnation the to the suction is always blade are time

on a turbine of the initial

is illustrated grows of the layers along boundary

in figure

leading surfaces. over damped overall in some being each

layer

In a laminar

boundary so that they way, The blades through In the this the value, leads velocity

parallel

Any minute velocity

fluctuations influence is either indicates. it from this and

in velocity on the steady with

smooth-

flow. The smooth ducted in this

as figure

flows

to a turbine, fuctuating type of cannot transition to the flow. at

or entering components flow. remain region, random In the any region point With region weak laminar

a combustor, have flow, great the disa turin the layer, a

in nature. influence on the passes layer. and flow, a mean also

of velocity overall for any disturbances boundary

a transition

becomes

fluctuations turbulent oscillates turbulent the

in velocity in a random boundary layer. blade When surface. surface positive of

are characteristic about 6-1 Separation layer manner

of turbulent

as in turbulent fashion Figure layer. The a boundary stream a turbine

as figure occur the happens along the fluid

6-2 (b) indicates. in the away in the moves rear laminar boundary from in figure of the increases. 6-3. suction This

shows separates, this

a separated

can likewise

in which blade, static

is illustrated portion correspondingly
r-Turbulent boundary layer

As the free-

velocity

decreases

pressure
_- Transition _ region

Laminar boundary layer --....

/

__ _, -,,_,,a, lull _' _Z////'_ \

Separated region-t

FIGURE 6-1.--Boundary

layer

on blade.

158

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

Steady Steady t t

I t
(a) Laminar FxovaE flow. 6-2.--V_riation of velocity with

Unsteady t
(b) time Turbulent at a point. flow.

FIoUrtE

6-3.--Boundary-layer

separation.

pressure boundary layer

gradient layer and can be retarded

(adverse causes to such to that at

pressure it to lose a degree the

gradient) energy. that flow at the very reverses leading

retards The flow closc

the in the the to the

flow

in

the

boundary This blade as a is

wall it moves blade. separation

in a direction separation. point. can turbulent Finally, layers sent can laminar for lew_'l ()f the equati()ns The also

opposite The laminar point and

of the mean layer

flow passing itself edge to

which

is the the

boundary layer. This

of a turbine surface 6-4.

separatc boundary it should be either and the Mach

immediately that Just

reattach both laminar are

itself in figure and

is illustrated

be noted number. turbulent incompressible

turbulent depending equations there are variations

boundary on the to repredifferent of each. 159

incompressible

or compressible, as there different flow,

boundary-layer and

compressible

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION Turbulent boundary Separat ion layer 7 _ II I I __I __' ' .....

Laminar boundary layer_

bubble;,

,Z__...1-f_.rrt_

c Stagnation point

FIGURE

6-4.--Laminar

separation

and

reattachment.

Boundary layers should be considered relative Mach number exceeds values equations discussed for these in this various cases chapter.

compressible of 0.3 to 0.4. and

if the free-stream The boundary-layer solution methods are

are derived

DERIVATION The Stokes equations, equations general equations In

OF

BOUNDARY-LAYER of motion of viscous fluids

EQUATIONS are called there The equations. are the Naviersuch

equations. can

normal of the from

coordinate coordinate the

systems, directions.

three The

one for each be derived

boundary-layer Navierthe law of conis lengthy, and the complete on equaform

Navier-Stokes

Stokes equations themselves can be derived servation of momentum to a fluid element. will not be repeated here. References 1 and

by applying This exercise 2 both have

derivation, in two somewhat There are various forms what tion assumptions represents the are made

different forms. of the Navier-Stokes during constant their equations viscosity:

equations, The combined into

depending following vector

derivation.

Navier-Stokes fluid with

for a compressible

du dt where
u

gf_g__ Vp+_U V2u+ p p

__

p

V(V.u)

(6-1)

general time, general conversion

velocity sec

vector,

m/sec; 1;32.17

ft/sec (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) mass (sec _) N/kg; lbf/lbm

t g f 160

constant, body force

acting

on a unit

of fluid,

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

P

density, static dynamic equation,

kg/mS; pressure, viscosity,

lbm/ft N/m2;

s lbf/ft 2 2; Ibm/(ft) velocity (see) vector x, y, and with components

P
/z

(N) (see)/m a general

In this u, v, and

u represents three

w in the

coordinate

directions

z, respectively. (6-2)

u=uiTvj+wk where The i, j, and total, k are the unit vectors in the three coordinate In any of the

directions. coordinate

or substantial,

derivative

of u is du/dt.

directions, d 0 0 0 0

Oz
In equation rather vector than quantities, du _ -_=g'--p Expressing which may the g VP+U-o V(V.u)--p V operator familiar in terms to the (6-1), to a scalar the Laplacian (6-1) operator If the term becomes _ [VX(VXu)-]+_ of gradients, reader, equation curls, 1 p- V(V.u) and V2 is applied to the function. V2u is expanded into

(6-3)
vector simple u

equation

(6-4)

divergences, becomes

be more

(6-4)

du gf-'q grad d--/= p

p-f-_- grad(div P

u) -_-

p

curl(curl

u)

+_

1 _l P grad

(div

u)

(6-5)
In order to derive The Ou three the boundary-layer scalar equations, equations are 02u 02u\ _y2+0-_) equations, equation of the (6-1) has

to be expanded directions. Ou Ou

into three

one for each

coordinate

resulting

+U x+V y+W

Ou Op __u /O_u _z-z f . .... gpox p t0_-t=g

l u 0 [Ou

Ov

Ow\

Ov

Ov

Ov

Ov

g Op __u_/O2v

020

02v\

-_-t- u -_x -k-v -_y + W oz = gf u ....

l u 0 [Ou

Ov

Ow\

161

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

aw

aw

_

+ w aw

g Op.

tt [CO2w. O_w.

COho'_

+5-_ t,_+_+_)(6-s)
P

1 tt cO[cOu

cOy

cow\

where

f,, fv, and f, are the Laminar

components

of the body Boundary

force

f.

Incompressible Prandtl's the following equations. Since for

Layer equations for assumed flow the laminar in the con-

In (1) writing (2) tinuity

order

to

derive flow,

boundary-layer assumptions This has already

incompressible Viscosity of the Flow equation

will be made: been

is a constant. preceding is

is incompressible.

incompressible

/cOu V. u=div the final terms (3) and (4) (5) Thus, With following Flow (6-7). Flow Body these is steady. forces are This eliminates from the for the consideration, in equations as well

cOy

cOw\ )=0 (6-9)

u=t_x+_yy+_z (6-6) to (6-8) This involving

can be eliminated. equation (6-8) from (6-6) w or O/cOz in equations

is two-dimensional. as all terms

eliminates

cOOr terms. to inertia (6-6) and viscous and (6-7). reduce to the forces. equations

negligible

in relation Navier-Stokes

f, andf_

can be discarded assumptions,

equations

two equations

x- and y-directions:

COu u_+v cOu 00p ___ /O_u CO'u\ _= __ ,,_,_+_)

(6-_0>
(6-11)

u_+__:
Likewise, the continuity

COy

COy

g__ + __ / cO_v cO2v cOp \

. _ . t,_+_)
becomes
cO u cOy

equation

_x+_yy=0 In order boundary-layer and show that velocities 162 some and to make equations the (6-10) check with directions to (6-12) is performed respect pertinent suitable on to the the

(6-12/ for the analysis made Figure boundary dimensionless, terms shows layer. to the 6-5 various of

flow,

equations

are traditionally to others.

an order-of-magnitude are negligible coordinate

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

U =u uO_

u_5 _

full

Trailing

y

x

L

FmURE 6-5.--Boundary-layer

velocities

and dimensions.

The

following

dimensionless

parameters
X X =-

are defined: (6-13a)

L

(6-13b)

u

U0

(6-13c)

(6-13d) Uo

(6-13e)

Re = o.L

Uo (6-13f)

where X L Y U dimensionless characteristic dimensionless dimensionless free-stream dimensionless x-coordinate length velocity velocity velocity (in this case, in x-direction upstream of blade, m/see; ft/sec in y-direction 163 the blade chord), m; ft y-coordinate

u0
V

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

P Re From And order

dimensionless Reynolds figure

pressure

number 6-5, we see that since x is proportional boundary-layer less than layer (6-10) and by are 1. Likewise, much smaller in terms multiplied resulting to L, X is of order thickness since _, since than _/,u, 1.

since

y is proportional = _, a quantity in the

to the much 1. And

Y is of in

$r,m/L

u is of order velocities those in the

U0, U = u Uo is of order the y-direction x-direction. In order quantities, equation equations

V = v Uo is of order

boundary

to put equations (6-12) are

equations (6-10) is multiplied

to (6-12) (6-11) L/Uo. are The

of dimensionless by L/Uo _, and dimensionless

OU

OU

OP

1 /O_U

02U\

OV

OV

OP

1 [02V

O2V\

u +v

.....
OU OV = 0 terms in these equations 1, and _--_+_-_

(6-15)

(6-16) can now V

The are

order of order

of magnitude with e, each

of the other.

various Since

be compared

X and

U are of order

Y and

OU 1 -- =-= OX 1 OU ----OY oV OX OV --=-= OY 1

1

(6-17a)

(6-175)

- = _ 1

(6-17c)

1

(6-17d)

O_U 1 -=-= 1 OX 2 1.1 O_U
0 y2

(6-17e)

1
e- e

1
e2

(6-17f)

164

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

a2V

e ----- E 0X _ 1.1 02V OY _ Furthermore, magnitude order 1. Relating to (6-16) the as the these yields OU OU OP 1 /02U 02U\ change change orders -_ _.e 1 e to X is of the to X, terms so that same

(6--17g)

(6-17h)

in P with of U with

respect respect to the

order

of is of

OP/OX

of magnitude

in equations

(6-14)

v

v o-T=
= -- 1 + (_)

i3-X +
(1+_)

(6-18)

(1) (1) + (e) (!)

OV

OV

OP

1 /02V

02V\

v

+ v oT= or
(t2) (_+!)

+

)

(6-19)

(1) (_) + (E) (1) = -_+

OU

OV

(6-20)
1+1 By examining can be reached: (1) inertia (6-18), 02U/OX Reynolds (2) In dominating is to dominate, smaller fore, allows than P=P(X) In equations (6-18) to (6-20), the following conclusions

boundary-layer 2) + (02U/OY must be must

theory,

it is assumed same For d, since terms large. l/Re are of order this

that order

the

viscous

terms as the than the
2.

1/Re[(O2U/OX terms 1Re 2 and

2) -] are of the

of magnitude larger

U(OU/OX)+V(OU/OY). of order the two with terms be relatively dominates (6-19), _, the and that

to be true 2 is much

in equation

02U/OY

in parentheses. _ and

Therefore, with unless
02V/OY

number equation 02V/OX OP/OX,

of order

e. Therefore, a function the

OP/OY ThereThis in the 165

it too must or p=p(x),

be of order and the

e or less. Therefore,

OP/O Y is much of X alone. layer

P can be considered OP/OX=dP/dX across pressure

or Op/Ox=dp/dx. boundary

us to assume

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

y-direction flow pressure (3) order (4) small Since _, the In

is essentially existing the second equation first

constant. at the equation

It can be assumed of the boundary 1, and be leaves the is of order

equal layer. second

to the potential equation is of it is so dimension-

outside

equation (6-18), with

can be neglected 02U/OX 02U/OY _ can 2. This

completely. neglected the because following

in comparison

less equations: OU OU dP 1 02U U _ T V O----Y - d--X -{-Re 0 Y_ = OU OV (6-22) in dimensionless are size useful of the boundary form. layer in and So, to (6-21)

OX +-_=O These The the are Prandtl's of the fluids. boundary-layer equations Reynolds From equation number equations in this (6--21) form on the

boundary-layer

in determining

influence

for different

we see that

as Re increases

magnitude, the viscous-force smaller. The boundary-layer as Re increases, decreasing The variables by Uo/L. of the boundary _i_u decreases. layer decreases viscosity boundary-layer by multiplying The resulting

terms (1Re) (02U/O y2) will get smaller thickness will correspondingly decrease. Furthermore, as the can (6-21) are Ou Oy
Ou Ov

increasing decreases. in terms Uo2/L and

Re corresponds rule, of the thickness dimensional (6-22)

if pL Uo is constant. equations equation equations Ou u --+v Ox

So, as a general viscosity be put by

equation

-

g dp p dx

_t

_ 02u p Oy 2

(6-23)

--+--=0 Ox Oy These laminar, are Prandtl's boundary-layer flow. Density gradient solution. equations and viscosity along the blade The remaining for

(6-24)

two-dimensional, constant dp/dx, is also are u and v, in

incompressible

arc assumed surface, unknowns

and known. The pressure known from an ideal-flow and equations (6-23) It should be noted the presence of shock of large layer depend gradients boundary shock Mach and that

(6-24) are sufficient the boundary-layer (i.e., where the occur). Just as

for their equations flow

calculation. arc not valid adverse pressure

waves

instantaneous number,

magnitude

phenomena conditions

in the in a

on mainly

Reynolds

wave depend on primarily the Mach number. number is not included in the boundary-layer about the interaction of shock waves and

Since the influence of equations, they tell boundary layers.

us nothing 166

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

The velocity boundary

boundary-layer v is much layer the right up is very calculations Navier-Stokes

equations smaller than

are net u. Very and

completely used close in their to the are since in the equations to (6-8)

reliable derivation separation

as separation is that point, order used where point be used development of the not the the as u. in calV is of for

is approached.

One of the grows

assumptions

rapidly,

v begins equations point, error these

to be of the the

same region

Nonetheless, culations significant separation detailed The

boundary-layer to the small, in the separation and However, equations little

generally location should used

is incurred.

neighborhood (6-6)

of a separated

flow region. in the

of the boundary-layer equations were derived of coordinates in which the radius of curvature axes flow wall can is quite arises over and large (i.e., wall. where the curvature question (fig. 6-6) as to how boundary-layer the x-axis to it, a new a system. the blade assumption the radius result are in curvature equations terms the with variations equations provided near sharp there edges. boundary-layer

for an orthogonal system of each of the coordinate effects equations are negligible). would coordinate change The for system equations are relative given radius orders manner wall, dr/dx applied and ._ l, walls. to in on the

a curved is introduced the y-axis

If a curvilinear

orthogonal

wherein is normal in the in such

is in the direction set of Navier-Stokes These equations dependent The the

of the curved

be derived 1. The

for flow terms

reference of curvature of magnitude as was thickness for the the same

arc very

r at a position of the is small individual previously. compared no large fiat-plate occur

x along With

surface. that of curvature

can be estimated

in the same of the so that bc

done

boundary-layer

case where the walls

occur,

boundary-layer as well,

as were equations no large

obtained may variations

for fiat

Therefore, curved such

in curvature,

as would

y
x x

Y

FIGURE

6-6.--Curvilinear

coordinate

system

on

a blade.

167

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Laminar An order-of-magnitude

Compressible analysis were assumed equation constant, of state can

Boundary also layer. was not be

Layer performed to derive variations the a function and density compressible, which heat, and of the energy the case, were of to

equations viscosity neglected, case, temperature, temperature, equation can be

for a compressible and and density the energy

boundary

In the used.

incompressible For

constant, viscosity is used

temperature is considered pressure some three

compressible

density

is no longer the equation and,

to relate

if the process The

is not isothermal, flow will involve These for viscosity Sutherland's are

form for

is required. related are

boundary-layer

equations viscosity, as a function relation

nonisothermal, thermal There The most

variable-viscosity to temperature. several relations is probably

parameters specific

conductivity. of temperature. 1) common (rot.

z [T_3/2To+S _=\-_o] T÷S where
_o

(6-25)

dynamic Ibm/(ft) absolute reference a constant, complicated, power law

viscosity (sec) static

at the

reference K; °R S=

temperature

To, (N) (sec)/m_;

T

temperature, K; °R

To
S A less is the

temperature,

K; °R (for air, but also

110 K or 198 ° R) temperature-viscosity relation

less accurate,

_o= \_o/ where by the _ is a constant. heat range and

0.5<oo<1.0 0.65. be related particular related variables problem equation, and with

(6-26)

For air, _0 is approximately thermal conductivity fits these relating of the for With can the variables these

Specific perature v, p, and tinuity equation, The that

to temperature gas and temto u, constate to temperature, reduce the will be the

least-squares unknowns cquation, and

polynomial-curve involved. in the one

compressible-boundary-layer equations component equation. analysis for flow. For of the momentun_

T. The four

the energy equations equations

order-of-magnitude for incompressible the

continuity flow flow

momentum identical nonconstant following: to

(Navier-Stokes) viscosity, 168

compr,.ssible con,pressible to _()-10)

is almost are the

analogous

to (6-12)

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

Ou

Ou

Op,

0 [

pu _+ pv oy-- -g _-v_ =

L2" ou 2 ----

[Ou

Ov\l O [ IOu Ov\l
(6-27)

Ov

Ov

pu _xx+P,

Oy

g Op.

0 [

Ov

2

/Ou

Ov\l

a [.lay

au\l (6-28)

O(pu) Ox If an order-of-magnitude to that layer for the equations result: analysis

+O(pv) Oy

=0

(6-29)

is performed equations,

on these the

equations

similar

incompressible-flow

following

boundary-

pu -_x-{-pv --=--g Oy

-d-x-t--_y

_

(6-30)

o(pu)
+ Ox The equation of state flow. The is also state

o(pv)
-0 Oy (6-31)

required equation p=pRT

for the is

solution

of compressible

boundary-layer

(6-32) (K) or the of state, boundary by energy gas, means written (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) continuity is the layer energy (°R). equation, is derived the from equation. order-of-

where The The the

R is the final

gas

constant, and for for The the

in J/(kg) besides equation gas

equation equation, equation equation check. steady

required

momentum energy energy

a compressible a perfect is the

of another in full:

magnitude

following

equation

for compressible,

two-dimensional

flow of a perfect

pc, where
Cp

U_xxTV_yy

=_xx-i-_Oyy.Oxx

k_-x)T_yy

k_yy)+_j_

(6-33)

specific conversion thermal

heat

at constant constant,

pressure, W/(m) (K);

J/(kg) Btu/(sec)

(K);

Btu/(lbm) (ft) (°R)

(°R)

J k and

1 ; 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu

conductivity,

j

(6-34)

169

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

If an order-of-magnitude following boundary-layer

check energy

is performed equation

on the results:

above

equations,

the

(6-35)

Equations layer a gas obeying

(6-30), thc

(6-31), ideal

(6-32),

and

(6-35)

are

the laminar compressible

boundaryflow of

equations

for nonisothermal, gas law.

two-dimensional,

Turbulent It is desirable of turbine probably formance. motions) fluctuations present. the fluid There flow. sional, required, stretching ever, handle mesh
flOW.

Boundary-Layer a turbulent boundary blades, flow has that motion on the boundary layer with main irregular fluid closed-form is very mean

Solution layer

Methods over the major separation in their or (mixing (see since are fig. 6-2). are the often portion will pereddy These at in

to have If the on the

blades. occur Turbulent

is not

turbulent, decrease

a resulting motion

fluctuations solutions

superimposed are Yet,, the due are than two first since the mixing those is the

so complex

not feasible stresses of greater

important, of velocity motion.

to fluctuating approaches exact

components to the solution

magnitude The

due to the

solution of the The

of turbulent time-dependent, could at the never present

boundary-layer three-dimenequations represent flow. time arc the Howcannot enough

Navier-Stokes of eddies, largest the three-dimensional to represent second

equations. which

three-dimensional mechanism of turbulent

two-dimensional computers solutions fluctuating is to write of mean and by of velocity, u'. as follows:

calculations available of these components the equations and for So the fluctuating In this example,

is a prime

even

equations

on a small

of velocity of continuity, components approach, the is denoted density,

of turbulent momentum, of pressure, time by average the and _ and

The and density, of the velocity

approach in terms

energy

temperature, u component of fluctuation are written

velocity.

velocities,

pressure,

temperature

u = _+ u' v=_+v'
p = _+ p'

(6-36a) (6-36b) (6-36c) (6-36d) (6-36e) and specific heat are

p = p + p' T= T+ The 170 fluctuations in viscosity, thermal T' conductivity,

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

negligible as functions If the continuity, compressible These They the are are product not

and

are not considered. time-averaged listed and set "apparent" pu '_ and v'. These

So these value in equations energy of stress turbulent pu'v', new For where terms this

three (6-36) terms

parameters

are calculated into the and stresses. time of additional equations or th_ before

of the

of temperature. are substituted for arises incompressible in thees or Reynolds average additional terms over add equations stresses, u'v' is the in the reason, Reynolds for which

flow properties momentum, flow, the form of the to the presently are

a new

equations.

are called

of u r and

equations empirical stress

unknowns approximations turbulent

boundary-layer available. substituted

problem for the

expressions

boundary-layer Turbulent

equations Incompressible

can be solved. Boundary (6-36) into Layer equations (6-10), analysis boundary-

Substituting (6-11), yields layer and the flow:

the (6-12),

relations and then equations

of equations performing for turbulent,

an order-of-magnitude incompressible,

following

(6-37)

(6-a8)
These flow. (_ and equations Notice, are analogous however, equation. the This making adds three to equations presence a new of the (6-23) and (u'v') only (6-24) stress two Layer into equations all turbulent, for (6-27), order-ofcomfor laminar term in the two Reynolds with Boundary (6-36) then equations

momentum

unknown

to the original equations.

_), thereby Turbulent

unknowns

Compressible relations and the flow: yields of equations (6-33)

Substituting (6-28), magnitude pressible, (6-29),

the analysis

(6-32),

and

performing

following

boundary-layer

o(_)

. o(_,)

, o(p'v')

ox

+

-o

(6-39)
(6-40)

/5 =_RT

(6-41) 171

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

1

0

_

k

0_

0

(6-42)

where

T, is the

absolute

total

temperature,

in K or °R, and

is defined

as

T,= +
We have now derived and as are for far the basic note basis boundary-layer incompressible at this for the time many, that many solutions solutions equations and this are dimensional, boundary-layer the These starting equations laminar point turbulent, as the

(6--43)
for twoonly which various compressible is really concerned.

flow. We should only

boundary-layer boundary-layer

methods under

presently exist circumstances.

obtaining

SOLUTION After parameters Included pressible velocity

OF profiles

BOUNDARY-LAYER are discussed of the and solution the

EQUATIONS important will solution, boundary-layer be discussed. as comas well

defined, will be the methods.

some

methods

flat-plate,

incompressible

Velocity One tions the of the principal results of the The

Profiles from profile most in the boundary-layer boundary layer mathematically solualong

obtained velocity velocity

is a description blade surface

profile

(fig. 6-7).

describes

FIGURE

6-7.--Boundary-layer

velocity

profiles.

172

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

Outeredge of boundary layer_
/

!

|

°e:J
u
/ (b)

J IlL rll//llllTII/I/,

la) U/1/:frillill/I1

(a) Laminar profile, FIauaz 6-8.--Laminar

(b) Turbulent profile. and turbulent velocity profiles.

the dimensionless y/5:,,, stream _],m, from the from at a distance velocity from the blade u,. profiles those

velocity The the a y from at surface. where

u/ue surface,

as a function u is the and equal the to _:_, differs

of the velocity velocity the by

dimensionless in the boundary u, is the defined

distance layer free-

the blade.

velocity

external

distance Alternately, the velocity

boundary-layer as that from the 1 percent tend (fig.

thickness, distance external in

is often

velocity, Velocity shape, monly originated

for laminar for turbulent

flow

(fig. 6-8(a)) blunted u/ue for

to be parabolic 6-8(b)). flow

while used

flow are

A comis that

mathematical by Pohlhausen

expression (sec ref. 1) :

in laminar

u-a The constants

_-}-b

( ,_y+c ( ."__ ( :,y Y+
d are defined in terms of a dimensionless

(6-44) shape

a, b, c, and

parameter

u wherc

dx

(6-45)

}, a = 2 +-6 (6-46a)

k b = -- 2 X

(6-46b)

c=

(6-46c)
173

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Shapeparameter,

;:!== 0

o.
1
.2 .4 .6 .8 Fraction of boundary-layer height, y/Sfull 1.0 FIGURE 6-9.--Laminar veh)city profiles.

d = 1 ---

6 shc, wn in figure represented 6-9.

(6-46d)

Velocity Velocity law

profiles profiles

for various

values

of _ are flow are

for turbulent

often

by the

power

-- =
Ue

_
kS/,,H/

(6-47)

Pipe-flow Reynolds is most n can

experiments number appropriate be related and

show varies

that

the

exponent 4 up

n is a mild 10. The plate. 0, which

function value The

of the of n= 7 exponent the dis-

from

to about

for boundary-layer to other _fand boundary-layer the momentum

flow on a fiat parameters, thickness

namely

placement thickness in the next section. Definitions Solutions often In obtained to placement order thickness thickness boundary little attains distance 174 of the thickness define of the is rather layer a value from

are described

of Important two-dimensional of three 5, the these arbitrary, to that which the wall. outside is very however,

Boundary-Layer boundary-layer important parameters. 0, and thickness The

Parameters equations These the to first the velocity form are are the factor define inside This at most disH. the the is of layer a small thick-

in terms

momentum parameters, layer, since because close 8/,,n. it takes

it is necessary definition from transition place the

boundary

of boundary-layer

asymptotically. in the the external velocity boundary-layer

importance,

velocity

boundary

to the

It is possible

to define

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

ue
Ue

,-(u e - u) ue
II!_1111/_ rllllilllllllll r/Ill,

(a)
llill, 'lllll/ll/llfll 'llll[lll//

(b)

(a) Actual FzGva_

velocity

profile.

(b) thickness

6-10.--])isplacement

Equivalent profile equal mass flow. of a boundary layer.

for

ness as that from The the

distance

from velocity

the blade u,.

where

the

velocity

differs

by I percent flow,

external displacement

thickness

5, for

compressible

boundary-layer

can be defined with the decrease in mass friction is given by

the help of figure 6-10. flow within the boundary

As seen from figure 6-10(a), layer due to the influence of

_[ass

defect

=

t/=81u.ll

(p,u.-

on)

dy

(6-48)

where the the layer. distance outward

pe is the 5, the

density, layer. by

in kg/m This

3 or lbm/ft mass

3, in the defect

free

stream

outside

of by a It is

boundary distance

integrated thickness, external of the the distance
[.y=Sfutt

can be represented in figure field 6-10(b). of flow

displacement which the

as shown potential

is displaced boundary equation

as a consequence 6-10 shows,

decrease _ can

in velocity be defined

in the by the

As figure

(p.U.--pU)
y--O

dy

(6-49)

Solving

for _ gives

= -- 1 The displacement

peue _u-O

[_-,s.,, thickness

(p.u.--

pu) dy = I 1 -J_:z"':"u (Pp-_u_)
0

dy

(6-50)

for incompressible dy=

flow reduces 1-(_) due dy

to

_=-- 1 f_,=_, `n (u.--u)
Ue _ y--O

f.=',,<,,
_ _0

(6-51)
presence of

The friction

loss of momentum is given by

in the

boundary

layer

to the

175

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

l"

y= I/ull

Momentum

defect

= I
d

pu( u,-y=0

u) dy

(6-52)

This

momentum

defect

from

the

momentum by the

of purely equation

potential

flow

can be represented

by a distance

0, defined

p,u,20 =

Y=PJfull

pu (u,--

u) dg

(6-53)

" y=0

Solving

for 0 in this equation boundary

gives

the

definition as

of the

momentum

thick-

ness for compressible 0=-Pe LIe2 _ y=0

layers

pu(u_--u) thickness

dg=
_ y=0 pc_le

1-flow reduces to

dg

(6--54)

The

momentum

for incompressible

0=-/_e2 y=0

u(u,--u) H for both

dy=

]
" y=0

-l"/e

1--

dy

(6-55) flow is

The defined

form as the

factor ratio

compressible thickness 5 H =0

and

incompressible

of displacement

to momentum

thickness: (6-56)

There These

are many three,

other and however, studies. Physical

boundary-layer especially are the

parameters principal

besides

_, 0, and boundary used in

H for layers. general

two-dimensional, boundary-layer

for three-dimensional, parameters

Interpretation from a blade a region

of Separation or a casing with fluid an adverse particles pressure is deflected the gradient occurs, away from pressure cannot, because away fluid and some the of the surface gradient in general, of their from move the in a particles

When retarded toward exists penetrate small surface behind direction defined immediate

separation fluid in the the main along too and far

of flow boundary stream. into into

layer retarded region main

is transported

When the the

a surface, energy. moves

of increased layer pressure stream. the

kinetic

Thus, the

the boundary follow

In general,

the point

of separation

opposite to the external as the limit between forward neighborhood of the wall.

stream. The and reverse At separation,

point of separation is flow in the layer in the

_yy/_=0=0 Figure 176 6-11 illustrates separation occurring along a surface.

(6-57)

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

TItEOR_/

(;),.o
>o
,_\\\',, ..... LSeperation point
FIOURE 6-11.--Velocity gradients as flow

-o

- -- _x_

undergoes

separation.

By relation the

examining between

Prandtl's pressure that adverse of an to infer

boundary-layer gradient separation pressure (6-23), with dp/dx

equations and gradient the velocity in a steady

and flow

considering only at

the u(y), in the flow),

distribution will occur decelerated conditions

it is possible presence being dp/dx>O. surface

(i.e., boundary

From

equation

u = v = 0, we have

dp
\Oy_/__o We dp/dx can now through relate velocity of the on the at the profiles (6-58). wall, wall pressure The the = g dx to Ou/Oy, cquation curvature its gradient, changes profile that O_u/Oy _, and indicates of the dp/dx, sign and with exist that velocity the the

(6-58)
finally in to the

equation only profile shows

immediate of the gradient. Figure layer

neighborhood velocity 6-12(a)

profile, curvature pressure

02u/Oy 2, depends

a velocity

would

in a boundary figure 6-12 (b)

subjected

to a decreasing

pressure.

For such

a profile,

y

(c)

(a) Velocity profile, FIGURE 6-12.--Velocity

(b) Velocity gradient, distribution in a boundary

(c) Velocityprofile curvature. layer with pressure decrease. 177

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

indicates Furthermore, Ou/Oy, subjected profiles Figure with near gradient). the

that is negative

Ou/Oy figure

is positive 6-12(c)

for

all

y and (6-58),

decreases we know will

as y increases. is the that have (the slope negative layer velocity form of of

indicates dp/dx.

that

02u/Oy _, which

for all y. From to negative pressure indicative a profile due that to an 6-13 (b) not shows flow figure surface;

equation

02u/Oy _ corresponds which 6-13(a) Here, blade are

Consequently, dp/dx)

a boundary

to a decreasing

(negative of impending which would that

separation exist pressure Ou/Oy

fig. 6-12(a)). in a boundary (adverse has (fig. cases there 6-13(c)). a positive layer pressure slope This decelerated increasing

indicates

is, O_u/Oy _ is positive since in all the surface, of inflection

corresponds be less than point layer velocity

to positive dp/dx. However, zero at some distance from 02u/Oy_= profile. O. This is a point that It follows

O_u/Oy 2 must must exist a boundaryflow potential

for which

of the

in a region

of retarded

• j
Y :::_/-Point of inflection

(a|

(b)

TRY-

_y2 .

FIOURE

(a) Velocity profile, 6-13.--Velocity

distribution

(b) Velocity gradient, in a boundary

(c) Velocityprofile curvature. layer with pressure

increase.

Stagnation

Sudion -_'_"_Adve rse gradient

Fmuug

6--14.--Pressure

distribution

on a turbine

blade.

178

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

(positive point (with that, can

dp/dx),

the

velocity the surface) used the

profile velocity must

in the profile have flow

boundary at the equation

layer point (6-23), (i.e., on the where

will have of separation it follows separation in regions surface

a

of inflection. 8u/Oy with occur the only 6-14 blade.

Since

= 0 at the when indicates The

a point is retarded distribution as

of inflection,

assumptions gradient).

in deriving

potential

of of a is

adverse Figure turbine readily part

pressure

a typical danger zone, portion is taking

pressure as far place.

separation surface,

is concerned, the major

seen to be the rear of the blade diffusion

of the suction

Laminar Prandtl's It was equations This later Memorandum German

Incompressible boundary-layer translated (ref. work 3). and The was

Boundary theory first the was

Layer

on

a Flat

Plate

first reported in 1928

in 1904 in Germany. NACA of 4). from dp/dx the ffiO. of Blasius (ref. the velocity and Technical Prandtl's in 1908. solution

published

as an

mathematical fiat-plate translated p(x) reduce 82u

to be published with

solution by NACA

was also later steady equations, 8u is constant.

On a fiat plate potential solution The boundary-layer

flow at zero incidence, Therefore, therefore, 8u to

is constant

u _+v
where v is the kinematic viscosity
0U

o_
,/p,
¢9V

oy=
in m'/sec or ft'/see, and

(6-59)

(6-e0)
The following are the boundary u=v=O
U=Ue

conditions: at
at

y=O
y= oo

(6--61)

With

the

use

of a stream (6-59)

function into

_b, Blasius the following

transformed ordinary

the

partial

differential equation:

equation

differential

f d2f+2 dy 2 where f is a normalized stream function

daf=0 dy 3

(6-62)

f(,)179

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

which

depends

on the dimensionless

y-coordinate, Y

n, where

=

(6--64)

This

equation

has

the

following

boundary

conditions:

f=_--fy=O

at

n=O

(6-65) df
_=1 dy Equation mate able (6-62) df/dy, the curvature solution point. with and velocity asymptotic (6-62) in the expansion More a high profile at the wall cannot form be solved of a power the Howarth of accuracy, 6-15. rather at _= oo

exactly. series two (ref. and This

Blasius expansion 5) solved provided df/dy profile

obtained about the being joined Blasius the

an approxi71 0 and = equation for f, gives small an at a suit-

for ,1 = _, degree

solutions

recently,

tabular

values solution a very

d2f/dy _ as functions of figure and turns

of 7. Since

= u/u_, further

possesses

abruptly

from

it in order

!_
E
s-. 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 Boundary-layervelocity ratio, u/ue Fmuaz 180 6-15.--Blasius-Howarth velocity profile for flow on a flat plate.

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

to reach inflection, From

the the

asymptotic

value.

At the

wall itself,

the

curve

has

a point Prandtl's

of

since

for y = O, O_u/Oy _= O. analysis we had the performed to obtain equations, relation

order-of-magnitude

boundary-layer

(6-66)
For a semi-infinite flat plate, the Reynolds Rezu,x
p

number

can be expressed

as (6-67)

In order

to make

equation

(6-66)

dimensionally

correct,

we can say

x2
or

Rez

(6-68)

_is.u ¢c

(6-69)

The

constant

of proportionality flow, we obtain the

can be obtained useful relation

from Howarth's flat plate for the

numerical

solution in laminar thickness

and is equal

to 5. So, for a semi-infinite

at zero incidence boundary-layer

(_s_zz=5.0 With the use of Howarth's for other solution

v/_ equations, parameters the

(6-70) follow-

to the Blasius

ing relations

important

boundary-layer

for laminar

flow on a flat plate

can also be obtained:

= 1.72

v_

(6-71)

0=0.664

v]_

(6-72)

gr,,
pUe 2

= 0.332

_/"-:-_U_g =

0.332 (6-73)

1.328 D = _ b _¢/-_plu2 g

(6-74)

181

TURBIN]_

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

1.328 CI = 1.328 _-_ "uJ where
I"W

(6-75)

shear total width length

stress drag

on the surface, on both sides m; ft m; ft

N/m_;

lbf/ft

_

D b l

of fiat plate,

N; lbf

of fiat plate, of fiat plate, number that

Cf
Re_

dimensionless Reynolds be noted flow over boundary (6-71) the

drag or skin friction based on plate

coefficient length l

for fiat plate

It should flow; of laminar to turbulent equations plate occur, (6-74).

all of these only where length

relations

are valid

only that

for laminar is indicative

that is, they

are valid layer point. will

Rez < 106, a value of the plate. occur, only from to turbulent than that

the entire

For Re_ > 106, transition and the expressions layer by in does the leading boundary calculated edge of the equation

will probably will be valid If transition be larger

to (6-75) drag

to the transition then

Integral

M_thods

for

Solving

the

Laminar-Boundary-Layer The tions two are principal by integral means of solving and by solutions, based original the on work

Equations the laminar-boundary-layer finite-difference exact solutions methods. are since yon (ref. equaBoth extremely integral that it

methods

means provide cumbersome. Integral formula. and was was not Von later

approximate are

methods K_rm_n's translated

Khrm_n's 6). Von

momentum Khrm_n equations equations realized

was published

in 1912 in Germany for every close by satisfying in the or Such fluid to the the

by NACA the external

necessary Instead, in the

to satisfy he satisfied region over the the where In the the

boundary-layer boundary-layer region equation (eq. and result. thickness. to y=_/,,n, and equations momentum

particle. wall and boundary layer,

flow is approached of fluid (6-23)

conditions. a mean from over are

remaining differential

boundary a mean by and of dis(6-54)) incom(6-30)) (6-23)

only

is satisfied. If equations if the For thickness

is obtained integration (6-30) placement are pressible

momentum boundary-layer from (eq. y=O (6-50))

equation

integrated thickness the

definitions (eq. laminar,

introduced, flow,

following

dO+ (20+,_) u2 dx

u. du. = gr._.._. d'---x p

(6-76)

182

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

For laminar,

compressible flow,
uJ d_ + (20+_-MJ0) u, du, = pT._2_ d--_ p, at the outer (6-77)

where layer.

the subscript (6-76)

e denotes or (6-77) profile, 6, the for

conditions leads u/u,.

edge of the boundary differential a suitable 0, and layers. profile under equation form the His is asthe (6-76) work assumed "Velocity various disto was by Proauthors different was known laminar that velocity incomof

Equation for the sumed stress obtain published Pohlhausen files." have families Thwaites distributions pressible differential and and layer. the profile. flow. form placement

to an ordinary provided This that allows thickness, boundary The velocity chapter, in this

boundary-layer for the velocity thickness, a solution in 1921 was

thickness,

us to calculate

momentum was the 1).

shearing

at the wall,

T_. Pohlhausen (refs. 7 and earlier

first to use equation

incompressible

discussed Pohlhausen's in regions and

Although tried

solution of rising extend which

is probably pressure. his method

the simplest, by assuming

it is known

to give poor results of velocity work (ref. 8). from equations. factor with for

As a result,

to improve among

distributions. those and method He relates nondimensional the that use of exact pressure a nearly followed and Pohlhausen's all for Thwaites exact collected approximate does the compared solutions the

A famous

Thwaites'

not require wall shear,

solution a type laminar adverse

of ordinary at the wall, of velocity were among defined these boundary gradients,

its derivative quantities existed

to one another

without forms universal gradients. solutions

specifying of these relation For for the

To do this, It developed

evaluated

quantities

favorable

Thwaites selected a single representative relation. A unique correlation was chosen that reduced the solution of an incompressible problem to the evaluation pressible heat formation compressible One laminar Their stream of the method or pressure transfer of a single fluids by Rott is negligible, proposed best by integral layers applies axially to incompressible is that integral. and and Thwaites' the Prandtl (ref. method number 10) was extended to comthat to when relate of 12). twofreepresCrabtree (ref. 9). They could solutions. to date Reshotko It handles for the (refs. flow solution 11 and over recognized is equal be used

to 1, a trans-

Stewartson methods

boundary-layer to appear and of Cohen

boundary

to compressible symmetric and

or incompressible surfaces. well in areas

dimensional

arbitrary of adverse

distribution

performs

sure gradient. A surface temperature level may be specified, and heat transfer is calculated. Cohen and Reshotko's method is based on Thwaites' correlation concept. Stewartson's transformation (ref. 10) is first applied

183

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

to the

Prandtl's wall shear, Then utilizing

equations. are expressed the surface Thwaites'

The heat

resulting transfer,

nonlinear, and the of these of reference

first-order parameters transformed interdependence quantities 11. With and Young Reshotko's, different the

differential related free-stream of these carried resulting important published but from which 1. a the is then to

equations velocity. parameters out by relations, method allows

in terms concept The solutions

of dimensionless of a unique

is assumed. the methods (ref. are

evaluation for In the

exact

derived

calculation Luxton and

of all the

boundary-layer the Prandtl

parameters. 13) which number

1960,

is as general to have

as Cohen values

slightly for

Finite-Difference

Methods

Solving Equations

Laminar-Boundary-Layer Finite-difference have digital work good reference recently computers. in developing of interest with results come methods into this is that relatively Smith and for solving have (refs. (ref. running the because

boundary-layer of the 15). a considerable These on the methods computer. in

equations of of very recent give amount

prominence Clutter technique of Krause short and

development Another

done 16). times

14 and

Eddy-Viscosity Turbulent Before length" used stresses matical leads stitute flow. velocity, the referencing flow, be of the by this By should in many produced form and any the discussed.

Mixing-Length Boundary-Layer

Concepts Flow for viscosity" concepts to relate mean the values are given governing values solving

of the concepts

current of

methods "eddy to date to the into only stresses

turbulent "mixing been Reynolds of velocity a matheequations, of density, conhave

boundary-layer

and the

These

approximation

methods the upon equations These point means,

developed motion Reynolds the

mixing

components.

which, pressure.

substitution containing transformed calculation problem

to differential starting first

mean

differential of the in 1877. flow mean

equations boundary-layer with

for the on this

Boussinesq coefficient

worked

In analogy

the

of viscosity

in Stokes'

law for laminar t_ Ou r,g Oy

(6-78)

where mixing

rz is the coefficient,

laminar A,,

shear

stress,

in N/m s or lbf/ft stress in turbulent

2, he introduced flow by putting

a

for the Reynolds

A, 0_ r_ g 0y (6-79)

184

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

where

rt is the the

turbulent concept

shear of eddy,

stress,

in N/m _ or lbf/ft viscosity,

_. In 1880, Reynolds _, where

introduced

or virtual,
AY

, =-Thus, the eddy stress viscosity can then is analogous be expressed paa g Oy With the use of this concept, terms

p to the as -Pu'v' g (6-37) and (6-40) kinematic viscosity

(6--80)
p= u/p.

Turbulent

(6--81)

in equations

such

as

can be written

as

A similar or a virtual,

concept

can

be applied is that A,

to the and

energy The hence

equation difficulty _ depend between

where with these

an eddy, the It is,

conductivity method necessary velocity.

can be defined. empirical

applying

eddy-viscosity therefore, and In the free theory Prandtl's fluid good deal the 1925, Reynolds path in the concerns mean

on velocity.

to find introduced His mixing theory with with the

relations

coefficients for mean kinetic whereas clusters requires all of which of a

Prandtl since

a completely argument length the the of gases.

different

approximation mixing-length to the is that

stresses, kinetic itself deals Deriving in reference

is called is somewhat The main

Prandtl's analogous difference

hypothesis,

microscopic macroscopic expression model final

motion motion for is

of particles, of large stress flow, shear

concept

particles.

Prandtl's of his physical 1. His
rt =-

of discussion

of turbulent

is contained

expression
--PU'V'

p l 2 Ida da --=
g }-_y dy in m or ft.

g

(6-82)

where (eq. mixing (6-82) than

l is the mixing (6-81)), length is equation

length, that second

On comparing viscosity _ of the is generally

Prandtl's it appears l of the more (6-81).

expression little

(eq. has

(6-82)) been been

with that The replaced

of Boussinesq unknown eddy unknown equation motion to the 185

gained. However,

first expression suitable

has merely expression. for the dra_:

by the Prandtl's

calculation is roughly

of turbulent proportional

Turbulent

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

square mixing property mixing

of velocity, length length of the length

and

the

same local the

result function,

is obtained although to make _, and

from

(6-82) say about

if the it is a the the

is assumed fluid.

to be independent It is far simpler eddy over

of the magnitude we cannot assumptions this

of velocity.

So, mixing

is a purely about

1 than

viscosity that for

constitutes

superiority

of Prandtl's Integral Turbulent

expression Methods

of Boussinesq. Solving the

Boundary-Layer

Equations equations, there the are both

Just integral since

as

with

the and

laminar-boundary-layer finite-difference Both for turbulent the first turbulent A rash calculational and the 10) (ref. boundary Tillmann, skin-friction are 18), likewise equations. proposed layers. momentum an translated is still used methods of these

methods exact solutions was

for solving approximate for solving His work most was (ref.

turbulent solutions,

boundary-layer Gruschwitz in Germany improvements Gruschwitz. many empirical equation.

equations.

provide

flow are now impossible. a method layer. followed, and work in 1950 in the in many improved which current whose term used the was data equations published making used by an in Gerintegral for solving for incomequation integrable parameter is boundary of works technique by NACA in many

to propose

for an incompressible in 1931. to the Ludwieg was for (ref. in 1951 turbulent determines relation This

of them published

empirical

in 1949 and

17), proposed Stewartson's

momentum methods method is directly

relation

methods.

transformations Maskell, pressible and thus

the turbulent-boundary-layer

He replaced thickness.

the momentum A profile

by an empirically obtained Tillmann tribution pressure translated and and, tion. flows. brodt's with 20). been power the Prior utilized law, turbulent like It applies method use

determined the

approximation

from an empirical auxiliary differential equation. The Ludwiegskin-friction formula is used to calculate the skin-friction disand gradient. whose work was (ref. does published 19), proposed not use the and in Germany solutions flows. The momentum rotationally accurate turbulent were first and velocity skin-friction in 1952 and for both method integral results, boundary treated Tucker integral profile, was by NACA Maskell's in I955 method, to both is still of integral work, one with and laminar is simple equato determine a separation point for flows with adverse

Truckenbrodt,

incompressible

boundary-layer two-dimensional and relatively layers by for incompressible boundary Reshotko

symmetrical Truckenlayers. (ref. had the When adequately in 1957 equation usually relations.

Because

of its simplicity used turbulent

Compressible

methods the

to their

K_irm_tn

momentum

an assumed of several

boundary-layer empirical

186

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

pressure tiplying normal The solved heat form (ref. heat (ref.

gradient the to the

was present, equation, was of the and then

an auxiliary used. (This momentum integrating and the

equation, equation integral with auxiliary

usually equation

the momentby mulby a distance distance.) were flow and then with

of-momentum

is obtained to that equation

integrand surface integral

respect

momentum and and are and

equation method, gradient, equations. with the

simultaneously. Tucker's pressure applicable These use are (ref. suitable shear-stress velocity Separation becomes available used in many available of Sasman is made equations. of numerical Sasman-Cresci results and for profile to compressible expressed 18). The transfer and 10) also uses the momentum of Stewartson's moment-

Reshotko of-momentum

integral uncoupled the relation through and the when ago, best was

in incompressible transformation Ludwieg-Tillmann flow with concept through to simplify point method, the the until today. 22). It is where

results is used

of Maskell in a form for the power-law

skin-friction transfer 21).

for compressible reference-enthalpy distribution are used zero. computer today Cresci It method. to uncouple These This is located as the

application

of Eckert's

An approximation layer friction, years layers.

boundary the skin

moment-of-momentum several boundary One turbulent simply the and same of

equation. extrapolated, the best

compressible programs for (ref. uses the

turbulent compressible somewhat momentum are solved disthat of pressure based on 22) 24). techturbulent (ref. turbulent than

It is still widely integral layers of the but after is that

the

methods

boundary an extension analysis,

Reshotko-Tucker integral

no attempt introduction

moment-of-momentum obtained from

equations

simultaneously tributions boundary-layer

boundary-layer analysis in regions a computer Sasman-Cresci on

shear-stress is better

recent The

of equilibrium of adverse program (ref.

analysis.

Reshotko-Tucker gradient. McNaUy the Cohen-Reshotko An niques.

at predicting separation (ref. 23) has developed (refs. 11 and 12) work and source is the of information

additional analysis

compressible

boundary-layer

of Herring for

and Mellor Solving Equations the

Finite-Difference Turbulent Finit_difference equations large and (refs. Patankar the work Atwell 28 have have and and portion methods recently begun to date on have the

Methods Boundary-Layer for solving (refs. methods use developed equations field at the

the

turbulent and 27).

boundary-layer Smith have done Ferriss, layer equation. for handling A great deal of a Bradshaw, boundary energy

to appear.

Cebeci

of this work 29) based

25, 26, and of the still (refs. present

also developed

for the turbulent turbulent another 30 and time, method 31).

Spalding

turbulent is going

boundary-layer on in this

and

no method

is yet 187

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

clearly (refs. integral

superior 32 and and 33) finite

to

any compare

of the

others. of

Two the

relatively most prominent turbulent

recent

publications methods, both layer.

many for

difference,

solving

the

boundary

CONCLUDING The layer able. that of selection problem This have solution can been has techniques, whole of a method requires be achieved mentioned been the some by of solution familiarity studying The to show

REMARKS suitable with some present the the of the to a particular various more boundarymethods recent of the avail-

references methods of

herein. intended variety

discussion historical and where

development the complexity

solution of the

of methods problem,

available, especially

boundary-layer

turbulent

flows

are involved.

REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. HERMAN_ (J. KESTIN, TRANS.)" Boundary Layer Theory. McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., any edition. BIRD, R. BYRON; STEWART, WARREN E.; AND LIGHTFOOT, EDWIN N.: Transport Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960. PRAN_rL, L. : Motion of Fluids with Very Little Viscosity. NACA TM 452, 1928. BLASIUS, H.: The Boundary Layers in Fluids with Little Friction. NACA TM 1256, 1950. HOWARTH, L." On the Solution of the Laminar Boundary Layer Equations. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Set. A, vol. 164, no. 919, Feb. 18, 1938, pp. 547-579. YON K_RM_N, TH: On Laminar and Turbulent Friction. NACA TM 1092, 1946. POHLHAUSEN, K. : Approximate Integration of the Differential Equation of the Limit Surface of Laminar Motion. Zeit. f. Math. Mech., vol. 1, Aug. 1921, pp. 252-268.
SCHLICHTING,

8. THWAITES, B.: Approximate

Calculation

of the Laminar

Boundary

Layer.

Aero-

naut. Quart., vol. 1, Nov. 1949, pp. 245-280. 9. ROTT, NICHOLAS; AND CRABTREE, L. F.: Simplified Laminar Boundary-Layer Calculations for Bodies of Revolution and for Yawed Wings. J. Aeron. Sci., vol. 19, no. 8, Aug. J,952, pp. 553-565. 10. STEWARTSON, K. : Correlated Incompressible and Compressible Boundary Layers. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A, vol. 200, no. 1060, Dec. 22, 1949, pp. 84-100. 11. CO_EN, CLAaENCS B.; AND RESHOTXO, ELI: Similar So|utions for the Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Pressure Gradient. NACA TR 1293, 1956. 12. COHEN, CLARENCE B. ; ANY RESHOTKO, ELI: The Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. NACA TR 1294, 1956. 13. LVXTOS, R. E.; AND YOUNG, A. D. : Generalized Methods for the Calculation of the Laminar Compressible Boundary-Layer Characteristics with Heat Transfer and Non-Uniform Pressure Distribution. R&M-3233, Aeronautical Research Council, Gt. Britain, 1962.

188

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

14. SMITH, A. M. 0.; AND CLUTTER, DARWIN W." Solution of the Incompressible Laminar Boundary-Layer Equations. AIAA J., vol. 1, no. 9, Sept. 1963, pp. 2062-2071. 15. 16. 17. 18. SMITH, A. M. O.; ANY CLUTTER, DARWIN W.: Machine Calculation of Compressible Laminar Boundary Layers. AIA_ J., vol. 3, no. 4, Apr. 1965, pp. 639-647. KRAUSE, EGON: Numerical Solution of the Boundary-Layer Equations. AIAA J., vol. 5, no. 7, July 1967, pp. 1231-1237. LUDWIEG, HUBERT; Stress in Turbulent AND TILLMANN, W.: Investigations Boundary Layers. NACA TM 1285, of the 1950. Wall-Shearing Layer in Aircraft Laminar

MASKI':LL, E. C. : Approximate Calculation Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow. Establishment, Nov. 1951.
TRUCKENBROIYr,

of the Turbulent Boundary Rep. AERO 2443, Royal for Calculation of the

19.

E.:

A Method Layer 1955.

of Quadrature

and Turbulent Boundary Flow. NACA TM 1379,
20. RESHOTKO,

in Case of Plane and Rotationally

Symmetrical

21.

ELI; AND TUCKER, MAURICE: Approximate Calculation of the Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. NACA TN 4154, 1957. ECKERT, E. R. G. : Engineering Relations for Friction and Heat Transfer to Sur-

faces 587. 22.

in High

Velocity

Flow.

J. Aeron.
ROBERT

Sci., vol. 22, no. 8, Aug.
J.:

1955,

pp. 585-

SASMAN, PHILIP K.; AND CRESCI, Layer with Pressure Gradient 1966, pp. 19-25.

and

Heat

Compressible Transfer. AIAA

Turbulent Boundary J., vol. 4, no. 1, Jan.

23.

MCNALLY, WILLIAM D.: FORTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Boundary NASA TN D-5681, 1970.
HERRING, H. JAMES; AND MELLOR, G.

Program for Calculating Compressible Layers in Arbitrary Pressure Gradients.
L.:

24.
25.

A Method of Calculating Compressible CR-1144, 1968. CEBECI, T.; SMITH, A. M. 0.; AND MOSINSKIS, G.: Solution of the Incompressible Turbulent Boundary-Layer Equations with Heat Transfer. J. Heat Transfer, vol. 92, no. 1, Feb. 1970, pp. 133-143.

Turbulent

Boundary

Layers.

NASA

26.

SMITH,

A.

M.

0.;

AND

CEBECI,

Layer 1967. 27.

Equations.

Rep.

T. : Numerical Solution of the Turbulent-BoundaryDAC-33735, Douglas Aircraft Co. (AD-656430), May

CERECl, T.; ANn SMITH, A. M. O.: A Finite-Difference Method for Calculating Compressible Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers. J. Basic Eng., vol. 92, no. 3, Sept. 1970, pp. 523-535.
P.; FERRISS, D. H.; AND ATWELL, N. P.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the Turbulent Energy Equation. J. Fluid Mech., vol. 28, pt. 3, May 26, 1967, pp. 593-616. BRADSHAW, P.: Calculation of Boundary-Layer Development Using the TurbuBRADSHAW,

28.

29.

lent Energy Equation. Lab., Jan. 30, 1969. 30.

IX: Summary.

Rep.

NPL-Aero-1287,

National

Physical

PATANKAR, S. V.; ANY SPALDING, D. B. : A Finite-Difference Procedure for Solving the Equations of the Two-Dimensional Boundary Layer. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 10, no. 10, Oct. 1967, pp. 1389-1411.
PATANKAR,

31. 32.

Layers.

S. V.; AND C.R.C. Press,

SPALDING,

D. B." Heat

and

Mass

Transfer

in Boundary

1967. Computation of Turbulent Conference. Stanford Univ.

COLES, D. E.; ANn HIRST, E. A., ED8.: Proceedings, Boundary Layers--1968, AFOSR-IFP-Stanford Press, 1969.

189

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

33.

BERTRAM, SP-216,

MITCHEL 1969.

H.,

ED.:

Compressible

Turbulent

Boundary

Layers.

NASA

190

INTRODUCTION

TO

BOUNDARY-LAYER

THEORY

SYMBOLS turbulent constant flow mixing in eq. (6-44) coefficient, (N) (sec)/m_; lbm/(ft) (sec)

A_r

a

b Cf
e, cp

m; fwidth of flat eq. (6-44) plate, ft constant in skin-friction constant specific total Blasius general component component component conversion form factor, unit vector conversion unit vector constant drag heat coefficient in eq. (6-44) pressure, N; lbf stream vector, force force force function N/kg; defined N/kg; N/kg; N/kg; by eq. (6--63) lbf/lbm lbf/lbm lbf/lbm (sec _) J/(kg)(K); Btu/(lbm)(°R) at constant (6-44) lbf/lbm for a flat plate

D d

on flat plate, in eq.

f
f

dimensionless body force of body of body of body constant,

f in x-direction, f in y-direction, f in z-direction, (Ibm)

f, f.
g H i J

1; 32.17

(ft)/(lbf)

defined by eq. (6-56) in the x-direction constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu (K); Btu/(sec) chord), (ft) (°R) m; ft in the y-direction

J
k k L 1 M.
n

thermal conductivity, W/(m) unit vector in the z-direction characteristic length (e.g.,

the blade

Prandtl mixing length, m; ft length of flat plate, m; ft Mach number external to the boundary exponent dimensionless static pressure, number number number of curvature in eq. static total gas constant, Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds radius constant absolute absolute reference time, sec velocity velocity of general in x-direction, upstream velocity of blade, vector on the turbulent N/m2; J/(kg) based based based (6-25), temperature, used lbf/ft (K) velocity defined 2 ; (ft) pressure, by eq.

layer eq. (6-47) (6-13e) (°R) by eq. (6-67) (6-13f) (6-75)

profile,

P p R Re Rez Re_
r

(lbf) / (lbm)

on L and

U0, as defined in eq. by eq.

on l, as defined on x, as defined surface, K; °R K; °R in eq. (6-25), K; °R

of blade

m; ft

S T T,

temperature,

To
t U Uo
U

temperature

K; °R defined m/sec; by eq. (6--13c) m/sec;

dimensionless free-stream component ft/sec

ft/sec x-direction,

u in the

191

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

U U.

general

velocity

vector,

m/sec; at the

ft/sec outer edge of the boundary (6-13d) m/sec; m/sec; layer,

free-stream

velocity

V
p

m/sec; ft/sec dimensionless velocity component ft/sec component ft/sec dimensionless of general of general

in y-direction, velocity velocity vector vector defined

defined u in the u in the

by eq.

y-direction, z-direction,

tO

X

x-coordinate,

by eq. (6-13a)

Y Y
Z

x-coordinate, m; ft coordinate parallel to boundary surface, m; ft dimensionless y-coordinate, defined by eq. (6-13b) y-coordinate, m; ft coordinate perpendicular z-coordinate, m; ft displacement thickness, thickness, defined boundary-layer eddy viscosity

to boundary m; ft m; ft (6-80), by eq.

surface,

m; ft

_yuu
¢

m2/sec;

ft2/sec eq. (6-45) To, (N)(sec)/m_; (6-64)

a dimensionless quantity much less than 1 Blasius transformed y-coordinate defined by 0 momentum dimensionless dynamic dynamic Ibm/(ft)
p P P_

thickness, shape viscosity, viscosity (sec) viscosity, (N)

m; ft parameter (sec)/m at reference m2/sec; ft2/sec to lbf/ft lbf/ft lbf/ft 2 _ 2 the boundary layer, kg/mS; defined 2; lbm/(ft) temperature by eq. (sec)

kinematic

density, kg/m _; lbm/ft 3 free-stream density external lbm/ft laminar turbulent shear function Blasius constant stress a shear shear stress, stress, N/m2; N/mS; N/m_; (6-34) m2/sec;

T! Tt Tw _0

at the wall,

defined by eq. stream function, in eq. (6-26)

ft_/sec

60

Superscripts" time
t

average component

fluctuating

192

CHAPTER 7

Boundary-Layer Losses
By Herman .Prust, r. W J
The builds are blade the the surfaces, mixing by for primary up on the the trailing friction cause blade of losses in a turbine surfaces. the flow from from is the of the the of the boundary viscous blades the fluid layer these over past that losses the the from

and end-wall

In particular,

loss resulting pressure-drag edge, and the

loss resulting loss downstream boundary-layer 6 presented the the surface friction, layer. The blade-section blade plus discussed. in blade-row of fluid through in this ideal based from used discussion coefficients This chapter

flow of fluid

resulting

of the low-velocity fluid. means Chapter of which

fluid with boundary-layer analytical theory boundary end-wall design the chapter express

high-velocity can be

free-stream theory, analytically methods associated primarily obtaining dimensional

an introduction covers

to boundary-layer buildup and and mixing herein Methods from the the experimental losses refers for twoenergy the kinetic flow with

described. determining the with

trailing-edge,

boundary

presented layers. losses

to two-dimensional three-dimensional results are also objective from the flow

A fundamental loss resulting final energy energy through by the and 7-1. expressions

is to minimize blade the energy energy this 2. and row. are in terms of the

Therefore,

for loss developed These part Efficiency coefficients definition with the and the of the

of kineticactual

loss coefficients. as a fractional the blade row. these efficiency

loss in fluid

kinetic on kinetic unity, in chapter station

can be obtained is consistent

subtracting blade-row Before loss These

proceeding coefficients, and velocity pressure

of boundary-layer locations with and the and

parameters associated dis193 the aid of figure associated

blade-row velocity

pressure

distributions

will be introduced distributions

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

cussion layer, higher Figure

refer loss,

to an attached and cannot indicates

boundary

layer in the station

only. same

A separated is thicker, manner, that

boundary yields a

with its associated 7-1 (a)

reversal be analyzed the

of flow at the four

surface,

if at all. will be referred

locations

,_---- $ --.--_

Station 0

r la
r"

'-1

(a)

.... --

Total pressure Static pressure Velocity

Station 0

v,,,,, !,/ .1|
Station la

_-r]

I'--'--'I

rq

Station i

Station 2

(b)

FIovr_

7-1.--Station

(a) Station locations. (b) Pressure and velocity distributions. locations and associated press_Ire and

velocity

distributions.

194

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

to in this station, 7-1 (b). boundary pressure stream flow from the

chapter. a uniform Station layers profiles

Station total la developed as shown region value pressure beyond is just

0 represents pressure within on the in figure at the of the solid the

the

inlet

to the blade as indicated edge of the varies There Total across friction where with the too, pressure result

row. blade.

At this in figure The and freeno varies blade as is la,

po' is assumed, trailing surfaces Velocity edge. surfaces. blade 7-1 (b). blade trailing

in velocity from pressure pl_ at the station loss has the the the is, of course,

value through This

V:,.I,_ to zero the

free-stream static

P']8.1,,= po' to the static is assumed the blade where in figure entire constant loss occurs. blade wake across row constant la, only the surface trailing little but

surfaces. Station layer has fluid

the flow angle

a_o. At station the void,

occurred. boundary-

1 is just has filled This are

edge, mixing by

free stream profiles pressure stations with the

occurred.

is indicated the assumed

1 (b) region. the that The

station-1 static Between mixing, and

showing la and associated profiles In have inlet have both

flow throughout l, the trailing-edge loss, uniform.

Here station. complete

and flow angle sufficiently

Station

2 is located velocity

at a distance total-pressure of variables Uniformity Experiments across infor. 1. In some place, of

downstream mixing are again

of the has

taken

place. and

order been

to simplify assumed tests that stream

analysis

discussion, the various that

a number stations. usually do vary la does applications. and take

constant but and seldom pressure boundary

across exists layer mixing state

conditions shown free

is a universal static

convenience

can be approached somewhat

in component

in actual

and flow angle at stations this of the is merely

stances, Although pletely

which some uniform

will be later downstream downstream

identified,

variation flow

can be accounted

a com-

a hypothetical

convenience.

BOUNDARY-LAYER When between in the velocity surface _:,u. the these a real the region to fluid flows and the adjacent free-stream of the over a surface, surface. region V:, layer, at

PARAMETERS a loss results between by from full and parameters thickness, here; kinetic-energy zero energy form As shown varies the due to both the figure layers 7-2, velocity resulting factor) friction of fluid the on fluid the from Some others will of were height

fluid

surface

and friction

to the velocity

in the

boundary-layer the losses boundary thickness,

boundary-layer are used. in addition, coefficients

To describe presence (displacement

in flow, momentum, certain momentum the desired

introduced

in the last chapter

and will be reviewed

specifically used for obtaining be introduced and defined.

195

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Free-streem velocit L Vfs =i

,- Full boundary

W)odty, v

=;/

layer height.

_full

¢////////.4, Surface

_'//////////_

FmuRz

7-2.--Typical

boundary-layer

velocity

profile.

The

displacement by

thickness

5, which

is indicative

of the

loss in mass

flow, is defined

(0V)s,=L
where $ V
P

(pV) f. dY_0

_lul!

(pV)

dY

(7-1)

displacement boundary-layer fluid velocity, fluid density, distance free-stream (7-1) states

thickness, thickness, m/sec; kg/m3; (ideal) that

m; ft m; ft ft/sec lb/fP normal to boundary layer, m; ft

Y

in direction

()f.
Equation ary layer

conditions the loss in mass ideal flow which displacement flow of the would pass fluid in the through for bounda length _ yields

is equal equal

to the to the

(or an area)

thickness.

Solving

['/"u =-o The momentum by thickness

dy_

dY fo_:=u ...... pV (pV):. is indicative of the

(7-2) momentum

O, which

loss, is defined

O(pV_):.=Jo where the 0 is the momentum

fs:.u

(pVV/,)

dy_

fo_,,u

pV 2 dY (7-3) states

(7-3) that to the

thickness, of the fluid

in m or ft. Equation in the boundary layer

loss in momentum

is equal

196

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

ideal

momentum equal

of the to the 8=

ideal

flow which

would

pass

through

a length

(or

an area)

momentum

thickness. dY-

Solving PV_

for 0 yields dY (7-4)

fa'"' -o

pV (pV)t. can

fo s_'" similarly

(pV )i.

The energy

loss

in kinetic defined

energy by

be

expressed

in terms

of an

thickness

_ _b(pV_)/,=_ where the ideal ff is the kinetic energy energy

_0

(pVV_,)

dY-

_0

(pV 3) dY (7-5) layer pass through states

(7-5) that to the

thickness, of the ideal energy of the

in m or ft. fluid in the flow which thickness.

Equation would Solving

loss in kinetic energy equal

boundary

is equal

a length

(or an area)

to the

for ff yields

[6/.,, =-o

,V

dy_

fo sf"'z

,V 3 dY (pV3)s.

(7--fi)

Ratios of the aforementioned

thickness terms are also used as basic

boundary-layer parameters. The form factorH isdefined as H= -_ (7-7)

Substituting dimensionless

equations distance

(7-2) y as

and

(7-4)

into equation

(7-7)

and defining

a

yyields
1

Y _futt

(7-8)

1

(pV)I,
H =
1

(7-9)

(or)f,
An energy factor E is defined as E= _8 Substituting yields equations (7-6), (7-4), and

(or'),,,

(7-10)

(7-8)

into

equation

(7-10)

197

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

ff E= fo

pV (pV)/,

dy-

fo 1 -- pV 3 dy (pV3)I. (7-11)

(pV)j, pV

dy-- f[

pV2 (pV_)1. dy often represented by a power

Velocity profile of the

profiles type

for turbulent

flow

are

V _yn (7-12)

where Note profile pressed The wherein

the

value this 1In

of the power

exponent profile (6-47)) with as n, that

n is most is here general are

often

between

0.1 and the

0.25. same exusage. 1, for specific used

that as the

expressed

as yn, while as yl/n. The with form

in chapter exponent value

6 (eq. is consistent

is expressed however,

exponent theory the being reference

boundary-layer is consistent derived. on the and (7-11 Therefore,

expressed equations

follow

numerical the With in series expressed ratio

to be used profile, the form of the resulting 1 --4 n+l

for n will depend equations and energy (7-9) n and the derived 5A_. 5n+1

exponent. this velocity form, and The in terms ) can be integrated flow can be velocity 1 are critical factors for turbulent free-stream in reference

exponent equations 3A f, 3n+l
A/,

V/Vcr.

{

F'-(7-13)

H= 1 (n+l)(2n+l) and

+

+

A_,
-_--Jl*

(3n+l)(4n+l)

(5n+1)(6n+l)

2
E.__

(n_l_l)(3n_q_l)--I1 (n+l)(2n+l)

(3n+l)(5n+l)+(5n+l)(7n+l) Af, (3n+l)(4n+l) A_,
-_+• I o

t-

+

(5n+l)(6n+l) (7-14)

where (7-15)

As._"/-

_+1

1 (_-)

2 _

198

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

and

_, is the (Mach

ratio

of specific and

heat

at constant fluid For and velocity, (7-14)

pressure in m/sec reduce

to specific or ft/sec, flow, to where

heat

at

constant critical approaches

wlume,

Vc, is the condition. (7-13)

at the V/V,r

1) flow

incompressible

zero, equations

H_.c=2n+l and 2(2n+1) E_._ = 3n+l for turbulent from factor exponent presented They drag the compressible

(7-16)

(7-17)

Values

of the

form

and

energy

factors

flow

are shown in figure 7-3 for V/V_r varying from 0 to 1.5. It can be seen that the form does The refer certain tained where simpler the ideal parameters parameters" the energy factor. For of V layer work. the any V¢r. just type instance, physical pass on the constant is almost independent boundary-layer to a boundary aerodynamic directly the and from more so and

0 to 1.4 and varies much n, the are

n varying more than factor and useful can however, row, it is part thickness thickness thickness. of can in

energy

parameters on any For to the could are momentum

general

of body. thickness. the termed basis

are directly of a body work, of the blade as a fractional row. The

be ob-

In turbine losses the

flow is confined quantities are that

boundaries blade

meaningful

to express herein

through

expressed defined

"dimensionless trailing-edge

of zero

Free-stream criticalvelocity

ratio, (VNcr)fs f-0 //-0.6
2.2
hJ L=

-V/21.o
,,,,

_ 1.4-7

,-0

1.8 E"

-\\\
I
2

\
rL00 1

Power n usedin velocity equation VNfs =yn
r].25 ' _LS0 6 7

1.4

I
3 4 Form factor. H 5

FIGURE 7-3.--Effect

of compressibility (Data

on variation of energy from ref. 1.)

factor

with form

factor.

199

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

"%..\
Station _ _'_'_ ____-_ _ J

t 8
Ys

_cos FIGURE 7-4.--Nomenclature for trailing-edge

ala region.

These suctionWith the losses the row are

dimensionless and the assumption

thickness that

parameters thicknesses. flow conditions parameters and energy that for one

must

represent

the

sum

of the same, the by 7-4, or bladeloss, (7-18) (7-19) (7-20)

pressure-surface thickness momentum, ideal total of the The

in all channels are could the obtained pass by through blade-row

are the dividing channel one in figure

dimensionless in flow, corresponding channel. composed

for a single channel,

quantities losses

as indicated

suction-surface

loss plus

pressure-surface

Stot=$,A-_p Otot-- O,-.FOp q/tot= _,A-_ where and defined thicknesses the subscripts boundary-layer are expressed tot, s, and value, as p denote total Thus, the value, suction-surface of the

value, previously

pressure-surface

respectively.

in terms

thicknesses,

dimensionless

boundary-layer

($*=

s cos a(pV)I, e,o,(pV2)i.
S COS ot(pU2)$,

-

s cos a O,o,
8 cos c_

(7-21)

0* =

-

(7-22)

_/ tot

_* ....
8 COS 8 COS 0t (_)(pVa)l. a

(7-23)

200

BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES
where dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless
8 O_

0*

displacement momentum energy m; ft from axial and

thickness thickness

thickness direction, (7-23) as fractions trailing-edge 1, beyond the deg the losses respective is assumed station edge. in flow, ideal la, momenquantiwithin

blade

spacing,

fluid flow angle (7-21), energy, blade edge,

Equations tum, These the and ties for the trailing

(7-22), respectively, row can if the

express

of their thickness trailing

to be zero.

equations

be subscripted

to apply

at either

or station

BLADE-ROW As mentioned kinetic-energy friction, the kinetic-energy previously, loss coefficients. and loss coefficients

LOSS the mixing losses losses

COEFFICIENTS are and to be expressed them in terms in terms of the of

In this section,

methods expressing

for evaluating

trailing-edge,

will be presented. Losses _la, defined energy of the as the of the loss in kinetic actual

Surface-Friction The energy kinetic-energy as a fraction be expressed as loss of the in coefficient ideal terms

kinetic

blade-row

flow, can thicknesses

boundary-layer

dimensionless

_11a8

COS

O_la(pWa)

fs,la

_1_= (s cos oq_--_*_s cos axe--t) where 7-4 Since trailing t is the for the this blade-row trailing-edge in the only region the thickness, of the to station as t t* S COS _la

(pV3)i,

aa (Refer of the

(7-24) to fig. blade.)

in m or ft. trailing edge within loss.

nomenclature coefficient thickness it represents

is referenced is expressed

la, just

the blade-row

edge,

surface-friction

If a trailing-edge

dimensionless

(7-25)

equation

(7-24)

reduces

to

ela

--

1 -- _*_-- t* _ from equation energy (7-26),

(7-26) it is _b_* 201

In order necessary

to evaluate to know the

the

loss coefficient of the

values

dimensionless

thickness

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

and either

the

dimensionless experimentally

displacement or analytically,

thickness determining

$1". These

can be evaluated herein. loss values, Instead, related the p0'blade-exit P'lo for one express which thickas to friction are po', the directly.

as will be discussed experimental velocity and total velocity density and

Experimental it is impractical pressure pressure static loss consist data

determination.--In to measure are taken, The and pressure the the the

density required

functions. pressure

data upstream

for computing pressure data

of (see fig. 7-1) p,,, and

the total-pressure

loss survey

blade space. Since the dimensionless boundary-layer thicknesses the losses of the blade row as a fractional part of the ideal quantities could ness pass through the blade in terms row, the dimensionless flow across one displacement blade
8

can be expressed

of the

pitch

s cos ,._.(pV)i.,1o-t*s cos a,a(pV)s,,,_- cos a_of0 (pV)_odu
_i*.--where (7-27) u is the simplifies distance to

s cos _o(pV)_,,_.
in the tangential direction,

(7-27) in m or ft. Equation

_l_a

=

I--t*--

fo

pV

,.

d

(7-28)

In a similar nesses

manner,

the as

dimensionless

momentum

and

energy

thick-

can be expressed

01*=

(pV2)1o,1,,
1 V pV

= fo and

[1-(V-_f,),,]

(_),d

(u)

(7-29)

¢l_a --

(pf.V}.),.

pVd
Assuming 202 that the total temperature T' and the static pressure

(7-30)

p_, in

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

the

boundary

layer relation,

are the

same

as in the free ratio

stream,

the

density From

ratio the

(p/p/,) isentropic

l, can be related

to the

pressure

P'ljPo'

as follows:

p

(p_V.T

I.,1=Since ps,.l==po' ' and
plJp/.a==plJpo ' '

--7 \p 1_,.,., ' (from (7-31) the by ideal equation gas law,

(7-32) with yields

'

T'I,=T_o.la=To'),

division

of equation

(7-32)

-P_s,/ - \po' ] ,. The (p/p') isentropic write velocity relation, ratio (V/Vs,)la as follows: equations can From (1-51) be and related (1-52) to the pressure definition

(7-33) ratios and

1,, and pl=/po'

the total-temperature

of chapter

1, we can

V_ 2gJcj, T'where g J
Cp

T fp_C.y-_>/v 1--_-_ = 1-\_/

(7-34)

conversion conversion specific heat

constant, constant,

1;32.17

(lbm)

(ft)/(lbf) J/(kg)(K);

(sec 2) Btu/(lb)(°R) for free-stream the second, and

1; 778 (ft) pressure, once first

(lb)/Btu

at constant (7-34) the

Subscripting values recalling at la, that

equation dividing

for station of these

la and again by

equations

P,_oa,, Po' and T_°aa = T_= yields =

V

1-- ---7" \Pla]

pin _ (v-l)/v

(7-35)

With

the

density (7-28),

and velocity (7-33) (7-29), thicknesses. from equation and

ratios and Then, (7-30)

expressed (7-35), and the thus

in terms evaluate

of the the loss

measured

pressures equations

by equations

it is now

possible

to integrate dimensionless coefficient $1=

boundary-layer can be computed The

kinetic-energy determined

(7-26). is a two-dimensional 203

kinetic-energy

loss coefficient

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

coefficient; cascade cascade order and are taken the calculated ary-layer to tip:

that or from

is, it is based a constant often is, the

on data

either

from

a two-dimensional (The annular In data are hub row, from cover a turbine.)

radius

of an annular full stator loss coefficient

cascade.

can be, and to obtain at a number

or rotor

a three-dimensional

for a blade

of radii sufficient dimensionless for each obtained are then

to adequately boundary-layer radius. by radial

the annulus, boundfrom

two-dimensional as shown thicknesses

thicknesses

previously

Three-dimensional integration

ff'
h

$*_(pV)I.,I,,

cos alo r dr

(7-36)
"' (pV)/°jo
k

cos al. r dr

cos. , r dr
Ol*.a_ " (pV2)f.,1,,
h

(7-37) cos alo r dr

d/_,,(pV 3)i.,h cos al. r dr
_la,|D

(7-38) "* (pV3)s..I.
k

cos al_ r dr

In terms

of the

measured

pressures,

these

integrals

are

expressed

as

L:i,_o(pia)i/'y[l__(P"_(_-')i'_l'l' 5" Ia,SD
-_"

j

COSalo r dr (7-39)

S,:' <,,->"'[
\p-_41

j

cos al. r dr

204

BOUNDARY-LAYER

I_SSES

O*a(Px_}l/v [

\po']

j cosaz_rdr

(7-4O)
\p-_0' ] j cos a,_ r dr

\p0'] &:_,_ = \-_ / j

j

cos ax, r dr (7-41) cos a,a r dr

The

three-dimensional similar

kinetic-energy to equation (7-26) :
_/la,SD

loss

coefficient

is then

obtained

in a manner

_1_,3_ = 1 -- _*o.aD-- t_* where t_* is the trailing-edge the the dimensionless average value thickness for the blade loss determined as experimental consuming boundary-layer computer at the at the mean row. coefficient

(7--42) radius _1_ can anaAnaare are

and is used to represent Analytical thickness lytical lytical discussed not layer Center another An simple, also be evaluated values methods and with are much for referenced programs

determination.--The parameters. While less calculating not costly

kinetic-energy as reliable and time the basic require in use

use of analytically

boundary-layer values, to obtain. parameters solutions BoundaryResearch and Lewis

in chapter methods currently

6. The boundary-layer solution. NASA

and the better

computer

include one (ref. 2) based based on the finite difference equation used in the study thickness momentum 0.231

on an integral method solution method of reference 3. of reference was 4 to compute

turbulent

boundary-layer

01a

_---

,

\_ccrlfa,

la

×

(7-43)

205

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

where parameter
X

defined along blade

by equation surface from lb/(ft)

(7-15) from forward to stagnation rear point, m; ft point, forward (sec) in reference velocity referenced the 4. It profile. equation is asIn stagnation

distance m; ft viscosity,

l

blade-surface (N)

distance (sec)/m_;

The sumed

development that the 4, the

of this boundary exponent

equation layer n was

is presented has obtained from

a power-law

reference

n Equation surfaces equktions blade-surface channel Values form for factor both the obtained thickness evaluated turbine calculated thickness ably tained from directly parameters sufficient have procedure reference mean-section have In (1) by the shown the The to be close from (7-43) of the (7-43) must The and be (7-44)

,
are

L\-_-Iy. for

xj

1
the and suction densities values obtained 5. (7-43) and by and adjacent any

(7-44) pressure for to the of the of the can be known be the as

evaluated free-stream those These

both

blade. boundary

velocities free-stream can be

required

layers. techniques factor

flow analysis of the from form equations suction the blade blade Hla and

discussed

in chapter in equation With the loss 4, the

H as required factor and (7-14). surfaces,

energy and and equations

Ela at station

la for each various in this

surface

(7-13) pressure the

01a, Hla, and E_ coefficient chapter. analytical

boundary-layer $_ can For values, momentum were reasonobobtained calculated thickness of radii also a of Such method method made: section; would results

parameters from stator from for the to the

kinetic-energy presented in reference earlier the

studied and

equation experimental (7--43) programs

(7-43), for the will

of two not

boundary-layer individually however, as those could be

surfaces

values. of references to (7-38). over over

In general, be as accurate 2 and parameters The the the determined blade so the losses Results following blade at 3.

equation

the computer from

Three-dimensional equations would have

boundary-layer (7-36) the to be analytically variation somehow, considerable used. 5, the loss for the

two-dimensional at a number length and surfaces.

to establish determined, would

end-wall from

require

effort,

simplified

5 for predicting losses good method average agreement

three-dimensional with experimental

two-dimensional by this are mean

is commonly of reference

obtained results.

assumptions surface the blade

momentum

can be represented

dimensionless

momentum

thickness

206

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES-

Approximate area o{one end wall

sc as) cos 7

t

Approximate s_de of blade

F/:iiii::iilfi:,i::iiiiiii::::i::ili::f|iiiiii::iiiil direction [ ]!{i]_[i] []]]_]]]_][:i]i[]i][][ ]]]]]]]][]i]i !1 ][_ ]]i]i]_]![i]i]i _ __:_;_i_;;_i_!_i_ _I_i_::_]_;_
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::× :':':"::_i_''"' • " "::::_!:i:i:_:

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::i ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :
============================= ..... :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: • _''" _

_%%_,_. •

I------ s-----

FIGURE

7-5.--Schematic late

diagram the effect

of equivalent of end-wall

two-dimensional area on blade loss.

blade

used

to

calcu-

(2) and stant

the (3)

momentum the blade section, given is

loss per unit momentum configuration spacing, blade. and The

area can

on the

inner area

and

outer

end

walls surface;

is

the same equivalent

as the average two-dimensional of the

loss per unit as shown stagger surface angle area

on the blade approximated 7-5, to those having

be satisfactorily in figure equal

by an a conmean blade

blade,

cross

at the

section

of one

equivalent

(see fig. 7-5)

Ab = 2ch where Ab
C

(7-45)

total blade blade inner

surface chord, height, outer

area m; ft m; ft end-wall

(sum

of suction-surface

and

pressure-surface

areas) h The

of one blade,

m_; ft 2

and

area

for one passage cos a,

is (7-46)

Aw=2sc where
Aw

total blade

surface stagger

area areas), angle,

of passage m2; ft _ deg

end

walls

(sum

of inner

and

outer

end-wall

Now,

taking

the average

momentum

loss O'a.,,, over

the blade

radial

length

207

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

and

modifying

it to include

the

end-wall

losses

yields

01"3D=0" The are then three-dimensional calculated as

fAb-t-Aw_-O* energy and

(1_ displacement

sc°sa') thickness

(7-47) parameters

* _la,3D and

_

Ela

* ,mOla,3

D

(7-48)

5" la,3D = Hla , m01*o D ,3 Mean-section the energy boundary-layer satisfactorily dimensional tion (7-42). Trailing-Edge The with mentally kinetic-energy flow past the or analytically. determination.--Experimental values of blade loss coefficient blade trailing _te that edge can Loss represents be values and form used are used factors as is done for the energy and defined (7-48) is then form factors. 4 that (7-49). obtained

(7-49) Although they The from can be threeequa-

were

originally

in terms and

of individual

thicknesses, kinetic-energy

it is indicated in equations loss coefficient

in reference

the loss associated either experitrailing-

determined

Experimental

edge loss coefficient _te are obtained two-dimensional loss coefficients loss and blade trailing-edge loss, and loss. Thus, surface-friction

from differences _1, which include

between experimental both surface-friction include only the

loss coefficients

_1_, which

e,e= :1- e_.
Loss coefficients _1_, which previously. that the locations. just loss and include Loss only loss, surface-friction :1, which determined are loss, include

(7-50)
are obboth the are were la, loss loss, of the

tained as described surface-friction same manner except measured at different based where the blade on data the

coefficients

trailing-edge

in exactly

total-pressure loss and static pressure The surface-friction loss coefficients within not at the yet blade trailing To just loss and 7-1, where edge at station the occurred. determine trailing-edge downstream

obtained include must mixing,

trailing-edge which

loss has both be made to station

coefficients

surface-friction a location 1 in figure

measurements little

row, corresponding

the trailing-edge drag joints coefficients Included of different in

loss, but are the 208

has occurred. reference number data for 6, experimental discontinuities. sheet-metal of surface

Analytical presented reference

determination.--In for a large are experimental

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

T
¥I _u11
FIGURE 7-6.--Schematic diagram of body in boundary layer.

geometry, edges. behaves Therefore, lytically layer.

bolt similarly the

and

rivet that regardless

heads the to flow due

of different pressure-drag

geometry, loss due over edge in the body

and to the the path

airfoil

trailing

It is indicated

discontinuity discontinuity. anaof a boundary h, equal to the to the

of the past

flow direction a trailing placed of a small height 7-6, part of the corresponds

loss due

will be treated

as if the loss were in reference the as shown pressure Thus,

to a body drag

As indicated to or less boundary effective height than layer, dynamic

6, the in figure of the

of height

full boundary-layer

6y=u, placed boundary layer

in a turbulent equal

approximately

of the body.

D = q_IihCD where D h drag height drag and the on body, of body, coefficient dynamic pressure q_f_ is expressed as N/m; m; ft lb/ft

(7-51)

effective

qell=h

J o

2g

dY

(7-52)

Drag

is related

to momentum

thickness

as (7-53)

D= O(pV_)I° g Therefore, trailing-edge with a properly a dimensionless loss is obtained subscripted momentum by form combining of equation thickness equations (7-22) : e*, representing (7-51) and

the (7-53)

209

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

q,LrhCo

8",(pV2)fs 8 COS 0_1 --

(7-54)

g The flow angle and must a, is related (7-54) dynamic to the can The pressure angle ala as discussed the effective to in chapter dynamic pressure 4 (eqs. presto

(4-26) Before sure the

(4-27)). be evaluated, ratio of the is equal effective dynamic be determined.

equation

free-stream

ql, For turbulent with flow, the equations the use h of velocity simple (7-12) power yields

dr

(7-55)

variation of the (7-8) and

in the profile

boundary presented

layer

can be

expressed Combining

previously.

V/. Assuming layer tion and (1-64) that free the stream total are temperature the same 1 gives and and static the pressure ideal in the

(7-56) boundary equa-

using

gas law and

of chapter

To'
P/*

7+ I

_

I, (7-57)

To' Substituting the parameter equations A _, defined (7-56) and

"y+ 1 (7-57) in equation yields (7-55) and using

by equation

(7-15)

1-

A

fs

\_u/l/

Performing qy!=(l_A/, qy,

a binomial

expansion

and

integrating

then

gives

) [( h ) 2" 1 ( h _4'_ A,. L\ (i/,, ,z/ 2 n -l---_l I- k _. zt/ (4n+l)

+ (h_y \(_f.../ 210

_ (6n+l) A_

+.--

]

(7-59)

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

Substituting thickness

equation t in place

(7-59) of body

in equation height h finally +

(7-54) yields

and

using

trailing-edge

0"-

tCD (l_As,) 2s cos a_

L\_-_-!

2n+l

_,

(4n+

1)

+ The boundary-layer sum of the (7-60) well known, flow thickness suctionthe and and _f_u to be used pressure-surface flow. simplified (commonly

(6n+l) in equation values. In many used

+"" (7-60) at least which turbulent

(7-60) should when flow),

be the

Equation n is not is adequate: incompressible

is for compressible following n=l/_

cases, for

equation,

assumes

0",=0.375_The information be set trailing verted edge and equal edge. 0.22 The for in reference to 0.16 for corresponding basis In such as equation trailing a case, a square

t
_futZ

ted
S COS oq

(7-61) the edge drag and coefficient 0.22 for C9 can a square contrailing of _i/_,

6 indicates values edge.

that

a rounded

trailing (7-61)

reported

in reference

7 and

to the same

are 0.14 for a rounded Frequently, flow, 5to, instead

will be available.

for incompressible

(7-62) and for compressible flow, (7-63) 1(1 -- Ay.) 1 , (n--_-t-_ A/. A_, t 5-_-t, , • • ")

6full

--

Equations momentum kinetic-energy factors,

(7-60) due to

and the

(7-61) blade

give

the edge.

fractional To find to find and (7-14) the

loss the

in

blade-row losses energy are

trailing

corresponding fractional and

loss coefficient, energy. from

it is necessary (7-13) and (7-17)

in flow and kinetic evaluated flow and from used to obtain

As a simple equations (7-16)

approximation,

the form for

compressible flow,

equations

for incompressible

5*, = He*, and d/*, = EO*,

(7-64)

( 7-65 ) 211

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

At station flowed into

1, which the

is just

downstream the trailing Therefore,

of the edge

blade

trailing

edge,

fluid has a void

area behind blockage.

and there

is no longer

due to trailing-edge is obtained as

a kinetic-energy

loss coefficient

*
This ideal were loss coefficient kinetic the only values This (7-61). energy loss. expresses of the The the loss in kinetic flow that would energy if the as a fraction trailing-edge loss thickness loss exist

(7-66)
of the loss for 7-7 by is with friction is dis-

trailing-edge against on the

kinetic-energy trailing-edge momentum with but Expression this thickness

coefficient in figure

incompressible for several thickness. equation not the energy included

flow is plotted of the ratio figure The is based flow

of trailing-edge loss associated Therefore,

to boundary-layer as expressed friction kineticadditive

blade-surface trailing-edge combined

in equation loss

(7-66). coefficient.

loss coefficient

is approximately,

not rigorously, of the

surface-friction

and trailing-edge loss in terms cussed in the next section.

of a kinetic-energy

loss coefficient

. O2O

Ratio of trailing-edge thickness to boundary-layer height,

U_ul;
1.O i .015 .5

_

.olo
.!

_

.005

0

.05

.10

.D

Dimensionlesstrailing-edge thickness, t*

FIGURE 7-7.--Effect of trailing-edge blockage on kinetic-energy factor H--1.3; energy factor E-1.8; drag coefficient

loss coefficient. Cv--0.16.

Form

212

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

Combined As stated thickness combined experimental which versions obtained is just experimental in the parameters friction and

Friction of the

and

Trailing-Edge loss, the

Los boundary-layer expressing by making to way, station we obtain subscripted of _1 is then the the 1,

discussion and

trailing-edge

a kinetic-energy at of the a location trailing and

loss coefficient corresponding edge. (7-30). In this appropriately

trailing-edge

loss can be obtained

measurements downstream values (7-28),

of &*, 01", and (7-29),

_1" from

of equations as

The value

Analytically, obtained Before The ever, with there by the boundary-layer adding they the must and trailing-edge

1--61" thickness loss parameters to the at station trailing-edge

(7-67)
1 are loss. flow. Howflow 1, where thickness ideal

surface-friction be expressed

the friction

boundary-layer on the basis at station

thickness of the same la where (61", the

parameters ideal
01*a,

can be added, friction-loss expressed there

dimensionless of an ideal

thicknesses flow without blockage the to the for

_l*a) are

in terms must

trailing-edge la, flow ideal the true

blockage. ideal at station blockage)

is a trailing-edge Therefore,

at station friction-loss

blockage

be comparable to account

is no blockage.

boundary-layer (with

parameters are flow as follows:

adjusted

_* 1,/_

_*(s la

s c°s Ola--t al" COS

)

(7-68)

0* and

0* (s sc°sal"

(7-69)

, ,( _bl'! = _bx_ s scosa_ cos al_-- t ) where friction parameters the subscript at station f refers 1: 6x* = _I.IA-_ t. 01" = Ox,/A-O t, and
_ll* -IY l,f 'fire

(7-70) friction. the Adding combined the loss

to the loss due loss parameters

to surface then yields

and

trailing-edge

(7-71) (7-72) (7-73) (7-67). 213

And

the value

of _1 is then

obtained

from

equation

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

After-Mix The after-mix loss is the total loss, and as described the has after-mix loss that

Loss includes the surface-friction loss,

the trailing-edge $2 is determined is obtained pressure plete To determine mixing

the mixing loss. The after-mix in this section, and the mixing the previously downstream is impractical determined of the for loss experimentally This would

loss coefficient loss, if desired, $_. that the com(1) (2) the for the flow had enough For the with large. where reasons: require

by subtracting measurements

_1 from blading several

be made

occurred.

The length for complete mixing, while quite long, is unknown; after-mix loss would have to be corrected for side-wall friction mixing mixed, that these use (station the of length, values reasons, either thus leading to possible po'-p2' error; error loss are or and (3) after and the small of after-mix values would be constant would obtained

possibility

of measurement of after-mix

be relatively analytically determined

experimentally

analytically the

before-mix

1) loss parameters. for determining of mass, momentum axial direction 1) and (station after-mix conditions are in the tangential direction, mixing. mixing Equating (station the mass 2) yields

The basic equations those for conservation and momentum before in the mixing flow rate

during after

o(pV)1 From conservation

cos

o1
d in the

=cos

a2(pV)2 direction

(7-74) we get

of momentum

tangential

f0 and from

(pV2)l

sin al cos al d of momentum

=sin in the

a2 cos a_(pV2)_ axial direction we get

(7-75)

conservation

g fo p_ d Although can the static these

'

+ equations survey

(oV 2) cos 2 al d are data angle. subscripted were available

= gp_+cos

_ a2(oV2)_

(7-76) flow, they in in be

for two-dimensional flow by integrating at station even 1, the with equations were available, In the case evaluated conservation

also be applied above equations and

to three-dimensional could flow be directly These

radially. integrals variations could

If experimental pressure

written for any before-mix location at which data used to evaluate the after-mix loss coefficient. before-mix station is not station 1, it would

and then where the

not be possible

to determine

214

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

the ever,

mixing

loss completely final made pressure and

by a little

experimental loss that farther have are angle (7-74)

means. is desired,

In most and survey of the damped across

cases, trailing out.

howedge, 1, it is

it is only the are usually angle and pressure to express differs from for

after-mix variations flow

measure-

ments where possible used herein used

downstream somewhat constant

If static

station of the 1. The Equation void,

equations parameters, that

to (7-76) 1 only

in terms in reference the la herein. trailing-edge

previously analysis station (7-28) can be

boundary-layer in reference

as was done to station there is no

of reference l, where

in that

before-mix

1 corresponds station

subscripted written as

fo Subscripting (7-77) yields equation

1

(pV)ld

=(1--Sl*)(pV)l.a for station I and combining it with

(7-77) equation

(7-29)

(pV2)l Substituting (7-76) momentum mined: yields equations the in terms

d (7-77)

= (1-8,*-01") and equations boundary-layer
(pV)f,,1--

(pY_)l..l into parameters
cos a2(pV)2

(7-78) (7-74) of mass to and deter(7-79) (7-80) (7-81)

(7-78) for

equations

following of the
COS

conservation

previously

oq(1--81")

sin al cos al(1 --81"--01") gpl+cos These energy reference for both For equations, equation 1 to 2 al(1-81"-01") along (TI'= obtain with T_'), _, and flow, the the the can

(pV2)s0a

= sin a_ cos a_(pV2)_ _ a2(pV2)_Wgp_ and the

(pV2)ioa=cos ideal be gas solved law

conservation-ofas shown loss coefficient, in

simultaneously kinetic-energy

after-mix solution

compressible

incompressible

flow. for _2 is

incompressible

sin 2 al (1 - _l*-- 01"\ _ _2=1-1+2 COS 20t1[-(1--_1*)

)+co 2
(7-82)
2(]--81*--01*)_

For steps

compressible are required

flow,

no explicit _:

solution

was

found,

and

the

following

to obtain

215

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

(1)

The parameters

C and D are computed

from

(1--As.a)

?+1 +cos_ --_-7

at(X--*t*-01*)

(V)' _

y.,t (7-83)

C-

D

V =(V-f_,)t,,tsinal\ is obtained

(l-_x*-0,*_ ]_-_1" from

/

(7-84)

(2)

The quantity

(V,/Vc,)2

(___,.)_ (3) The density ratio

.yC ,+1 X/(.yC )'_l+(.y-1)D, 7-;il - 7-4-i / (o/p'): is obtained from

(7-s5)

(_)---_1 (4) The total pressure ratio

('),--'_[I p2'/po'

,V_, \:]'I ''('-') from

(7-86)

is obtained

i0_I

P

c,

j.,_.-7_.,_x(1- _,*) cos
(7-87)

,o,
\O gc,l_

(5)

The

pressure

ratio

(p/p')_

is obtained p p

from v

(7-8s)

(6)

Finally,

_2 is obtained

from

(7-89)
(p,'_(',-"/, -\pi /

1

Values the blade

of _ include row, the

all the blade-row trailing-edge loss,

loss; and

that the

is, the frictional loss. Values

loss of of $1

mixing

216

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

include

all the

blade-row

losses

except

mixing

loss. Therefore, (7-90) energy due to mixing.

_miz = &-- _ where _m;z is the fractional loss in available

BLADE-ROW In the effect this various section, types

LOSS

CHARACTERISTICS and analytically and will be discussed of Losses experimentally loss coefficients and at three loss _1._, the stations just at the and at three reprethe mean just loss loss for drag, and within determined compared, losses and of the

experimentally considered geometry will

be presented

of blade-row

on losses and

Distribution Figure analytically different senting blade beyond at the the (arithmetic mean 7-8, angle different trailing mean the trailing section; including taken settings losses. edge, from values for The

Comparison 8, stator

reference a given the

compares

determined

of kinetic-energy

loss coefficient section; the the end-wall

$1,.m, obtained coefficient _2.3D represents friction, the experimental

represents radius) edge, and blade the represents and

surface-friction friction

obtained total and

loss plus trailing-edge tra_ling-edge

coefficient between good.

annulus

mixing. In general, agreement loss coefficients is reasonably

analytical

.04 __

0

Experimental results

t'3 Analyticalresults O_" .0:

e2.3D"

!
?
¢,m v g_ ¢t_

Mixing and end-v/all losses

Trailing-

edge loss ela. m .0:
Mean-section blade suf/ace friction loss

o
70

I
100 Percentstatorareasetting

I
Do

FIOURE 7-8.--Comparison
stator

of experimental
area settings.

and analytical
(Data from

loss coefficients for different
ref. 8.)

217

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

A el,30 .05 0 el, m 0 ela, m

,o
,Mixinq loss
End-wall loss

¢,.

.01 --

Bladesurface friction loss

o
.5

I
.6

I
.7 (VNcr)i, m, 2

I ....
.8

I
.9

Mean-section ideal after-mix critical velocity,

FIGURE 7-9.--Variation

of loss coefficients

with

velocity.

(Data

from

ref. 9.)

Figure row, taken locity. but

7-8 does

gives not reference

some

idea

of the the the

distribution and variation the mixing

of losses end-wall in loss with and

in a stator Figure with

blade 7-9, ve-

separate is seen

mixing

losses. coefficient increasing

from

9, shows separately losses. the

Loss coefficient

to decrease

slightly

velocity. as well stator

This figure also shows as the other blade-row In this particular ideal loss The case, loss. the energy about vary will and loss was about

end-wall 2 percent loss. The the total shown

losses, of the

case,

friction of the

loss was about total loss. stator as was primarily vary with total

one-half

of the

trailing-edge trailing-edge in figure ratio of the design, be of 7-7. and total but conloss for this

one-quarter with loss, with mixing does which the

In general, of the

trailing-edge was design, will, indicate

blockage about up the of course, that each depending

end-wall will vary The The

15 percent remaining of the

on radius 10 percent the losses stator may

spacing.

loss made

loss breakdown

comparison

sequence. Effect A study layer 218 of the of Blade-Row of turbine in reference Geometry geometry 10. In that on Losses boundarywas

effect

on turbulent-flow study, the

loss is presented

assumption

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

made

that

the momentum Reynolds

loss per unit number

blade

surface

varies

as the

inverse

of the chord

to the m power:

--_Re7
C

_

(7-91)

where equation into

Rec

is

a Reynolds (7-22), effect and

number and then

based using

on

blade

chord (7-47)

c. Expanding substituting to express the

(7-91)

by multiplying yielded

dividing

by like terms, of the form

equation

equation

three-dimensional

an equation

0,*¢¢ (_)m

_1 +cos

a._ (O,ot_

(_)1-_Re__,,,

(7-92)

fC.),(",,)
where the as blade given ponent hess order Reh is a Reynolds of the c/s, and, and number momentum geometric height in reference therefore, derivative to each to _/_ in the based on blade height h. As indicated, can be expressed ratio reference The minimum of solidity. momentum was in terms h/s, value a exthree-dimensional a function solidity solidity thickness parameter Reh. The on the variables--height-to-spacing Reynolds becomes analysis. of the of the value dimensionless variables variable thickin geometric of each obtained number 9, is based of O,,,/c, as explained m is set equal 10, the respect 08* with loss for

a function

In reference

to find the minimum-loss (there values

of the other With the loss around analysis in the with

variables optimum the from each change Figure value results number may loss. curve chord

is no minimum for height Reynolds number). known, the relative variations in momentum values were then of the a wide causes Figure from results determined. 7-10, geometry variation little 7-11 effects optimum in figures than also area. to the the The 7-11, variation (50 results and 7-12. 10 are shown in figures

minimum reference figure in each 7-10 from and be varied Comparison shape Reynolds around

of the

Also shown

is the

nature that

associated or more)

variable. shows the percent in h/s This optimum two area. increase shows 7-10 in momentum in chord solidity but not shows that and the loss.

the

counteracting

of changes with some,

Reynolds of a blade excessive, that ratio. the The of

end-wall

considerably of the

7-11

loss is more

sensitive of figure number

to solidity 7-11 and

height-to-spacing counteracting

reflects end-wall

influences

219

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

/_

_/////_/////// I ! I I

i

I

/
H n

,;7 .=L4E._I 1.21-_'--,==P

J/,4

==o-

I \

IX,
.2 .6 LO

¢/s and Reh are constant

L4

1.8

2.2

Z6

Height-to-spacing ratio relative to optimum ratio, (htslllhlslopt FIGURE 7-10.--Variation of momentum-thickness ratio with spacing ratio. (Data from ref. 10.) variation in he_ht-t_

_<'//////////(/
I I I I

Y/'//////

///i
I

_

= .=_ i. 4o . \
_'_Z_ _

b;'/ _:,,, j', J"
_i/I-

,/

his and Reh are co

Lo
.4

I
.6

t"--_ I _
.8 LO 1.2 Solidity ratio, (cls)/(c/s)opt

I
1.4

J
1.6

FIGURE 7-11.--Variation

of momentum-thickness from ref. 10.)

ratio

with

solidity

ratio.

(Data

220

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSEF

t
//. /////Z I ! I

1

_Ls
4

_

1.6 1.4

//[

.,
I--7
L8 2.0 ratio a change in Reynolds The curve to the an inThe with in

/

his and c/s areconstant

.s

o

I ._

I .4

I .6

I .s

I Lo

I _2

I
].4

I
L6

HeightReynolds umberratio, RehlReh, ef n r FIGURE 7-12.--Variation of momentum-thickness ratio with height Reynolds number ratio. (Data from ref. 10.)

Figure height Reynolds number

7-12 Reynolds

shows due

the

variation ratio.

of momentum-thickness While the figure the indicates change in geometry, in inlet

number also result

number could

to change from

change

flow conditions.

shape, then, results from the Reynolds number to the m=_ crease in height Reynolds height Reynolds number of different turbomachines.

loss being inversely proportional power. These results show that results used in improved in correlating performance. the

number is sometimes

performance

REFERENCES
1.
STEWART, WARNER,

L.:

Analysis of

of

Two-Dimensional Blade 3515, for in

Compressible-Flow Rows in Terms of

Loss Basic

Characteristics Boundary-Layer 2. McNALLY, Laminar NASA 3. PATANKAR, Layers. 4. WHITNEY, mental acteristics 1956. TN

Downstream Characteristics. l).: 1970.

Turbomachine NACA TN Program Layers

1955. Calculating Pressure Compressible Gradients.

WZLLIAM and D-5681, S. V.; CRC

FORTRAN Boundary

Turbulent

Arbitrary

AND SPALDING, Press, J.; 1967. STEWART, of Turbine

D.

B.:

Heat

and

Mass

Transfer

in

Boundary

WARREN Investigation and

WARNER with

L.;

AND

MISER,

JAMES NACA

W.: RM

ExperiCharE55K24,

Stator-Blade-Outlet Theoretical Results.

Boundary-Layer

a Comparison

221

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

5.

STEWART,

WARNER

L.;

WHITNEY,

WARREN Parameters RM E,55L12a, Drag. RONALD

J.; in

AND WONG, Predicting

ROBERT

Y.:

Use

of

Mean-Section Turbine 6. HOERNER, Stator

Boundary-Layer Losses. F.: NACA

Three-Dimensional

1956. Midland Park, N.J., 1965. GeomBla_ling.

SIGHARD W.,

Fluid-Dynamic AND HELON, the

7. PRUST, etry NASA 8. PRUST, Air TM

HERMAN and TN

JR.; on

M. : Effect of Certain

of Trailing-Edge Turbine Stator

Thickness D-6637, W.; Area V--Stator 1968. Stator

Performance

1972. MOFFITT, on Detailed THOMAS of Losses P.; with AND BIDER, BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect Suitable Area. of for NASA Performance a Single-Stage 70-Percent

HERMAN Cooling. X-1696,

Variable

9. MOFFITT, Variable

THOMAS Stator

P.; PRUST, Area on

HERMAN

W., JR.; AND of

BIDER,

BERNARD: Turbine Design

Effect of for NASA

Performance Detailed Losses

a Single-Stage with 130-Percent

Suitable Area.

Air Cooling. TM 10. MISER, of NACA X-1635, JAMES RM

II--Stator 1968. W.;

STEWART, Viscous 1956.

WARNER Losses

L.] Affected

AND WHITNEY, by Changes

WARREN in Blade

J.:

Analysis

Turbomachine E56F21,

Geometry.

222

BOUNDARY-LAYER

LOSSES

SYMBOLS

Ab

surface surface parameter drag blade specific

area of one blade, defined of end defined m; ft at constant area walls

m2; ft 2 (7-15) m2; ft _ (7-83) for one passage,

,41, A. C
C

parameter

by equation by equation

coefficient chord, heat pressure, J/(kg) (7-84) (K) ; Btu/(lb) (°R)

Cp D E

drag, N/m; lb/ft parameter defined energy factor kinetic-energy conversion form factor constant,

by equation

loss coefficient 1; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec _)

g H h J l
m n

blade height, m; ft height of body placed in boundary layer, conversion constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu blade exponent turbulent absolute dynamic chord height radius, blade absolute trailing-edge distance fluid distance m; ft distance distance fraction velocity, along from from surface distance from (7-91) velocity lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 profile forward m; ft in equation boundary-layer pressure, pressure, Reynolds Reynolds m; ft spacing, m; ft K; °R m; ft direction, ft/sec surface normal normal axial from at from m; ft thickness, in tangential m/sec; blade surface surface from angle volume displacement thickness, thickness, m; ft heat temperature, N/m2; N/m_; number number

m; ft to rear stagnation point,

exponent

P q Re_ Reh
r 8

T t
U

V
X

forward layer,

stagnation m; ft

point,

Y Y
(x o_m

to boundary to boundary deg thickness

layer

expressed

as

of boundary-layer axial

fluid flow angle blade ratio stagger of specific

direction, constant

direction,

deg to specific heat at

3_

pressure m; ft

constant boundary-layer boundary-layer

223

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

0

boundary-layer viscosity, (N) kg/m3; density,

momentum (see)/m2; lb/ft 3 energy

thickness, lb/(ft) (sec) m; ft

m ; ft

P

boundary-layer Subscripts: cr eft f fs h i inc m min mix opt p ref s t te tot x 0 1 la 2 3D critical effective friction free hub ideal incompressible mean section minimum mixing optimum pressure surface reference suction surface tip trailing total edge stream

thickness,

flow conditions

axial component blade-row inlet just beyond trailing edge of blade row row just within downstream three trailing edge of blade uniform state

dimensional

Superscripts: t * absolute total state value

dimensionless

224

CHAPTER 8

Miscellaneous Losses
By Richard. Roelke J
In the process these these nitude of these design admission must pumping loss in the a loss that loss, which design-point include losses last in the chapter, blade efficiency tip-clearance represent however, as to influence losses of normally a very in other the boundary-layer were loss and small other part losses losses associated To determine loss. turbine losses that If, are and the of any the usually In some output can design must with the the flow

channel

discussed. disk-friction of the these losses there losses channels through

overall

of a turbine,

also be considered; instances, and may The be sum in the that mag-

neglected;

instances, all the

be of such point.

the selection comprises

of the

turbine

are considered however, additional considered losses

a full-admission turbine loss in the blade occurs is being The passages inactive

axial-flow considered, blade

turbine.

a partialare the

be included.

partial-admission as they pass herein.

filling-and-emptying arc. Finally, incidence is the

admission turbine

at off-design

operation

will also be covered

TIP-CLEARANCE Because of the the the the rotor thus tips, a turbine blades first of radial a given loss, causes since more causing must and the operate casing, with some nature by the some

LOSS clearance of the tip in the work between fluid leaks This that and the through tip the tips

fraction of the amount difference

across leakage is, by by tip affects (high the tip 225

a reduction of all, by the clearance, tip geometry, a large

in turbine recesses

output. geometry; casing, across

loss is affected, amount For leakage shrouds. reaction)

of blade

reaction

pressure

higher-kinetic-energy

flow to leak

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

gap

from

the work,

pressure this but

side to the leakage evaluation flow

suction not of the only

side of the causes

blade.

With

an unown in the caused flow

shrouded reduced tip region.

blade,

a loss due

to its

also causes

an unloading drop difficult

of the blade, in turbine because

primarily efficiency complex

Analytical leakage

by tip-clearance problem. developed, they are satisfactory. A number to determine impulse these and tests

is inherently

of the

Several empirical expressions for and some of these are summarized rather complicated, have been of tip and the author

clearance loss have been in reference 1; however, states that Lewis geometry of some exit of the none is entirely Center axial-flow results of

of tests the helps 8-1 reaction

made

at the NASA and tip

Research on of the

effect

clearance

turbines. the angle

An examination a better traces things space understanding

to obtain shows

tip-clearance single-

loss. Figure

at the blade

of a 5-inch

stage turbine (ref. 2). Two that the flow in the clearance

to be noted from the angle traces are and near the tip was not fully turned,

60

Tip clearance, percent of passage height Axial ,,

4_

0

1 2 5.0

direction =

2'

2O


1:3

o

8.0

-6
4--P

-2O

-4C .5

lTr +,, I
.6
of exit flow angle with from radius ref. (Data

I

I
.9

Oo,+rw.,, I,
1.0
rotor tip clearances.

.7 .8 Ratioof hubradiusto tip radius

FIGURE

8-1.--Variation

ratio

for four

2.)

226

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

Turbine 0 C] Z_ 1-Stage,reaction Iref. 2) 2-Stage,reaction (ref. 3) l-Stage, impulse (ref. 4)

--Estimateref. 5) for ref. 2 turbine ( m m Estimateref. 5)for ref. 4 turbine ( 1.00
m

.96 _

\\

.80

.76' 0

I

I

I

I,

I

I
,12

.02 .04 .06 .08 .10 Tipclearance,fractionofpassage height
8-2.--Effect of tip clearance on efficiency.

FIGURE

even way

at the down

smallest to the hub. and

clearance tip This results for this

tested, clearance, underturning in lower turbine, 8-2

and that and turbine as well test turbines were clearance about of the

underturning effect flow and unloads others, from The height, that

of the flow all the the blade The

increased

with

increasing

this

occurred efficiency.

aerodynamically decrease in figure The (ref. that the impulse figure. 8-2. solid 2) and the level For lines

output

in efficiency

as for two results

is shown

in figure (ref. 4). (ref.

represent

single-stage a single-stage importance evident the from in losses

two-stage of reaction the same

3) reaction in the

and from loss is clearly

turbine

All turbines plays ratio

unshrouded. to blade double of the

of tip clearance were are

efficiency turbine. The the two published Extrapolation gives

for the reaction dashed lines

turbines 8-2

for the impulse losses for 8-3. 8-3

in figure turbines 5 (as

estimates 2 and

efficiency from here small that tip

single-stage in reference of the

(refs.

4) as obtained 8-2 shows for

the curves figure

fig. 1.6) data

and reproduced of figure loss

as figure

experimental

satisfactory

estimates

of tip-leakage

clearances. 227

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

1.00

•99

.98
U O r-

.97

8

• 95

.95-¢-

.o

• 94
_J r'-

.1 .2 .3 .4

• 93

• -92
b-

.91--

.90 0

I

I

I
.03

.01 .OZ Tipclearance,fractionofpassage height correlation for unshrouded

FIGURE 8-3.--Tip-clearance

blades• (Data

from ref. 5.)

Reviewing loss large leakage creasing schemes stage the tip clearance in reference A clearer the ratios

the results

shown

in figures with to blade

8-2 height, casing

and 8-3, reaction, methods above

it is apparent

that the to tipin-

in efficiency

increases to reducing include

increasing clearance, the adding

and for moderate for reducing the blade These at the several recessed configurations are shown affecting area, (2) in figure is possible turbine the

of tip clearance

the loss is appreciable• tip while loss-reduction The ratios casing singleof tip and tested 8-5. if work

In addition losses the can impulse shroud•

the and

tip

recessing either

blade

height,

a tip shroud. tested with general results The factors loading flow with

be used turbine Figure

individually 4 was both shows without the

or in combination. and three

of reference 8-4

to blade

height,

4, and the turbine-performance understanding are blade-height consist (3) mixing of the performance considered.

characteristics as compared

loss mechanisms

for the reduced configuration leakage 228 flow,

configuration blade of the leakage

to a zero-clearance clearance-gap throughflow, channel

of (1) reduced

MISCELLANEOUS R_s_casi_

LOSSES

Flow -_.

E

"- Rotor blade

(a)

(b)

Tip shroud-_

Flow_

_',-Rotor blade

(c) (a) Reduced blade zero-clearance FmvaE height (relative to blade height). (c) Shrouded rotor. 8-4.--Tip-clearance configurations investigated (b) Recessed casing.

for impulse

turbine

(ref.

4).

and

(4) blade suction

unloading side). passage changed blade

(as a result With the outer loading radius area

of flow going and the leakage 8-5, was amount path. however,

from

the

pressure the height recess. leakage shroud

side blade as the Thereflow added

to the extended clearance fore, was the

recessed-casing

configuration, of constant of casing and With that the the

to the gap was reduced

by varying indirect figure

was eliminated,

reduced

because the blade Note

of the from

to the blade, further

unloading

was eliminated,

and the leakage

flow was

reduced.

at tip-clearance 229

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

"O

R

38

36

i

I

I

I

1
.12

.04 .06 .08 .10 Rotor tipclearance,fractionofpassage height

FIGURE 8-5.--Effect

of tip-clearance

configurations ref. 4.)

on turbine

efficiency. (Data

from

fractions longer

below provides

some an

value, increase

about

0.035 shroud

in this This and

instance, can be as the for

the

shroud

no gap

in efficiency.

attributed clearance

to an

increasing friction is decreased. The to other the difference extend churning In influenced accuracy. diameter the 230 into summary, by The (larger comparative are turbines. flow but the also geometries leakage

loss between results This depends on the

casing 8-5 of the clearance used. that losses.

shown upon not that only

in figure particular true on the of seals be noted additional presents is not easily the

different and may span and respect will flow with as seen height

blade-tip not apply since to just the not be blade,

dependent

design

is particularly number it should creating loss and required for larger ratio

shrouded With section

pressure should

recessed-casing stagnant

configuration, recess. fluid and tip-clearance many factors gap clearance clearance as the

the blade

If it does,

overlapping

a complicated predicted depends and, to blade

problem consistent on

for a turbine diameter) gap

primarily previously, increases.

loss increases

of clearance

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

For

any

given huband

diameter, to small the

therefore, ratio. ratio height,

the It

tip-clearance becomes gap

loss increases diffacult height a given and a problem to evaluate to blade For

with to as the radius in a the

increasing maintain turbine, ratio, for larger

tip-radius blade

increasingly smaller.

a desired hence the

of clearance becomes severe

therefore, case, effects.

loss is more If tip

for small to carry

turbines to be out tests

less severe

turbines.

leakage

is considered

particular leakage

it might

be worthwhile

DISK-FRICTION The addition, have the near tive rotor the nature disk-friction some disk. engine loss (or windage the rotating loss) disk

LOSS is due to the skin friction casing. and and In

circulation a small

of fluid between turbines This steady stream cooling flow

and the

stationary aircraft bathes The

for hot applications, of lower-temperature gas flows along base

for example gas that the rotor-disk disks 8-6.

engines, cools from with for es-

surface and

centerline

outward patterns gas losses No are

to the around shown

of the blades. without

qualita-

of the

rotor in figure herein.

throughflow timating

of cooling the associated

Equations

are presented Throughflow

For

the case

with

no throughflow, surface

as in figure is thrown

8-6(a), by

the

thin

layer action

of

fluid close to the rotating

outward

centrifugal

7//A//////////_

(a_

(b)

(a)

Without FmuaE

throughflow. 8-6.-Flow patterns

(t)) for

With rotating

throughflow. disks.

231

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

and

returns

via

the

stationary

wall effect.

to the Consider

inner an

radius, element

thereby of area

building on one

up a continuous side of the disk

circulatory

dA = 2,rr dr where A is the area, of the in m 2 or ft 2, of one side area element area dA. The radius at the of the fluid disk, and stress

(8-1) r is the radius, r, in N/m torque 2 or to

in m or ft,

shear

lb/ft _, acting over this the disk rotation of

r produces

a resisting

dMo 2 where in the Mo is the case resisting torque, - r2rr 2 dr in N-m The
C/

(8--2) for both can sides of a disk as

or lb-ft, stress

of no throughflow.

shear

be expressed

(8-3)
where
C!

fluid shear-stress conversion density, tangential disk surface, kg/ma;

coefficient 1;32.17 _ of fluid absolute velocity velocity, is m/sec, ft/sec (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft

9
P

constant, component

v.
At the

the fluid tangential

V_ = too
where into w is the angular (8-3), the total velocity, torque in rad/sec. for both sides By substituting of the disk equation

(8-4)
(8-4) as

can be written

Mo = fo a 2__# Cip_2r 4 dr where a is the disk rim radius, in m or ft. Performing
w2a 5 --

(8-5) the integration yields

Mo=CM,op

(8-'6)

2g where friction velocity: Mow
Pd$ --- CM,o

CM,o is a torque loss expressed

coefficient as power

for the is then

ease of no throughflow. the torque times the

The

disk-

angular

pwaa 5
--(8-7)

J where 232 Pd/is the disk-friction power loss,

2gJ in W or Btu/sec, and J is a

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

conversion equation

constant (8-7) that

(equal is found

to

1,

or

778

(ft)(Ib)/Btu). is

The

form

of

in most

handbooks 5

Pdl = KdlpNaDr where
Kd!

(8--8)

disk-friction

power-loss

coefficient

N Dr

rotative speed disk rim diameter A number of investigators to be used to the changes have exponents of the from types One which thing blade that rotative published to better used values of the constant others data. Kds in have The

equation made wide doubt, existence rotor and or (8-8) a smaller mine clearer four casing the both the modes and flow

(8-8) small due

for different

circumstances, fit the

while available the

assortment

of semiempirical model

equations test-apparatus equation can

to predict geometry,

this loss is, no somewhat and the the (8-7) between

to variations

oversimplified the is that

(8-7) be noted

is derived, from equation

of different casing.

of flow that speed,

can occur lower speed. conducted on disk of flow that

in the space loss is obtained (refs. friction may chamber regime. torque Boundary 6 and and exist. space

for a given and investigation of chamber of the rotating and the several disk,

by having 7) to deterto present In general, the and of are as on the in nature velocity both between a

diameter effect

a higher

An extensive picture the

has been proportions modes depending The

of flow, or flow regimes, Reynolds and number. associated Flow, are the radial

can exist in the axial on the in each for the torque coefficient

dimensions A description coefficient layers the

CM.o was

evaluated

theoretically

experimentally equations Small merged, gap and The is best

each regime follows: Regime rotor velocity at a given theoretically disk

I: Laminar and casing across in the exists radius and

Clearance. so that s. Figure tangential equation a

continuous indicates

variation of fluid coefficient,

axial

8-7(a)

of the variations

components for torque

in the gap. empirically,

211-

CM.owhere the s is the Reynolds axial distance, defined

(s/a)i

_ disk and casing, and

(8-9) R is

in m or ft, between as
wa 2p

number

R = --

(8-10)

where

u is the

dynamic

viscosity,

in (N)

(sec)/m

2 or lb/(ft)

(see). 233

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Radial component ofvelocity

Tangential component of velocity

0 Disk
r_

"_}/////////////////////A_
(a)

Radial component ofvelocity

Tangential component ofvelocity

0

0

r(d I

(b)

FIGURE 8-7.--Velocity

(a) Flow regimes I and Ill. (t)) Flow regimes II and IV. patterns around rotating (links without

throughflow.

Regime

II:

Laminar

Flow, layers

Large on the

Ch,arance. rotor and

The on the casing exists Figure

combined

thickthe

ness of the boundary

is less than

axial gap, and between ing fluid in which no the case. arc variations The best in the theoretical

these boundary layers there change ill veh)city occurs. radial and and tangential empirical velocity equations

a core of rotat8-7(i)) shows for this coefficient

components for torque

CII

CM.o-1_ 112

(8-11)

where 234

CII is a function

of (s/a),

as shown

in figure

8-8(a),

and

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

3.3_

3.1

m

2.9 2.7

2.5

I

I

I

I

I

.09

.oz
0

I
.05

I

I

1

I

I
.30

.10 .15 .20 .25 Ratioofaxialgaptorim radius, s/a

(a) Flow regime II. (b) Flow regime IV. FIGURE 8-8.--Evaluation of torque coefficients. (Data from ref. 6.)

CM.o --

3.70 (s/a) R 1/2

1/1o

(8--12)

respectively. Regime counterpart for torque III: Turbulent are 0.0622 CM,o-and 0.080 CM,o-- (s/a)1/6R1/4 respectively. 235 (8-14) (s/a) V4RV4 (8-13) Flow, I. The best Small Clearance. and The empirical turbulent equations of Regime coefficient theoretical

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Regime counterpart tions

IV:

Turbulent II. coefficient

Flow, The are

Large best

Clearance. and

The empirical

turbulent equa-

of Regime

theoretical

for torque

Civ

C_,O-RI/5 where Civ is a function of (s/a), as shown O.102(s/a) C_,o RII5 in figure 1/l° 8-8(b), and

(8-15)

(8-16)

respectively. The equations several of figure the particular (8-9), values 8-9 flow regime torque (8-13), The (8-11), of s/a. indicate are that exists and from at any against (8-15), one regime (changes the Reynolds Reynolds as shown to another. slopes in slope) of the number number in figure 8-9 in the lines can be from for lines with determined by plotting coefficient

discontinuities

transition determined

In this figure,

flow regimes

by matching

Slope ofcurve '

Flow regime I II

Description Laminar flow; merged boundary layers Laminarflow; separate boundarylayers Turbulentflow;merged boundary layers
Turbulent flow; separate

_'_ •,
_10 -2

III _
\ _ IV

\ \ \ _\
'_ \\

_'-

_

boundarylayers Ratioofaxialgap
to disk rim radius,

_,\_,, I "\\
lOI---

,L
"_ %_

- --00,
- _ ,05

:_I I I I I 1o2 lo3 I@ lo lo ld 5 6
Reynolds number,

I [ ["1 I@ I@ lol° lon
R

FmuRE 8-9.--Theoretical

variation of torque coefficient with Reynolds number for no throughflow. (Data from ref. 6.)

236

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

those water

shown and

in the

insert

in the with values

figure.

Torque-coefficient (20-in.) theory. the

values

(ref.

6) in

determined

experimentally oil for several

a 50.8-centimeter of s/a verify

disk rotated

Throughflow For the the friction case of the torque rotating disk with with throughflow, as in figure This problem 8--6(b), has been

increases

the throughflow.

analyzed for low values of throughflow it is assumed that the fluid enters the angular The core AM, velocity of gas over and leaves at the the ratio velocity throughflow through symbol Ko represents to the that of the angular without

with regime-IV flow. In this case, chamber near the centerline with no with some disk. rate angular velocity The velocity of the K_a. rotating

rim

of the angular of the is the

increase

in torque, of angular

of change

momentum

fluid flowing AM=2p

the system: Q K_a g rate, The 2 (8-17)

Q- (gowa)a=2p g throughflow of the disk.

where

Q is the

volumetric

in m$/sec total torque

or fP/sec, for the

in the through-

clearance space on one side flow case is then

M = Mo+AM

- CM'°pw2aS+2

p QKowa

2

(8-18)

2g The An friction value of Ko is approximately of the of the power torque case: M --=It Mo 2pQK_a 1 -_ C M,op_a 5 Substituting equation M (8-16) for CM,o yields Q ° we _ _ -1+ throughflow

g from by to 0.025 that to 0.12. the noof the

0.45 for s/a ratios loss can case be obtained compared

assessment

calculating

throughflow

4Ko
CM

Q
,o wa 3

(8-19)

KoR 1/5

--_-o= 1 + o.0255is/a)l/l where T is a dimensionless

= 1 +39.2

Ko (s/a)m defined o as

T

(8-20)

throughflow

number

V= _
wa

Rm

(8-21)

According that are

to the

data high;

of reference moreover,

7, equation the effect

(8-20) of s/a

predicts is not

values

somewhat

accurately 237

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Ratio of axial gap to disk rim radius, sla

f

/o.o,

1.

--

1.

--

.12

_

1.2--

g

10 0 .01 .02 Throughflow .03 number. T .04 .05

FIGURE

8-10.--Empirical

variation

of torque ref. 7.)

with

throughflow

number.

(Data

from

given

by

(s/a)

m°.

Empirically,

the

test

data

are

represented

to within

+ 5 percent

by the relation M - 1 + 13.9Ko Mo (s/a) in figure 8-10 1/8 s/a values. T (8-22)

Equation

(8-22)

is plotted

for several

PARTIAL-ADMISSION Full-admission however, turbine so small heights, due unusual may that then axial-flow conditions choice. turbines sometimes are arise design blades

LOSSES used for most applications; rate blade losses leakage short the the is

for which would may

a partial-admission mass-flow very-small The the having allows Also, than

be a better a normal it may admission

If, for example,

the design give

full-admission be advantageous with losses and long rotative higher

to use partial

admission. turbine admission speed ratios.

to partial

be less

and low Reynolds-number blades. freedom In addition, of larger diameter

of the full-admission speed, partial way blade-jet

for a given may

use of partial 238

admission

be a convenient

to reduce

power

output

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

of an existing passages). output are the emptying This loss. when latter

full-admission

turbine (physically
turbines chapter, blade pass the rates. in this inactive

block have

some

of the stator

In general,

partial-admission

high specific-work losses sector. or sector or fully

and low volumetric-flow previously loss in the pumping

As mentioned

partial-admission and the the active clearly

channels through

filling-and-

loss encountered loss has been but

as the blades referred

to as expansion, losses with in output

scavenging, are not power

The mechanisms compared

of partial-admission in a decrease operating turbine

understood,

they do result to the same loss is that with,

and efficiency rotating in form loss. the equations investigations pumping(adjacent of the three in results in to, of for

full admission. blades similar

The pumping a fluid-filled and often expressions several estimating showed power blade open the on these that terms. of the

loss caused the expression back that are height

by the inactive for the

casing, combined all seem

and expressions to trace

for it are somewhat to reference resulted and

disk-friction 8, where The these

These

experimental the

investigations loss of blade the nature etc.) channel were

summarized. from diameter

pumping-power effects uncertain, wall, blade

on the

loss are quite rows, sides casing loss

as evidenced or lack

by variations in the

in the exponents

Further,

and location of such accounted it used is

of obstructions vicinity that

for only by differences appears a generally

empirical The

coefficient. perhaps most

Therefore, often

applicable

expression

for pumping-power

loss is yet to be found.

one equation

Pp = KpoU,,,al l'sD,,, ( 1 - _) where Pp K_ pumping-power pumping-power blade blade blade active value units were by an mean-section height, m; ft m; ft area in reference (lbf) rotors above losses enclosed, values. for in reference from 8 and (sec2)/(lbm) the More loss, W; speed, (ft) (lb)/sec 1/m_/_; ft/sec (lbf) (seO)/(Ibm)

(8-23)

loss coefficient, m/sec;

(ft 3n)

u.
l D,,
E

mean-section diameter, fraction of stator-exit coefficient herein rotor.

The for the

of the used

Kp as reported For and the same

converted (fts/2), coefficient recently, rotor

to the values enclosed friction losses equation (lbf)

is 3.63

l/m _/2, or 0.0105 of the

unenclosed

one-quarter disk-friction the turbine 9 and the (ft3n).

to one-half housing by equation if the This coefficient were

combined

pumping (8-7)

a single-stage the

reported

9. If a diskcombined form of to the the

loss estimated of reference (8-23), (sec _)/(Ibm)

is subtracted

remaining is significantly

loss is converted to be 5.92 higher than

Kp is found

]/m _/_, or 0.0171 coefficients 239

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

reported lack The Imagine filled the inlet less entire through of the of the with blade momentum channel

in reference other

8, and

the

difference loss shall

is attributed herein to enter must the the scavenging active nozzle Since decrease this sector be called the be pushed

to primarily the sector sector.

the loss. It is highuntil blade As the and the

of an adequate a blade fluid channel passes out blade channel

loss model. channel leaving of the channel fluid area through reported by These as it just fluid nozzle. sector, the into, the active is cut enters to flow losses cause starts that within off from This active

partial-admission relatively stagnant is completely

out by the will continue As arc, fluid the less has

sector. active this diffused

a second channel.

loss occurs.

to the blade

high-momentum the rotor. fluid passing fluid. It was be found

it is rapidly decreasing 10 that rotor-exit

as it flows energy by a loss

an overall thus the

in the momentum the available decrease in momen-

the rotor,

in reference

tum may coefficient

multiplying

momentum

where length, counts The follows.

p is the

rotor-blade

pitch,

in m or ft, and K, is a rotor

f is the

nozzle

active that

arc acas

in m or ft. Effectively, for the sector loss. effect With of the sector loss the use of equations

velocity efficiency (2-14), we can

coefficient

on

turbine and

is determined from express volume the

(2-6)

1, and specific

the associated velocity diagram work of an axial-flow turbine as

geometry,

Ah' = g_ where Ah' Wu W turbine tangential relative fluid relative subscripts 1 and turbine

( W_ a-

Um ( Wl sin 01Wu ,2) = _

W2 sin 02)

(s-25)

specific velocity,

work,

J/kg;

Btu/lb velocity, axial inlet m/sec; direction, and exit, ft/sec deg respectively. are), For where

component m/sec; angle

of relative ft/sec from rotor measured to the most

0
The

2 refer (which

an impulse

partial-admission

turbines

01= -02,
Um Ah' = _-_ W, sin Ox(1 +K,_) where turbine. 240 K_ is the For rotor the relative-velocity ratio turbine, W2/W_ for the (8-26) full-admission the sector loss

partial-admission

applying

,

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

coefficient

yields W_ = KwK,WI (8-27)

So, for the partial-admission Ah'r_=-_

turbine, Wt sin _I(1+K_K,) qJ

(8-28)

Since

efficiency

is hh' - Ah_a (8-29)

where

Abed is the

turbine

ideal

specific turbine

work, with

in J/kg respect

or Btu/lb, to that

the

effull-

ficiency of the partial-admission admission turbine is

of the

nm

Ahrro Ah'

(8-30)
into equation (8--30) then

Substituting yields

equations

(8-26)

and

(8-28)

_=n The sector turbine however, increase. loss admission In the was total and efficiency efficiency loss only; further. rotor Also, design study should the as more known. penalty the expressed (8-24) closely are added of the be done 9, the the

I+K,,K, 1 -I-K_ by equation earlier that the blades rotor, of rotor indicates to the (8--31) accounts

(8-31)

for the

pumping Equation have effect

loss discussed spaced number analytically efficiency operation measured

will reduce the

the overall sector loss;

a partial-admission blade profile on the loss will pumping

to reduce blades

blades

is not

Therefore, cannot

complete

optimization at present. of a small from was taken and

of a partialaxial-flow as the turbine The difference pumping subtracted

of reference over a range

determined loss due disk-friction

of admissions

12 to 100 percent. The blade were

to partial-admission losses were

between

the full- and the partial-admission

efficiencies. separately

from the total partial-admission admission losses. These other due to leakage losses 8--11. from The arc the active admission in figure with stant over of reference combined fraction, of arcs (from

loss to give what losses include the sector pumping while the to the and other 9 are plotted against

was called other partialsector loss and any loss sector. admission-arc loss remained against The partialfraction increased conspeed 241 nearly

inactive

disk-friction losses

decreasing

the range

tested. ref. 10) are plotted blade-jet

Predicted

cfficiencies

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

.6 i.5

T
I I I

-- - -- Estimatedumping p anddisk-friction losses C3 0 Pumping anddisk-frictionlosses Otherpartial-admission losses

K.4

I

I
"I"

'Is
C

I I t % .|

0 .1 .2

gJ

l

I

I
.9

I
1.0

.3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 Active fraction of statorexitarea, •

Fmtmm

8-11.--Variation

of partial-+_cimission losses with active area. (l)ata from ref+ 9.)

fraction of stator

mission

o ,a U

qJ

$

.1

I
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 Blade-jet peed s ratio, Urn/_ performance of partial(Data from ref. 10.) .7 .8 Ahtd .9 1.0

Fmuam 8-12.--Design-point

and full-admission

turbines.

ratio

(see discussion with The

in vol.

1, ch. 2) in figure and with thing speed three in peak ratio

8-12

for a particular amounts with this arc speed reduced figure ratio

turbine of partial arc of is the of 0.5,

operating admission. admission reduction Aerodynamic 242

full admission expected The

different efficiency from

reduction important blade-jet

is seen. in optimum

to note

as admission

is reduced.

efficiency

is a maximum

at a blade-jet

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

irrespective Blade-pumping blade speed, admission maximum and design factored speed

of admission and become arc net output power) the design

arc, a larger power

and part

decreases losses, as of the

with gross admission power

decreasing decrease arc minus speeds. with aerodynamic

blade

speed. as the for the must be

disk-friction

which

decreasing power

decreases.

Therefore, is obtained turbine, before

is reduced, blade-pumping Thus, losses

(aerodynamic at lower

disk-friction into ratio

blade

of a partial-admission can be selected.

the partial-admission or near-optimum

an optimum

blade-jet

INCIDENCE The row angle. since, design shown incidence (either Flow stator incidence The 8-13. line and loss is that or rotor) would at least, The loss which at some normally all gas dashed the

LOSS occurs angle and when other the gas enters than the are optimum matched the blade a blade flow at the is profile angle (8-32)

only occur blade when inlet running used

at off-design speaking through The

conditions,

theoretically condition. in figure

angles

nomenclature line defines

of incidence incidence

is the camber is defined as

blade

angle.

i

=

a

--

ab

where i ab The angle incidence blade inlet angle, angle must deg from from axial axial direction, direction, deg deg angle may for stators be positive and the relative as

fluid flow angle

fluid flow angle for rotors.

be the

absolute angle

The

incidence

or negative,

indicated because angle

in figure 8-13. The sign of the incidence cascade tests have shown that the variation for positive and negative angles.

angle is important of loss with incidence

is different

Axial direction
IB,

Vp / i -a - ob

FIOuRE

8-13.--Blade

incidence

nomenclature.

243

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Low-reaction _/_ blades-_. o.

n •*,._/2___ _,_i_ U.j'_''_ b de

Incidence angle,

i

FIGUaE

8-14.--Characteristics

of blade

incidence

loss.

FiauaE

8-15.--L(ical

flow

separation

on blade

surface.

The results. but

general by The

nature figure loss curve

of the variation 8-14, which

of incidence represents about

loss with the

incidence of cascade

angle test angle,

is shown shows

a summary incidence 8-15,

is not symmetrical is larger for positive to some

zero incidence than and for the on the suction

a loss that This may

negative surface lack, or Also, (high-

incidence. at large smaller blades reaction whereas range. Another does nation cidence the blade not incidence.

be due

local separation in figure

positive

incidence,

as indicated

area, of separation at the same in which the mean acceleration blades) have a wide blades range have from low-reaction thing occur This streamlines and the inlet

value of negative incidence. of the gas flow is large over for is that small are which the the amount 8-16. one with the at same losses 8-14 sketch

of incidence higher figure

loss is low, incidence loss staginto

to be noted at zero may other angle. for

minimum The respect

incidence, two Both inlet tests

but flow small and

at some angles negative theory

of negative zero

be explained at some

by the

of figure shown; that incidence show

stagnation

streamline curves upward and the true zero incidence 244

as the flow impacts occurs when there

on the blade leading edge, is some negative incidence

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

a<o

ab

F[aua_

8-16.--Curvature

of stagnation

stre,_mline at blade inlet.

relative usually blades because The off-design

to the

free-stream

flow.

The

incidence some

angle

at minimum design others while

loss is their do not

-4 ° to -8 °. Because with a small amount of the small difference magnitude of the performance incidence method Vp parallel that entry kinetic the any

of this,

turbine incidence,

designers

of negative involved. loss on test here into inlet the must

incidence of a turbine

takes be data with

on

importance

when

the for 11. The a

predicted. the aid

A method in reference 8-13. normal the to, and blade

determining An inlet analytical velocity

loss based is described to the parallel that is

is described V.

of figure

V_ can be resolved blade

a component direction passes

component without the

(camber through

line at inlet). row lost., is entirely

If it is assumed recovered

component normal

loss and energy

component

V_ 2 VI' 2gJ-2gd and the kinetic-energy loss due Li-

(V,_ \-_J

2

V_' =2_ is

c°s_ i

(8-33)

to incidence

V12 -2_ (1--cos differences equation

2i) in loss variation reaction, (8-34) and has been with

(8-34)

In order and negative

to account incidence,

for the

positive

the effect

of blade-row

the minimum generalized

loss not occurring to

at zero incidence,

V12

L,=_ zg,I where equation ion, is the has optimum

I-l--cos"

(i-io7,_)"1

(8-35)

(minimum-loss) when

incidence used

angle.

This

type

of

proved

satisfactory

in off-design

performance 245

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND APPLICATION

prediction loss data

methods are lacking,

such

as that

of reference

12. Where negative

specific and

incidencen = 3 for

values been

of n = 2 for used

incidence

positive

incidence

have

satisfactorily.

REFERENCES 1. HORLOCK, JOHN H.: Axial Flow Turbines. Butterworth Inc., 1966. 2. HOLESKI, DONALD E.; AND FUTRAL, SAMUEL M., JR.:Effect of Rotor Tip Clearance on the Performance of a 5-Inch Single-StageAxial-Flow Turbine. NASA TM X-1757, 1969. 3. KOFSKEY, MILTON G.; AND NUSnAUM, WXLLIAM J.:Performance Evaluation of a Two-Stage Axial-Flow Turbine for Two Values of Tip Clearance. NASA TN I)-4388, 1968. 4. KOFSKEY, MILTON G.: Experimental Investigationof Three Tip-Clearance Configurations Over a Range of Tip Clearance Using a Single-StageTurbine of High Hub- to Tip-Radius Ratio. NASA TM X-472, 1961. 5. HONO, YONO S.; AND GROH, F. G.: Axial Turbine Loss Analysis and Efficiency Prediction Method. Rep. D4-3220, Boeing Co., Mar. 11, 1966. 6. DAILY, J. W.; AND NECE, R. E.: Chamber l)imension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks. J. Basic Eng., voi. 82, no. 1, Mar. 1960, pp. 217-232. 7. DAXLY, J. W.; ERNST, W. I).; AND ASnEDIAN, V. V.: Enclosed Rotating Disks with Superposed Throughflow: Mean Study and Periodic Unsteady Characteristics of the Induced Flow. Rep. R-_4-16, Massachusetts Inst. Tech. (ARO1)-2500-2, AD-443060), Apr. 1964. 8. STODOLA, A. (Louis C. LOEWENSTEIN, TRANS.): Steam and Gas Turbines. Vol. I. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1927. Reprinted by Peter Smith, 1945, pp. 200201. 9. KLASSEN, HUOH A.: Cold-Air Investigation of Effects of Partial Admission on Performance of 3.75-Inch Mean-l)iameter Single-Stage Axial-Flow Turbine. NASA TN D-4700, 1968. 10. STENNING, ALAN H.: Design of Turbines for High-Energy-Euel Low-PowerOutput Applications. Rep. 79, Dynamic Analysis and Control Lab., Massachusetts Inst. Tech., Sept. 30, 1953. ll. AINLEY, D. G.; ^ND M^THIESON, G. C. R.: An Examination of the Flow and Pressure Losses in Blade Rows of Axial-Flow Turbines. R&M-2891, Aeronautical Research Council, Gt. Britain, 1955. 12. FLAGO, E. E.: Analytical Procedure and Computer Program for Determining the Off-De._ign Performance of Axial-Flow Turbines. NASA CR-710, 1967.

246

MISCELLANEOUS

LOSSES

SYMBOLS A
¢t

area

on one side used

of rotor m; ft to evaluate

disk,

m2; ft 2 in regime in regime I I by equation IV by equation (8-11) (8-15)

disk rim radius, coefficient coefficient used fluid shear-stress
,o

CII Civ C/
CM

Ci.o Ci,o

to evaluate coefficient with

torque diameter, nozzle turbine turbine incidence

coefficient m; ft active specific ideal

no throughflow m; ft (Ibm) Btu/Ib based on ratio of inlet-total pressure Btu/lb (ft)/(lbf) (seC) J/kg; work

D

f
9 Ah' _h_d i J Kdl Ko Kp K. K,o Li l M N
n

arc length, constant, work, specific deg pressure,

conversion

1;32.17

to exit-static angle, conversion disk-friction ratio

J/kg;

constant, power-loss

1; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu coefficient angular velocity 1/mY2; to disk angular velocity 'v2) (lbf)(seC)/(lbm)(ft impulse turbine

of rotating-core

pumping power loss coefficient, sector loss coefficient rotor blade velocity height, coefficient m; ft torque for incidence frictional lb-ft rotative exponcnt disk-friction pumping rotor-blade volumetric Reynolds radius, axial blade absolute relative blade loss, J/kg; resistance speed, tad/see; Btu/lb

for full-admission

both

sides

of rotor

disk,

N-m;

rev/min (8-35)

in equation power power pitch, number m; ft between m/see;

h)ss, W ; Btu/sec Btu/sec rate, m_/sec; ft'_/scc m; ft

Pp P

loss, W;

Q
R
r

throughflow

8

distance speed,

rotor ft/sec

disk and

casing,

m; ft

U V W

velocity, velocity, inlet angle

m/see; from from axial

ft/sec direction, direction, deg deg axial direction, deg

m/sec/ft/sec axial

fluid flow angle

fluid relative angle measured from active fraction of stator exit area turbine dynamic
P

static kg/m'_;

efficiency (N) lb/ft 3 (sec)/m2; lb/(ft) (see)

viscosity,

density,

247

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

T

fluid shear throughflow angular

stress,

N/m_; rad/sec

lb/ft _ by equation (8-21)

T

number

defined

velocity,

Subscripts: m n o opt p pa r u 1 2 mean section normal to blade inlet direction

component optimum component

no throughflow parallel to blade inlet direction

partial admission disk rim tangential component

_rotor inlet ],blade-row inlet rotor exit

248

CHAPTER 9

Supersonic Turbines
ByLouis . Goldman J
A supersonic supersonic have having velocities) They have have been low relative molecular are used been studied turbines of the would of stages. Because operate in indicated used for potential turbine application and/or by use have high require It of stage is defined entering in systems weights where NASA in the and', high open-cycle potential ratio. a small would, high at low static For chapters jet for For amount velocities, 2 and systems from design turbines be method and used. of 3 the where as one rotor. that operates fluids high ratios are with turbines (those expansion available. and systems work level, fluid and (often low primary minimum pressure may highest result because outthis and a relless of fluid ratio in a systems a

velocity

Supersonic

high-energy

consequently, pressure turbopump

in rocket

auxiliary-power large a given specific power

for space. Supersonic puts type small atively turbines than speed high criteria could To level, and under chapter, the 0.2). ratios are more keep proper rotors because of turbine number simple.

pressure

of driving be light-weight however, speed (vol. ratios 1), the with high and at Both the

therefore, blade-jet efficiencies,

supersonic blade-jet design

generally As

correspond a minimum the than turbine the are design ideal offset being efficiency designed

to low losses. number work the the lower

primarily

exit-kinetic-energy

where along the choice.

of stages available turbine

consumption, supersonic

efficiency

optimum must the design

of supersonic by

possible stators In this discussed (2) design 249

methods turbine headings:

supersonic are

characteristics.

supersonic following

performance of characteristics,

(1) method

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPI.,I_ATION

of supersonic (4) operating

stator

blades,

(3) design of supersonic OF

of supersonic turbines.

rotor

blades,

and

characteristics METHOD

CHARACTERISTICS is a general method equation. flow will for solving The equain this and (see (1) conphysical mathsimilar a

The certain tions gas chapter. certain ref.1). The by are

method type of motion of this Other non-steady method The involved. derivation Both

of for type.

characteristics of partial the

(hyperbolic) Only flows)

differential supersonic of flow flow be (i.e., handled be developed (2) by dynamics one the

two-dimensional this also type can can and on only based

of a perfect

be discussed symmetric this method by

types

of supersonic

axially

of characteristics methods will be the derivation It is useful developments Flow

in two stresses here. 1 and the

ways:

formal

mathematical

simple

dynamical The 2.

siderations. processes ematical equations.

presented method

in extending are given Along flow wave. weak

to other

in references Wall satisfies is the waves, shock zero. shown wave in is flow

a Single field that flow) These oblique are

The motion

simplest (other weak through and

supersonic than uniform standing to be very the wave

the called waves. figure produced

equations Mach The 9-1. waves, entropy

of

parallel

through

a single

vanishingly can change pansion be shown

be considered

is essentially waves an expansion

Examples

of weak As when

exwill the

compression

subsequently,

Mach
wa ye

Mach
wave

V

dV

V

" V__ctV

"// V//////

_UX/, :/;//_Wa II

X
..... 7"/////i
/

(a)

(b)

(a) FIGURE

Expansion. 9-1.--Weak expansion and compression

(b)

Compression. waves.

250

SUPBRS_NIC

TURBINES

wall bends away from the flow, and a compression when the wall bends toward the flow. The bend (of the angular which wall. flow The fields magnitude produces bend to which when surface of Mach wave Mach wave dO) in the wave, in the sides wall one solution of it. it is realized can, therefore, The the wall which may also as a disturbance is to follow a boundary with may The the uniform solution flow flow Consider rection of mass

wave

is produced

can be considered if the flow as wave of this surface sections. as flow diof the _ to the conservation Mach curved be considered

is required

condition

is a standing The that any be

on both

importance of straight

can be appreciated to be made a curved a series expansion standing velocity that A= along through a weak the of initial requires

be considered

up of a finite waves.

number

approximated

dynamics at an angle 9-2. The

through

will now

be discussed.

included in figure

V as shown

p V,, = (p+dp)

( V. +dV.)

= constant

(9-1)

where w A p V. mass flow density, velocity flow area rate, along kg/m3; kg/sec; Mach lb/ft a normal terms to Mach (i.e., dp dV.) wave, gives m/sec; ft/sec lb/sec wave, m_; ft 2

component second-order

Neglecting

V.+V dp=o
Conservation of momentum pV.V in the tangential direction gives

(9-2)

,= (p k- do) ('[7. + dV.)

(V ,+ dV ,)

(9-3)

t

Ma¢,//
wave/ Z_Z_ n

p

p +dp + dV

dO

U//////////////////_
•. _ /////,

FIGURE 9-2.--Flow

through

a weak

expansion

wave,

and associated

nomenclature.

251

TURBINE

_, I_E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

where m/sec
gives

Vt or

is the ft/sec.

velocity

component equation

tangent (9-1)

to

the into

Mach equation

wave,

in

Substituting

(9-3)

y,,V,=
or

pV,,(V,+dVt)

(9-4)

dV,=o
This stant dV means as the is equal Conservation that flow to dV, the and tangential the wave. is directed component normal in the of velocity the direction _ to tile Mach remains velocity wave. gives crosses Consequently, normal

(9-2)
conchange

of momentum gp--b pV,,Z=g(p

+ dp) --b (p--b dp) (V,,--b dV,)

(9-6)

where g p conversion absolute constant, pressure, equation 1 ; 32.17 N/m2; (9-I) O=g Eliminating dV,_ by using (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)

lb/ft 2 into equation dVn (9-2) results in (9-6) and expanding yields (9-7)

Substituting

dp.-}-pVn

equation

V.--g
Equation (1-57) of chapter 1 (vol. 1) states

(9-8)

a---- _/g where process (9-8) a is speed being into equation of sound, (9-9) in m/sec here shows that V,,:a Therefore, be equal the to the component speed of velocity of sound.

(_)s or ft/sec. Since the

(9-9) differential of equation

considered

is isentropic,

substitution

(9-10) normal from to the figure Mach 9-2 wave that (9-11) must

Noting

Vn=V gives V, sin _V-V where and 252 has M is the meaning Mach only number. for M> The 1.

sin tt

a

1 M ft is called the Mach

(9-12) angle

angle

SUPF__SONrC Mach wa ve

TURBINE,S

V

_" _

"-- -....

du

713

/
FIGURE 9-3.--Velocity diagram for

v+dv
flow through a weak expansion wave.

The dV can figure

relation be 9-3. found

between from limit

change the (dO-*0),

in flow

angle

dO and shown

velocity geometrically

change in

velocity

relations

In the

du=dV dv=Vdo and tan where du dv Since, component component as can of dV of dV parallel normal from to initial to initial equation 1 tan/_=_/_-1_ equation (9-15) becomes dV do 1 velocity velocity (9-12), V, m/sec; V, m/sec; du dV B= _-_= _

(9-13) (9-14)

(9-15)

ft/sec ft/sec

be determined

(9-16)

V -- 4_-1 It is more ratio and 1). The convenient M*=V/VcT to can relation be if dV/V rather the speed M* evaluated between is expressed than from and Mach equation M is given of sound in terms number at the (1-63) by the of the M. critical of The

(9-17) critical critical 1

velocity velocity (M=I) (vol.

Vcr is equal

condition chapter

equation 253

TURBINE

l)E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

/ M= /

2 _+i 1 7--1

M,

_ (9-18) M, _

V
where heat 7 is the at constant ratio of specific Since volume. temperature is constant), dV V Substituting finally, dO: equations (9-18) and

heat Vc,

at constant is constant

pressure (because

to specific the total

dM* M* (9-19) into equation (9-17)

(9-19) gives,

1 M .2-1 M, 7--1 7+1 _ dM* M* in flow wave. weak (convex) The field relation wave values wave will, sign. angle A

(9-20)

This relation wave, Let shown

is the

differential through have that 9-4. each consider

relation been the producing

between weak for would along the a Mach through combined motion

a change expansion a single have a curved surface wave. each flow for

and similar

a

velocity

change could except us now in figure bends,

a single obtained (9-20) flow that

compression surface, of a number indicated provided be a of dO. flow. as

equation Assume

a minus is composed Mach

of small the This

by equation changes to type solution

(9-20) the of flow

will be satisfied The of

in 8 are small. equations is called

therefore,

infinitesimal flow, or simple

Prandtl-Meyer

.._- _lach waves
// // I \ \

V1

---,.-

/

/

/""

, ve

; /

",

"-,

>'

'_

I/ /

, //

d83 FmURE 9-4.--Representation of flow along a convex wall.

254

SUPERSONIC

TURBINES

If the

number

of segments Integration

approaches of equation

infinity, (9-20) gives

the

flow

field

becomes

continuous.

• 0= _1 _I/4/_--4-1 arc_

sin [(3,-- 1 )M*_--

_¢] 1 arc sin _,_-_ -- 3,) + constan + t/'_ -4-1 \ (9-21)

If angle and Meyer from

the it

constant by is tabulated angle is the 1 to

is chosen equation in angle the many

such (9-21) through

that

0=0

when the (e.g., ref. flow and

M*=I(M=I), 1). must The turn

the angle, Prandtlin going given the

given

is called references which Mach

Prandtl-Meyer

the

Mach

required

number

is often

symbol 1

_ (or u). Therefore,

/,-45
I_ _r arc sin [(_--1 _A)M*_--_] "_ --_ 1E2-arc J

sin
(9-22) from V1 to V2 is That (9-23) is,

Note given

that by

the the

change change

in flow in the

direction

(50)

in going

respective

Prandtl-Meyer _2-- _I waves. flow angle 9-5. The

angles.

Oz-- 01: 50: The waves, the sion along derivation there wave. would decreases This means wall, has be been (M that shown for

expansion sign for Mach

For (9-17).

compression Therefore, a compresfor lines, flow there-

a minus the

in equation

velocity

decreases) in figure

through _ increases Mach

a concave

hock

Mach ,4/, waves

_\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\

\" .... r
d61

_o 2

FIGURE

9-5.--Representation

of

flow

along

a

concave

wall.

255

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

fore, the

converge entropy

and increase.

form

a shock

as shown

in the shock

figure. region

The

derived of

relations,

of course,

would

be invalid

in the

because

FIGURE

9-6.--Hodograph

characteristic

curves.

256

SUPERSONIC

TURBINES

The ratio curves The erate the in figure

relation M* (eq. 9-6. of this

between (9-21)) This plot convex type are can

the

flow

angle on of called

0 and a polar the

the

critical

velocity as shown plot. any The two-

be plotted

diagram, around varied velocity

of diagram characteristic and are of equation curves (9-22). of the passing angle

is called

a hodograph flow has M*= critical

dimensional value these variation An normals Mach Consider a finite on the constructed the important to wave

surface The

hodograph been

characteristics. to genratio is that corresponding flow field to be into (line by that The This example. as the 1 at 0----0 represent

of the curves.

constant

(9-21) through with

of Prandtl-Meyer by equation property the in the physical and along

expressed

hodograph are parallel This wall. 9-7(b))

characteristics to by the initial the the wall allows After the in the wall

characteristics plane.

graphically flow of segments

is best

explained

a simple point

a curved curve (fig.

is divided to V1

number

(fig. 9-7(a)), P_ is located to Ur2 (or characteristic

PI is located diagram

characteristic to V1). line

corresponding hodograph segment curve by drawing segment in the to use. that through S_). through

OP_ parallel drawing /)2 must Mach (shown direction plane. The the wave is

Point

OP2 the

parallel V1 and figure) to the process is,

Note
P1.

lie on

expansion

separating parallel preceding

V2 is found characteristic wave continued

the the

normal physical

as N1 in the

to the Mach is

P_P2.

direction

additional The the prodirec-

segments. The graphical cedure may

procedure entirely

at best, numerical

cumbersome if it is recalled

be made

_

Math

waves

lo _-,___.._/

/

/

-15,-J \
Cb_

\,

(a)

Phy,_ical

plane. FIGURE 9-7.--Flow along

(b) convex

Hodograph wall.

plane.

257

TURBINE

I)E_SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

/

'_,]dC h waves

0 cai (hi

(a) FIaURE 9-8.--Flow

General along

case. convex wall point. with Math

(b)

Limiting waves

case. at one

intersecting

tion

of

the that speed of

Mach in the the be

wave the waves the flow

is given solution lie at of the the

by

the

Math angle points.

angle problems, relative The

_. Since it is

finite usually to the average a wall

changes assumed average direction may now diagram,

occur

practical Mach two measured

corresponding to the flow The if the point, the of small or (9-21) flow design 9-8(b), past

between constructed

two points, completely useful along pass that has

between

numerically. wall wall by occurs approaches figure a number flow, to the

hodograph wall is so

though, case the that 0. The

is still of flow Mach Now large

for visualization. a single through the replaced corner-type is important throats. Equation a common as shown common it is bends. a where around of supervalid

A special shaped in figure point seen This corner, that type and

lines imagine case bend

9-8(a). a single of flow with

limiting

is represented called later,

is often sharp-edged

as will be seen

sonic nozzles for this case.

is still

Flow The method of solution generalized to handle the uniform figure amount. As finite and before, number S'_, and by the parallel 9-9. The the flow flow $3 and the direction supersonic that will S'3. Suppose

Between

Two

Walls wall can be the initially as shown the walls in region The line V_. The channel. into a 1 is OP_ flow S'_, S_ in same

used for the flow along a single flow between two walls. Consider flow both be bounded are about the by parallel hodograph of the by two walls outward walls deflected centerline dividing here flow diagram. velocity

is symmetric

of the the field by S_ and

constructed initial magnitude

of straight point

line segments, The and P_ in the

denoted

represented represents 258

S_PF__

S_NIC

TURBINES

,F 2

V [

.... /!:

>_," "'/L_
u

s

.... s3__ i ,////' , si .,,,,_>;_L_

\

I C'I

,

15v--...

]

/

c2

//
0 P7

_1-5/
J _ "" _///////_ k_V k- V 2 6 _ 3 _///////'_ ,..,,/////.

(a)

(b)

(a)

Physical

plane. FIOUR_ 9-9.--Flow between two

(b)

Hodograph

plane.

walls.

in regions The two arated lines initial by

2 and OP2 and

2' (points as before, OP'2 waves flow now

P2 and P'2 for the flow

in the through

hodograph a weak V'2,

diagram) expansion flow in

can wave.

be determined, The problem Mach

are parallel intersect. field, since

to V2 and what Flow V2 fields
---4

respectively. to the after be the the sepsame 2' must not

is to determine

happens and V'2

2 and are

another

direction. Consider that continuation, in modified A jump of motion is, To C1 or satisfy Similarly, from only C'2 both region if the (since sets end

the flow field 3 is separated form, of the initial Mach any wave can eq. point point region lies on a characteristic represent lie on end the point waves end and 2' must

from waves satisfy (9-21)

2 and 2' by a M, and M'I. the equations P2; that C'L or C2. representplane that which

2 through these curves

through

graphically). jump

a iump

from

characteristic of the

of conditions, be either can expansion sense. because The M_

ing the The the end

flow field point

3 must P, of the

P3 or P1 in the hodograph out because are point this would mean compression being further of the P'2P3 the waves,

being

be ruled

extensions little makes

makes plane direction given in the

physical sense

P3 in the flow Mach P2P3,

hodograph The are waves

it represents M'2

expansion.

of the by the

extensions

initial and

normals

to the

segments of

respectively, of be used advancing is now the to

hodograph the velocity the the flow

plane.

Because

assumed procedures of the type

symmetry can waves

flow,

V3 is parallel field strikes

to V_. These until wall. one

construct across required.

piecemeal the

channel

A new

of solution

259

TURBINE

DES,IGN

AND

APPLICATION

Consider Sa. wall. P_ must require the because According that wave The The in the the lie on 5 cannot

the flow extend flow

flow in field the

in field wall, plane and

4, which parallel a new lie 6 are to those

is parallel to field to the on in the through used in the the 6 must wall the same

to the wall. and, separate

wall

segment field the point OP4, P_ Also, conditions where an

5 is not

Therefore, it from of line therefore,

in field

6 is parallel must 4 and similar P6

hodograph flows one of the

extension Ps, before, wave. that

in fields

direction. these In

characteristics as shown

is, C_ or C'3. diagram, general,

to arguments P8 be located between

hodograph

P5 and

is an expansion

expansion wave striking wave. The construction proceeds As which Mach across out fields. method," the of stream the Mach the method," seen the each as before. from velocity The wave since Another is often net. flow the the

a solid boundary reflects of the flow in the interior

as an expansion of the channel

foregoing is constant. equations

discussion, of small The are type of motion sides

the

flow

in the

channel are finite the regions,

may of the form "field or

be approximated waves. entire

by a number

quadrilateral of the are satisfied

regions quadrilaterals in satisfied is called in small as the In this

in each

and,

therefore, This

approximately of procedure are found known flow problems. most not intersections, for will 1. be

through-

field. stream

properties procedure, found methods at the are,

calculation used Both are

"lattice-point procedure, points, further. situations,

in supersonic

properties

or lattice practical discussed

identical. The Both methods

"lattice-point are described

method" in reference

Summary The used shown (c) show intersection wave flected wave across flow for the solutions design in the figure the with

of Elementary previously discussed, stator each cases and

Flow

Solutions as well as others blade physical 9-10(a), expansion of an that are are is and the

of supersonic 9-10. For hodograph discussed waves,

and case,

rotor the Figures

sections, situation (b), wave,

summarized along

solution. the

previously of expansion

of a weak reflection

expansion the reincident the flow

from a solid boundary, wave is at a slightly because of the higher the reflected wave. 9-10(d) direction by the any wave. shows A bend and the at the

respectively. smaller Mach Mach number

In figure 9-10(c), angle than is the associated with

Figure solid in the produced fied 260 without same

cancellation proper same

of an location magnitude conditions waves.

expansion top as the are, flow

wave wall

at

a

boundary.

in the

is made deflection satis-

of the

The

boundary (reflected)

therefore,

additional

SfUPE./_SONI_C

TURBINES

Figure section point istic

9-10(e)

shows region

the wave

solution and B and beyond D must

for the lie on the the

flow field wave. intersection

beyond The

the interhodograph each wave

of an expansion representing curves passing unchanged

a compression C, as shown.

of character-

through in type

Therefore,

continues

intersection.

6

(al 6

OD

BA

/

b

?//'//_}i"///d

;:P; ;,, .¢;

; ;4,:,_/_

_c_

(a) (b) (c) Reflection FlovRs

Weak

expansion of expansion wave

wave. waves. a solid solutions. boundary.

Intersection of an expansion

from flow

9-10.--Elementary

261

TURBINE,

DESIGN

AND

APPLI_ATrON

6
It//l.I//l/l_'//.ft/lllll_ A t

"V/I/i/////

L

0 B : 04 - 6

6_
(dt

Z////////21//7_

_-B

/---_1'--Compression wave

O0 : 0A + 25 "////Z///I/I_ /

(e)

P : Constant

A

_on

wave

(fl

(d) (e) (f) Reflection

Cancellation Intersection of expansion

of expansion of expansion wave FIGURE from

wave and a

at

solid

boundary. waves. (constant pressure).

compression free boundary

9-10.--Concluded.

A case sections, This free 262 is the

that but

is not may be

encountered of general of an boundary expansion

in

the wave

design is shown from requires

of supersonic in figure the a constant-pressure that pressure

blade 9-10(f). be

interest, condition

reflection The

boundary.

SUPERSONIC

TURBINES

constant velocity be equal. In general, pressure)

along

the outside field

streamline. fields C must wave wave.

Since lying from

the along

flow

is isentropic, hodograph

the must plane.

magnitude Therefore,

of all the flow

the boundary

be as shown

in the

an expansion as a compression

reflects

a free boundary

(constant

DESIGN One flow also design at has of the most

OF

SUPERSONIC uses This is of the wind flow type

STATOR the method to produce basis tunnels. stator entering will of

BLADES of characteristics uniform, design type rotor. parallel of since Only twoit is the here. of nozzle the This the

important speeds.

is its application supersonic dimensional desired

to the design

of a channel

nozzles application

for supersonic parallel on this

to supersonic-turbine based

blades,

to have of a stator

uniform

of nozzle

be discussed Flow flow curve

Nozzles A supersonic in figure sonic, (DE), Point the 9-11. nozzle Since

Producing that first

Uniform

Parallel

produces that outward

uniform, the flow (AD)

parallel and then

is shown and superin again

it is required curve

be parallel

wall must

so that at the exit, D is the point where that Because may, only generates for the flow of the design ABCDA one half at

the wall is again parallel the wall has its maximum the throat symmetry, nozzle waves same need the which as was is uniform, the nozzle by be replaced nozzle of the

to the initial flow. slope. It is usually parallel, a solid zone. off the and sonic axis is a streamboundary. The in the curved section

assumed (M----1). line and Therefore, The wall The

purposes, is called is the

be designed. expansion reflect centerline.

flow

region

AD

expansion procedure

calculation

discussed

[

B

¢

FIGURE

9-11.--Supersonic

nozzle

producing

uniform,

parallel

flow.

263

TURBINE'

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

"Flow

Between and waves

Two the are

Walls." wall cancelled. "Summary

The

region section The

DCED is curved

is called so that Flow of cancelling

the the

straightenincoming waves final A be too form 9-12(a), It is a where edge was The Mach and D. long of

ing section, expansion seen flow number For for this A limiting points (corner parallel that and wall angle nozzles Only The output 3 does number the input and gives not one the _, A large type in the past

in this

method and

section CE on Mach turbine with of D a the

of Elementary expansion a nozzle In throat, in the flow that waves hodograph occurs of the design been these

Solutions." The

is uniform, how

parallel, much

supersonic. occurs of this type cases, shown previously

depends exit

between may a limiting in figure

numbers, applications. sharp-edged flow The waves The nozzle is used. parallel

supersonic nozzle form and flow), flow half other which with at

of nozzle uniform,

produces

shortest expands are is again

possible (fig. around by used

length. 9-11), sharp the the

described

coincide. reflected exit.

producing of the the of the half region is half program sharp-edged portion computer specific-heat coordinates for any

reflected diagram

centerline. uniform shows flow, the _.

Cancellation

to obtain (fig. 9-12(b)) of the

expansion as a result 2 is set of the has

as a result reflected equal (ref.

corner

waves. to the

Therefore, Prandtl-Meyer angle supersonic

bounding

at an angle exit written by the nozzle 7 of the nozzle. losses.

Prandtl-Meyer method is designed the The working of

A computer

3) to design by desired fluid. program The the

throats of the program ratio flow of the

characteristics. program. exit Mach program

supersonic to the the the account

includes

of reference

A,D

_

[

_,_

I / _,5" ]
181 I1);

3

(a)

Physical FIGURE

plane. 9-12.--Nozzle with sharp-edged

(b) Hodograph throat.

plane.

264

SUPgRSONIC

TURBINES

Stator The for tional the sharp-edged-throat design considerations nozzle for a stator

Nozzles just discussed serves nozzle as stators. the basis Addi-

of minimum-length

(chord) as compared

supersonic to the

previously

Ideal nozzle -_
t

/ / Displacementth ickness-,
\ \ \

/ / / /

Straight sectior_ angle /_ozzle / /

/ Diverging section-'-. / /

Tangential direction Converging section-_
\

t_
Axial _Trection

FIow_

FIGURE

9-13.--Design

of supersonic

stator

nozzle

with

sharp-edged

throat.

265

TURBINE

D_IGN

AND

APPL_CATrON

discussed energy

are losses.

the

flow

turning

and

the

desire

to

include

flow

and

A supersonic-turbine being as and section the flow. stream method on the determined A computer sonic lines stator in figure etc.) the local reference converging The Mach suction discussed herein The a stator (3) nozzle. (subsonic) a straight accelerates section diverging number surface the

stator is shown stator section, section flow on to 5 (vol.

blade nozzle (2) the sonic 2). to exit. the

and

channel 9-13 and

section will

of the be referred sections:

type to (1) a

in figure

consists a diverging suction speed In order all the This

of three surface. and can of the to The

converging

(supersonic) The be

section, converging designed losses, of by length desired by the the freethe is section

methods

of chapter

to minimize flow the

is designed section at the

produce

turning

accelerates

section profile,

is designed straight and its

of characteristics by the required

as previously completes nozzle the angle. design

discussed. nozzle

program nozzles,

for (no loss)

of sharp-edged-throat for losses, indicated method ideal to the thickness, profile is then ideal profile by the

superin dashed

including is first then

a correction nozzle profile, by for final the the

is presented

4. An ideal 9-13, are

designed computed 2). The

of characteristics. momentum by nozzle 7 (vol. methods by from 2). coordiobtained

Boundary-layer thickness, discussed adding nates the

parameters 6 (vol.

(displacement

in chapter

displacement in figure 9-13. parameters

thicknesses The nozzle as described

as indicated boundary-layer

efficiency in chapter

is obtained

DESIGN Two rotors tion methods are caused the that The by rotor the

OF

SUPERSONIC been Both proposed design of

ROTOR for the

BLADES design use any and of supersonic the method formaflow The parallel. of shock

have herein. channel

discussed

methods to prevent

characteristics. entering

is designed is assumed

convergence

compression to be uniform Method rotor I) the In blades

waves.

passage

Corner-Flow One method (ref. entering compression, surface cancel zontal of the the flow of designing blade parallel from The supersonic of this flow flow upper type

is given

by Shapiro 9-14(a). The

1). A typical uniform,

is shown

in figure undergoes concave

(region along (suction) waves. This being

a comer-type lower is curved 2, then by parallel undergoes the concave (pressure) so as to horia

resulting blade. incoming (0=0) expansion,

surface region flow cancelled

compression is obtained. with waves

parallel

corner-type 266

SUPERSONIC

TURBINES

surface, at the to the For the tion since

until blade inlet

uniform exit. and outlet

parallel flow (as this kind

flow

of the

desired on the

Mach upper

number surface, only The easy The one profile.

occurs parallel half of

Straight-line blade makes of one

segments directions, shown since type are present

complete in fig.

the blade

an impulse needs waves flow

9-14(a)), particularly

blade only

to be designed,

it is symmetrical. in any region.

specificato design, hodograph in figure which is desirable, Another number,

of comer

of blade

diagram 9--14(c) quite because drawback

for this blade is the theoretical unusual. the This loading type

is shown in blade-surface of velocity zero method

figure 9-14(b). Shown velocity distribution, distribution is not of the inlet very blade. Mach middle for a given

becomes

in the

of this design

is that

rParallel flow
I t t

Parall

,_

Parallel flow -_ (a)

M*

Inlet Distance alon9 chord _b) (a) (b) Hodograph diagram. rotor design Blade and passage. (c) Blade by the loading diagram method. (c)

Outlet

FIGURE 9-14.--Supersonic

corner-flow

267

TURBINE

I_ESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

the sonic For

amount (Mach reasonable

of flow turning 1) or higher. to the Mach sum number equal

is limited. The of the levels inlet

The and

velocity amount exit to 3.0),

in region of flow large

2 must turning

be is,

maximum (1.5

therefore, turning

Prandtl-Meyer amounts

angles. of flow

(120 ° to 150 °) would

be impossible. Method supersonic the product passage rotor blades vortex (also, by this is a constant is described flow within therefore, throughmethod is

Vortex-Flow Another in reference the passage. critical out the shown The arcs, sition passage generated ated field sect. The parallel cular by field. in figure blades (2) circular arcs (lower into the upper by the inlet method 5. This ratio A typical 9-15(a). consist arcs, and lower essentially and upper) (3) flow transition arc of outlet by convert arc (see of designing method M*) field, blade and

is based

on establishing radius

In a vortex-flow

of velocity designed

velocity

and streamline

three the means and fig.

parts: uniform of the the

(1) arcs.

inlet The

transition inlet flow tranat the waves generinterflow. the cir-

transition

parallel

vortex transition

compression waves The

expansion

9-15(a)).

vortex-flow

begins where The concentric outlet flow arcs. transition by and

the compression circular arcs arcs the

and expansion turn and maintain the vortex waves the upper the design are

waves first the vortex flow into by and profile. in with the the

reconvert remaining on

uniform

cancelling outlet flow

generated surface blade

Straight-line

segments directions for the the by type degree the highly the to this

parallel

to the inlet

complete type of

A hodograph 9-15(b). letters The surfaces graph of flow provide bution blade The

diagram flows along

is shown shown, in arcs and the BF figure of on to the velocity

figure the blade hodocan This to the

blade locations along circular rotor,

surfaces indicated the circular arcs there IK

corresponding constant-velocity are diagram. turning any is seen is shown design represented In this

9-15(a).

flows

of design, in the of turning. loaded, 9-14.

is no limit The surface figure

amount arcs distri-

obtainable necessary on to be quite shown

because diagram, especially

circular 9-15(c).

blade-loading in figure for designing is presented the the method inlet rotor of and and numbers,

as compared

corner-flow A computer method program outlet, gas. the arcs 268 The blade

program includes Mach includes An using the

rotor

blades flow

of this 6. The angles,

type the ratio

by

the

of characteristics input and output shape. surface

in reference outlet the

computer inlet, of the of in

specific-heat coordinates the is

blade

and

a plot transition

approximate

method

for obtaining

without

characteristics

described

SUPERSONIC

TURBI_,ES

references 7 and 8. In this procedure, the vortex flow is established by making the curvature of the transition arcs one-half the curvature of the circular arcs. For very small curvatures, this method is correct. In this blade design, the lower- and upper-surface Mach numbers are specified. This permits blades of various shapes to be designed for

Region Vortex flow transition

AB and FG BC and EF HI and KL CDEand1JK

Straight lines Upper transition arcs Lower transition arcs Circular arcs

(a)

M*..- _H,B

C

E

A,H

L,G

X'x// )
Inlet

\
I

/
K Outlet Distance along chord

mh_7,F
Ib) (a) (b) Hodograph FIGURE diagram. 9-15.--Supersonic rotor design Blade and passage. (c) by Blade the loading vortex-flow diagram. method. (c)

269

TURBINE

I_E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATrON AA AB BD CC CD Circular arc Uppertransition arc Straight line Circular arc Lowertransition arc

k
ta) A B A B

\
D/ (b! A B B

D

D

A B

A B

(a)

Lower-surface

Prandtl-Meyer

an-

(b)

gle, 0° (M = 1) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (c) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 18 ° (M---- 1.7) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 ° . (e) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 21 ° (M-- 1.8) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M---- 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 120 ° .

Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 12 ° (M=l.5); upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °.

(d)

Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 18 ° (M----1.7) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 104 ° (M----10.7) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (f) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 21 ° (M---- 1.8); upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 140 ° . number of 2.5 ratio of 1.4. (inlet Prandtl-

FIGURE 9-16.--Turbine Meyer 270

blade shapes at inlet Mach angle of 39 °) and specific-heat

SUPEJRSONIC

_URBINES

a given program figure number whereas (c)) and effects. both The procedure program including (no loss) first eters ing

inlet 9-16. the the

Mach From the

number. figure, and (cf.

A

number Mach has little number 9-16(e) of and

of that (cf.

blades the effect figs. (f)) design and

designed

by

the in

of reference (cf. figs. flow of will

6 for an inlet (d)) figs.

number

of 2.5 axe shown upper-surface on the have blade 9-16(a), (b),

it is seen

Mach shape, and by

9-16(c) turning in flow the

lower-surface

Mach selection

significant problems, design A computer sections, ideal is 9-17, paramby from 2). addthe

Guidance of which

a blade supersonic in this of

is obtained

consideration

separation

starting

be discussed discussed for the case

later "method

chapter. characteristics" flow. vortex-flow in reference lines rotor in figure obtained profile 7 (vol.

previously is only

of ideal

(isentropie)

for the design a correction passage by profile,

of supersonic-turbine for losses, indicated and the profile loss is presented by the final

9. The

dashed

designed are then the local 9-17.

the method

of characteristics. profile to the thicknesses as described

Boundary-layer is then ideal

computed, displacement Rotor parameters

as indicated

in figure

coefBcients

are determined

boundary-layer

in chapter

.... _--

_ --'__/'x "

._

Displacement thickness

/__/

_,.

_

,--Loss-free

passage

i/ Z

\ \

\

FIOURE

9-17.--Design

of supersonic

rotor

blade

section.

271

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

As

seen

from arcs are

figure HI and calculations

9-15, EF

adverse within give to cause criterion Mach

pressure the flow places rotor

gradients blade of whether

exist passages. the

along The

transition boundary-layer gradients results of the separation. upper-

an indication it would numbers.

pressure

severe losses. and

enough

separation. limitations

Flow on

separation to prevent the choice

in large The

If it is possible,

be desirable

separation lower-surface

OPERATING

CHARACTERISTICS TURBINES Supersonic Starting

OF

SUPERSONIC

the

Problems diffuser

occur in the starting must be able to swallow

of supersonic the shock that

diffusers because forms at the inlet
Lowe r-s u rface

140

PrandtI-Meyer angle, o)/, de3 ,/_--120 ll5 llO 105 9O 85 8O 75 7O 65 6O 55 5O 45 40 3O 75 2O 15 10

120

___------------

20

t
0 20

1
40 Upper-surface

1
60 Prandtl%_eyer

t
80 an(jl¢,

1
l O0 '%, deg

I
120

I
140

FIGURE

9-18.--Maximum

Prandtl-Meyer heat ratio,

angle 1.4.

for

supersonic

starting.

Specific-

272

SUPE_

SONI_

TURBINES

during in shape, a normal ing. wave For the inlet flow this mum rotor angles. The condition,

startup. similar shock since

Since turbines. spans the flow angles

the As the passage Mach (often

rotor would

blade

passage

is convergent-divergent to occur at the passage in the instant is set the starting that by this shock of of startit is assumed

problems

be expected approximation, passage the blade of blade

of supersonic

a first rotor must numbers expressed

permissible through.

contraction

be large along in

enough the terms

to permit

to pass specified blade Mach can inlet blades In must

circular-arc of the a maximum for which for 9-18,

segments corresponding value

surfaces number be value is plotted the from usual the then be

Prandtl-Meyer

w_ and The is given

wz), there Prandtl-Meyer calculation in reference of the

exists

of the

(or inlet

angle) procedure

supersonic determining the maxi-

established.

maximum

6. In figure starting blade-surface inlet the to surface obtain

Prandtl-Meyer design velocity

angle as a function

for supersonic the and order

of vortex-flow Prandtl-Meyer angle rotor blade Prandtl-Meyer the

problem, diagram, in

Prandtl-Meyer

is known angles

determined

8O Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle,

-

k
E

_
&
r_

_o
39

•_ g &

4o

I
,// ,

__e_,
,' , , ,/ ' ,

o,o, S9 i 0
7" ,'_7,_97._/'/77"7"//'77/'I
/,

F_,...'_,

c 5
E
r_

20

I
o
30

I
l_°l

i_oo

I lJ

1
50

_

l
70

L

I
90

,,

I
1
110

Upper-surface PrandtI-Mever angle, wu, deg FIGURE 9-19.--Supersonic Mach number 2.5; starting criterion Prandtl-Meyer applied to example angle, 39°; inlet flow turbine. Inlet angle, 65 °.

inlet

273

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

and

passage 9-18

profiles. the point must a severe numbers. a blade that at least

To

assure

satisfactory the the the

starting surface ordinate the permissible is best for the seen and to the on the

for the corresponding

given inlet
angles to the condivalues an example. conditions: °. vary flow fact angle _, can of

conditions, in figure inlet tion surface

representing lie on or above angle. This is _ to can sonic; be restriction on

Prandtl-Meyer starting design from following that fact

Prandtl-Meyer places Mach

In general, restriction designed from on the

supersonic

Suppose (1) _=1.4; It is first from must that Meyer For shown.

(2) M,,=Mex=2.5 noted vary 0 ° limit turning

(_,.=_,x=39°); _z is due 104 ° limit cannot 9-19, w_ and _,=39 for the _,

(3)0,.----0,_=65 that to the the flow

0 ° to 39 °, and

39 ° to 104 °. The remain the inlet angle clarity, The transition

w, is due inlet

exceed

of 65 ° (39°+65°= only dashed would

104°). the

In figure of

maximum of _, discussed °, and design the for

inlet this region

Prandtlexample. are shown because

w_,. ,,_

is plotted bounds line not be

as a function

previously purposes

represents permissible

crosshatched of supersonic will, in general, than the limit

starting limit indicated

considerations. the maximum in the figure. Turbine data 14. The ratio speed to turbine 9-20, of at ratio

Flow separation value of w_ to much

consideration lower values

Supersonic Experimental ported efficiency velocity ratio) in with performance 10 to blade-jet

Performance for supersonic in speed to presents 14. For turbines divided are by reideal

references

variation (blade

supersonic-turbine

corresponding is illustrated turbine

inlet-totalwhich

exit-static-pressure the any ratio data given and in ratio for the speed, falls maximum is similar turbine, fallen efficiency on at the the the off

in figure

partial-admission efficiency rapidly efficiency to that efficiencies envelope for as

reference design

is maximum pressure (circles

about is 9-20)

pressure The

decreased. with If

variation speed a subsonic have

in fig.

blade-jet this ratios were

a subsonic at the The lower

turbine. pressure

would

curve.

decrease

in supersonic-turbine

274

8UPF_R_)NIC Ratio of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-exit _ a o o static pressure 150 120 63 (design) _ "_ _

TURBII_S

I

.30

cCD

.2O
_3 t_

.10

.......
0

L__ ......... 2___
.04 .08

A_
.12 Blade-jet speedratio

1
.16

J
.20

l
.24

F,GuR_.

9--20.--Static

efficiency

of turbine as function for conseant speeds.

of blade-jet

speed

ratio

lower pressure ratios is due expanded The stator nozzles.

to

the shocks occurring in the underthe stator nozzle of formation

variation in static pressure throughout in the underexpanded

the turbine of reference 14 is shown of the shock waves

in figure 9-21. The

nozzle is readily apparent. as expected, but the was beThis same

It can also be seen from this figure that at pressure ratios near design, the divergent section of the nozzle performed pressure did not remain constant in the straight section. There

some overexpansion followed by some compression. havior was found in the data of reference 10.

275

TURBINE • 10--

I_E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

__ •09 --

Divergent -section

["-

Straight .... section

I

.0_

•07 -a

c

•05 -L_

9
V

o

•03 --

A •02 -[] Theoretical .01 -Throat I Exhaust

Ii

i
.4 of of nozzle

It
.6 nozzle exit pressure static

L
.8 ratio pressure

_
1.0 with to axial inlet distance total in nozzle pressure.

.2

Fraction of axial distance FIGURE for 9-21.--Variation constant ratios

276

SUPE_tSONIC

TURBINES

REFERENCES
1. 2.
3.

SHAPIRO,

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

11.

ASCHER H. : The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. vol. 1. Ronald Press Co., 1953. LIEPMANN, HANS WOLFGANG; AND PUCKETT, ALLEN E.: Introduction to Aerodynamics of a Compressible Fluid. John Wiley & Sons, 1947. VANCO, MICHAEL R. ; AND GOLDMAN, LOUIS J. ; Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle with Sharp-Edged Throat. NASA TM X-1502, 1968. GOLDMAN, Louis J.; AND VANCO, MICHAEL R.; Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Sharp-Edged-Th_roat Supersonic Nozzle with Boundary-Layer Correction. NASA TM X-2343, 1971. BOXER, EMANUEL; STERRETT, JAMES R. ;AND WLODARSKI, JOHN; Application of Supersonic Vortex-Flow Theory to the Design of Supersonic Impulse Compressoror Turbine-Blade Sections. NACA RM L52B06, 1952. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J. ; AND SCULLIN, VINCENT J. : Analytical Investigation of Supersonic Turbomachinery Blading. I--Computer Program for Blading Design. NASA TN D-4421, 1968. STRATFORD, B. S. ; AND SANSOME, G. E. : Theory and Tunnel Tests of Rotor Blades for Supersonic Turbines. R&M 3275, Aero. Res. Council, 1962. HORLOCK, J. H. : Axial Flow Turbines: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. Butterworths, 1966. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J.; AND SCULLIN, VINCENT J.: Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Supersonic Turbine Rotor Blades with Boundary-Layer Correction. NASA TM X-2434, 1971. MOFFITT, THOMAS P.: Design and Experimental Investigation of a SingleStage Turbine with a Rotor Entering Relative Mach Number of 2. NACA RM E58F20a, 1958. STABE, ROY G.; KLINE, JOHN F.; AND GIBBS, EDWARD H.; Cold-Air Performance Evaluation of a Scale-Model Fuel Pump Turbine for the M-1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Rocket Engine. NASA TN D-3819, 1967. MOFFITT, THOMAS P. ; AND KLAG, FREDERICK W., JR. : Experimental Investigation of Partialand Full-Admission Characteristics of a Two-Stage Velocity-Compounded Turbine. NASA TM X-410, 1960. JOHNSON, I. H.; AND DRANSFIELD, D. C.: The Test Performance of Highly Loaded Turbine Stages Designed for High Pressure Ratio. R&M 3242, Aero. Res. Council, 1962. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J.: Experimental Investigation of a Low Reynolds Number Partial-Admission Single-Stage Supersonic Turbine. NASA TM X-2382, 1971.

12.

13.

14.

277

TURBINE

I)E_IGN

AND

APPLICATIO_

SYMBOLS A
a

flow speed Mach critical

area

along

Mach m/sec;

wave, ft/sec 1;32.17 (V/Vc,)

mS; ft _ (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec _)

of sound, number velocity pressure, of ft/sec m/sec; velocity of ft/sec rate, deg

g M M* P

conversion

constant, ratio velocity ft/sec (M-velocity kg/sec;

absolute component m/sec;

N/m_;

lb/ft _ parallel to initial flow direction,

V

velocity, critical component m/sec; mass Mach flow

1), m/sec; normal lb/sec at constant direction, deg deg

ft/sec to initial flow direction,

V

Y)

angle,

ratio of specific heat constant volume small 0
p P

pressure deg

to specific

heat

at

change angle,

in flow deg angle, angle,

flow

Prandtl-Meyer density, Prandtl-Meyer

kg/m 3; lb/ft 3

Subscripts
e_

rotor rotor lower normal

exit inlet surface of blade with respect to Mach wave

in l
ITI4IZ

maximum direction relative isentropic tangential upper direction with respect to Mach wave surface of blade

7" 8

t

278

CHAPTER 10

Radial-lnflow Turbines
ByHarold .Rohlik E
Radial-inflow space power turbines systems, are suitable for many where applications compact in aircraft, power sources

and other

systems

are required. Turbines of this type have a number of desirable characteristics such as high efficiency, ease of manufacture, sturdy construction, and reliability. turbines and cover In this are design performance 10-1 enters of the and ratio 8. narrow. of blade have shows the flow In There in the most chapter, compared geometry is a substantial literature. of the those the with and areas design of amount References and an turbine blade of information on radial-inflow in nature machines. its features addition, design Figure The turning long the as flow 1 to 6 are general performance axial-flow of these and In offturbine. and is described, design,

radial-inflow performance,

are discussed. a section stator takes height rotor ratios axial place through and the varies stator 0.1 to 0.5. plenum, usually pipe, inlet case or a volute surrounds while the (shown the volute in a typical leaves blade from blades, radial-inflow the rotor which about on the turbine. This is is relatively which hand, 1 to as much

radially turbines, to chord, and from

axially. ratio,

in the rotor

passage,

aspect

Radial

turbine aspect

other

generally A torus, fig. 10--2), inlet. by The

which which torus

is a doughnut-shaped is a spiral is fed inlet by pipe. flow In passage, the a radial

stator is fed (tan-

a tangential

of a volute,

a prewhirl

gential component the stator blade camber. radial-inflow

of velocity) is imparted to the gas before it enters row. This results in stator blades with little or no from figure 10-2 that the than overall the diameter rotor of a is considerably larger diameter. 279

It can be seen turbine

TURBINE

DE, SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Station :, Stator blade 0 1 2

Rotor blaue

FIGURE

10-1.--Schematic

cross

section

of radial-inflow

turbine.

At little usually

the or

rotor no straight

inlet, tangential and and with

where radial.

the

flow

velocity (W_=O),

relative the section

to the rotor of the

rotor blades

has are blade

component This tangential of the more loaded, square speed. to the turn whirl. blading to stators splitter, are used since

straight

rotor rV,

generally here where the velocity Figure shows solidity generally turbine blades 280

is rather

highly the blade curved or no

angular component

momentum of absolute W_=O, At the stator the

(where

r is the radius, varies blades has 10-3 that (ratio used shown in the U is the are

V_ is the

velocity) V,,=U_r, rotor exit,

radius. flow,

(Since rV,,a:r2.) so that The

Therefore,

exit

absolute shape the that seen. the low are The full

little prewhirl of in here rotor.

shows

clearly. inlet low and partial, radial

blade Also, ratio be

is developed chord the has They spacing)

in the of radial or in the

volute. aspect can of the blades part

turbines

between

flow passage

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINES

Stator

/- Rotor /

Volute

C-72323

FIGURE

10-2.--Radial-inflow

turbine.

to reduce the the "BLADE The that The radius, associated turbine overall diagram T" tile fig. only is due and for line p_' 2-8 in expansion an

blade loading. Splitter DESIGN" section. process turbine in a radial because and is be in chapter This the can which Tile If the the this This 10--4, turbine. expansion. be only because For rotor removed losses 2), losses. the use

blades turbine

are

discussed

further

in from

differs decrease

appreciably in with eq. for level through total turbine line p[' (as and the pressure the (2-31) the for

axial total

of the pressure

radius

change 1 (see

rotor. and radial a given rotor p" are in

relative as was

temperature

decreasing

discussed it permits

2 of volume a distinct of a lower seen change in were below turbine, the the from the

discussion). because expansion. in figure the the

advantage velocity the

temperature-entropy the temperature (T['=T_'), shown p_" is due 10-4,

shows change

expansion in relative total axial the between p_'

of a radial-inflow _hown

corresponding would

relative an

slightly radial from and

of ch.

difference

to rotor to both

as shown because

in figure

the p;' line is farther

p't' line change

difference Therefore, 281

in radius.

TURBINR

I)F__SIGN AND

APPLICATION

Rotor splitter blade--

Stator blade--.

Rotor full blade

/ / t

/

C-?1863
. _gak-

FIGURE 10-3.--Turbine

stator

and rotor

assembly.

expansion exit the static rotor

from

the

same

rotor

inlet

total a higher than in

pressure relative a radial

p'_'

to

the

same W= at (larger fluid of

pressure exit in distance losses gas in

p_ would require an axial turbine between a rotor velocity, velocity increase the

velocity turbine Since the

vertical friction

p_" and p= for an axial approximately advantage diagram inlet 0.5. energy as high if

turbine.) with level figure

square of velocity 10-5 for

the relative is clear. A

of a lower is shown in

radial-turbine

a

turbine with prewhirl in the (exit-mean to inlet) of about speeds diagram, U_ and the Us is very relative three kinetic times

volute and a mean diameter The difference between the For a typical W] leaving zero-exit-whirl the UI, rotor

ratio blade be axial

evident.

velocity would

approximately turbine. 282

U2 equaled

as in an

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINES

i

T1

tl

TI

2gJCp

E
F--

2gJcp

Entropy FIGURE 10-4.--Temperature-entropy diagram for a radial-inflow turbine rotor.

V 0

W]

W2 /

p2-.

U2 FIGURE 10-5.--Velocity diagram.

283

TURBINE

DE'SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

OVERALL

DESIGN Optimum

CHARACTERISTICS Incidence rotor inlet, the inlet flow angle incidence leading a radial the in the "slip" rotor unloading fll

Since shown angle edge. blade. factor of the passage. ferentially gradient the show point that

the

blades provides angle optimum near uniform.

are radial 10-5 has is an a value incidence optimum

at the incidence flow

in figure This This blade

angle.

There at the

is some rotor-blade as 40 ° with to the flow with blades,

conditions condition and

sometimes

as high is associated by the rotor

is analogous of mass a large of this the

in a centrifugal the the the Before across that when the

compressor, tip flow Blade passage, and the is influenced loading

distribution then produces

it is circumstatic-pressure shift toward flow condition stagnation is shown point tend analytiIt has to exces-

so that pattern

there

is a streamline locates _1. This flow at the so, the flow edge, been and leading U1 has inlet pattern

suction

surface. there

Stream-function is an radial. "optimum" Note this

flow analyses properly angle that were near the not the

streamline in figure the suction

schematically is approximately separate sive cally loss. and from The

10-6. If

stagnation would causing studied turbines.

surface in both

relation

between

V_._ and

experimentally

compressors

Pressure surface

;uction urface

/

FIGURE

10-6.--Streamline

flow at rotor

inlet.

284

RADIAIr-INFLOW

TURBINES

been number

determined ratio

that depends

there on expressed

is an optimum blade as V_"=1---2 loading

ratio and,

of V,. 1 to consequently,

U_. This blade

optimum

and is often

U,

n
(total of full blades plus

(10-1) splitter

where blades).

n is the

number

of

blades

Effect The vol.

of Specific speed by the

Speed

on Design

Geometry and

and

Performance in ch. 2 of

specific

parameter equation

N_ (derived

discussed

1) is given

NQ21/2

N_-where N rotative volume ideal

H314

(10-2)

Q2
H

speed, rad/sec; rev/min flow rate at turbine exit, work, or head, based on inlet

m3/sec; and

ft3/sec exit total pressures, J/kg;

(ft) (lbf)/lbm In size its most and commonly truly be used form as a (with shape the stated speed parameter speed U.S. that customary of expresses may be

units), geometric

it is not may and by

dimensionless.

Specific similarity.

is independent

considered effect

velocity-diagram study.--The substituting for N, N

Analytical examined

of specific Q2, and

on efficiency

H as follows: (10-3) (10-4) (10-5)

=

KUI

Q2=_-D2h2V2 H=Vj2 where K D1 D2 h2 V2 dimensional rotor inlet rotor-exit rotor-exit rotor-exit m/sec; ideal ratio, g conversion jet constant, (tip) passage fluid ft/sec speed, m/sec; based ft/sec 1 ; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) on inlet-total to exit-static diameter, height, velocity mean-section 2_ rad/rev; m; ft m; ft direction), diameter, m; ft (assumed to be in axial 60 sec/min (hh'_

v,

pressure

constant,

285

TURBINE,

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Ah_

ideal

work

based

on inlet-total

and

exit-total

pressures,

J/kg;

Btu/lb Ahid ideal work based on inlet-total and exit-static pressures, J/kg;

Btu/lb These substitutions for specific and some manipulation result in the following

expression

speed:

y.
N,=(Constant)\_-7]u The terms of equation (10-6) are \-_j/ related \U], \D,] \D.]2 (10-6) characto velocity-diagram value ratio teristics by an number speed. The properties, were shroud kinetic exit flow those analysis caused The of reference by the number 7 related stator on and the losses variations. rotor back blades to the 12 that plus zero would splitter) Other exit whirl limit angle. a minimum avoid of the was to mean-diameter The losses layers, rotor, varied equation (10-7) separation. in equa(V_,2:0), of 0.4 for assumptions and with flow blade-tothe exit statorand overall geometry. Any specific speed infinite number of combinations of these of these combinations optimum were combinations examined over can be achieved terms. A large in reference of specific range

analytically a wide

7 to determine

neglecting clearance, energy. angle

hub-to-shroud windage

considered

boundary

of rotor according

al (in degrees) n:0.03

(a_--57)_T number (full incidence and

in order This tion was

to provide the total

the

minimum the reaction rotor

number

of blades

used

(10-1)

to establish a favorable limit

included a maximum (nh/D,)2. The examined number height diameter Vc,)_. For fell seen region are large values. 286 set geometric The the

(W_:2W_), Dt.2/D_,

of 0.7 for

effects by of

of geometry calculating combinations D,.2/D_ of values areas stator-exit extreme For in static dashed any curve at

and the of

velocity-diagram previously mentioned flow and

characteristics losses a_, velocity against Stator-exit which boundaries and speed, the falls by for angle rotor-exit

were a large

stator-exit ratio hdD_, then in figure angle. of input value rotor-tip study,

stator-bladeto rotor-inlet ratios (U/ speed. points angle a small region assumed can be a static for some is

to rotor-inlet-diameter ratio static shaded a prime each the limits. The range efficiency used shown

three was

critical plotted 10-7. The

specific calculated flow into the there computed of each

in the

all of the

in the to be for by

determinant flow values given is the

of efficiency, variables of specific

variation

efficiency,

as much envelope

as 45 to 50 points of all

RADIAL-INFLOW 1.0 Stator-exit flow angle, aI , deg

TURBINE_

Total efficiency corresponding to curve of maximum static efficiency

.9 _

8

of maximum static efficiency

\
.7 8

\ \ \ \

.5

.4

.3

._
0 .2

[
.4

I
.6

[
.8

t
1.0

I
1.2

I
1.4

Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless

l
0

I
20

I
40

I
60

I
80

I
lO0

l
120

I
140

I
160

I
180

Specific speed, N (ft314)',lbm314)/(min)(secll2}(Ibf3t4) s, FIGURE

10-7.--Effect

of

specific speed on computed (Data from ref. 7.)

design-point

efficiency.

efficiencies, total represent associated primary mum the ure Most functions 10-8 specific specific height creases

and

the The the and

solid

curve

above values because used however, velocity presented

it represents of efficiency there in the was ratios are study

the many

corresponding necessarily assumptions 7. The the optialong ratios as Figat low

efficiencies. with concern geometry of the envelope shows speed speed. with

computed values, loss model study, ratios. and are

do not

achievable

of reference

of that velocity The speed the 10-9 decreases geometric

to determine vary continuously of 10-8 angle area) ratio specific these

curves. of specific that and Figure increasing

optimum optimum (opens shows

values stator-exit to a larger that

of some in figures flow flow

to 10-11. is large with speed

increasing and inat 287

the optimum at low until

of stator-blade is reached

to rotor-inlet

diameter specific

is small speed

a maximum

TURBINE

DESIGN 90-XD

AND

APPLICATI.ON

_" 8O

¢D

_o 70

60

5O .2

I
.4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless

l
20

1
40

I
60

I
80

I
i00

I
120

t
la3

1
160

I
180

Specific speed, Ns, (ft3J41(Ibrn3/4)/IminJlseclJ2jIIbf3/4_ FIGUaE 10-8.--Effect of specific speed on optimum (Data from ref. 7.) stator-exit angle.

Blade critical velocity ratio at rotor inlet, • 20 -(UtVcr)l 0.20
O

oA XZ L_"

_z
u_ C 0 0

.08

a:

.04

0 .2

I .4

I .6

1 .8

[ 1.0

l '1.2

I
l.a

Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless

I
20

I
40

I
60

I
80

I
l O0

I
120

J
140

I
160

I
180

Specific speed, Ns, (ft3/d_tlbm314t/Imin!lseclIZJ_lbf3i4_ FIGURE 10-9.--Effect of specific speed blade height to rotor-inlet and blade diameter. speed on optimum (Data from rcf. ratio 7.) of stator-

288

RADIAL-INFLOW .l
E 7-

TURBINES

.6
O

.4 ¢_

--

.o
f-f

.2 0 .2 .4 Specific

I
.6

I
.8

I
1.0

I
1.2

I
1.4

speed, Ns, dimensionless

I,
0

I
20

I
40

I
60

1
80

I
100

I
!20

I
140

I
160

I
180

Specific speed, Ns, (ftJld}(Ibm3/41/(min_secll2)ilbf314_

FIGURE

10-10.--Effect diameter

of

specific

speed diameter.

on

optimum (Data from

ratio ref.

of 7.)

rotor-exit

tip

to rotor-inlet

14

--

L
0

I
20

FIGURE

10--I

1.--Effect

of specific (Data

speed from

on optimum ref. 7.)

blade-jet

speed

ratio.

289

TURBINE.

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

some in the mum blade Figure

value

of specific The and higher to shows

speed only velocity velocity that

depending that levels diameter the optimum ratios

on the

overall

level has on

of velocity the optiwhere speed. tip diam10-9,

turbine. geometric that 10-10 height

effect

compressibility is also result at shown any in smaller given ratio

in figure ratios

it is seen

of stator-

rotor-inlet

specific

of rotor-exit

[]

qb_

(a)

Specific

speed,

0.23;

30

(ft

3/_)(lbm angle, angle,

3z_)/(min)(sec 81 °. 3/_)/(min)(sec 75 ° . 3/4)/(min)(sec 60 ° . of ref. 7.) maximum

_tZ)(lbf

3/_). Stator-exit

flow (b) (c) Specific Specific speed, speed, 0.54; 1.16; 70 150 (ft flow

3/_)(lbm

l!Z)(lbf l/2)(lbf

air). 3/4).

Stator-exit Stator-exit

(ft 3/_)(lbm flow angle, turbines from

FmURE

10-12.--Sections

of

radial (Data

static

efficiency.

290

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINE_

eter creases

to

rotor-inlet rapidly with

diameter increasing is reached. speed values ratio to the variation shown in figure that

is It

small specific is seen UI/Vj of static

at

low

specific until figure with the

speed imposed 10-11

and that

inlimit the in a for

speed from varies 10-8

of D,2/DI_-0.7 optimum manner The the design blade-iet similar optimum are

specific can with an the

speed be used

efficiency. to 10-11 of turbines values is largely indicated static speed viscous optimum speed. of flow

in figures 10-12

of radial-inflow shown show study along 10-13 speed,

turbines. specific

Sections for three speed 7 also

geometries These capacity. The different shown values

of specific index

sections design losses in figure of specific

of reference the for curve the the

variation efficiency. covered. losses

in the This For are is low very

of maximum range of specific and rotor

stator

.2

1.0

--

.9-p

¢x3

to

¥
Loss
c <19

Stator Rotor

:>

Clearance Windage Exit velocity

c_

.4

I
.2 Specific

,
n
_

1 , 1,1,1
.4 .6 .8 1

I
2

speed, Ns, dimensionless

1
_0 Specific

J
50

I
80

1
100

J
200

speed. Ns, l[t3_'4Jllhm3/d_/fi:lin_secll2_ltbf3'4_

FIGURE

10-13.--Loss

distribution (Data

along from

curve ref. 7.)

of

maximum

static

efficiency.

291

TURBINE,

DESIGN

AND

APPI_CATION

large

because loss large depends at low

of

the

high

ratio of the the

of wall the passage diameter

area

to flow The rotative flow

area.

Also,

the is loss, a

clearance relatively which large

is large fraction on specific

because

blade-to-shroud height. and low

clearance windage speed, rate. As

primarily speed

is also specific

because

of the

speed increases, loss all decrease kinetic-energy speed.

the stator because loss becomes

and rotor losses, of the increased predominant

clearance loss, and windage flow and area. The exit at high values of specific

C-/I-159 {a) ib_

C-69q816

C-?0-3533 to)

(a)

Design

rotor. (c) Cut-back used

(b) rotor. in

Rotor

with

exducer

extension.

FIGURE

10-14.--Rotor

configurations

specific-speed

study

of reference

8.

292

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINE_

Experimental effect (ref. of of specific 8) to accept blades and for area throat the the

study.--In speed a series different reduced operation. area rotor from throat area on

order turbine of stator blade These area operation

to blade

determine rows The and was of the with

experimentally a turbine was fitted cut used This speed. extension, and for internal 13 back to different was also were design

the modified numbers with for vary area an inthe and the 10-14 and cut velocity

efficiency,

angles.

rotor

extension creased stator to vary turbine shows back.

modifications from

20 to 144 percent over a large with range the test 8.

throat

53 to 137 percent. of specific reduced-area results,

allowed Figure

to be operated rotor are area Details of the

as designed, given was and rotor

geometry, in reference determined area. Figure

calculations Performance of stator

experimentally 1 0-15 shows

combinations of the

the

envelopes

1.00--

• 9O

.8o
.2

/,_/'" . 7O

_

¢_

WithConfigu ration design rotor With rotor extension -With cutback rotor

I-,-

.6O • 9C

[

1

[

[

L

L

.8_
t'oJ o

• 7{3

1
.2 .3

l
.4

l
.5

1
.6

1
.7

I
.g

I
.9

Specific speed, Ns, dirnensi_nless

t
20

t
30

I
40

I
.50

l

I

I

1

I

I
1lO

60 70 80 90 lO0 t3/4 )_lbm3/4)/trnin)[sec t/2 )(Ibf 3/4) Specific speed, Ns, _f variation of efficiency from ref. 8.) with

FIGURE

10-15.--Experimental

specific

speed.

(Data

293

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

design-speed efficiency as well as the overall and-rotor ratio at measured combination design for speed. specific

curves envelope was Note speeds

obtained curve. that from

with each rotor configuration, Specific speed for each statorby to varying 0.80 (48 overall over to pressure 0.90 103 were (ft 3/4) efficiencies

varied

simply total 0.37

(lbm314)/(min)(seO when the ratio design in the (min) The design speeds) considerably turbine stators. of nearly the parallel for leakage. might In this three, ratio. specific (seC/2)

a)(lbf3/4)). of stator throat static range speed

Maximum efficiencies area to rotor throat efficiencies 0.4 of about to 0.5 (51

were obtained area was near the were measured (ft 3/4) (lbm31_)/

Maximum (lbf3/4)). of used design,

0.90 to 65

of about

investigation could and, be off even

reference a variety the still yield the efficiency stator

8 showed distribution high volume blade

that of

a

particular (different velocities

basic specific is a radial variable

for though

of applications efficiency. flow row rate over

internal Further,

be used with

to advantage total

in applications remaining

requiring varied 0.90. by the

investigation, of the

a factor potential

In addition,

endwalls

minimize

Effect Clearance avoid contact to minimized between during avoid

of Blade-to-Shroud the loss blade and of work and the due blade was to

Clearance shroud flow must bypassing The losses the be adequate but it must the blades, to be

speed

thermal

transients,

generation of turbulence, and due to blade-to-shroud clearance previously figure 10-13, as determined discussed the specific-speed

unloading. one of the analysis. For

efficiency loss included in the losses shown clearance rotor-exit in

clearance loss was based on an average from constant values of rotor-inlet and ratios. clearance turbine which of reference Increasing at 9. The shows the exit the rotor were effects clearance

clearance-to-diameter The the are effects exit

of blade-to-shroud on radial-inflow study 10-16, in the in figure

inlet

and studies

at

rotor presented

efficiency results

determined of both causes inlet a

experimentally clearance and

of these

exit

clearance.

significantly greater loss in turbine efficiency than increase in inlet clearance. It is the exit clearance the Since design clearance. of passage each 294 percent fraction it flow of the is the turning With height), increase flow can that stator is fully that turned produces even with to the the

does a comparable that determines exit rotor blade inlet large angle. whirl, inlet

turbine

be achieved inlet was and exit

a relatively (in loss terms

equal

clearances a 1-percent

of percent for

there

about

in efficiency

in clearance.

RADIAL-INFLOW Exit clearance, percent of passageheight v 0.25 .92 o 3
\ __ A

TURBINE6

4

"_E

0

D

7

\ .E "-4
1'-

_"'-b_-.
\ /

"<

1- Equal percent, exit and inlet clearance

-8

i 0

L.

_ I

]

4 8 12 16 20 24 Inlet clearance, percent of passageheight of inlet and exit clearances from ref. 9.) on total

] 28

FIGURE

10-16.--Effects

efficiency.

(Data

An inflow exit rotor-exit absolute

axial-flow turbine passage

turbine would have than of the (since be one

with would

the the

same relative

flow

conditions turbine. would is largely to have with the result

as a radialof rotorThe a function same lower advantage for the annulus kineticof a same larger of in a larger

a larger axial-flow required

clearance

(percent

height) diameter

radial-inflow turbine clearance (in order along

clearance and This may

diameter) area).

a smaller previously turbine

passage of the

height reasons,

energy level radial-inflow application.

discussed, over a small

for the efficiency axial-flow turbine

BLADE The velocity for bine part size curves ratios and (figs. turbine shape, design 10-8 to speed problem. as well problem the as the involves best

DESIGN relating useful They design the discussed and can turbine be used velocity examination rotor blade in chapter geometry design to determine diagram. The profiles. 5 (vol. of internal and studies turnext flow The 2) are

10-11) are

to specific

in preliminary

a particular of any and

in order methods used

to determine computer

stator

programs

for this purpose. Internal Flow Analysis design relatively chord and is usually because is relatively little the specified small straightlong because number 295

Stator.--Stator forward. chords, large blade Typically, and parallel profiles

blade the

aerodynamic blades have A long

camber,

endwalls. are easier

to machine

TURBINE,

I_E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

of blades lower serve cost.

(long Also, with

chord long the

means chords added

large for the endwall

spacing shroud. area

for

a given

solidity) the stator of

means blades penalty

are desirable

because The (over that

as structural

supports

aerodynamic

associated

short-chord

Pressure

.9--

.... Free-stream velocity

Suction

Pressure su rface

I
{b_

t

.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 Meridional distance,imensionless d

(a) (b) FIGURE l()-17.--Stator

Blades Surface

and

passage.

velocities. with surface-velocity distributions.

blades

296

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINE6

blades)

is small

because conditions.

of the high

reaction

and

the resultant

favorable

boundary-layer

A two-dimensional of the described solutions. rate, a and surface rate solidity, fluid complete parallel Input in reference properties specification of local blade

flow

analysis

may

be used The

for

the

stator and

because method transonic flow and blade-

or near-parallel information and of

endwalls. for the

stream-function subsonic program outlet The includes flow and

10 provides conditions, blade

satisfactory computer inlet geometry. trials of obtained and

angles, magnitude

calculated with pressure

velocities

are examined decelerations. number, and distributions

for smooth Successive distribution are

acceleration are made blade for the

varying until and

curvature

satisfactory velocity suction surfaces. Figure radial-inflow prewhirl. shown both used turning. open angle if the more in The figure The the 10-17(a) turbine

shows in

the which

stator the

blade flow for flow row surface value a near

and entering small the can for the can the flow

passage the

profiles stator velocities at continuously

for has are the

a no

calculated 10-17(b). leading whether suction edge, turning before more cross than

suction-and Except edge, the the the the blade velocities pressure input than by the trailing the

pressure-surface accelerates

deceleration trailing accomplish edge the curves

pressure-surface surfaces. If at the specifies curves turning to determine trailing

on may remain be design flow

calculated and

velocity provide. blades angle.

free-stream will

exit

blades edge, input

Conversely, provide

is specified of rotor blading computer various which along that in figure of blades,

Rotor.--The than of the that of (decelerations) design. for number This turbines, suitable contour, curvature. inflow

design stator The screening approach, uses

blading because because combinations blade was

is appreciably of adverse of the

more pressure

difficult gradients

encountered

and

three-dimensionality 11 is particularly contour, and hub blade

program

of reference thickness developed

of shroud distribution, specifically with method,

for radialintegration straight lines in the meridi-

the

velocity-gradient

of directional derivatives (called quasi-orthogonals) onal plane. orthogonals of velocities then calculated based is shown and

fixed arbitrarily located intersect all streamlines section 10-18. is obtained. in the These with several of A complete program flow blade-surface primarily severe on the decelerations.

A meridional-plane streamlines approximately on irrotational blades. between the various and

these velocities

quasisolution are an

meridional of reference and a linear velocities basis

Blade-surface

11 with velocity are

equation distribution to evaluate smooth

absolute

used

geometries avoiding

of obtaining

accelerations

297

TURBINE,

DE:SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

1.8_ 1.6 Shroud contour

Quasi orthogonal
oa

cfi
[:Z

,,,,_

ela CE

1
.2

I

1

I

1
l.O

.4 .6 .8 Axial distance, dimensionless section through radial-inflow

FIGURE

10-18.--Meridional

turbine.

Blade-surface ional-plane sections of "In figure

velocity

distributions,

as calculated

from

the

meridshroud 10-19. same

solution of reference 11, at a radial-inflow turbine rotor 10-20 are shown the velocity

the hub, mean, and are shown in figure distributions the for the

blading, but as calculated by 10. The surface velocities solution agree fairly well with over most of the blade. It can difference The linear does method between velocity not solutions variation reflect the

the stream-function calculated from

method of reference meridional-plane solution appreciable edges. solution occurs in the blade meridional-

those of the stream-function be seen, however, that an at in the the leading that and used meridional-plane actually

occurs blade

trailing

unloading

these regions. surface velocities 298

The stream-function in a more rigorous

method determines manner. However, the

RADIAIrINFLOW 1.0 .8 _ .6 .4 .2 O-_ Suction surface

TURBINES

....
_ I F I

t

I
(al

I

....
1 t 1 I

Free-stream velocity

I

,... 1.0 .8 o" .6 .4 '_ .2

w

h

•"_--

-.2

-.4

1

I
fb)

I

].0

.6

.2_ 0
-.2

....

____

-.4 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 l.O Meridional distance, dimensionless (c) (a) Shroud section. (50-percent streamline) (c) Hub section, surface-velocity solution. 1.2

t 1.4

(b)

Mean

section. merEdional-plane

FIGURE 10-19.--Rotor-blade

distributions.from

plane program (ref. 11) is easier and quicker to use than the streamfunction program (ref. 10) and, thus, provides a better means for rapid screening of the many design variables. A lesser difference occurs in the intermediate portion of the blade passage. In the meridional299

TURBINE

I_EISIGN

AND

APPD£CATION

1.0 I .8 .6 4 .2 0 1.0 d
3

Suction _Mean / _--

surface _ ""_/ t- tee-stream velocity

.... 1_1

t

1
_3b

J

__I__

I

.8 .6 .4

%
_2 C)

.2 0 q)J 1.0 .8 .6 .4 .2 0

1

__---() .2 .4 Meridional .6 distance, _c_

1
._q

L
].0

I _1
1.2 1,4

dif]Te!_%lc,qle% r

(a) (b) Mean

Shroud

section. streamline) section. distributions from stream-function section.

(50-percent (c) Hub

FZGURE

10-20.--Rotor-blade

surface-velocity solution.

plane

analysis,

the

flow

is assumed

to be the

circumferentially

uniform,

and the mean stream mean blade surface. blade blades of blade Figures in the along than Also, surface the the elsewhere shroud considered variations that loading, 10-19 flow path. deviates then, and

surface between The stream-function and the defines mean somewhat illustrate the blade is more lower of high critical from

blades follows the prescribed solution considers blade-tostream surface The between surface. distribution

in the flow

a mean blade

is also 10-20 and blade of the the most

different. the loading, heavily flow. region hub-to-shroud as well loaded and the and Therefore, as the along shorter the variations variations the shroud is flow path. shroud most

velocities The because

solidity

is a region

generally 300

is examined

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINE6

carefully loading siderably is nearly previously in that 50 next percent section.

for near axial. section. higher

favorable the rotor than The This The rear the high rapid high the part

blade-surface inlet, where at in near hub the near the loading loading change loading use of the from blade

velocity flow the inlet the surface the long rotor

distributions. radial, where primarily (rVu be reduced discussed a very path hub by about and section. low the In in exit, the _

The is conflow r _) by the blade great this to the

is nearly is due could are shows flow

discussed through This results

angular which

momentum inlet

of splitters, from inlet spacing Splitter

loading. decrease particular

principally the

in blade turbine,

spacing

to exit

at the

decreased Blades loading If this surface, blades

75 percent.

As inlet, and/or by the

indicated where large the by partial Such called loading area. blades

previously, flow negative blades partial splitter results However, to offset therefore, of splitter in the was built

the velocities on between blades blades. in there the

blade inward. the are

is highest loading it can in the 10-3 blades additional unit use for the

at

the

rotor surface

is radially

is excessive, be and are losses surface reduced part used, per area of the unit of will, are com-

as indicated using rotor.

calculated suction the When is now full shown

pressure radial

decelerations

in figure splitter the the

monly reduced of surface the must on The splitter

decreased reduced

boundary-layer loss per

splitter balance, effect

area.

A judgment blades

be made,

as to whether blades study and on turbine

of splitter was blades

be beneficial. performance 12. A turbine The splitter examined with were half When on and splitter and the by the a then of reference tested. designed

experimentally blades

removed, thereby doubling the blade loading of the rotor. Channel velocities were calculated the from large splitters side the hub increase were of in the almost location. performance ratio and the when showed no-splitter the surface conditions favorable splitters area. data very (ref. little cases. were This near rotor margin the reaction of 12) The result indicate rotor in tolerance taken loss and over removed, blade to the calculated indicated meridional upstream of negative pressure

in the upstream for both cases. velocities eddy streamline, been the

a reverse-flow 50-percent what had

extending

loading

trailing-edge Turbine pressure splitter increase effect to poor velocity vide an

a range due apparently previously edge.

of speed between to the offset

difference removed

in efficiency increase was the

loading discussed

l l_e reduced flow and

of blade-shroud

clearance

an insensitivity leading toward a radial-inflow such

of efficiency The low inlet proturbine

appreciable

conditions. 301

TURBINE,

I_E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

OFF-DESIGN The performance characteristics different from those of axial-flow all rotor speeds, ratio turbine, 10-21. the rotor even inward. increases variation in this an section, axial-flow the however, With must with with Therefore, speed for turbine. flow rate this be pressure inflow in within radially the ratio The later for figure (inlet-total-

PERFORMANCE of radial-inflow turbines turbines. In an axial-flow becomes is only the true by is some of the zero only when is one. speed, force pressure This speed is very is slightly decrease are slightly turbine at the In on turbine a radialthe fluid across pressure force. to that speed rapid in in illustrated

to exit-static-pressure) at zero a pressure small increasing 10-21). rotation, balanced there because with The a radial-inflow efficiency point (see fig. centrifugal

as illustrated directed ratio

gradient zero-flow centrifugal ratio, similar more are be useful operating used may not from the to

turbine

no flow

of efficiency

blade-jet turbine

as blade-jet

ratio varies from the peak-efficiency the case of the radial-inflow turbine. Prediction many studies before design or in to off-design design situations. to examine any study hardware the calculation studies. In use modifications techniques Estimated start where of methods the for off-design performance transients They system variable

performance data various also be The different can can and

valuable in system conditions help be in that geometry

is built.

select these used is

components geometry.

matched

approach

is somewhat off-design

calculations,

.8

Zero speeO

.6
e_

o

¥
N E Z

4

.2

0 1,O

/

[
1,2 Inlet-total-

I
1.4

1
1,6

[
1.8 ralio characteristics.

I
2.0

to e×it_staticq)res,_Jre turbine flow

FIGURE

10-21.--Radial-inflow

302

RADIAL-INFLOW

TURBINE6

fixed, rotor

the depend

working-fluid speed on loss

inlet coefficients

conditions ratio. Losses selected

are fixed, calculated to force

and

the

variables stator and between

are blade

and pressure

for the agreement

calculated and experimental or design values at point. Additional losses considered for subsonic incidence developed erence reference from calculated comparing mation perimental static in figure 13, Joss and at 14. a modified this in figure variation 10-23. The efficiencies the the exit kinetic-energy off-design Lewis 10--22 of over shows flow against and this a range Research computer 10-23 computer of speed performance. an accurate rate with blade-jet efficiencies loss. performance Center A radial-inflow and turbine NASA the Figures version with

the design operating flows are the rotor calculation is described is presented obtained presenting ratio flow of the Total are within and estiexand shown 1 perby pressure mass ratio. ratio results method in refin

associated

program illustrate program and The

performance 10-22 plotted

experimental of mass calculated

representation pressure speed

are generally

Percent of design speed

Experimental

Ii"
70 90 100 110 -."30 50 "- 110 Design

120
¢-

Calculated _"--

110

B

100

90

8O 1.4

I
1.5 1,6

I
1.7

I
1,8

I
1.9

I
2,0

I
2.1

Ratio of inlet total pressure to exit static pressure FIGURE 10-22.--Comparison of calculated and design operation. experimental flow rates for off-

303

TURBINE

DE'SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

cent lations testing

and

at most are

2 percent system

of

the to

experimental provide a prior

values. valuable

The tool

calcuin the and

sufficiently of overall various

accurate components.

examination of the

performance

to fabrication

1.00

--

• 90 --

.__I__

110

•80 --

90 _ _-. vu,,
Percent of design speed 5O

c o_

.70 --

¢1)

"5

•60 --

Experimental

70 90 100 ,_ llO

• 50 --

Calculated

Design ! •30

I

1

I

I

1

JJ

I

•90 --

,- 110

• 80 --

100 _'

.70 -o_

,60 -

•50 --

,40--

_ 30 • 30 ,, .2

I

I
.4

I
.5

] ..... I
.6 .7

Desiqn

I
.8

J
.9

.3

Blade-jet speed ratio, U]"V i FIGURE 10-23.--Comparison of calculated and design operation. experimental efficiencies for off-

304

RAD_AL-I"NF_A)W

TURBI_S

REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
SAWYER,

JOHN W., ed.: Gas Publications, Inc., 1966.

Turbine

Engineering

Handbook.

Gas

Turbine

SHEPHERD, D. G.: Principles RODOERS, C. : Efficiency and Paper 660754, SAE, 1966.
LAGNEAU,

of Turbomachinery. Macmillan Co., 1956. Performance Characteristics of Radial Turbines. to the Study of Advanced Small Radial Mar. for Tur1970. Com-

J. P.:

Contribution

bines. Int. Note 38, yon WOOD, HOMER J.: Current

Karman Institute of Fluid Technology of Radial-Inflow

Dynamics, Turbines

7.
8.

pressible Fluids. J. Eng. Power, vol. 85, no. 1, Jan. 1963, pp. 72-83. HIETT, G. F. ; AND JOHNSON, I. H.: Experiments Concerning the Aerodynamic Performance of Inward Flow Radial Turbines. Paper 13 presented at the Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Convention, Inst. Mech. Eng., London, Apr. 1964. ROHLIK, HAROLD E.: Analytical Determination of Radial Inflow Turbine Design
KOFSKEY,

Geometry
MILTON

for
G.;

Maximum
AND NUSBAUM,

Efficiency.
WILLIAM

NASA
J.:

on Experimental D-6605, 1972. 9.
FUTRAL,

Performance

of
HOLESKI,

a

Radial-Inflow
DONALD

TN D-4384, 1968. Effects of Specific Speed Turbine. NASA TN

10.

SAMUEL M., JR.; AND of Varying the Blade-Shroud Turbine. NASA TN D-5513, KATSANIS, THEODORE: Fortran

Clearance 1970. Program for Surface

in

a

E.: Experimental Results 6.02-Inch Radial-Inflow Transonic NASA TN Velocities D-5427,

Calculating

on a Blade-to-Blade 1969.
1 1. KATSANIS, THEODORE:

Stream
Use of

of a Turbomachine.

Flow Distribution TN D-2546, 1964. 12.
FUTRAL,

in

the

Arbitrary Meridional
WASSERBAUER,

Quasi-Orthogonals for Calculating Plane of a Turbomachine. NASA
CHARLES A.: Experimental Turbine With and

SAMUEL M., JR.; Performance Evaluation Without Splitter Blades.

AND

of a 4.59-Inch Radial-Inflow NASA TN D-7015, 1970.
CHARLES

13.

FUTRAL, SAMUEL M., JR.; AND WASSERBAUER, Performance Prediction with Experimental Inflow Turbine. NASA TN D-2621, 1965.
TODD, CARROLL

Verification M.,
JR.:

A.: for

Off-Design a RadialIV Program Turbines.

14.

to Estimate NASA TN

A.; AND FUTRAL, the Off-Design D-5059, 1969.

SAMUEL

Performance

of

A Fortran Radial-Inflow

305

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

SYMBOLS
Cp

specific diameter, conversion ideal

heat

at constant

pressure, 1; 32.17 (lbm)

J/(kg)

(K) ; Btu/(lb) (see _) total

(°R)

D g H

m; ft constant, or head, (ft) (lbf)/lbm

(ft)/(lbf) and exit

work,

based

on inlet

pressures,

J/kg;

passage height, m; ft ideal work based on J/kg; Btu/lb ideal work based J K N J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, conversion rotative specific (lbP '4) total P number flow m; speed, jet ft of blades rate, constant, speed, speed, rad/sec; on

inlet-total inlet-total 1 ; 778 2r

and and

exit-static exit-total

pressures, pressures,

(ft) (lb)/Btu 60 sec/min (ft a/4) (lbma/4)/(min) plus partial) (sec 1/_)

rad/rev; rev/min

N,

dimensionless; (full

absolute volume radius, absolute blade absolute ideal ratio, relative fluid

pressure,

N/m 2 ; lb/ft _ mS/see; K; ft/sec m/see; based ft/sec m/see; ft/sec measured measured from from meridional meridional plane, plane, ft/sec on inlet-totalto exit-static-pressure ftS/sec °R

Q
r

T U V

temperature, m/see; velocity, speed, m/see; velocity,

Yj
W
Ot

absolute

flow flow

angle angle

0

deg fluid relative deg

Subscripts:
b'r

critical hub tip tangential at stator at stator at rotor

flow

condition

(sonic

velocity)

h t
U

0 1 2 Superscripts" ' " 306

component inlet exit exit or rotor inlet

absolute relative

total total

state state

CHAPTER 11

Turbine Cooling,
ByRaymond .Colladay S
The inlet necessity requirements. foil, bustor frequently integrity bled from for both airfoils discrete losses, efficiency. a minimum while the in the discharge of the cooling across trend towards higher to increase turbine chapter, "blade" enter of 1644 this gases excess turbine and around the compressor thrust blades, the refers the K and vanes, term first to the vane in this through or vane. in the the into overall cooling (2500 ° F). pressure cycle and rotor row In "vane" end refers airfoil. at peak order internal the This main cycle schemes to ratios walls and has turbineled to the life aircomthe air of the at in

temperatures of cooling In term

efficiency

to meet The hot

to a stator temperatures preserve

components is routed then the turbine very required. blade and is dumped

hostile

environment, passages gas stream results which

compressor

locations

inevitably

thermodynamic utilize

Consequently, of air are

effective

GENERAL ]n balance analysis prediction requires the flow, profile airfoil, the an any on can turbine the be which of the the heat location factor) cooling blade broken flux of of the (or meets up of the gas velocity design, vane,

DESCRIPTION one or end must wall) into from the metal make to a complete arrive at limit. parts: gas (1) stream. to energy a cooling The The This over turbulent heat 307

configuration

a given conceptually to the the blade

temperature three hot

understanding

boundary-layer from the distribution, leaving and

development laminar the

transition

potential-flow

temperature (or other

(pattern

combustor

TURBINE,

I_E,SIGN

AND

APPI._CATION

source). provide tions. balance, blade, to

(2) And, the

A steady-state map the (3) prediction heat through be

or of metal

transient of complex To blade

heat-conduction for blade-stress internal coolant closure convection from

analysis predicflow on the hot from

to paths

a detailed

temperatures maintain wall, the and

for convection-cooling entire conduction

calculations. transfer the treated

energy gas to blade

process--convection simultaneously. problem wall on blade

coolant--must

Let us for a moment oversimplify dimensional model of a turbine-blade surface (see fig. 11-1). The heat flux product of a hot-gas-side difference between the pressed is the would let the as an effective adiabatic reach adiabatic if there heat-transfer gas and the gas were wall

by considering a onethe suction or pressure can be expressed as a

to the

coefficient and the temperature wall. The gas temperature is exwhich (the For be the o) for convection temperature of this gas total the cooling surface

temperature, temperature no cooling).

or recovery

purposes

illustration, temperature. (11-1)

temperature q=he(Tg'--Tw,

Therefore, where q hz heat flux, W/m_; Btu/(hr)(ft _) of hot gas, W/(m 2) (K); Btu/(hr)(ft _)

heat-transfer (°R)

coefficient

Tg!

total temperature temperature

of hot gas, K; °R

T_.o

of wall outer surface,K; °R

TW,

0

Tw, i

FIOURE 11-1.--Simplified

one-dimensional

model.

308

TURBINE

CIOOLING

The

heat

removed

from

the

wall,

expressed

in the

same

manner, (11-2)

is

q=h_(T_._--TJ) where
he

heat-transfer (OR)
w, i

coefficient

of coolant,

W/(m

_) (K);

Btu/(hr)(ft

2)

temperature

of wall inner surface,K; °R of coolant, K; °R through k the wall is given by (11-3)

T' C The

total temperature temperature drop

q=where kw y 1 The As plate. number thermal coordinate wall second conductivity normal

dT k_ -dy=-[ (T_. ,--T_.

,)

of wall, to wall

W/(m)(K); m; ft

Btu/(hr)(ft)(°R)

surface,

thickness, equality he be a

m; ft holds done only for constant by thermal design, the let for fiat-plate conductivity. the flow heat-transfer over a fiat Nusselt local

is frequently For Nu

in a first-order boundary layer,

coefficient

approximated by

a correlation

turbulent is given

Nu,= where distance Re, Pr The Reynolds Prandtl Reynolds along number number number

__gx 0.0296Re_" __

8Prl/3

(11-4)

surface based

from

leading

edge z

of flat

plate,

m;

ft

on distance

is defined

as (11-5)

Re_ = pugx
la

where
P _tg _t

density, component viscosity, the Prandtl

kg/ma;

lb/ft 3 velocity lb/(ft) in x direction, (sec) as (11-6) m/sec; ft/sec

of hot-gas (N) (sec)/mS; number

and

is defined

where 309

TURBINE,

])E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

K
C_,

dimensional specific an ideal to yield h =_ (0.0296)Pr heat gas,

constant, at

1; 3600

sec/hr J/(kg)(K); substituted Btu/(lb)(°R) into equation

constant (11-5)

pressure, can be

For (11-4)

equation

'/3 FPz'

-/

_'g,
# I T--1

Mx
2\(v+l)/2('_-Dm

T s

" x
where

k

yW ,

j
(11-7)

p',
T

total pressure of hot ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion constant J/(kg) gas constant, Mach number

gas, N/m2; at constant 1 ; 32.17

lb/ft 2 pressure (ft)/(lbf) (°R)

to specific (sec 2)

heat

at

g R M On the general,

(lbm)

(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm)

coolant

side,

a number

of cooling

schemes

can

be used,

but

in

h_=CRe/,"Pr"=C( where C Re f
We

w'_"

"]"Pr"

(11-8)

constant Reynolds coolant characteristic

dependent number mass flow length flow

on based rate,

coolant-passage on characteristic lb/sec passage, ft 2 and kg/sec;

geometry length___ m; ft

J
For

for coolant area, m2;

coolant-passage turbulent Now, depicted the hot consider in figure gas convection internal the 11-2,

cooling, laminar

m-----0.8 flow profile

n-----l3. should the

Since blade

efficient wall, Tg' as of

cooling

is desired,

(m=0.5) through p_' and

be avoided.

temperature when and state heat the the

pressure wall outer

temperature

are increased from the and flux

temperature 11-2). gas From with

Tw.o is kept equations pressure to The wall the (i.e., same

constant (11-7) the and

(going (11-1),

1 to state flux to the with

2 in fig. blade increasing drop temperature

increases

0.8 power heat

it increases raises a fixed bleed so the the wall

temperature. the At

increased decreases time, sor for the pressure

temperature outer

through T,_.o).

T_._ for compressor ratio),

air temperature temperature

increases difference

(higher (Tw._-Tc')

compresavailable q must Therefore, be

convection

cooling

is sharply wall

reduced. temperature

The

heat

flux

removed,

otherwise

the outer

will increase.

310

WPURBINE
i

COOLING

Tg

hg(T_ - Tw,o)

_ kw / _- (Tw,o - Tw, i I

1
/ C

FIGURE 11-2.--Gas

temperature

and

pressure the wall.

effect

on temperature

drop

through

h, must case, ture and and an

be increased from coolant infinite

by

increasing 11-2, flow is state

the

coolant the therefore, Of size

flow

we. The wall

limiting tempera-

as seen

figure coolant

3, where

inside this

temperature

are equal; is required. passage

he must

be infinite, condition on a limit Figure cooling increase. is the to air 11-3

course, the

impossible Because quantity the from required The 1644 taining designs shows cooling convection air-cooling examples (figs. gas l l-4(f) Film the or K

to achieve. of limited of cooling internal air available convection the cooling hot-spot To operating film film only. cooled components by and or savings highly and restriction pressure, in cooling and while Figure compared methods and on its supply cooling nonlinear

capabilities reference limit

of plain 1 shows in the

is apparent. increase convection temperature gas conditions temperatures, cooling. the cooling the to (e)), of these the use as basic and temperature

for convection (2500 ° F) pressure. reasonable must potential combined cooling turbine of blades to (i)). cooling incorporate

as pressure of advanced turbine-inlet

application

is about about 20 maincooling 11-3 to for shows

atmospheres

exceed

these blade-metal

transpiration air with illustrates l l-4(a) or more to protect the The

in cooling Figure 11-4 (figs. one way the

of transpiration

convection

and it also cooling from

methods the hot

is an effective cooling along cool film

surface gas

stream

by directing

air into surface.

boundary effective

layer

to provide temperature 311

a protective,

TURBINE,

I_E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

pressure, Pg, in, atm Turbine-inlet 3 4O 20 lO

Convection cooling Film and convection ---cooling Transpiration cooling

I
1400 1600 1800 Turbine inlet temperature,

[
2O00 T_, in, K

I
22O0

I
2OOO

I
25OO Turbine inlet temperature,
I

I
3O0O Tg, in, oF

t
35OO

FIou]_.

l l-3.--Effect

of

turbine-inlet flow

pressure requirements.

and

temperature

on

coolant

in equation (11-1) becomes flux to the blade is then

the

local

film

temperature,

and

the

heat

q=hg(T's_.,-where T_,z_ is the total temperature

T,,,,.) of the gas film, in K or °R. in this

(11-9) It is

frequently is the same The dynamic higher transfer tion objectives 312

assumed that the heat-transfer as in the non-film-coo|ed case. of film which and must minimizes blade air into tend the boundary some The losses to reduce

coefficient layer of the

equation aeroof using and heatconfigura-

injection pressures designs

causes

turbine

advantages

temperatures. be integrated metal the

aerodynamic an optimum consistent efficiency.

to achieve temperatures

which

ensures yet

with

long-life

loss in turbine

q_UR,BINE

COOLING

Transpiration cooling currently heat-flux should and To because offset piration A typical coverage foreign scheme limit be small, of normal this cooling film

cooling available, its use

of a porous but it to advanced For leads efficient Also, the

blade has designs

wall

is the operating

most

efficient

airwhich

significant

drawbacks under due cooling, losses the can the

extreme pores

conditions. which contaminates.

transpiration of blockage air air into aerodynamic it must than is shown of discrete

to problems of cooling however,

to oxidation be severe layer. transFullin of schemes. that 11-4(i).

injection point, requires less

boundary cooling

latter

be recognized other holes, in figure

cooling blade

transpiration-cooled cooling is an cooling from attempt without

an array

as illustrated

figure l l-4(h), transpiration

to draw on some of the advantages paying the penalties mentioned.

Cooling air (aJ

Zn

_

Xn (bt

__

o

c:_

c>xE//Ej

(d)

J

JJ
(e)

(a) (c)

Convection cooling. (b) Impingement cooling. Film cooling. (d) Full-coverage film cooling. (e) Transpiration cooling. FmuaE 11-4.--Methods for turbine blade cooling.

313

TURBINE

I_E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Radial outward airflow into chamber1, Film cooled--_ \ Convection \_ i_f// 1/// /.//// / f-Convection .

L Impingement cooled

(fl

inlet airflow

/_\lmpingement

cooled

Convection cooled

(g)

(hl

_Transpiration i,

cooled /

/-

Wire-form porous sheet

(il

(f)

Convection-, (g) Convection(h) (i)

impingement-, and

and

film-cooled

blade blade

configuration.

impingement-cooled film-cooled blade

configuration.

Full-coverage

configuration. configuration.

Transpiration-cooled blade FIGURE I I-4.--Concluded.

HEAT

TRANSFER

FROM

HOT

GAS

TO

BLADE

Boundary-Layer General the 314 equations.--The region transfer very near

Equations of heat the to the surface, blade where is confined large velocity to

boundary-layer

'tURBINE

C(K)LING

and

temperature

gradients process, the 6 (vol.

are

present. following

Consequently, boundary-layer be solved:

to describe equations,

the

heat-transfer introduced Conservation

in chapter of mass

2), must

o 0%(pu)
where time-average m/sec; ft/sec component quantity value

O (pv+

(11-10)

of

velocity

component

in

y

direction,

()' ()
Conservation

fluctuating time-averaged

of momentum Ou . pu 6-_+(pv+p _-7=7..,_ u O v ) -_=--g dp -_+g 0 -_ (11-11)

r-t-gpB_

where
T

local

shear

stress, of body

N/m2; force

lb/ft 2 in the x direction, N/kg; lbf/lbm

B.

component

Conservation

of energy OH . _ OH 0 / 1 ur\ (11-12)

where H J total enthalpy, J/kg; term, Btu/lb 1; 778 W/m3; (ft)(lb)/Btu Btu/(see) H are with the requires through laminar requires (ft z) values being (i.e., _,

conversion heat-generation dependent v, and The the H, shear solution boundary of heat

constant,

Q
The u, for

variables as denoted of stress and the physical because of these and layers.

p, u, v, and in ch. heat The flow 6), equations flux

time-average overbar the appropriate contribution

understood. expressions and molecular our limited assumpto

hydrodynamic but of various such

thermal diffusivity

momentum turbulent of its heat as and the

is straightforward, the to the and use One counterpart. simplicity is Prandtl's momentum. sum of the

understanding tions which but for has eddy turbulent bears

of turbulent little transport diffusivity

in describing persisted

assumption, of turbulence in predicting hypothesis stress and

resemblance

structure success The laminar shear

processes,

mixing-length and

heat flux are contributions"

expressed

turbulent

315

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

p/

Ou

_--_..,\

(11-13)

and { aL_jj0/_ _) (11-14)

q=Ko[ where yr, aL ,4 The tional laminar ity), laminar static turbulent c()mponent m2/sec; enthalpy, shear ft2/sec component J/kg; stress

of momentum of heat Btu/lb u'v---; and heat

diffusivity m2/see

(kinematic ft2/sec

viscos-

diffusivity,

flux _ mean flow

are

assumed

proporthat is,

to tile respective

gradients

in tile

variable;

'tt'v' = -- vr _-ff and O,4 v-'_g_= -- O_r _-_ ' where and the subscript heat diffusivity. (11-13) and (11-14) p and q=-Ko(aL+ar) The flow heat preceding and both reduces where boundary-layer compressible, ,r and and ar there 0_'. _-_-- Koa O/ can 0u then p be written 0u as T denotes the turbulent (:omponent

(11-15)

(11-16) of momentum

Equations

(t1-17)

(ll-lS)

equations turbulent approach (6-42). properties equations are under arc is no intern,d

as_u me t e lnperature-variable flows zero). heat assumed (inclusive variation generation, at the 'tssumed, of laminar If the in specitic the energy onset, and of the expericondiin the a later momen-

properties

cp is neglected

equation analysis, However, mental tions. variable section. Integral tum equations 316

to equation

If temperature-variable all boundary-layer constant data The are final results

must freq_)ently

be solved

simultaneously. isothermal

properties usually taken are These then

approximately to account will be

corrected

for temperature-

properties. equations.--As it an is

corrections we saw

considered 2) with the

in chapter to

6 (vol. solve

equation, from

often

convenient approach

boundary-layer parameters

integral

in term_

of integral

TURBINE

O0_LING

such

as momentum velocity derive enthalpy

and their

displacement Just meaning from

thicknesses displacement the The integral

rather and

than

in terms equaparamz_ is

of discrete thicknesses tion, so the

profiles. thickness energy

as the

momentum

momentum thickness

is a significant equation.

boundary-layer enthalpy

eter for the integral defined as follows:

/_= fo¢* pu( H-- H,)dY p,u,(H,,,.o--H,) Note the that subscript the subscript e in chapter g refers 6. For to the free-stream value

(11-19) denoted by flow,

low-velocity,

constant-property

A=fo_*u(T'--T',)dy u,(T_,.o--T,') The ment The equation across and the enthalpy caused integral (11-3) the boundary thermal resulting boundary integral thickness by the energy or is a measure layer. can by (for be derived the containing see for ref. either by of the eonveeted energy

(11-20) decre-

boundary equation directly of a control layers energy properties

integrating of energy case, with

balancing volume details equation and mass

transport 2). at the

the hydrodynamic In either flow wall is

compressible

temperature-variable
q

transfer

Kp,u,(H,.

-F PgU,c

= dh ____t_A [ (l_Mg) Note zero flux with that at the if we make gradient, wall, and

_ __d__ q_ (H,_.°--Ht)dx 1 du, 1 restrictive low-speed constant assumptions flow temperature reduces

d (H'*' o--11,)] of constant

(11-21)

properties, no mass (T,,.o--Tz')

pressure

(incompressible), difference form,

_, then equation

(11-21)

to its simplest dA d--x as

Kpu, If a local heat-transfer

q c_,(T_,, o--T,')= h,,x

(11-22)

coefficient

is defined

q h'.'=(T..,--T,')
then,

(11-23)

h,., da Stz Kpu, c_,=d-x=

(11-24)
317

TURBII_E

I_E@IGN

AND

APPLICATION

The group of variables on the left side is dimensionless the local Stanton number Sty, which is also equal to S Nu, t_--R_p r and (6-75) that with in

and

is called

(11-25) similar assump-

Notice tions,

from the

equations

(6-72)

integral

momentum

equation CI'_--dO 2 dx

resulted

(11-26) of kinetic boundary temperature Tt.,, would viscous energy equation: (11-27) °R. For laminar for wall (resuggest number vice versa. a the wall energy layer. near This the reach heating is related into is wall if it in to

For thermal as shown wall were the the

compressible energy by in figure and layer. factor by

flow, viscous an increase 11-5. T,_,o, The

there shear

is dissipation within static the

characterized temperature uncooled boundary recovery

in the effective

gas temperature of the

or adiabatic

is the

temperature a measure by the following

is, therefore, This r defined

dissipation

of kinetic

Tg,=T,o.=t,+r ' ' where flow, ing turbulent that temperature. sponsible allowing that should for heat lead tz is the the recovery boundary the Prandtl The for energy a given to hot-gas factor layer, Prandtl from static can temperature, be

ug2 2gJcp in K or by on to equal an effect ratio layer). thermal energy, wall is the boundary

approximated

Pr 11_, while the adiabatic viscosity

r is assumed has number the

Pr z_. It is not surprisof the diffusivity This a high

number dissipation)

to the kinetic

(mechanism would

to escape a high

free-stream

Prandtl and

adiabatic

temperature,

tg / _'_

u2 r 2g-_j Cp---I

Ii Tg,e _

Thermal

_

//

Iq " 0

FZOUR_

l l-5.--Temperature

distribution

in

a

high-velocity

boundary

layer.

318

TURBINE

O00LING

The (either

heat

flux to the

blade gas

is proportional temperature)

to the at the

temperature wall:

gradient

effective

or static

q=--]¢' As we terms ture The suitable wall never has on refined effective have of the difference. gas problem expression a cooling temperature. constant. the design The thermal stages. already The

Ot Nlv=0 =-k_ seen, gas

OT, _ h -_ v=0---- g.:`(T,.e--T,_.o) to express and the case wall flux coefficient which however, the actual can layer will yield the be surface surface accounted varying must the heat

(11-28) flux temperabe the a in

it is convenient coefficient temperature or the the heat-transfer h,., in this adiabatic heat

heat-transfer temperature, for In the

gas-to-wall always temperature. blade hg.:`. The a constant

in determining configuration reality, that boundary effect

to the

is to find objective outer-

is to design

temperature temperature for in more

is

Solutions First-order is to assume pressure faired in plate gradient proximation. surprisingly because the gradient. For dynamic energy similarity With the laminar equation solution wall flow over layers can temperature be a side into crossflow expression flow, In the

to

Boundary-Layer

Equations to the solution the suction or correlation a cylinder the fiatapresults

approximation.--The that the heat-transfer of the for blade the pertains, results fact, often a heat-transfer blade in are coefficient a the

simplest approach coefficient on by distribution region. sense, enough only for correlation

is approximated leading-edge strict fiat-plate accurate

a fiat-plate around Though to

zero-pressureyields

a first-order

close to those of more sophisticated Stanton number St is relatively a fiat both solved in plate with the at by 6 for

analyses, insensitive thermal the means the and leading of the

primarily to pressure the the result hydrothe Blasius profile. is (11-29)

boundary

beginning directly chapter

edge,

discussed

velocity

assumed h_.,=0.332

to be constant, _ Re:,'12pr'z3
X

The

turbulent

counterpart

is given hz.,=0.0296_Re

by °" Spr'/a Reynolds he. ,, in the assumed: 319 number. leading-edge region, (11-30)

The For the

local the following

velocity

u_. x is used

in the

heat-transfer correlation

coefficient is frequently

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLI_CATION

h,,'_=a where
a

E1" ]14k" (p'u' _ _D'_'/_pro.,(l__)] _\

--80°_¢_80

° (11-31)

augmentation diameter velocity angular of gas distance term (see fig.

factor of leading-edge approaching from circle, m; ft edge, m/sec; ft/sec point, for deg of stagnation coefficient leading

D

leading-edge

The

bracketed D

is the 11-6)

heat-transfer in

a cylinder free stream.

diameter

a cross-flowing,

laminar

Ug,_ = =

x/

FIGURE

11-6.--Blade

leading-edge

geometry.

The to from

term account or 1.2

a is an for blade to 1.8, associated the

augmentation highly been with leading have edge. large,

factor turbulent Various This used.

used

to adjust flow of

the the

coefficient factor a,

mainstream magnitudes amplification

approaching flux 'is flows. vortex thereby boundary but as turbulence when the in gradiin the on freehum-

a vane uniquely

of heat stretches of flow, the with occur in detail,

favorable-pressure-gradient stagnation region in the direction velocities this phenomenon heat transfer will allow zero will 000, within

The highly accelerated flow at the filaments oriented with their axes increasing layer. yet, Kestin no general the turbulent (ref. 3) has correlation fluctuating studied

of stagnation turbulent

scale and intensity Transition from Reynolds the ent, stream 320 boundary it can number layer generally number turbulence

is available. laminar to becomes to grow. range and

flow high plate to with

sufficiently For a fiat that 000 roughness.

instabilities pressure take place

be assumed of 200 surface

transition to 500

Reynolds

depending a Reynolds

However,

TURBINE

O00LIN_

ber

based

on It

the

distance,

x, from transition

the to use

leading the

edge because momentum number

(boundary-layer it is not for a local 0, is thickness, determining point given that to the is, it is a given

origin) parameter. as the transition, then state. comes the use number for pipe turbulence, An tion the layer immaterial

is not

a practical is more the of the the length

criterion, Reynolds of the

convenient in the history critical

characteristic because how independent

Reynolds layer

number boundary

at

layer; in getting

boundary

developed

For a strongly turbulent. This of x. A value corresponding flow. For flow

accelerated flow, fact is consistent of Reoccur=360 to Rex=300 over a turbine value for by be derived (6-76)) local the from velocity

the boundary with the use plate very can

layer never beof 0 but not with critical and high Reynolds ReD= 2000 free-stream variation equaas to laminar velocity boundary

is a "universal" 000 for a flat blade with of Ree.cr_t=200 momentum the integral suitable profile equation of a variable

a conservative expression can 6 (eq. 2). Upon blade chapter form ref. thickness

be assumed. momentum assumptions the the

approximate from (see

thickness

on a turbine functional

making

of the

through (6-76),

integrating

momentum is given by

as a function

free-stream

OL__O.67vO. Ug 3

5 /

tJo

Fx

U,Sdx)

\o. 5

+0,,_. the an stagnation the stagnation approach

(11-32) point, velocity (11-33) in

where meters

x is the or feet.

surface The

distance momentum

measured thickness

from with

8,t_s at

point

of a cylinder

of diameter

D in a crossflow 0.1D

ug_ is

°.'..- ?..o,5
¥ Turbulent such
as

2_ exists when this the value of 0 is

or

transitional

flow, The

then,

that

(ouz0/u)_200. momentum

value thickness

of x where is obtained

occurs

is denoted manner

T,cr_ t.

The by the

turbulent equation

in a similar

0T--

4.

I1

L

_/,g

,,,..

_g

_x-r-t,L._ti,----_e from of the flux laminar integral to a blade

] to turbulent equations is a more the

(11-34) flow. of momenrefined previously increased sophisticated 321 and

This

assumes

an abrupt The than

transition solution the the heat

Integral tum and accurate discussed. complexity

method.-energy approach The penalty of the

to obtain

"fiat-plate accuracy In many

approximation" is, of course, cases, the more

for more

computation.

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLLCATION

methods method and the

are not accounts effect the

warranted

in the

early velocity surface

stages

of design. more on still

The

integral also

for free-stream of a nonconstant some equations. energy transfer

variation temperature must

realistically, h=._ can in order

be included. to solve Consider specific heat

However, integral the and

assumptions

be made

integral no mass

equation across

(eq. the

(11-21)) wall

with

constant

boundary.

_p,u,cp

ax

_ _

u,

dx

_- (T_.o--T,')

dx (T=.o--T,') (11-35)

Ordinarily, solved (1i-20). equation equation Stanton proposed local istic length, in

the order Ambrok (11-35) by that and

integral to (ref. could use Stanton this

momentum the however, solved fact weak 4), be

equation enthalpy proposed independently that can

would thickness an of

first approach the

have

to whereby

be

evaluate

5 in

equation

momentum show the He of a gradient. charactergradient. ( 11-36 )

making the

of the

experimental of pressure thickness be written

data

number Reynolds

to be a very number that based

function

number function

as a function as the of pressure

on enthalpy

is independent

Stx----f(Re_) If ] is independent should For and give us the turbulent yields St_=0.0296 Recalling from equation (11-24) Re-_ °2 Pr - 2/3 that Stx=-_ the local Stanton by number can equations be expressed (11-37) and in terms (11 38) of the for a flat, plate dA of pressure functional flow over gradient, form. a flat plate, combining equations then the flat-plate

solution (11-4)

(11-25)

(11-37)

(11-38) enthalpy

thickness

combining

so as to obtain (11-39) by any equation arbitrary for laminar (11-35) and

St_ = (0.0296 Hence, (11-39) free-steam flows.) integrating the for function turbulent velocity Substituting yields StyrT hg'_
l"kpe'_=C p

Pr-2/3) 1"25(0.8 Rea) - 0.2_ equation and_ (The by (11-39) (11-36) assumption, same argument into equation is given for holds

f

from flow

variation. equation

--0.0296

Pr-2/3(

T '

T

_o.z_/-o._

(11-40)

322

TURBINE

COOLING

where I =-: .f .... p?I_(T_'--T.,o)' ]_* u 25 • . ['0.SRe_(T/-T_ o)71"25

J,=,... .
(11-41) the critical the 2.

The

integration

is performed Reynolds equation. solution.--The to a turbine

numerically mnnber For most blade by a is to further

for being

hg._, details,

with

enthalpy-thickness laminar-boundary-layer IGnite-difference the are was heat several flux good and (eq. equations

ewduated

from

see reference of calculating boundary-layer approach. this. One

accurate solve all

metho(1 the

simultaneously numerical by of W. M. (eq.
a fourth

finite-(lifference available uses addition the In to do to the equation, ix given by

There of these of the and others. for

programs l(ays (ref. 5). an<l

developed

numerical (eq. that with

procedure (11-11)), the

Spalding censervation energy kinetic

P'ttankar mass .._is of turbulent

equations

(11-10)), conservation solved kinetic

momentum simultaneously energy

(11-12)),

of turbulent

energy

also

Conservation

°z/+lo,.,+¢,.'t
0z

-_.v=p_

(o,y+ o
\0v/

Ov

P(_+_)

az" -9
0.v
(11-42)

wheref/r The

is a turbulent kinetic

dissipation energy
.j//_ 1

term, as

in

W/m s or

Btu/(ft

a) (sec).

turbulent

is defined

2gd where in the w' is the fluctuating perpendicular equation, layer. for. evaluated

(u'2+v'2+w'2) of velocity, the the the x-y plane. mixing effects in m/sec By length ix

(1 1-43) or ft/sec, the turbucalculated

component to Also,

direction

including

turbulent-kinetic-energy locally in the boundqry lence can be accounted All with lion wall properties no restrictive of surface (transpir'ttion are

of fi'ee-stream

locally m' velocity an(I local

through
assumptions

the

boundary on transfer are also the at

layer variathe

or approximating temperature cooling) manner. example mmwrical turbine l l-7(a). ll-7(b)), results

made

l)rotile..Mass film cooling

handled

in a slraightforwar(I I;igtll'e the protile bound'n'v integration temperature, is given l,Jyer started 11 7 presents of in must the

from wine.

computer for The the

plots case of

showing a highthe can be 323 velocity

tlcxihilitv

apI)roa<:h The but,

high-pressure figure (fig.

free-stream profiles condition on,

initial from then

through profiles

be supplied

as a boundary

to get, the

TURBINE

IYE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

2500-700 6O0

150(]
.

m

E

200 500 10C_ 0 (a)

_
0

I

I
.Ol

I
.02

I

I

I

[
.06

I
.07

.03 .04 .05 Surfacedistance, , m x

I
O

I
.04

I

I

[

I
.20

I
.24

.08 .12 .16 Surfacedistance, .It x

Total enthalpy (b)

I
.1

I

I

I

I
.9

}
1.O

.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .l .8 Dimensionless boundary-layer variable

(a) (b) Initial Free-stream reference FIGURE profiles for

Surface

velocity

profile. boundary-layer or 249.7 over vane. a 101.28 ft/sec; program. free-stream

finite-difference velocity, 30.87 J/(kg)(K)

numerical m/see or

reference enthalpy,

1.0447)<

106

Btu/(lb)(°R). high-t_mperature, high-

l l-7.--Boundary-layer

development pressure turbine

324

TURBINE

O00LIN(_

calculated through the boundary layer at discrete x locations. The boundary-layer thickness, momentum thickness, momentum-thickness Reynolds number, and heat-transfer coefficient are shown in figures 11-7(c) to 11-7(f), respectively. Notice that just upstream of the

• 16 --

.OO4

(c) ] 0

I

I

1

3.2_E

_, 2.4-¢-

o8° I
E

60

(.3

E = E 1.6


b20 I
20 4O 60 Percentsurface distance boundary-layer momentum thickness. thickness. 80 100

*

>"
r-

.8

[)--

(c) (d)

Pressure-side

Pressure-side

boundary-bayer FIGUaE 11-7.--Continued.

325

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLI.CATION

20-percent thickness increase before

surface (fig. rapidly continuing

distance and then and to

location the decrease This

on

the

vane, over

the

boundary-layer (fig. a short by ll-7(d)) distance the rapid

11-7(c))

momentum slightly "blip"

thickness is caused

increase.

2400--

le)

I
1600--

1

I

I

I

%
tm

v _

8.6_ 7.0

_

ii '°
1000 8OO "T" -7600 4OO (e)

._

5.4

3.8

2.2
0 20 40 60 Perceni surface distance 80 momentum-thickness Pressure-side FIGURE heat-transfer 11-7.--Concluded. Reynolds coefficient. number.

I
1_

Pressure-side (f)

326

_URBINE

O0_LIN_

48--

4[--

24--

• 8 I
.6
E E >:.

16-E >_

I .2b-

fl
(l--x=

g
c

(al

0l
g,
o m

48 -- E 8
r_

E o

E

e_ c21

32--

.8i--

24--

.6i--

16--

8--

.2i-(b) "--Total enthalpy

0--

I

_

I

I

I
1.0

.2 .4 .6 .8 Dimensionlessboundary-layer variable

(a)

Initial ft/sec; Btu/(lb)

profiles free-stream (°R). slot-widths or 2004 Btu/(lb)

at

slot.

Free-stream enthalpy,

reference

velocity,

609.6 J/(kg)(K)

m/sec or

or

2000

reference

4.8189X108

1151.75

(b)

Three m/sec 1151.75

downstream free-stream

of

slot.

Free-stream enthalpy,

reference 4.8189X

velocity, 106 J/(kg)(K)

610.8 or

ft/sec; (°R).

reference

FIGURE

11-8.--Boundary-layer

profiles

along

adiabatic

wall

with

film

cooling.

327

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPL]:CATION

deceleration the about pressure the side.

and

acceleration from location. as can enthalpy in figure changed

of the region Very be seen

mainstream aft little from of the of the figure illustrating About shapes Fluid boundary

flow leading

resulting edge layer on occurs

from the at is

adverse-pressure-gradient Transition state, and given have 10-percent

a laminar

boundary 11-7(f). an

layer

in a transitional Initial film stream, velocity are profiles the

profiles 11-8(a). to the

example down-

of

cooling

3 slot shown

widths

in figure

11-8 (b).

Temperature-Dependent The and these perature compared temperature temperature property or the are the ture In common relations all vary profiles to results variations are analytical experimental use for the the involving in earlier with properties (and, obtained occur properties solutions data for method obtained property (for the

Properties parameters gas properties Re, Pr, Nu, of temlarge what

dimensionless contain The a change in the the be with of constant gases) in the small variation. and

St, discussed transport

sections, causes therefore, across to (except

p, k, u, and dependence and Since at

c_, which

temperature.

temperature in were the heat-transfer constant. boundary

velocity

coefficient) layer,

if properties

evaluated?

Usually, temperature Two the

constantmethod) differences are namely, in

finite-difference schemes results;

corrected

to account

correction

property

temperature-ratio method. the latter method, :

reference-tempera-

all transport

properties

are evaluated

at

the

reference

temperature

Tre.,':O.5 The temperature-ratio

Tw.o+0.28 method

tg+0.22

Tg,_

(11-44)

assumes (T_e'_"{ t_ "_" _] \T-_.J properties laminar and m:=0.6, evaluated flow, a n=0.08 much

Nu St N---_ce--Z-_c_=\ The subscript For than CP static refers to flow, flow.

(11-45) at the and greater

constant For n=0.4

free-stream m=0.12. influence

temperature.

turbulent in laminar

CONDUCTION Once coolant up 328 into the side local are heat-transfer known, problem of finite

WITHIN

THE

BLADE on the

WALL hot-gas conditions or vane example, side for and the

coefficients heat-flux available. The

the are

boundary blade for as shown,

heat-conduction a number

is broken in figure

elements,

TURBINE

COOLING

FIGURE

1 l-9.--Typical

node

breakdown

for

a turbine-blade

conduction

analysis.

oj+4
_ _ I \ I \

f
iI _

-

_

I
I

\
\\

I II

ii

J+

_

i II

I

il il ......

_11

oj+$ FIGURE l l-10.--Typical boundary element for heat-conduction analysis.

11-9,

and

an energy of algebraic equal solved Once

balance total

is written number by

for each equations, of elements. means analysis the of blade from

element. with All a

The the equations

result must digital a detailed for use

is of

a system equations then be computer. temperature thermal-stress Consider

finite-difference

number

to the such

simultaneously a conduction throughout

high-speed,

is completed, is available 11-10.

distribution calculations. a typical

in

boundary

element

figure

Accounting 329

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

for and

all the those

energy adjacent leads

transfer to it to the )m+ k_Aj

between (elements

the j-l-1

given

element

(the including

jth element) the fluid

to j+5), equation

boundary,

following T

algebraic _ k_42 +--_--

(see fig. 11-10).

dc Ac 1 (Tj--Tc'

(Tj--

j+l)

(Tj--Tj+2)"

+ where
A_

• " • +_s

5 (Tj--T_+5)"--

pc_,Vj A(time)

(T']+I--TT')

(11-46)

surface noted distance by volume

area

between

jth

element and

and

element

or boundary

de-

by subscript between

i, m s ; ft _ element or boundary denoted

44

jth element i, m; ft m 3 ; ft s time step scheme

subscript

ofj th element, ra denotes

The

superscript

n or n+ is used. element

l, depending

on whether

an explicit A similar calculation the equations infinitesimal

or implicit equation may are size,

transient for every

volume If the

must

be written. depending to reduce the

The on how to an

be either structured. the equation 0T

transient

or steady-state, element at a point

is allowed

energy

balance

yields

familiar

heat-conduction

(11-47)

Pcp0(time) where x, y, and z are the coordinate direction_.

COOLANT-SIDE There transfer impossible the local problem coolant can by to be many convection discuss temperature, internal to the each flow coolant, the

CONVECTION geometries and used to promote it would Essentially, he, and equation (11-2) The coolant flow path the heat be

for that

reason, scheme•

convection-cooling heat-transfer previously T'c) T_, in the q----hc(T,_._--

is to determine

coefficient, shown

This

is not,

however,

as simple and the

as it sounds.

can be very complex, must be known before An internal equations 330 flow network that describe

the internal heat-transfer is established, internal

flow and coefficient and pressure

pressure distribution can be determined. of momentum are solved

conservation distribution

the

_URBINE

COOLIN_

to determine there the discussed surface, the between mined, considered Various transfer. lators" They most 11-4(b)), wall correlation

the

flow

split between from

between each hot from gas must for

various of to the

parts three

of the conduction

blade.

Since steps through cycle of deterscheme

is interaction (convection and three for must methods Fins to keep also help effective where from can the by

heat-transfer an iterative the has percentage been

surface, to coolant),

convection calculations cooling be used are be

surface region the he.

be made. of the particular

After blade

air available

a given

empirical

correlations

convection

to determine used to enhance to the

coolant-side passages the

convection to act

heat

added flow

cooling and

as "turbulayers One thin. of the (fig. inside

highly the

mixed

boundary area.

increasing

convection is

surface impingement

convection small jets

methods of cooling in figures

cooling toward gives the

air are directed 11-4(b) and cooling
/,._ \0.091

of the blade,

as seen reference

(g). One

representative

6 for impingement

NUD,

irap-_-_lq_2ReDraprl/S

(k_)

(11-48)

impingement-cooling as characteristic
Zn

Nusselt dimension hole m; ft and

number wall, m; ft

based

on hole

diameter

distance hole power functions number. m

between

D The both

diameter, on of the the

Reynolds

number

and array

the

coefficient geometry data

_1 and

are the 6

impingement-hole

Reynolds gives

A least-squares-curve
Xn 2

fit of the
Xn

in reference

m----a_(-_) and =expEa2 where holes x, is the center-to-center of flow, and xn

+b,(,)+c,

(11-49)

2

x. in meters or feet,

(11-50) between

distance, the The

in the 11-I to

direction

coefficients coefficient by It the can

a, b, and _o2 is an accumulation be expressed

c are given attenuation of fluid as

in table factor from

as functions for

of ReD.

account rows

crossflow

caused jets. 1 _o2

multiple

of impingement

1 +a3_b_3 11-I, and _b for the

(11-51) i th row of 331

where

aa and

ba are

given

in

table

TURBINE

I_E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

TABLE

ll--I.--IMPINGEMENT-CooLING

Coefficient

Reynolds number range, 300 to 3 000

Reynolds number range, 3 000 to 30 000

al

bl
¢1

-- 0.0015 .0428 •5165 0. 0126 --.5106 --.2057 0.4215 .580

--O. 0025 • 0685 .5070 0.0260 --. 8259 • 3985 0.4696 •965

a2

b2 c2
a3

b3

impingement

holes

is defined

as
Go! Zn

(11-52)

where Gcr Gh crossflow mass flux, kg/(sec) mass flux, (m 2) ; lb/(hr) kg/(sec) (ft 2) (ft 2)

impingement-hole

(m 2) ; lb/(hr)

FILM As parent reduce in fig. cooling and and Except cooling film or turbine-inlet that blade 11-3). metal The are

AND

TRANSPIRATION and must and pressure conserve

COOLING increase, by cooling film Here, film the coolant hole, than the as for higher will the for it becomes film air and cooling (as convection surface only, hot-gas rate. either wall because be disfilm combined does average cooling same flow apto shown

temperature cooling temperatures importance design given and conditions is shown

convection

be augmented both 11-11. only, all percent temperature also the arc of holes that same

of combining in figure cooling, the same wall Notice is about gradients cooling

in a given fihn

blade

temperatures combined cooling-air in the yields

for convection convection and region

immediate

of the film injection lower

a significantly cooling film wall cooling for

convection but the

alone. only

temperature coo]ing,

convection

temperature

much

of the rapid decay First, localized cussed, 332 then

of the protective film. film cooling from rows cooling and

or slots

transpiration

full-coverage

discrete-hole

TURBINE

COOLING

1800 L2600--v /

_ _3_1_"

Hot9as Film coolingonly

_6

2200

:

I

J f__'-

_Convection _ Hotgas

coolingonly

_ ,A,'_|

1200 ---.. ombinedfilm and convection cooling C

_

_

1000

:_-

_ooI
0

I

i

l

I

I

.2 .4 .6 .8 l.O Dimensionless distancedownstreamof slot of combining coolant film and flow rate. convection cooling. Constant

FIGURE

l l-ll.--Effect

cooling. film-cooled" film-cooling ing

To

successfully heat-transfer analysis for becomes builds the the

analyze on the flux film

and

model must

film be surface, T),_m:

cooling, known. the

the Hence,

"nonthe followgas

coefficient heat to

preceding the

discussion.

In the effective

expression

temperature

temperature

q=_hg._(T'.,,_=--Tw.o) where h,.x is the heat-transfer coefficient (he, x)I,,,_ hg, x the damped with under gas (see form wall film having fig. by the heat-transfer out rapidly, coefficient to account without film cooling,

(11-53) and (11-54) is altered for this. called (i.e., layer the

e -Very near the by the to be wall point the effect unity. data the hot of injection, injection The itself, film is usually

somewhat However, assumed adiabatic from between correlated temperature

and _ is included temperature cooling, wall a buffer The film adiabatic

so _ is frequently it is obtained it is the a'r is of cool nl, z_: (11-55)

is sometimes because conditions film film

temperature

experimental it and

of an uncooled in dimensionless

11-12)).

temperature

effectiveness

_'"'"= where outer T_, o is the wall). The injected film film

T.,.--T_.,,, Tg..-- T', o temperature decays (coolant from temperature

at the 333

effectiveness

a value

of 1, at

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPIAI;C_TION Boundary I r_ layer -7
/

Y I

T,

//

/

_'mm /

-J ....

_.,,_"_

_

I

'(

Coolant film

I Coolingair
FIGURE ll-12.--Experimental determination of film temperature.

1_ .8 _-"_

Injection angle,

+
¥

•+1:- __ _

deg

o++
90 _'__----

+:_:
08 --

.1 ---

._

--%
I
1000 2000

.oz
10

I
20

_ I ,1,1,1
40 60 100 Dimensionless

I
200

, 1,1,1,!
400 (x 600 xs#gs

, I
4000

distance,

FIGURE

ll-13.--Film-cooling

effectiveness

for

slots.

slot,

to zero, of the is with

far

downstream. for by air and As angle. expressions well: film the the The

Figure injection

11-13 from

gives slots

experimental as determined from mass-flux indicated to the

values by the ratio injection slot F and with slot a

of film number (x--x_) between angle

effectiveness is normalized film respect

investigators.

distance slot hot-gas width

downstream s and the The stream.

to the

surface seen, the

(0 ° is parallel film ref. effectiveness

surface,

90 ° is perpendicular). increasing The film 334 cooling injection following reasonably

decreases turbine-blade

(from

7) correlate

TURBINE

OOOLIN(_ O.

_I'z'_=exp

I k

-0. 2

_s

--2.9

k,p-_2]

\p_u_s/

for small

values

of (z--z,),

and

(11-57)

for large edge Values

values slot,

of (z--x,), in meters angle, as

where or feet, C and and the G=

z8 is the measured exponent 1.95

location from

of the

downstream point. and n----0.21

of the

the stagnation

for the coefficient

n are C----2.7

for a 30 ° injection angle. Film distances ref. small effectiveness from the

and n----0.155 of the

for a 15 ° injection and 11-14 of holes. case, lateral (from For film

a function hole a single

downstream in figure a row

injection from with

is presented hole 1 hole

8) for film lateral

cooling distances,

and from diameter distance,

up to about downstream

in this as previously

effectiveness

decreases

shown

• 50 --

Dimensionless lateral distance from injection hole, hole diameters

.40--

o °
A

o

.50

1.00

"_ E

30i_ xji_ ' "-_.,-'="_ " _ ."__

Plain s,,ymbols denote single hole at 35v injection angle Tailed symbolsdenote single row

u:.

20--

,

_

of holes

I
O

l

I

I

I

i

I

I

]
9O

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole, hole diameters l l-14.--Film-cooling effectiveness as function of dimensionless ratio, m/sec

FIGURE

down-

stream and lateral distances from injection holes. Mass-flux hole diameter, 1.18 cm or 0.464 in.; gas velocity, 30.5 Reynolds number, 0.22X 10 s.

0.5; injectionor 100 ft]sec;

335

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPI.,ICJ_TION

for slots,

and

the

same

values

are

obtained

for single

holes

as for a row

of holes. For larger lateral with downstream distance flow, hole that and because gases Very the values of the unity limited for the interaction at the

distances, as a result row of flows injection film jet are available the

effectiveness initially increases of the spreading of the injected are larger adjacent This the for jet than holes. separates row for the Notice from single also the with holes from angle than angle persist effective wall into convection is 2 hole of as a in from hole. as

of holes

_mm is not

is due

to entrainment of film-

of hot surface.

underneath data

a staggered

cooling holes. Frequently, the slot data are used for this case, an effective slot width s defined such that the total area of the equals Figure single the hole direction the area 11-15 of the (from slot. ref. main very lateral 8) shows gas local stream, film coverage, the spreading For the but wall mass of a film layer a 35 ° injection less does not most the A the film compound angles of injection.

at various of the giving more

film spreads

diameters,

coverage.

injection gives far downstream. Transpiration methods the boundary

cooling layer,

of a porous With film as the serves into to the

is one transfer with

of the from

of cooling

available. it combines

cooling

efficient

cooling. The porous wall where the heat conducted continuously through the this method extremely tion or standpoint, stream In cooling from surface. order transferred small pores. of cooling

a very effective heat exchanger, wall from the hot gas stream in counter flow as it passes

coolant

However, to turbine are air. since

there are problems blades. The pores subject Also, the film yet cooling, spectrum

in applying tend to be

small and, contaminants a penalty essentially to alleviate advantages In number type

therefore, in the is paid, these to the

to blockage due to oxidafrom an aerodynamic-loss air is injected still cooling, the obtain cooling into some air holes pure the of gas the film issues in the trans-

normal

boundary. full-coverage

problems film lies in the

characteristic is used. a large This

of transpiration of small, closely-spaced,

full-coverage of cooling

discrete between

piration cooling on flux over the surface, amount through of heat the wall

the one end, and localized by on the

with essentially film cooling on to tile of the tortuosity

a continuous mass the other end. The cooling internal air flowing pasflow

transferred depends

convection

sages. The wall may with a low resultant maze of interconnected effectiveness. Convection exchanger 336 theory and

be constructed of simple, convection effectiveness, flow passages, v_o,v is with a

straight-through holes, or it may consist of a high convection from wall heat-

a relatively term ability borrowed of the

effectiveness

is a measure

of the

(or blade

TURBINE

O00LING

Fi Im-cooling effectiveness, "r/film -2 -_
E

tO. 10
/

0--@
\ \

2

--

.25

_. 20

_. 15

o r-

I
6

1

'

I
(a)

1

I

I

d
r-

.g- -2 -.E
E

0 -/

r.

lO

•30-I g
X13

L. 25

4 -6

L.20

L. 15

--

I

I

I
tb)

I

I

I

u_

_
"_,

-2 --

r.

25

E

2 4 -6

_
\ '--.30

,-- .20

I
0 5

1
10

I
15

I
20

I
25

I
30

Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole, hole diameters (c} (a) Injection (b) Injection (c) Injection FIGURE ll-15.--Lines angle, angle, angle, 35°; lateral 90°; lateral 90°; lateral injection, injection, injection, 90 °. 35% 15 °. for single-hole

of constant film-cooling injection. Mass-flux ratio,

effectiveness 0.5.

acting as a heat exchanger) convection.

to transfer
f !

heat to the cooling

air by

T c.o--T c.,.

(11-58)

Since an optimum design utilizes as much of the heat sink available in the cooling air as possible for convection cooling, ,7_o,, values approaching the limit of 1 are desirable. However, the convection
337

TURBINE I)E,SIGN AND
effectiveness available. Consider turbine on (see wall, the ref. blade solid 9). a is usually

APPLICATION

limited

by model

the the of

cooling-air drop porous balance flow for the

supply through or can through local

pressure the wall. perforated be written the metal wall temin the

As Vco,v increases, one-dimensional wall metal The in figure matrix resulting the wall,

so does

pressure

11-16. and on the and differential Tw,

An

energy equations

cooling-air local coolant

perature

through T'c, are

temperature

d3Tw hv d2T,_ dy 3 _ Go% dy _ and T'_=Tw

' hv dTw kw.e dy

0

(11-59)

kw'ed_T'_ hr. dy 2

(11-60)

where effective thermal conductivity heat-transfer of the porous wall, W/(m W/(m)(K) 3) (K) ; Btu/ ;

hv

Btu/(hr) (ft) (°R) internal volumetric (hr) (ft 3) (°R)

coefficient,

The

boundary

conditions

are e dTw @-_=o (11-61)

h_(Tw.,--T'e,_.)=kw,
and

G_cp(T_ In this case, as seen of surface area. An the overall flux energy to the q=Gccp(T' Typical 1,1-16. wall They and are coolant both from

'

,--T"

'

_,)=kw 11-16,

e dTw " dy _=o G_ is the mass flux

(11-62) per unit

figure

ba]ance wall,

gives,

as a third

boundary

condition

for

heat

o-- T_,_.)=Gc%_co._,(Tw,o-temperature with profiles opposite of the

T:,_.) are signs shown in of the the in

(11-63) figure second coolant

nonlinear

derivative, and matrix The side heat

which is a consequence heat transfer. flux to the wall can

interaction in terms

also be written

of a hot-gas-

heat-transfer

coefficient: q=h,,_( Tz,e-the Tw.o) heat flux expression (11-64) with local

This 338

is somewhat

different

from

TUR,BINE

OODLIN(_

Tw,o

1 "1

C,O ]w,J

Gc

q

T__J
c, in

Tc, i

\

'\.,

_

ay--_t

hvA .,Xy(T - Tc) '_ w

\

\ \ '_

dl-w d ClTw_A kw,eA dy + dy (k w, eA -_-y) y Typical element FmuRE 11-16.--Porous-wall temperature profile model.

film duced" than
hg,Z"

cooling the

in

that

the

acual and local gives

recovery ht._ the due

gas

temperature are heat-transfer model if the pressure of

and used

a "rerather

heat-transfer film temperature with incidentally we can

coefficient

to blowing

solid-blade

coefficient the blade is

Consistent wall, not which too large,

the

one-dimensional good results

gradient

write F ht_ Stt_ _:;--_=eF/__ Str_ 1J of convection Fis mass the ratio flux: (11-66) . (11-65) effectiveness of the coolant

where mass

the flux

correction in figure (surface

factor] 11-17 (from averaged)

is a function ref. to the 10), and hot-zas

as shown

F -(pu)_

(pu)

339

TURBINE

I_E_IGN

AND

APPLICATION

Convection effectiveness, 1. E 11cony 0.9

J
o
f J

J

• 7j

f

J

J

o

k_

.7

.6 0 1 Blowing 2 parameter, FtStcj ' 3 4

FIGURE

l l-17.--Correction

to

equation

(11-65)

for

wall

convection

effectiveness.

SIMILARITY It actual size than at is often engine prototype the the actual test of of economic turbine environment. heat-transfer hardware application. blade this will a cooled conditions To answer and at necessity components Generally, aerodynamic lower This behave gas practice to at evaluate conditions initial tests performance temperatures raises meeting similarly the various a under similarity design valid the heat-transfer than conducted with and actualpressures question specifications actual to engine turbine engine perblade parameters as the are

performance to evaluate

other

to whether co_lditions. which are formance are discussed. The number engine 340 Mach and

configuration question,

important in relating test performance of an actual-size film-convection-cooled number test distribution around conditions. the and vane Similarity momentum-thickness must in be these the two

Reynolds same between is parameters

distribution

TUITBINE

O00LIN_]

essential coefficient transition Let tion flow to engine does must

to

ensure and

the

same wall to

relative turbulent that the two cases. the

distributions and and the boundary local Mach the

of layer.

heat-transfer point of

adiabatic laminar (t) refer To same

temperature conditions

same

from superscript

to test ensure

superscript number equivalent

(e) refer distribumass

conditions. not change be the

between in both

conditions, Therefore,

w(.,,
wy'--p'_ where for the F is an approximate variation of specific

p;,.

/(RT')_,r(.
ry'

,,
(11-67) (2-128) given and by (2-129))

'e' _(-R-_)g(" (from

correction heat
/

eqs.

with
_

temperature

\(_+t)/2(_-t)

F-- _f_ _--_) Since remain the local momentum-thickness between (t) and (e) Reynolds conditions, number

(11-68) must also

unchanged

#

/z

o;,,.:.,
film effectiveness the to and the is to

/(,r.);.,r,,,
s

__

(p_),',-o;., .;') _"- ,".;',p';"
\--_/z

_,.,-1
unchanged mass-flux ratio cases.

(11-69)
between ratio

If engine

the

local and , test the ratio

remain to

conditions, coolant 0Jo_),

coolant

hot-gas

(ou)J(Cu)z (or density hole-diameter size

hot-gas be the then

momentum same in both

(pu_)¢/(pu_)= Since actual-

momentum-thickness

to film-ejection-

ratio

OJD must

hardware

is presumed,

-(_)(,, and equation (11-69) becomes o;,,

--1

(11-70)

_':' _","___,,"'-'"'e_ I(_T_)',', r;"
#g(t) w_" Equation with pressure number Parametric for air. the (11-71) viscosity and and Mach curves shows and number of ,(,,p,(,, that gives _/(R-_)z(,, the the gas will (11-71) flow Fg(,,--1 rate must relation the and shown engine in vary same (11-71) directly gas Reynolds conditions. figure 11-18

functional provide for test are

between

temperature

which distributions equation

341

TURBINE

I_E_IGN

AND

APPIAC_TION

4O

E

30

_ leD

20

a_

i0

0 250

J
500 150 1000 1250 1500
i

1750

2000

2250

25OO

Temperature, K Tq,

I
0

I
500

I
1000

I
1500

I
2000

1

I
3000

I
3500

I

2500 , oF Temperature, lg,

FIGURE thickness

ll-18.--Similarity Reynolds number

curves of distributions

constant around

Mach number a turbine vane

and momentumfor air properties.

The

cooling-air

flow mass-flux

rate ratio

and and

temperature momentum

are ratio.

then

set

by

the

coolant-to-gas

Requiring (11-72)

(7 ,J - L(--#u-),j
implies

(11-73)
Wg/

and

it is necessary

that

to ensure Neglecting in the

equality direction

of test normal

and to

engine plane wall, the

momentum of the the film temperature

ratios, wall ejection by

since

pc.o=p_. to that

conduction to the

in the supply

compared

temperature

T_,o is related

coolant

(He, o--He, (Hc.o--H_, where (11-71)). hot-gas-side 342 the viscosity Satisfying heat-transfer ratio here

,,)(t>_q(,) _,(_) ,n) (_) q(C) u_" the to mass (11-75) flow around ratio the

(11-75) (see that vane eq. the will

represents (11-71)

equations

ensures

coefficient

distribution

TURBINE

C_OLING

have the same shape for both test transfer coefficient in dimensionless St(,'):St(, Since similarity number equation On Nusselt the the Prandtl conditions ratio from (11-76). coolant number side, form the is given number discussed unity cannot are depends

and engine conditions. Stanton number form *) {'Pr(')Y/a be met, on set the the independently departure Prandtl coefficient number in

The is

heat-

(11-76) if all of the other in

Stanton ratio

heat-transfer by (*'

dimensionless

Nuc (') =Nuc
where m is the power on the tion. The viscosity coolant Reynolds factor cannot be set factor number

/ _'* _'*' °_ number (11-77) with the although its for coolant-side is the Prandtl departure

(11-77) convec-

Reynolds in equation ratio. As

test-to-engine number, this from range unity tg to (')

independently,

is small. In fact, if the viscosity t ct)¢.oould be approximated c by

over the full temperature a power law cc t_

(11-78) coolant and Reynolds to ensure for outer engine coolant Tf._. during Reynolds the the the ejection for same two a test wall includes supply Hence, the number number temactual

then, ratio and drop If in the which most

by equation (based simulated through the cooled remains convenient engine, on would the there

(11-74), the be 1. The

the

test-to-engine bole diameter coolant

film-cooling same cooling be some between

perature)

conditions internal must blade invariant which are

is important the test namely

pressure conditions. as it does The those dimen-

air passages same and the normalized temperature

is to perform

temperature only

conditions.

dimensionless known,

wall

temperatures

tempera-

ture T_, _, and the effective gas temperature sionless wall temperature _, defined as T_.,--T_.o or some used actual scaled and because Strict similar equality hardware, properly pressure. the It grouping of the since because is easier greater driving of these cooling and lower the for at high the three engine heat blade convection temperature

(11-79) temperatures, of a given is, however, drop flux through at reduced reduced and cooling is commonly blade the wall design. with is not impossible

as a measure

performance

in _ for test of the potential than

temperature to cool

temperature conditions, (T_._--T/) pressure. How343 is

at the

proportionately

TURBINE

I)E,SIGN

AND

APPI.JCATION

ever, and cases. An (11-71)

for

properly

scaled within of

test the

conditions, range states

the

difference

between

_(t)

_(e) is well example to

of experimental generated is given by in table a given air, what of the air. Since the

accuracy solving 11-II fuel-air it would total heat environment.

in most equations for a highAir ratio be in gas. wall the to a is be

similarity simultaneously rather using 1 percent

(11-77) were used

pressure, properties For a test temperature

high-temperature condition _(_) is

gas-turbine-engine than ambient higher those for than cooling

dimensionless

actual engine. Radiation can blade not under directly

be a significant

component and with

flux and cannot

high-temperature affected simulated it must (11-75).

high-pressure

conditions radiation and heat-flux

by film cooling

conveniently test conditions, in equation

at the low-temperature be accounted for in the

low-pressure ratio q(')/q(e)

TABLE

ll--II.--SIMILARITY (a) Takeoff condition

STATES

Gas total

temperature

Gas total pressure, atm.

Coolant

temperature

K

oF

_2200 367 478 589 700 758 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144

_3500 200 400 600 800 905 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400

' 33. 7 4.3 6.0 7.7 9.4 10. 3 11.1 12. 9 14.6 16.4 18. 2 19. 9 21.7 23. 5 25. 3 27. 1 28. 9 30. 9 32. 8

145
188 23O 273 294 315 357 399 442 485 528 571 613 656 699 743 786 828

--199 --122 --45 31 70 107 182 259 335 413 490 568 644 721 799 878 955 1030

1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 I. 00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

' Reference

condition.

344

TURBINE TABLE 11-II.--Concluded condition

(X_LING

(b) Cruise

Gas K

total

temperature oF

Gas total pressure, arm.

Coolant

temperature ! _( t)/ _o(e) °F

K

12200 367 478 589 700 799 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144

' 3500 2O0 4OO 6OO 8OO 978 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 28OO 3000 3200 3400

'13.8 1.7 2.5 3.2 3.9 4.5 4.6 5.3 6.0 6.7 7.4 8.2 8.9 9.6 10.4 11.1 11.8 12.7 13.4

1801 139 180 220 259 294 299 338 378 417 458 498 539 579 619 660 702 743 782 !

1983 --209 -- 136 --64 7 70 78 148 220 291 364 437 510 582 655 729 804 878 948 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1. O0 1. O0

! ,

!

I Reference

condition.

REFERENCES
1. EsQAB, JACK B.:
COLLADAY, RAYMOND S.;

KAUFMAN,

ALBERT:

An Analysis

2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

of the Capabilities and Limitations of Turbine Air Cooling Methods. NASA TN D-5992, 1970. KAYS, W. M.: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1966. KESTIN, J.: The Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence on Heat Transfer Rates. Advances in Heat Transfer. Vol. 3. T. F. Irvine, Jr.; and J.P. Hartnett, cds., Academic Press, 1966, pp. 1-32. AMBRpK, G. S. : Approximate Solution of Equations for the Thermal Boundary Layer With Variations in Boundary Layer Structure. Soviet Phys.-Tech. Phys., vol. 2, no. 9, 1957, pp. 1979-1986. SPALDING, D. B.; AND PATANKAR, S. V.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers. Chemical Rubber Co., 1968. KERCHFR, D. M.; AND TABAKOFF, W. : Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Effect Air Jets of Spent Impinging Perpendicular Air. J. Eng. Power, vol. to a Flat Surface Including the 92, no. 1, Jan. 1970, pp. 73-82. 345

TURBINE 7.

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

ARTT, D. W.; BROWN, A.; AND MILLER, P. P.: An Experimental Investigation Into Film Cooling With Particular Application to Cooled Turbine Blades. Heat Transfer 1970. Vol. 2. Ulrich Grigull and Erich Hahne, eds.,

Elsevier Publ. Co., 1970, pp. FC1. 7.1-FC1. 7.10. 8. GOLDSTEIN, R. J.; ECKERT, E. R. G.; ERIKSEN, V. L.; AND RAMSEY, J. W.: Film Cooling Following Injection Through Inclined Circular Tubes. Rep. HTL-TR-91, Minnesota Univ. (NASA CR-72612), Nov. 1969. 9. COLLADAY, RAYMOND S. ; AND STEPKA, FRANCIS S. : Examination of Boundary Conditions for Heat Transfer Through a Porous Wall. NASA TN D-6405, 1971. 10. L'ECUYER, MEL R.; AND COLLADAY, RAYMOND S. : Influence of Porous-Wall Thermal Effectiveness on Turbulent-Boundary-Layer Heat Transfer. NASA TN D-6837, 1972.

346

TURBINE

CODLING

SYMBOLS A surface area of one flow factor, in eqs. component in eqs. in eqs. coefficient., heat in eqs. hole, (11-8) eq. side eq. (11-49) (11-49) and (11-26) pressure, and circle, J/(kg)(K) (11-50) impingement hole, or film; Btu/(lb)(°R) of volume m2; ft z (11-31) to (11-51) N/kg; lbf/lbm to (11-51) (11-57) element, m2; ft 2

coolant-passage
g al, cto, aa

area,

augmentation coefficients body-force coefficients constants friction specific
C2

B_ bl, b2, b3 C

in x direction,

Cp el,

at constant (11-49)

coefficients diameter injection

D

of leading-edge m ; ft

d F

dissipation term distance between ratio mass total internal Btu/(hr) static term of coolant factor kg/(see) flux, correction conversion heat-transfer

in eq. (11-42), W/m3 ; Btu/(ft 3) (see) volume elements (see fig. 11-10), m ; ft mass used flux to hot-gas (ft 2) (lbm) (ft)/lbf) (see 2) (ft 2) (°R) W/(m3)(K); mass flux in eq. (11-65) 1 ; 32.17 Btu/lb W/(m heat-transfer ; Btu/lb 1 ; 778 energy, characteristic m; ft in eqs. in eqs. lb/ft" term, W/ma; Btu/(sec)(ft a) Btu/(hr)(fC) (K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) (11-8), (ll-S), (11-45), (11-45), and (ll-4S) and (11-57) (ft) (lb)/Btu sec/hr Btu/lb (K) ; Btu/(hr) length, m; ft (ft) (°R) J/kg; 2) (K) ; Btu/(hr) coefficien't,

.[
G g H h hv /; I J K

(m _) ; lb/(hr)

constant, J/kg;

enthalpy,

coefficient, volumetric fit s) (°R) J/kg by eq. (11-41) constant, constant, kinetic (:onductivity,

enthalpy, defined

conversion dimensional turbulent thermal

1 ; 3600 W/(m)

,W
k I M

eo()l'mt-passage wall thickness, Xlach number exponents Nusselt exponents Prandtl P pressure, heat gas flux, constant, used number used number N/me; W/m_;

(11-56),

(2
q 1l Re
r

heat-generation

J/(kg) number

Reynolds recovery Stanton

factor, number

eq.

(11-27)

St

347

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

8

slot gas

width, static

m;

ft K; °R K; velocity ft/sec m3; ft 3 velocity ft/see to the in direction normal to surface °R in direction along surface (zgas

T t
%

temperature, component direction), volume of

temperature, m/sec; of gas

of jth element, m/sec;

V

component (y-direction),

'tO

component mass flow boundary distance the

of gas velocity in direction perpendicular rate, kg/sec; lb/sec layer plane (x-y plane), m/sec; ft/sec along surface of flow, from m; ft to surface, holes m; ft and blade inner leading between edge, m; ft distance distance between normal impingement m2/sec; ratio ft2/sec factor, eq. pressure (11-68) to specific impingement

X Xn

center-to-center direction coordinate distance m; ft heat diffusivity, heat

holes

in

Y
Zn

wall,

F

specific

correction

ratio of specific heat constant volume ,h enthalpy ratio cooling viscosity, momentum transfer
7/

at constant m; ft coefficient without m ; ft lb/(ft) (sec) (kinematic lb/ft _ leading-edge

heat

at

thickness, of heat transfer coefficient effectiveness thickness,

with

film

cooling

to heat

film cooling

0
tt
l,t

momentum

(N) (see)/m2; diffusivity

viscosity),

m2/sec;

ft2/,_ec

P
T

density, kg/m3; lb/ft 3 local shear stress, N/mS; angular coefficients term defined exponent distance in eq. from wall by eq. dimensionless

stagnation

point,

deg

temperature (11-48) (11-52)

in eq. (11-78)

Subscripts:
a

adiabatic constant coolant
CFOSSflOW

CP
C

property

COlbY

convection critical, referring to transition from laminar to turbulent flow

crit 348

TURBINE

C'(YOLING

])
e

with fihn

hole

(li'uneter

as characteristic

dimension

effective hot gas hole inner impingement inlet jth clement laminar with_._, leading outer reference downstream stagnation turbulent transpiration wall local with with with value charttcteristic x as A as characteristic 0 as characteristic leading edge edge of slot a,s characteristic edge length at free-stream condition

film
g

h i
imp in

J
L

J
le
0

re]
8

stag T t
W X

length length length

A 8
oO

apl)roaching ril)ts" engine test, ] total

Sul)ersc, (e) (t) ,

condition ('mid ition stale (referring component to T anti (referring p) to p, v,/, u, and w)

/ flu(:tuating

349

CHAPTER 12

Experimental Determination of Aerodynamic Performance
ByEdward M.SzancandHarold. Schum a J
The theoretical deal aerodynamically, the etc.) entire turbine on built, goals preceding aspects chapters relating has the blading have to been been turbines directed is the (rotor concerned and toward turbine. disks, turbine turbine Associated shafting, criteria. whether by testing with primarily design. blading, hai'dware the

A great since, for

of consideration

assembly the basis

bearings, Once the

casings turbine the aerocan

is designed and design

of mechanical be determined met. Only

is designed dynamic this In of the The ments, obtained indirectly measurements. In

it must have

or not the

been

turbine

be determined. addition separate stator as loss to the overall performance to the readily 7 (vol. of a turbine, overall from 2). loss a breakdown is often desired. measurecannot obtained be

losses can

contributing be in obtained chapter

experimental Rotor losses usually

discussed easily from from the

direct stator

measurements; loss and

they the

are

overall

performance

developing which nature the desired

a

test

facility

and parameters

program,

the

researcher

must

determine ing. obtain the The

performance of the stator test

he is interested instrumentation performance vary with

in evaluatnecessary to and

facility,

the

and/or these

overall

parameters, turbine

manner

in which are the

parameters of this chapter.

operating

conditions

subject

351

PAGE _-_--'_

INTENTIONALLY 8LAtIK

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

TEST The herein. These and bine. sures, measured calculated manner The

FACILITY stator in chapter

AND

MEASUREMENTS is expressed 2) and to specific for the to will define work, performance inlet Specific and work ranges not and be and turbine of rotative of the exit efficiency) computed discussed overall efficiency. speed turpresare is then

in which in detail parameters are mass ratio

performance 7 (vol. used torque, define rotative (needed test

is discussed performance pressure The and

generally flow rate,

parameters mass inlet directly from

are usually in order rate, in the the temperature flow

determined to fully

torque, turbine

speed,

determine

facility.

equation Ah'-_K rN -dw (12-1)

where ,_h' K F N J w turbine conversion torque, rotative conversion mass flow N-m; speed, rate, specific work, lb-ft rad/sec; kg/sec; rev/min 1; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu lb/sec by the ideal temperature by equation is always ideal work, all is all efficiency where efficiency where on a pressure of outlet the axial as constant, J/kg; 1; _/30 Btu/lb (rad)(min)/(rev)(sec)

constant,

Efficiency work. Ideal and (2-48b) the total however, is based of the based of the on outlet the or

is obtained by dividing the actual work hh' work is a function of the turbine inlet total ratio The on the is total static across outlet particular pressure useful pressure is lost. recovery or and the 2 (vol. pressure and turbine, 1). The used is most is most efficiency the axial efficiency recoverable. as inlet to desired. Static meaningful is based shown pressure define (2-49b) pressure. of chapter

pressure

depends on outlet outlet outlet

Total

meaningful

velocity velocity to the

Rating of only

corresponding velocity component commonly discussed In the will this types and,

component where only

accordingly, outlet as are

is most velocity the total 1).

meaningful is useful. and static Rating

of the used

efficiency

is not which

efficiencies,

were

in chapter section, of devices

2 (vol.

a representative generally Data chapter. gages data with used

test

facility the

will

be described, measurements will not reading

and

to make and can

required systems

be discussed. in this and electroaic

acquisition These

reduction vary from

be of

discussed manometers automatic 352

visual to computer

slide-rule

computations with on-line

completely process-

acquisition

EXPERI1VIENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

ing. A general discussion of data measurement, acquisition, mission, and recording systems can be found in texts such erence 1. Description of Test Facility

transas ref-

A turbine test facility consists of the research turbine, a gas supply, an exhaust system, associated piping with control valves, a power absorber, and the instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. A schematic diagram of a turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center is shown in figure 12-1. This facility, a photograph of which is shown in figure 12-2, is used to test single-stage or multistage turbines of about 76 centimeters (30 in.) in diameter. It is generally representative of most turbine test facilities and is used here as an example for this discussion. In such a facility, removal of the turbine rotor gives the room necessary to place survey instrumentation behind the stator and, thereby, transforms the rotating rig into a stator annular cascade. Most turbine component testing is conducted with temperature or slightly heated. This is commonly air at ambient called cold-air

Burst-disc Laboratory air system Venturi safety valve -. Sonic valve •

Vent to roof ", ,_i_

acilit valve

isolation

Isolation,' valves • _ /kl
I-

Gas supply .fExpansion Main exhaust control valve -, joint _ "-_
/

L

LBurner_j_,,,

....

--I

Bypass control valve -, -= Main control."@

valve

valve @ _,- Facility f isolation Laboratory system exhaust

FIGURE

12-1.--Flow

schematic

of a turbine

test

facility.

353

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

ductim

:FIGURE

12-2.--Turbine

test

facility.

testing. values N/cm was flow cation diagrams of the number smaller turbine number.

Performance based 2 or on 14.696 and power thereby are actual on similar turbine. however, turbine where pressure psia)

parameters standard and

are

reported conditions (288.2 standard Yet, the

in terms of

of equivalent (10.133 This conditions in lower applivelocity as those present For a

sea-level temperature 2 (vol. near would the the

pressure test results actual same can turbine the effect in an

K or 518.7 ° R). values model are this to then, be

discussed and and

in chapter temperature levels

1). Using the

turbine-inlet

of pressure

than to and Only for

be encountered Mach numbers number, turbines, was number found effects obtain

facilitates

testing. Reynolds larger

dissimilarity;

of Reynolds

performance Reynolds can be

negligible. important,

turbines, inlet

are more the proper

varied

to

Reynolds

Referring N/cm2-gage venturi (16-in.) 354 meter

to figure (40-psig)

12-1, air

air for the system in a straight of

turbine the

is supplied laboratory. of the the A

by the

27.6-

ca}ibrated

is located line for

section

40.6-centimeter air flow. This

air-supply

the

purpose

of metering

EX_PERIME,NTAL

DF_TERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

piping exceed device upstream required

is sized 61 meters in the for

(as was per and high-pressure

all piping) second may of (200 supply minimize flows.

such ft/sec). line

that

the

air

velocities of the

will

not

Location affords number

air-metering constant devices air-metering controllable valve pro-

a relatively of metering of valve sonic and

pressure

the

a range

A further

discussion

devices is presented in a subsequent Downstream of the venturi meter by vides the turbine a high operator. drop

section. is an isolation (12-in.)

A 30.5-centimeter to facilitate burner

pressure

operation

automatic line provide is the 50.8the desired 76.2 air lines to cm then entry can the control

inlet-pressure protection centimeter turbine-inlet (30 valve diverts of lower be seen After altitude (48-in.) control pressure in.)

control. A burst-disc from excessive pressure. (20-in.) pressure main control (for the The of the

safety valve and vent Further downstream valve example used to establish this (6-in.) pressure. lines to provide (These plenum. air through turbine the is turbine,

was bypass The

of Hg into two

absolute). fine control air

15.2-centimeter turbine-inlet (20-in.) turbine turbine, laboratory and a the while entry the

permits velocity passing exhaust main valve. ratio

50.8-centimeter to the the of the valve valves

dual

in fig. 12-2.) through system control These acrossthe discharged (16-in.) operator turbine-inlet a 121.9-centimeter bypass the is to vary pressure

40.6-centimeter

permit turbine

maintained constant by automatic control. This type of pressureratio control has been most successful with small turbines. With large large its use inlet In this turbines, pipe however, between The a single with to the air. The the has per burners simple products performance are and generally complexity and both burner (300 ° F). general, using are gasoline, to the where jet means air, fuel, and flow or natural the must are these rates gas provide inexpensive added used calculations. only of large of heating air. However, be accounted provide low, because clean of natural burner desired amount the second purpose there the is shown avoid gas, and is a slower and fig. 12-1) burner jet-engine Some air air from heated inlet (in of the icing response the inlet because control the can, mixed fuel of the volume installation turbine valve. because turbineexit. air is with flow. air the by This of to flow modified

A burner

in phantom, at burner the turbine

is optional. temperature facility

is to elevate

so as to

problems of the

commercial is used. the

for operation bypassed remaining controlling particular 23.6 422 In K

high-pressure is maintained the

is then and ambient

turbine capability (52

temperature

of bypassed lb/sec)

to heat

a maximum

kilograms

temperature

a relatively combustion for heat, the in cost the but

Electrical installations.

heaters

355

TURBINE

DEISIGN

AND

A.PPLICATION

All turbines The following be guarded (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Low Low High High Low High High High High

and are against supply pressures

test some by

facilities of the constant

must potentially

be designed unsafe

with

safety

features. that must

conditions

monitoring: and dynamometer and dynamometer outlet water inlet gas gas rotor and casing gas exit gas of turbine inlet exit supply lubricating ]ubricating water oil oil

of turbine of turbine

temperature temperature pressure temperature (or low) pressure pressure

in bearings of dynamometer of dynamometer of turbine temperature of turbine of turbine rotor

Overspeed Reduced Excessive Excessive on Some Others line air

of turbine

clearance between rig vibration shaft some monitors provide orbit of the provide a signal heater

Interlocks starting. operation. inlet rotor rotation

monitoring for only gas to rapidly damage Turbine of the

systems an system. to the audible shut

prevent alarm valves quickly and the This turbine

turbine during in the stops facility.

as well in order

as in the to prevent

Research A schematic diagram of one

research

turbines view also sides;

used

in

this test As

test facility is presented in figure 12-3. section with instrumentation stations stated was velocity upstream circumferential has an of 2 dynamic A short, inlet inlet blade low, entering section measuring chords the the insertion blading. annular to 12-3). fig. flow measure passage the is also are turbine-inlet previously, designed and of with the air enters volume section distribution pressure a plenum distortion. to as much

An enlarged indicated is from two to provide A screen ensure giving turbine area,

of the shown. the

plenum located screen drop

as feasible further

for minimum a symmetrical This a pressure

minimum a converging pressure heads.

is shown blades.

to the effective

approximate

50 percent

straight, and pressure

annular the station first and

passage row (station

is provided for

between the purpose

the

converging of installing The 1/_ is flow

of blades 0 of fig. stator does

temperature blades. not

measurement 12-3) Since is located the

devices. about velocity the inlet disturb

upstream

of the

of probes

significantly

A straight, turbine station 356 blades 2,

provided air made

downstream state about

of the

turbine-outlet

(measuring 2 blade-chord

Measurements

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC f Station 0

PERFORMANCE

I
I

1

2 ]

1
I

Stator blade-tPlenum

'LJ :" Rotor blade

]'0 dynamometer

i

\
i

i! \

_

i_\ ¸,

\
[ -

CD-11683-11 FIGURe: 12-3.--Schematic diagram of turbine test section.

]engths bilize(1 Both idealized The tail axial before tremely flow

downstream and uniform the as has vary. aml passages after inlet and compared a burner Also, the aml in the

of the outlet to

rotor, sections an

where

the

exit test

air turbine

is relatively are

sta-

of the preceding

somewhat inlet,, and a

actual the sake blading reason

jet-engine the weight last row

turbine turbine s_,ving, the area use state of blades.

installation. Flow-passage minimum conditiolls is exannular

latter cone

immediately following for the

immediately is required.

diameters length

of engine

Accurately this is the turbine.

measuring in varying for the

turbine test

passages

diflicult,

of straight,

Flow-Property The positions flow-property indicated in measuring figure 12-3.

Measurements stations There are are loe,_ted numerous in the types uxia! and

357

TURBINE

DE_TGN

AND

APPLICATION x o • E_ Temperature rake ]-otal-pressure probe Static-pressure tap Angle probe

Measuring stations

0 diagram

1 of turbine

2 instrumentation.

FIGURE 12-4.--Schematic

variations of probes will discuss primarily turbine and outlet, In turbine size mentation probes In small ated and, usually Static 12-4, 90 ° apart, with blockage therefore, limits there the are on flow to obtain angle. as well general, size of the the The all turbine can turbines, could on respect the

available to make the instruments desired stator instrumentation exit, experimental of stages, For flow an values and each the inner require large of the effect size on being measuring whether passages

the desired measurements. We used in the example research of pressure, at the in figure the same the probes turbine 12-4. irrespective overall of research relative with This as This size their data. instruof the associprocess, negligible. of The temperature, inlet and located turbine

measurements is shown

as at the turbine

investigations, duplication turbines, can the various

or number

determines to the have the

be afforded.

be considered expansion

presence

measured. station, taps, walls.

consideration in figure and proIn order multiple individual the obindividual to desurface. is are used installed to

number four

of probes. shown diametrically opposed multiplicity

pressure.--At both on the

static-pressure and

outer

vides a check to minimize taps served are often pressure pressures differ,

the circumferential pressure amount of instrumentation to provide some may not flow be the a single true test, this however, circulation

distribution. and data, reading. average it is often If the of the occurs and

manifolded reading stator a

pressures. As part termine As calculate 358 the explained

of the in blade

performance distribution section, velocities.

desired blade taps

static-pressure subsequent surface

along

the

information

the

Static-pressure

EXPERIMENTAL

D_TERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

along tubes the are major 0.0254 long apart, are probe that The used adjacent

the that blade, hollow

hub, can then blades. and

mean, the For fairly The

and desired the

tip

sections one can taps thus, in

of the blade be

blade.

If among

the by

number the two the size blades

of of

be installed

in any research

is limited discussed, the used small small A taps is

divided being size too

or more no

turbine installing hole diameter. however, shielded

large; in.) flow;

presented approximately is desirable results probes, fig. 12-4) One is about for also some

problem. centimeter

pressure-tap the

(0.010

hole a hole

so as not Inlet

to disturb time. total

in a 90 ° and such 0.48 40 ° .

response

pressure.--Four at the to in.) probe 20 ° . the in figure readings inlet area 12-5(a).

total-pressure station the twice flow that shielding, (see which to yaw is has of passage.

are located is shown (0.19 pressure unshielded for for about

measuring center The and in figure This

all immersed

centimeter

in diameter are relatively shown measurement.

in length,

is such commonly

insensitive 12-5(b) probe

total-pressure

an insensitivity

to yaw

Flow I

I

Flow

ia_ (a) Shielded probe. FZ(_URE 12-5.--Total-pressure (b)

tb_ Unshielded probe.

probes.

The testing sure. used value

turbine-inlet to establish However, to define based on the pressure

total-pressure pressure and distribution maintain ratio when

readings and a constant total-pressure reporting

serve are

as a check used value during total that flow rate, is

on

the presoften is a

circumferential

turbine

turbine-inlet turbine of mass

turbine-inlet

performance

experimental

measurements

static 359

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

pressure, tion, with

and the

total flow

temperature angle

and

obtained

by

the at the

following turbine

equainlet:

a assumed

to be zero

[-i,
where p' P
5'

V &s%jT'"-"
lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 at constant l)ressure to specific 2)

(12-2)

total static

pressure, pressure,

N/m2;
N/mg;

ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion annulus gas total flow constant, angle constant, area, temperature, measured value m2; ft 2 J/(kg)

heat

at

g Aan R T'

1; 32.17

(lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec (°R) (teg pressure than

(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K; °R from axial direction, total value

This more value. are

calculated rel)resentative

of turbine-inlet of the true aver'_ge

is thought is the

to be

experimental

Inlet temperature.---Two located at the turbine rakes, which a number annular and the are readings. where regulation due large to heat research in

thermoeouple rakes, spaced 180 ° apart, inlet measuring station (see fig. 12-4). siinilar to that situated rake at duct readings facilita.tes inlet burner temI)erature is I)rovided Reynolds This as an turbines effects. being some used small of shown ,_1 the shown the center, in figure area the in figure 12-6(a), radii 12-6(a) area-mean turbine. the average in Autopresent not exist but in refburner center

These contain

are of a type of thermocouples areas. wall of The The the the latter

of equal was radius, Provisions of all the fuel operation, matic used

particular temperatures outlet

to determine made

a radial-inflow a.s well as for with for this the

for individual

testing

a constant to the of temperature

is maintained. tmrl)ose. can did number problem example

Measurement a problem for was the

at low

conduction turbine testing

herein,

encountered

as discussed

erence 2. A large amount to the flow in order to conventional exposed good shown 170. wire accuracy in figure This modified thermocouple length at low 12-6(b) probe

of bare thermocouple make the conduction shown in figure The results. of about number. a wire excellent

wire must be exposed error negligible. The 12-6(a) modified has a ratio of for is inadequate thermocouple ratio of about

to diameter Reynolds has gives

12, whictl

length-to-diameter

360

EXPERIMENTAL

DIhTERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

! / / / / / / /

I / / /

Thermocoul)le junction

Therrnocouplejunction

(a) (a) Conventional FIGURE type. 12-6.--Thermocouple

(b) (b) Modified configurations. type.

rake

Stator at the stator survey outlet probe associated

outlet.--During stator probe outlet performance testing,

turbine is the the Although

testing, rotor

the

only

measurement static and also pressure.

made For statorproblems effect of

previously

mentioned is removed, it is desirable

a total-pressure to obtain the the

is installed. and with

radial blockage

circumferential conventional value being

static-pressure wedge probes, measured,

surveys, especially make such

on the

measurements

361

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

FIGURE

12-7.--Total-pressure

survey

probe

installed

in

test

facility.

unreliable. from pressure probe flow The actuator driven probe as the facility. 362 required the

The values probe

required measured used at an that

static at test probe

pressures the hub facility has two

are obtained and tip wall is shown determined sensing the is shown of the circumferential the that same wa_ of stem used

by interpolation taps. to be elements; The 12-7. the outer 12-8. the these totalThis are walls. The The example sensing motoraverage

in the angle the survey for radial

in figure

is fixed angle. Note

previously

to obtain total-pressure provides outer-wall shown previously in this

measurements

at both equipment

inner probe,

and and

in figure

movement for not the does have

saddle figure shown

provides probe regarding

movement. stem configuration in the

(fig. 12-7)

Considerations

effects

blockage,

• EXPERIMENTAL

DI_TERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

r Outer wall saddleassembly

r Actuator
t /

cm 0

LLLLU

5

C-06-2250 FIGURE 12-8.--Total-pressure survey equipment.

element diameter, edge are discussed Although example use for Doppler velocity probes. Turbine shown and flow not herein, directly velocimeter, measurements

and measurement in reference 3. used in the particular velocity as to be made optical measuring such laser

distance facility magnitude in without with total exit.

behind serving have and reference the the use

the

blade

trailing

as the direction. 4,

discussion come allows into the A laser

techniques described

recently

of flow-disturbing of sensing 12-4 shows head that at radius

outlet.--Combination 12-9, capable angle are located at the probes probe

probes, of measuring turbine

type

in figure

pressure, Figure

temperature,

five of these combination measuring station 2. Each of one the tional design, side and of five equal of probes annular number Measurement self-balancing with tubes the center

are distributed circumferentially is located at the area center In general, turbine by total respect between means size

areas.

influences

permissible. angle tube is accomplished The with ranges probe used that to measure of a convenis of the a 3-tube The center two tube probe system. located shown to the

of flow

pressure. total

are symmetrically to a pressure

are exposed

pressure

and the making connected

static pressure. The openings in the side tubes are in planes an angle of 45 ° with the center tube. These side tubes are to the two sides of a diaphragm in a balance capsule. A 363

TURBINE

I)E,SIGN

AND

KPPLIGATI,0N

FIGURE

12-9.--Combination-probe

sensing

head.

differential so that tubes the Exit generally but of than true they equation does if the discrepancies. error an of the

transformer error probe by signal are

in the unequal.

capsule

is actuated when into the the

by

the

diaphragm, in the to side reduce are for and gross use work

is generated the and primary found of exit probe probe

pressures operates flow.

A servo-system total-pressure determirtation values that more total in order values measurement reliable temperature. position wouhl the the

to zero not are used

pointing for the been

total-temperature used It has (12-1) measurement temperature occur over probe, integrated pressure, of equation does direct which from (12-2)

measuremertts of turbine to check of This and have large to be work conditions. specific calculation When the exit of torque specific

efficiency,

to determine provides

is especially variations Even to be of ideal exit flow of exit flow with deterwork, angle total is surveyed

is in a fixed range exit in order is used equation yields passage for for

in flow and mined Exit is usually is small, pressure 364 the

angle results

the the

of operating

a self-balancing accurately. total use than

determined

(12-2). more

reliable When the

values

measurement.

angle

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

large, become ment

the

radial In total

variations this case, (12-2), pressure

in pressure unless the choice is not

and between

angle values

in the can

exit be and

passage obtained measure-

large. of exit

integrated clear-cut. Measurement

for use in equation

calculation

Mass-Flow Flows pend pipe. orifice secondary pressure and on the All the on The are the placed usually pressure in the may device. and and measured differential element pipe through Each the

with

variable-head by such the

meters, as a venturi, fluid has

which in the nozzle,

defluid or The

caused

a constriction

primary element recording

is a restriction which U-tube

is flowing.

be a simple selection

manometer particular particular the same

or an intricate certain advantages depends meter

of these

meters

disadvantages, requirements of these variable

of any of the have

constraints meters of flow:

application. basic equation for

head rate

computation

of the W=

AtMCEY_/2gp.,(p.,--pt)

(12-3)

where A, M C E Y p_n p_. Pt The flow area of meter velocity coefficient expansion at meter pressure pressure factor factor inlet, at meter at meter factor M:1 D, 4 kg/m3; inlet, throat, is 1 (12-4) lb/ft 3 N/m2; N/mS; lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 throat, factor m2; ft _

approach discharge thermal density static static approach

compressibility

velocity

where The actual ferent

D is diameter, discharge flow for rate each

in m or ft. C accounts theoretical meter. flow Although for the difference and good between the diffor caliThe meter at of the

coefficient and type the of

rate

is significantly approximations a direct results. the obtained

dis<.harge coefficients bration of the meter thermal throat expansion area is usually

can be made from published data, should be made to assure accurate factor E accounts from is not for equal the fact that determined measurements to the

room temperature, which usually fluid flowing through the meter.

temperature

365

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

The

compressibility

factor

for nozzles

and

venturi

meters

is

(12-5) The derivation of pJpt_ orifices from the of equation and D#D,, having following (12-5), along with the equation curves value from showing 5. For of Y can 5: reference Y as a most be

function concentric determined

is presented (Ap/p_,)<0.3, empirical

in reference

y --_ l -- [ O.41q- O.3 5 ( _-_--_/. ] ! P2_-_ )' / Ventur4, venturi verging tubes fuser the tube.--Figure tube, section, are object usually section which cast a cylindrical and is made usually 12-10 consists throat have with shows the important entrance and

') features section, section. surfaces. of about of kinetic

(12-6) of a conThe difThe a

of a cylindrical section, machined an included

a diffuser angle

internal recovery

7 ° with energy venturipressure

of accomplishing

a maximum

while minimizing friction loss. The total pressure loss from the tube inlet to exit is from 10 to 20 percent of the differential between in that a long, the inlet and more run the throat. The than venturi other tube head has meters, it is bulky, straight difficult of piping. to construct (particularly

disadvantages so as to provide and requires

reproducibility),

expensive

F low

"v_"

Pressure

taps

FIGURE

12-10.--Venturi

tube.

Flow flow tube with 366

nozzle.--Figure The the flow diffuser is thus

12-11 nozzle lost, section.

shows approaches, The the

the high

shape to some pressure has

of a commonly extent, recovery a pressure the

used venturi obtained of 30

nozzle. without the

venturi

and

nozzle

loss

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION Static-pressure

OF laps ,

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

Flow Din Dl

I

i

J

/// :: ii\\
FIGURE 12-11.--Flow nozzle.

\,\

percent between approach 0.98.

or more, the inlet factor

depending and and the M

on

area

ratio, The

of the flow

differential a nozzle

pressure (product of is about

throat.

coefficient (7) for

discharge

coefficient

Orifice.--The sharp-edged widely used of the various the streamlines on the

orifice (fig. 12-12) head meters. Because side the and of the plate,

is probably the most of the inward flow of the minimum stream

upstream

area occurs downstream from known as the vena contracta, pressure is obtained. than that for a flow 0.65. vena

orifice edge. This minimum area is it is at this area that the minimum loss somewhat for an orifice area an orifice is carefully sharp, and being with of flow the of the greater is about at the which acconaxial in367

The orifice nozzle. The

has a pressure flow coefficient

This low value is due contracta rather than to make, coefficients to specifications, is possible. of the The cylindrical may

to the effective minimum at the orifice itself. in most be a high machine If the edge must must not degree shops, hole be used.

It is possible published cording ditions length

made

of reproducibility exceed 5 percent

upstream portion

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPL]:CATION

L
f low Din Dt

- Static pressure FIGURE 12-12.--Sharp-edged

taps orifice.

side diameter more orifices the orifice

of the pipe. Because which will have the used. Torque

it is possible to construct two or same coefficients when calibrated,

is extensively

Measurement an accurate consideration used by measurement in evaluating to determine Simply, the the where turbine of torque turbine turbine absorption into for heat. the it generally

In

turbine-component by are heat, no the The cradled in turn, useful and turbine devices

tests, mos_ the

produced performance. torque This serves turbine, (1) dynamometer

is of prime

commonly dynamometers. supplied

absorption is dissipated purpose. The as the

converts

energy

to the turbine to be brakes; as brakes;

surroundings, provides controller. in speed discussed (2) and force

dynamometer

a load section In

this is used or

Absorption hydraulic, (3) electric methods other brakes, is shown generally 368 than Hydraulic since used

dynamometers fluid-friction, used generators

this

include brakes; addition, meters water brake coupled

electromagnetic (4) airbrakes. types frequently A typical the The cradle shaft of torque called water is

for measuring absorption the in fluid

dynamometer dynamometers is almost which

and are

are discussed. units always shows water. clearly

dynamometer.--These in figure 12-13,

mounting

dynamometer

installations.

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AE:RODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

Disk

Water in let -_ Shaft bearing\ Packing gland ,, \

/- Water in let ,/ /- Packing gland Shaft / /- bearing

Shaft

Pedestal bearing

Pedestal bearing

FIGVRE

12-13.--Hydraulic

dynamometer.

(Courtesy

of Murray

Iron

Works

Co.)

directly housing friction so that housing housing absorbed Water to the valves depth the cient pacity disk to

to the through on the tends permits may periphery are and of the

test disk.

turbine the to shaft The rotate,

and housing

transmits the limits. A scale is supported

the

developed in the

torque and rotates, arm the

to the fluid the on the power force ring casuch 369 bearings

bearings, _thin it. of the compartment

packing As attached the moment, by

glands, pedestal shaft to an and

it is free

to rotate be computed. the or disk the

with

determination

turning

fed into closed the

is thrown it forms opened

centrifugal As the the water

of the this housing, The the

disk, inlet results and formation

where valves

a ring. further, increased circulated at any

discharge between be suffisince

is increased; brake.

in greater a consequently of water of steam

frictional

resistance should point,

absorption

amount

prevent

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

action level, the increase cube

would the of the

cause speed.

momentary capacity This vice

unloading. of this (i.e.,

With brake

a

constant varies of torque

water almost a_ with and

power-absorbing of speed, and

characteristic versa) and makes with

increase of

is typical them

all fluid-friction particularly in the the

electrical-type for testing Some the can Care outer increase must water

dynamometers nongoverned brakes power in the are This absorption however, vicinity capability periphery. be exercised, engines.

desirable disk near and occur, than is is trans-

provided tends by

through-holes increase erosion that as an order of the is, by Another

to further as much because staging; holes.

friction, of magnitude. disk can to more

particularly

of these is by

way using

increase

power absorption one disk. Eddy.current shown supported mitted rotor bearings. current, ends ing face in the on two the

dynamometer.--The views pedestal of figure bearings

eddy-current 12-14. so that In this any

dynamometer device, torque by the may stator be

by means is mounted The magnetizes of the the being ends tested,

of the torque on the shaft, carries the stator. of the the stator The lines

arm and measured which is supported which, rotor. air gap of force so that are when On the between enter caused as the and

the scale. The in the starer in with are and teeth the direct with opposby the the

starer

a coil, a small lines

energized rotor them the rotor

machined

to produce

rotor

principally through

through device

teeth,

is moved

of force

to sweep

/- Stator I I c_:Q(_-_I
/_ /'//

Water passages-,,
.... 'K ' It

itator Scale

Shaft bearing-_

___ _k_--7-_:_-i'---'_;

OCilile /-Shaft / o

',

L ],

-:--_:

i

,lorquearmI

FIGURE

12-14.--Eddy-current mometer

dynamometer. and Engineering

(Courtesy Co.)

of

Mid-West

Dyna-

370

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AE.RODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

iron stator force

of the

stator.

The

magnetic

attraction

between with the currents

the rotor. therein;

rotor

and

the

causes sweeping

the stator through to cooling

to try to turn the stator induce water flowing in figure does and rotor. any not the commonly water

The lines of this energy in the stator. type, eddyhas in the can capability. frame It can a pump mover unit acts or be be a

is dissipated The because current cylindrical stator connected dc stator used or

tluough 12-14 used.

passages is called

dynamometer the coolant iron-core directly onto in series dynamometer

shown water rotor, the to give dc the power is also

a dry-gap A wet-gap type

contact

the flows power

rotor. The from

wet-gap

passages

Eddy-current required

dynamometers absorption with (testing of a prime the acts

dynaraometer.--A cradled, to measure provides the as well

electric most required as to engine). the removing torque turbine

motor-generator, versatile to drive the When the the measured torque. an researcher dynamometer. a device output unit turbine during For the it is driving,

a compressor) when windage measuring

absorb energy,

(a turbine as a motor; The seal, shaft, torque in order the total losses and driving and and

or a reciprocating capability losses the the may permits by

it is absorbing

as a generator. bearing, driving This the smaller turbine of the tests the frictional turbines, these output,

to determine rotor, of speed.

torque

as a function

is then friction

added losses

to the true

to obtain

represent

appreciable

percentage turbines, torque

turbine power. For are generally small hence, they can often

the larger jet-engine type when compared to the total be neglected. airbrake developed for 12-15. at testing The a rotor dynamometer the view airbrake with the NASA small of the consists either

Airbrake power Center. about mometer valve, an It

dynamometer.hThe that (25 hp)). was is used is shown inlet extensively in figure

is a Lewis

type Research

of than

absorber 19 kW

turbines

(less

A cross-sectional a stator,

airbrake a paddle

dynawheel entry of the stator, to the

of a throttle

collector,

or airfoil type and discharge airbrake which direction momentum power output. straighteners Therefore, The and ment casing axial the in gives of an it

blading, and flow straighteners of the air. After the air enters axial diiection, of air the and, it rotor. thereby, the from iotor rotor, the is accelerated in The the tangential the momentum

to ensure axial inlet collector through removes the research through passes the opposite

a direction rotor air absorbs airbrake to the are the

rotation from and After

tangential turbine flow direction. casing. radial

leaving

is discharged on the in air arm

in an axial torque

torque

is equal

on the for for

is cradled loads.

bearings, is attached

which to

designed casing

A torque

measure-

of torque. 371

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPL£CATION

Thrust Journal Flow tubes_,,I\ air bearings bearings-r-...

air I '

il

-_-

t_-

1,',-I Y_::_._:.._.__--"--?i

straighteners

....

i_:_-

1

x

i

Throttle

valve J

_-z-.-X.Jl Inlet collector -/ /_

,

[ \

stator _ _t_tteor r

i I _.J

. -J

CD-10167-09 FIGURE 12-15.--Airbrake dynamometer.

It for

can each

be noted an outer row. blade small

from and turbine an This

figure inner stator outputs can be in the blade

12-15 blade system at used same row

that row, low where direction inlet

the with is well one

stator adapted blade of rotation

consists

of

two

sections, extremely a stator tangential while case, can the driving the the be a direction

independent For row can

valving to measure example, impart rotor in this This permits force scale. the power indicate remain involved. is not used),

pressures.

configuration momentum other rotor used to capability, of can can torque acting horizontal, remotely be arm vertically, stator is of the absorb opposite

as the momentum rotor. the turbine. For

imparts type or the for

tangential of the Thus, the design. to drive losses.

to the

direction power case seal

of rotation

paddle-wheel turbine the and

aiIbrake

as was of bearing be obtained used are

(It dynamometer, dynamometer by a spring-balance of scales does force reading been and of the that force the have range. these

measurement Measurement

frictional simply the

dynamometer most because very the

force.--The

measurement Such absorber forces relatively The readily and 372 a scale

displacements Because should are

small. torque of the

arm scale the proper

regardless observable

magnitude telescopes

disadvantages available scales

of a spring-balance (low-power not have may

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

Hydrostatic (e.g., with the air) the fluid, it. current load output direct as the fluid the can of operation

devices fluid the held is that being greater be

with have force becomes in test

either been

a liquid used

(e.g.,

mercury) force. greater the fluid. or force with devices The the

or on the This required

a gas fluid, on to fluid

to measure space. pressure of the are The on load

principle force

to be measured the terms facilities with on digital the The than use the that be used. the that applied. and is that and indicated. include interfere torquemeter fiat the on twist reflecting twist of a slit, the

is impressed

in a confined

pressure produce Most strain-gage electrical provide particularly

calibrated turbine cells signal torque

equipped These

calibrated provide an can signal is

to measure which, readings for automatic to cradle

torque. a digital

appropriate voltmeter. data

electronics, This

suitable it is

recording. component as may capability required arise of the for abbox. wherein gear torquemeter, shaft strain power is very are electronic brush the basically surfaces shaft. onto thereupon Photocell of the close tends as a laser for two by successive unbalanced life and consists at each The optical reflection photocells illumrepositions position optical to the to cloud beam, the of both surface gage absorber. nearly equipthe of end. a transmitted encountered measurements. is

Strain-gage testing, conventional the To strain mounted The unique through ment, with this fine turbine which operates are on wire function circumvent sorber, which

torquemeter.--Sometimes, impractical torque rotative would this on the speed necessitate problem, the principle can between property strain brushes, torque voltages parallel unit illuminated gap. the measurement. is higher

in turbomachinery equipment situation the

of an intermediate strain-gage torque and resistance Readings Problems short with the and wire

a high-speed, shaft turbine its

proportional, shaft, the of the type of onto shaft has

A bonded

slip rings, where

to appropriate

torquemeter optical measures surfaces Shaft

occurrence Optical a shaft system from ination separated A stationary with

of induced torquemeter.--An polished optical the of the by on the

of the shaft,

projects each

image

reflecting

a hairline to restore of shaft has must

produces condition.

two photocells.

A servomechanism

the photocells is a measure Experience torquemeter This turbine these may optical torsional may be

tile null-balance twist. that the these

indicated be and/or kept because

reflecting polished surfaces and source, readings. must have

surfaces to are maintain usually

highly

accuracy.

difficult, A higher facilitate the under

bearings surfaces. possibly and twist

gearbox intensity accurate load. Both

bearings light torque

oil mist such The been

design operated

strain-gage

torquemeters systems

provide

adequate in con373

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPL]_CATION

junction types could of be

with used

dynamometers, that turbine for

with are testing.

good

correlation.

There available

are that

other also

torquemeters

commercially

Rotative-Speed One testing to give manent shaft the usually speed. For and called because 1 minute). The the larly sprocket An given currently suited with time and speed proportional the turbine system. greater result control provide electronic for most accepted greater disengaging they yield accuracy should in speed be used. are average the voltage of the is that magnetic speed remote output simplest of rotative field of which of the indicator and indication and most

Measurement accurate The electric Adc Since graduated of speed. measurements tachometer generator, is the in can with driven turbine be used a perby the The

speed.

a continuous

a rotating

armature,

is to be measured. generator is a voltmeter

field is constant, to its to speed. read rotative

is proportional

measurements, A means with These speed a timer. units

a positively is provided are Commercial time

driven units, (usually is through

revolution

counter

for engaging advantageous

it simultaneously an rotative

chronotachometers,

available.

for a given

method or electronic of teeth counts count

of measuring pulse is secured the teeth machines. For

speed this

use of an electromagnetic a given pickup number accurately the

counter. to the

It is particumethod, shaft. for a a turbine speed. when pressure for this, accuracy air supply the air are tends and of

high-rotative-speed

(or impulses)

displays varies varies.

directly during flow rate an increase

as rotative turbine and, tests therefore,

Rotative supply directly to drive there the to

somewhat Since mass

pressure

power

to pressure, faster. It The and

in supply to correct within the

absorber decelerations ideal taking

tends

accelerations accuracy

is, therefore, when

to have data.

a steady

TURBINE The by one performance the characteristics maps. flow The turbine and

PERFORMANCE of turbines Such work ratio. work, the and discussed map are usually map of the on the used and 1). are shown presented shows, operating map for are any in terms nature on

means figure,

of performance of speed of efficiency. conditions conditions

a performance as functions Also and can shown speed The

and flow,

conditions contours inlet of equivalent

pressure so that are

be readily concept 2 (vol.

conditions

of temperature

pressure.

of equivalent 374

in chapter

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

In

brief

review,

the

equivalent

conditions

are

w.q=w

--_ e _h'

(12-7)

ah;q=
and

0

(12-8)

N

Ne,=
where rection the subscript eq refers factors are defined as to the equivalent condition. The

(12-9)
cor-

o=(

V_,,o ) _ \Vc_. ,,a/ _=p,'0 Ps,a

(12-10) (12-11)

and ( e--%'a 2 "_%,_/(,.ta-_) (12-12)

\_-_-t_+ 1/

( 2 y,(,-,,
where the square of the critical V_r= velocity 2----Z-_ gRT' 3,-t-1 standard psia), and sea-level temperature specific heat ratio 12-16. equivalent discussion flow rate on ratio (total the air Vc, is (12-13)

The

subscript (10.133

std molecular

refers N/cm

to _ or

the

conditions (288.2 (1.4). EquivaK

of or

pressure 518.7 ° R), An lent flow spreads follow, variations pressure map. Also,

14.696 (29.0), map against

weight

example specific and the out there ratio

performance work the may is plotted data equivalent be little speed. case)

is presented the speed. as will variation constant are be product This

in figure of the product

mass to With

rotative because, or no and

conveniently

shown in the speed

in the mass pressure are

in rotative in this contours a great

Lines

of constant included can

presented

of efficiency deal a better if some of

for completeness. be obtained turbine a range from performance are sections plotted The are not 375 of speed. the

Although performance can curves be independently of this

information performance ratio in the

map,

understanding of the presented of pressure

of the for

obtained

parameters following

as functions type to be

TURBINE

DESIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Percent of design equivalent speed, N/%/B Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure, pb/@ Efficiency

t
90xlO3 39 37 35 85 80

Design equivalent speedand work output

IO0

105 084.4

_- Y 3.6 / _;- 1 4.0 _-:_-_ 3.4 i-/3. 2

31 70i 29 33

_ q701:?_'_S:_- 5-<-t-7-h937 _5_ _V
--

3. o z.8
7.6

O

25 _' 23 21

6oh
55[
.SO

li

f/

i

-

i

I

_._;c.;-t-'.-i'l
l,'J-5" ._'_7..I.. k Ob / 4 / / ,_..-'T
" / ?1 F;..;]¢..4:-I-_' ,. /"7>. _ i"

z_ --. d-- Yd- -t--A=

2.4

-4
85

2
42.o
/

2.z

"E 19
"_
I..i.I

_'-.. 70;_.--80-U7 -1/40 P x...t[../,c,(-/_2_._-'1.. /'IV-" /I/--1--/7

-

i 1.8

17 15 13 11

u -C,q'-_/- e,- , -7 "i"l
30 2=. 3 ;j-1 I

LI -'>

9 4 5 6 7 8 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed, _wN/6, (kg)iradl/sec 2 7
_8 I 9 I 10 I 11 _ 12 I 13 l 14 _L.... I 15 16 I 17 I 18 i 19 I 20

lOxlO3

___L

211xl 04

Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed, ¢wN/8, (Ibl(rpm)/sec

FIGURE

12-16.--Turbine

performance

map.

for

the

same

turbine

whose certain

map points. Mass

is shown

in figure

12-16.

but

were

selected

to illustrate

Flow turbine for (small pressure a single-stage 12-17 having was stator-throat a small ratio obtained stagger and speed operwith area), and angle a

Variations are ated stator figure 376 shown with 12-18

in mass in figures two was a large different

flow 12-17

rate and stators.

with 12-18

turbine

Figure angle a stator

having

stagger with

obtained

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

(large identical, In rate

stator-throat and the as both figures

area). same it can the rotor be pressure

For was seen

both used. that ratio

cases, for

the

stator speed,

blades the mass

were flow

a given

increases

increases

until

some

maximum

value is reached. increase in mass that either the In figure mum this mass that value indicates flow the rate rotor 12-17,

A further increase flow. The reason for stator or the rotor the has small which flow the stator For is for rate by the

in pressure ratio produces no this maximum in mass flow is choked. stator-throat by the speed, choked In figure of the 12-18, area, rotational the which rotor, the maxispeed; maximum indicates the maxiThis relathe

of mass that

is unaffected is choked. the case rotational

is influenced is choked.

mum mass is the usual tive mum The turbine. 12-17 total flow In would occurrence

flow rate behavior pressure of very with

increases with decreasing and is due to an increase decreasing incidence speed. has turbine, a first-stage been the for flow the choke. speed. losses ]arge causes

rotational speed. in the rotor inlet cases, however, a decrease case of a

with decreasing

In some

in maxisingle-stage in figure of variation

foregoing

discussion

a multistage indicate

variation

shown A flow

stator

32

14.5_

30 31

_

13.5_ 14. 0_

f_

.%_

.... _---__

3

i

_:

_

_spee_

12.o}- /F
E ! _ II. 5-

o
o

4o
60

• 24 _ 23!

._ I0. 5 I, __ t 1.4 i 1.6 I _ i 2.2 o I _ 2.4 II0 I l_i 2.6 2.8 I 3.0 1 3.2 I 3.4 _ 3.6 3.8

l 22 t
21

i0.0!

9.5 ' 1.0 1.2

1.8 2.0

Ratio o1'inlet-total to exit-total pressure, pb/p_ FIGURE 12-17.--Variation of for turbine equivalent with small mass flow stator-throat with area. total-pressure ratio

377

TURBINE

I_EISIGN

AND

&PPLZCATION

49 48 47

45

=

44

"E 43 "5 42 41

4O
39
17.5L

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

I

1.6

I

1.7

I

1.8

t

1.9

i

2.0

I

2.1

I

2.2

I

2.3

I

Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure, p_/p_ FIGURE 12-18.--Variation turbine of equivalent with large mass flow stator-throat with total-pressure area. ratio for

the

type

shown blade

in

figure row,

12-18 either a

would rotor

indicate or a stator.

choking To

in

some

downstream exactly between illustrated with blade pressure downstream case stator ratio pressure tablishes 378 illustrated at continues turbine row

determine are

where this the blade in figure pressure exit choking upstream static in a turbine

choking occurred, rows would have 12-19, ratio any that where (at given blade 12-19, ratio the the turbine. blade row

static-pressure to be obtained. variation speed) As row the in hub is turbine

measurements Such data static shown by the in turbine at choke pressure the while particular the

pressure for each ratio static the

constunt

of a two-stage in of

increases,

is indicated constant For first As first chokes

remaining to decrease. occurs 3.2. then

pressure figure pressure 3.7. flow

continues of

choking about rotor second

second pressure

to increase,

a turbine that es-

ratio of about the maximum

It is, of course, the rate for the turbine.

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMA.__TCE

First stator exit

First rotor exit Second stator chokes Second rotor chokes I Second stator exit

I I I I I

Second rotor exit

.i
1.5 2.0 2.5

I
3.0

I
3.5

i

l
4.0

l
4.5

Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure, pb/p_ FIGURE 12-19.--Effect of turbine total-pressure ratio two-stage tu_rbine. on hub static pressure in a

Torque As should tangential and figure creases of with tuining as speed AVu (absolute) exit for 12-20. the resulting in the in the experimentally indicated vary by directly component any For torque constant with due from rotor. speed. rotor and At (exit a given the This equation with the (2-9) mass of chapter rate 2 (vol. and with between speed pressure and the in flow higher increased torque the more rate. 379 1), the the rotor torque is shown ratio values turning decreases amount positive of torque in inlet varies in in-

flow velocity The

change

of absolute radius. speed, high is due turbine

(hV_) and tbe rate and ratio,

manner ratio

in which

pressure mass

increasing flow velocities pressure to flow decrease

to a higher a given absolute

increasing increases)

a decrease angle in mass

becomes

a possible

TURBINE

I_E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATI,0N

4000 --

5500 50O0 4500 /- Design point

32OO , ,.o" 2400 -2800 E z _o- 3500 C _" 3000 _ __ g 1500 1290 800 -4OO -E o •_ _ 2500 4OOO

Percent of design equivalent speed 0 [] 20 40

g _

0
1500' 1000' 500'

--

A _7 I_. ,4 17 I>

6o
70 80 90

100 110 120 130

o-

o
1.4 1.8 2.2

I
2.6

I
3.0

I
3.4

I
3.8

I
4.2

I
4.6

I
5.0 p_IP2

I
5.4

I
5.8

Ratio of inlet-total FIGURE 12-20.--Variation of equivalent

to exit-static pressure, torque with

turbine

pressure

ratio

and

speed.

Figure speed, the

12-20 torque

shows

that

as the to level

pressure off and

ratio reach

increases

for

a given value.

tends

a maximum

Above this limit, additional torque. and is indicated ratio work

any further increase This phenomenon on a performance to yield In figure reached. exit

in pressure is termed map by the

ratio results in no "limiting loading" lines of loading occurs the is, when of constant

pressure specific the axial The measured performance map ratio

converging for each but area has speed. not

a maximuin 12-16, Limiting is choked;

value limiting that

equivalent is being when exit

approached annulus Mach mass

been turbine

loading

at the

number flow data. map. the various and These

is unity. torque curves usual flow curves just discussed used can be plotted the from turbine are then procedure and torque to construct

The mass

in constructing at even work, increments

a performance of pressure work, and

is to select for the

speeds.

Specific and the

ideal

specific map can

efficiency

are then

calculated,

performance

be drawn.

Efficiency Another 380 convenient and widely used method of presenting turbine

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

performance _, which

is to plot is given by the

efficiency equation

as a function

of blade-jet

speed

ratio

U (12-14) _/2gJ,_h_ where U Ah_ blade ideal mean-section specific work J/kg; speed, based Btu/lb 2 (vol. with static 12-21 1), where For a correlation that speed case, ratio. against turbine bladeover a was efficiency shown was m/sec; on ratio ft/sec of inlet-total to exit-static

pressure, This shown jet speed was discussed

in chapter for an

mathematically to vary ratio Experimentally

idealized

case. blade-jet

parabolically obtained in figure

efficiencies

are plotted axial-flow

for a two-stage

___
_q

<_

50

_

30

/ / /

/
/
.1 Design value

I
.1

1
.2

I
.3 Blade-jet

I
.4 speed ratio,

I
.5 v

I
.6

I
.7

I
.8

FIGURE

12-21.--V_riation

of efficiency

with

blade-jet

speed

ratio.

381

TURBINE

I)E,SIGN

AND

A.PPLI.CATION

wide turbine, only and jet

range very are, speed

of speed slightly

and

pressure two stages

ratio. and Figure to the this higher

The very

total low than the

efficiencies exit velocities, static that an ideal always tend the

for

this were

because therefore, ratio manner be noted, turbine

of the not serves for

(1 or 2 percent) presented. very a real well that by lower Flow

efficiencies bladein as good a turbine.

12-21 as well

shows turbine as for is not

correlate correlation figure. the

efficiency

generalized It should as for where the

turbine

however, represented

For speed

operating lines ratios.

conditions to separate

limiting

loading

is approached, at the

speed

somewhat,

especially

blade-jet Angles considered how

Although parameters,

flow we

angles should

are

not

as they

turbine over

performance the turbine

understand

vary

3O

Percent of design equ ivalent speed

2O --

80

10

100

0
"0

120

_'_ -10 g

2- -2o
-30

-40

-50

-6O

1
1.4

I
1.6

I
1.8

I
2.0

I
2.2

I
2.4

Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure, P_P_t FIOURE 12-22.--Variation of rotor incidence and speed. angle with turbine pressure ratio

382

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

operating row to

conditions. the losses, which angle

The incidence as

direction loss,

of the which in

flow

entering

each

blade

determines off-design

is an important 8 (vol. 2).

contributor The the rotor rotor-

discussed is defined and and

chapter

incidence inlet over

angle, flow

as the

difference inlet for

between angle, a typical in figure the was

relative a range and are

the rotor pressure values

blade ratio

calculated single-stage

of speed the resultant defined

turbine, angles ponent velocity. this

are presented positive when same

12-22.

Flow comblade from the po-

herein

as being vector

tangential as be the made over

of the The

velocity following

is in the

direction can occurs

generalized variation

observations angle change

figure:

(1) a large range

in incidence (2) the

tential

operating

of a turbine,

in incidence

angle

4

m

16-_" A _3 © [] ©

Percent of design equivalent speed 4O 5O 6O 7O 8O 90 100

8--

0--

-16 --

o Q_ L.

-2_--

-32 --

-40 --

-48 --

-56 2

1
1.3

I
1.4

I
1.5

I
1.6

I
1.7

I
1.8

t
1.9

I
2.0

]
2.1

Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure, p_/p_, FIGURE 12-23.--Variation of outlet flow speed. angle with turbine pressure ratio and

383

TURBINE

I)E,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

with rotor

pressure incidence

ratio speed outlet

becomes becomes

greater more

as speed positive

increases, as with the respect

and pressure to the

(3)

the ratio

angle

increases and The turbine

decreases. flow angle

is important

design

of whatever component amount of thrust that flow 12-23 graph. angle the direction angle for The also change is plotted the apply opposite same trends in outlet over

may be downstream of the turbine or to the can be obtained from the outlet flow. Outlet a range and angle of speed turbine flow angle, generalizations the with pressure incidence Loss in and at one 12-24. region. majority where layers. ratio loss losses stator. The over the contours The terms of total pressure such the seen of many were were pressure the loss full data by and referred only ratio angle. pressure made for and ratio in figure last being parathat

single-stage observed outlet

to in the difference speed

the incidence is in the

to the

flow to that

for rotor Stator

Stator means previously total-pressure trailing of such trated affected with the

loss

is

directly in figures survey in the

measurable probe 12-7 taken wake and

of a total-pressure shown loss occurs edge loss as shown near by the the

survey 12-8. radius It of can A

equipment A typical just composite stator of the The traces be plainly behind

as that stator that all such ratio concengreatly loss can end-wall

circumferential

is shown traces in figure hub and end-wall critical buildup

in figure yields 12-25.

circumferential

total-pressure

tip regions, boundary velocity can of the

measurements increased flow) and (and

increasing

boundary-layer be converted 7 (vol. gives 2). the total

be noted.

total-pressure as described area of one and the

to kinetic-energy Integration loss for the

coefficients

in chapter passage perform-

Once

turbine

stator

2.0

--

it)

_=_

1.5

--

Suction

/

.1.0-r,-- (=_ ca. "-_c_

,'

surface

o -0

su rfac/

__ressure

One blade pitch

FIGURE

12-24.--Typical

total-pressure

loss

survey

data

at

blade

exit.

384

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

Total-press ure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet_ >0.98 0 90 to 098 >0.80 to 0.90

v,

Total-pressure ratio (bladeex_t 1o Nade inlet) Pressure surface side E::3 >0 98 090 Io 098 0.80 to 0.90 >070 to 0.80

Suction surface ,, side -

(b) Total-pressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet} r---I >098 _zza 0,90 to 0.98 i_ 0.80 to 090 I_ 0.70 to 080 _lm >0.60 to 070 r_> Total-pressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet) 0.98 0 90 0.80 0.70 >060 to to to to 0.98 0,90 0.80 070

I I 4

L_j
(c) (a) ity (c) ity FIGURE Ideal ratio, Ideal ratio, after-mix 0.512. after-mix 0.823. of total-pressure ratio critical veloc(d) ity critical veloc(b) ity Ideal ratio, Ideal ratio, from (d_ after-mix 0.671. after-mix 0.859. stator annular surveys. critical veloccritical veloc-

12-25.--Contours

ance have been can be made.

obtained

experimentally,

a

turbine

loss

breakdown

Surface An important surface profiles part that of the yield blading favorable

Velocity design is the selection velocity of the blade

surface

distributions. 385

TURBINE

DE'SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

Analytical chapter mine achieved. static-pressure manner ments. known,

methods 5 (vol. 2). the obtain

for calculating During "designed the velocity in the the test for"

surface program, surface distribution

velocities velocities along the

were

discussed to deteractually surface,

in

it is of interest were a blade surfaces blade the

whether To

measurements previously static distribution the velocity pressure

are made

along

blade the

in the surfaces relation

discussed With the

section

on static-pressure along from

measure-

distribution can

be determined

Vc,

v-f_'+i[-1

L_--1L-\p_-/

( P']'"-"'"7"lr"
jj
determined surface similar conditions.

(12-15)
velocity The disone. is are

Figure 12-26 shows the experimentally distributions for two stators tested under tribution Acceleration smooth, no large (force and flow shown on the in figure the maximum is well 12-26(a) velocity (diffusions) distributed along other hand, Flow on

is considered to the is maintained on either the

to be a desirable maximum subsonic. surface. The velocity There

suction

surface

decelerations

loading

on blade)

blade. distribution accelerates

Figure considered

12-26(b), on the to be undesirable.

shows a velocity the suction surface

1.4

B

1.2

._

r- Suction surface

>_1.0
_ Suction surface -_

¢''_\
_.

i,/.....E,/
' / .Z/
I
•2 _ 0 f_). "0 i .2 .4 0.. 3_. _ . surface __Pressure I_ surface '_ Pressure

I
.6 (a)

I

I

I

I
.4 (b)

I
.6

I
.8

I
1.0

.8 1.0 0 .2 Fraction of blade surface length

(a)

Desirable FIGURE

distribution. 12-26.--Experimental surface

(b)

Undesirable velocity

distribution.

distributions.

386

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATION

OF

AERODYNAIVIIC

PERFORMANCE

to

a supersonic back of the possibly

velocity boundary lead because sharp designed. is also of

(V/Vcr=l.2) velocity. layer to separation observed it is followed any separated and valleys peaks with on

and Such an of the the by an

then associated flow pressure flow. In

undergoes increase

a rapid causes suction but that surthis would velocity when the a in loss

deceleration thickening and face. is not result blades could

to a subsonic

a deceleration off the

A deceleration as critical, with in reattachment are being

surface, general,

acceleration be avoided

distributions

should

REFERENCES
ERNEST 0.: Measurement Systems: Application and Design. McGraw-HiU Book Co., 1966. 2. PUTRAL, SAMUEL M.; KOFSKEY, MILTON; AND ROHLIK, HAROLD E.: Instrumentation Used to Define Performance of Small Size, Low Power Gas Turbines. Paper 69-GT-104, ASME, Mar. 1969. 3. MOFFITT, THOMAS P.; PRUST, HERMAN W.; AND SCHUM, HAROLD J.: Some Measurement Problems Encountered When Determining the Performance of Certain Turbine Stator Blades from Total Pressure Surveys. Paper 69-GT103, ASME, Mar. 1969. 4. WISLER, D. C.j AND MOSSEY, P. W.: Gas Velocity Measurements Within a
DOEBELIN,

1.

5.

Compressor Rotor Passage Using 72-WA]GT-2, ASME, Nov. 1972. ASME RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON Theory and Application, 5th ed., Engineers, 1959.

the

Laser

Doppler

Velocimeter.

Paper

FLUXD METERS: The American

Fluid Society

Meters, Their of Mechanical

387

TURBINE

DE,SIGN

AND

APPLICATION

SYMBOLS A C D E g hh_d hh' J K M N P R T U V AVu
W

area,

m2; ft 2 coefficient m; ft factor 1;32.17 based Btuflb work, J/kg; 1 ; 9/30 factor, Btuflb (rad) (min)/(rev) by eq. (12-4) (sec) 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu defined rev/min (o R) (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec of inlet-total 2) to exit-static on ratio expansion constant, work J/kg; specific specific

discharge diameter, thermal conversion ideal turbine conversion conversion approach rotative absolute absolute blade absolute change tween mass pressure,

constant, constant, velocity speed, pressure, J/(kg) temperature, rad/sec;

N/m S; lb/ft 2 (K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K; °R speed, m/sec; ft/sec of absolute velocity bem/sec; ft/sec component and exit, lb/sec defined by eq. (12-5) from axial pressure to or (12-6) deg heat sea-level at measured at constant total direction, to specific standard m/sec;

gas constant,

mean-section gas velocity, in tangential rotor inlet

ft/sec

flow rate, flow N-m;

kg/sec; factor, angle, lb-ft

Y F
5'

compressibility absolute torque,

ratio of specific heat constant volume ratio of turbine-inlet

pressure defined velocity velocity

pressure function of specific-heatratio, squared sea-level blade-jet density, Subscripts" an
cr

by eq. (12-12) based based (12-10) (12-14) on turbine-inlet on and standard (12-13)

ratio

of to

critical critical defined 3

temperature speed kg/m

temperature, ratio, 8; lb/ft

defined by

by eqs. eq.

annulus critical condition (at Mach 1)

eq in std t 0 388

equivalent meter inlet standard meter sea-level throat station at turbine inlet condition

measuring

EXPERIMENTALDETERMINATION OF
1 2 Superscript: ' absolute total state measuring measuring station station at stator at turbine

AERODYNAMIC

PERFORMANCE

outlet outlet

389

REPORT
r_,_t?,.¢,r_ , oll_ct4_f_ i;,,l_,_ t_l_;l_._, _r-_ ,t ,_._r,t,_,r_+,_ i T_,, r. !2C,t ] _TI "_e'_. ,_,,_; _,

DOCUMENTATION
,in_ _,'_tq,_r,_ , :, :c, rmpl_llnq _,.,r r_ducln] _ncl _6 _t,,_ '_... _r._, r_.._,,._n,: ;,,_t_,_n :_f,,.,, _f _'_ _h_ 2; _h,rTrOn J'_h_n_on

PAGE
Of ,nl,_rmat_on qr% Ser_ S_'nd cP._. comment_ Directorate Reducteon regarding _ot Prolect the% Information (0104-018B), burden

oMs _o. o7o4-o188 Form Approved
eslrmate ODeratlon% Wa%hington. or and .Jny _epott_, DC 2050]. other asDect 1215 Ot ]._fferson thi%

_r_f,_r_r,,_,,'_,r_. ,. _,j*_,_

_,,c,r_'._ ,,v!,r_ ;_c,

_teadquar ind Budeet

22202.,1_02,

_.t_n_,_ment

` Paperwork

3. REPORT

TYPE

AND

DATES

COVERED

I" AGENCY USEONLY(Leaveb/ank) 12" REPORT ATEjune 1994 D
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

I

SDecial

Publication
5. FUNDING NUMBERS

Turbine

Design

and

Application

6. AUTHOR(S)

A.

J. Glassman

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Lewis Research OH Center 44135

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

Cleveland,

R-5666

9. SPONSORING/MONITORINGAGENCYNAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Washington, DC 20546 Space Administration

10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

NASA-SP-290

11. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES N Responsible 433-5890.
12a. DISTRIBUTION

person,

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C.

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organization

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(216)

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Ol S T"iB U TI--'0-_0

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Unclassified Subject

- Unlimited - 7

Category

13, ABqTRACT

(Maxmnum

200 words)

NASA turbine driven engines electric trucks,

has an interest in turbines relatedprJrnarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellantturbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for space craft. Closed-cycle turbine using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied forproviding long-duration power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power.

In view of the turbine-s_stem interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled "Turbine Design and Application was presented during ]968-69 as part of the ]n-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat rewsed and again presented in 1_72-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such apublicaLion can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means f-or self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used cons!stent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the ST units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defimn 8 as unity tho_o not required for the ST units.
14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PA_GES

engine design, turbine engines, cooling
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT lB.

engines,

aircraft

engines,

automobile

400
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A17
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