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TIIItIINI{
I)KSll;l
a,id AI'I'I, II:AI'IIiN
(NASASP290) APPLICATION
TURBINE (NASA)
DESIGN 390 p
AND
N9522341
Unclas
HlI07
0041715
NATIONAL
AERONAUTICS
AND
SPACE
ADMINISTRATION
NASA
SP290
'lrlllellNl IDK Iq ,N annal IDIDI,q;A"I' IqlPm A I
Edited by Arthur J. Glassman Lewis Research Center
Scientific and Technical Information Program1994 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC
Available NASA
from the Center for AeroSpace Landing Road MD 210902934 Catalog Card Number: 9467487 Information
800 Elkridge
Linthicum Heights, Price Code: A17 Library of Congress
PREFACE
NASA and space turboshaft pellantdriven power organic interest trains, Center, presented Program. 197273. concepts, cooling, The edited for an Any Two are the sets units given U.S. of units and reference for fluids, has an interest as in turbines Airbreathing well provide Closedcycle metal power engines turbinesystem entitled 196869 course aspects and was as power fluids for include related turbine rocket turbine have spacecraft. landvehicle and interest "Turbine part of somewhat of turbine fluiddynamic losses, groundbased and Design the revised technology concepts, blade efforts and and were primarily engines power propulsion engines been Other (cars, studied for using for trucks, electrical at Lewis Application" Graduate again covered presented including turbine design, revised blade and or a to aeronautics provide aircraft, and inert jet and l%ogases, of buses, power. Research was Study in applications. propulsion, turbines spacecraft. and electric propulsion course during The Various velocity mechanical notes written for publication. for selected consistent commonly after the set used introductory
as auxiliary
auxiliary providing
longduration etc.) a
applications
for turbine of the
In view
InHouse
thermodynamic
fundamental
diagrams,
aerodynamic
design, operation, and performance. and used for the course have been Such turbine topics. of symbol units. as unity units will sets single not satisfy of set required the units These of required equations and are equations for the U.S. a publication course, a can means serve for
as a foundation selfstudy,
presented. values units and both SI
consistent A those
constant the covers
definitions.
customary by including defining
all constants
customary
for the SI units. ARTHUR J. GLASSMAN
,°°
111
i _
,_
CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
PREFACE
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . .
111
...
°
THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS by Arthur
AND
FL UIDD
YNAMI
C 1
1 14 19 20
J. Glassman
....................
..............
BASIC CONCEPTS AND RELATIONS ....................... APPLICATION TO FLOW WITH VARYING AREA REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
,
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
by Arthur
J. Glassman
....
21 21 45 62 63 65
TURBINE FLOW AND ENERGY TRANSFER .................. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS ......................... REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS ......................................... GLOSSARY .........................................
.
VELOCITY DIAGRAMS by Warren Warner L. Stewart ...................................
J. Whitney
and
69 70 84 95 96 98
MEANSECTION DIAGRAMS ............................ RADIAL VARIATION OF DIAGRAMS ....................... COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR VELOCITYDIAGRAM REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
STUDIES
.....
,
BLADE Arthur
DESIGN J. Glassman
by Warner
L. Stewart
and lOl
102 118 124 125
..................................
SOLIDITY .......................................... BLADEPROFILE DESIGN .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
,
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
by Theodore
ANALYSES ........................
Katsanis
............
......
127
130 147 154 155
STREAMAND POTENTIALFUNCTION VELOCITYGRADIENT ANALYSIS REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
.
INTRODUCTION by William
TO BOUNDARYLAYER ...............................
THEORY 157
............ .............. 157 160 172 188 188 191
D. McNally
NATURE OF BOUNDARY LAYER ......................... DERIVATION OF BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS SOLUTION OF BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS CONCLUDING REMARKS .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
V
iI
PAG'E__
I_T_NTtON_!.Ly BLANg
CHAPTER
PAGE
o
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
by Herman
W. Prust,
Jr ....
193
195 201 217 221 223
BOUNDARYLAYER PARAMETERS ........................ BLADEROW LOSS COEFFICIENTS ....................... BLADEROW LOSS CHARACTERISTICS .................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
o
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
by Richard
J. Roelke
........
225
225 231 238 243 246 247
TIPCLEARANCE LOSS ................................ DISKFRICTION LOSS ................................. PARTIALADMISSION LOSSES ........................... INCIDENCE LOSS .................................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS ..........................................
o
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
by Louis
J. Goldman
.........
249
250 263 266 272 277 278
METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS ......................... DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC STATOR BLADES ................. DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC ROTOR BLADES .................. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
....
10.
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINES
by Harold
E. Rohlik
.......
279
284 295 302 305 306
OVERALL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS .................... BLADE DESIGN ..................................... OFFDESIGN PERFORMANCE ........................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
11.
TURBINE
COOLING
by Raymond
S. Colladay
...........
307
307 314 328 330 332 340 345 347
GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................. HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE ................ CONDUCTION WITHIN THE BLADE WALL .................. COOLANTSIDE CONVECTION ........................... FILM AND TRANSPIRATION COOLING ..................... SIMILARITY ........................................ REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
12.
EXPERIMENTAL DYNAMIC and Harold
DETERMINATION PERFORMANCE by Edward J. Schum ................................
OF AEROM. Szanca 351
352 374 387 388
TEST FACILITY AND MEASUREMENTS .................... TURBINE PERFORMANCE .............................. REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
vi
CHAPTER 1
Thermodynamic andFluidDynamic Concepts
ByArthur. Glassman J
This cepts are the of chapter concepts is intended needed processes of these subjects Flow is assumed of this used symbol units. all chapter. set of units will sets set not satisfy of units These required required the and are for for the the the equations constant SI covers U.S. units both presented. values and sets customary are the of consistent definitions. A single constants those consistent commonly after customary by and defining the to to review and analyze in some and a of the fluid understand turbine. A fundamental mechanics. the more flow conThese and complete
thermodynamics
compressible
energytransfer treatment textbooks. the Two given U.S. units units purposes Any
occurring
can be found in reference 1 and in many to be steady and onedimensional for
of equations
including
as unity
SI units.
BASIC
CONCEPTS Equation
AND of any has State
RELATIONS
Before gases, we interrelated.
we can must The gases
get know
very how
far of
with pressure, gases
kind volume, resulted In
of calculation and in certain ideal
involving are and laws The laws these or real.
temperature
study concerning are
generalizations of behavior,
their referred to
behavior. as being
discussing
either
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
ideal the The
gas real
is only gas can gas
hypothetical only equation approach
and of state is
obeys
various certain
simplified conditions.
laws
that
under
ideal
R* pv=_
T
(11)
where P
V
absolute specific
pressure, volume,
N/mS; m3/kg;
lb/ft 2 fta/lb 8314 mole); K; °R used as
R $
R*
universal gas constant, (lb mole) (°R) molecular absolute weight, temperature, R*/M,_ is often kg/(kg
J/(kg lb/(Ib
mole)(K); mole)
1545
(ft) (lb)/
The
quantity
a single
quafftity
such
that
R__ where law. R is the Thus, 1 p =V
(12) or (ft)(Ib)/(lb)(°R). volume in the ideal gas
gas
constant, used
in J/(kg)(K) of specific
Density
is often
instead
RT = pRT
(13)
where In sures within small. ideal high tures, proposal relation. most perature
p is density, general, or the high a real
in kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3. gas and will the approximate conditions attractive ideal under forces behavior which between the at low free presspace are the as
temperatures, which are be accurate while gases hundred have Even and only
gas is large
molecules
For gases gas law may deviations
above their critical to within 5 percent for gases ideal found gas most be below behavicr of state universally over useful their may appear
temperatures, up to pressures critical resulted the satisfactory, range a high values equations degree
as 50 atmospheres, of real of several None are and applicable pressure. to use is required. similarity (ratio pressure basis The method of these
temperapressure. in the pvT and of temare of
of 2 to 3 percent from been the
at 1 atmosphere have to express a limited of these unless at equal
Deviations
equations to a single
cumbersome accuracy The and forms behavior. 2 temperature reduced the
cannot
justified
in behavior of (ratio of
of substances T, to of pressure, simple general
of reduced To) pc) gas a real pressure,
temperature,
critical for is
temperature, estimating to
p,
to critical
of a relatively
method correlation
incorporate
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
correction law:
term,
called
the
compressibility p=zpRT
factor,
into
the
ideal
gas (14)
where The and of the other as with tion and sures. molal state error. should A of data
z is the reduced gas.
compressibility factor and pressure,
factor. is a function factor are from and The of reduced temperature of the nature and here average correlatemperatures and by using region with However, is always can law. show gas presthe of of reduced texts an is assumed pressure charts of one to be independent as a function in many from presented reference is derived is not
compressibility Values and One This for a large data are be extended used pseudocritical of the of where the not for do take error figure 11. for all the may The
of compressibility reduced of the type number any
temperature sources. figure
2 is reproduced in rigorous
correlation of gases gas. mixtures are that gas that within the use that the with
agreement
compressibilityfactor if pseudocritical temperatures components. is a large would region. gas ideal law factor result concerned
to gas
pressures averages conditions Fortunately, never
to calculate properties critical 11 conditions fall granted of use properties shows ideal
reduced of the
approximated there law are this ideal of the
Examination
of the
in a large in our we valid. the
we
calculations quick
usually
determination
compressibility
approximate
associated
Reduced temperature, 1.20 T/Tc_ 1.10 1.00
N
_
_
_._
______
•90 .80 • 70
t_

1. 1_50
.60 .50

1.20
.30!
I \ 1.1o
_'LO0 1.0 I 2,0 I 3,0 1 4.0 I 5.0 f 6.0 I 7.0 I 8.0 I 9,0 F 10.0
Reduced pressure, P/Pc
FIGURE
11.Effect
of
reduced
pressure factor. (Curves
and
reduced from ref.
temperature 2.)
on
com
pressibility
3
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Relation In is the position, and a flow enthalpy enthalpy pressure: process,
of
Energy the energy be
Change term
to
State
Conditions with work of and heat com
associated as p) or Btu/lb. a
h. For can
a onephase expressed h=fcn(T,
system
of constant function
chemical
temperature (15)
where enthalpy
h is specific can
enthalpy, as
in J/kg
A differential
change
in
be expressed
Oh dh:(OT) The partial derivatives as follows. By can be
v dT+(00_h)rp expressed
dp in terms of
(16) determinable
properties
definition, Oh Cv=(_'_),
(17) pressure, equations in J/(kg)(K) of thermodynamics or Btu/ is
where
cp is heat One
capacity basic
at
constant
(lb) (°R).
of the
differential
dh=
Tds + j
vdp
(18)
where s is specific entropy, conversion constant, 1 or derivative determined with from respect equation to
in J/(kg)(K) or Btu/(lb)(°R), 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu. Therefore, pressure (18), at constant
and J is a the partial is, as
temprature
Oh'_
T los\
1
One
of the
Maxwell
relations
states
that
(110)
Substituting yields
equations
(17),
(19),
and
(110)
into
equation
(16)
dh=c,dT+
j
[v
Ov T (__)p_
dp
(111)
Equation change between 4 in two
(111) terms states
is the of the
rigorous state
equation conditions, rigorously
for and as
a differential the enthalpy
enthalpy change
is calculated
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
Ts
1
P*
_V (112)
If law,
we
now
assume set
that
the
gas
behaves
according
to
the
ideal
gas
we can
RT vP and
(113)
( Ov'
By using these on last two equations in
R
equation to zero, (112), and the there
(114)
effect remains of
pressure
enthalpy
change
is reduced
Ah: Empirical books and equations textbooks
frTcz, dT of T are available example,
(115) in hand
for ca as a function for most gases
of interest. bT+cT yields 2
If, for
cp=atthen integration of equation (115)
(116)
Ah=a( Although calculations, If and it can /'2, then one be might there equation assumed
T2 T1) +_ b (__)+3 not want reason that (115) to use this type it for
(_T_)
(117)
of expression computer
for hand calculations. T_
is no
to avoid ca is constant becomes
between
temperatures
_=c.( This gases, of some be within assumption there average a few is an value percent excellent for cv will true
T2 T1) one give for an monatomic approximation gases; for
(118) other use should
is a significant
variation of the
in c_ with value. for Constant small, For
T. However, that
the
Relation In usually loss, a turbine, can there be
of State the heat
Conditions loss to be
Entropy and adiabatic the the
Process flow flow process with no
is normally adiabatic.
assumed change
is no
in entropy.
Therefore,
constantentropy
(isentropic) process is the ideal process for flow in the various parts of the turbine (inlet manifold, stator, rotor, and exit diffuser) as well as for the overall turbine. Actual conditions within and across the
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
turbine are usually determined in coniunction necessary For can a onephase with some to be able to relate system state
from
isentropic process calculations It is, therefore, process. entropy for an isentropic composition, and pressure (119) be expressed as
efficiency or loss term. conditions chemical of temperature sfcn (T, p) can of constant
be expressed
as a function
and
a differential
change
in entropy
ds(_), From equations (18) and (17),
dT÷(_)r we get
(tp
(120)
Substituting
equations
(121)
and
(110)
into
equation
(120)
yields
ds=_
dTj
0v (0T),
dp
(122)
For
a constantentropy
process,
ds=0
and
Equation relating
(123) temperature
is the
rigorous, and pressure
but
not
particularly
useful,
expression process. (114)
conditions and
for an isentropie substitute equation we get
If we assume into equation
idealgaslaw (123) and
behavior perform the
integration,
, _dT
Rln_
(124)
By
using
a relation
such
as equation
(116),
integration
yields
1Rln_=aln_kb(T2T_)+2 J p_ Like equation (117), equation (125) also
(T_T_)
(125)
is more
suitable
for use
in
a computer calculation With the additional peratures 6 T_ and
than in a hand calculation. assumption that cp is constant (124) becomes
between
tem
T2, equation
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
Jc_ ln T2R T1and p2=('%'_ p, \T1/ But Jcp R where capacity equation 3" is the ratio of heat
p2 ln pl
(126)
Jc,/R (127)
3' 3" 1 at constant pressure to
(128) heat into
capacity
at constant (127) yields
volume. Substitution of the more familiar form
equation
(128)
p,
__\_] (129) Where should specific heat ratio give a reasonable 3" is not constant, approxlmation. Conservation The rate of mass flow through the use of an average value
of Mass an area A can be expressed as (130)
w=pAV where w A V rate flow fluid For across across of mass flow, kg/sec; area, m2; ft 2 velocity, m/see; flow (and ft/see nonnuclear) path is, process, must equal the the rate rate of mass of mass lb/sec
a steady any any
flow flow
section of the flow other section. That
plA, VI = p2A2 V2 This (131) expresses is referred the principle to as the Newton's All conservation are consequences that an unbalanced in the direction force is proportional the body. equations, of Newton's of conservation continuity Second equation. Law of etc., Law Motion dealing of with of mass, and
(131) equation
theorems, Second
momentum which states
Motion,
force that ac_s of the unbalanced to the product
on a body will cause it to accelerate force in such a manner that the of the mass and acceleration of
7
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Thus, F= m a g where F m
a
(132)
unbalanced mass, kg; acceleration, conversion
force, lbm m/sec2 constant,
N;
lbf ; ft/sec 2 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)
g But
1 ; 32.17
dV a =d 7 where (132) t is time, yields F=m g Since the mass is constant, equation dV dt (134a) can also be in seconds. Substituting equation (133) into
(133) equation
(134a) written as
F=I g Equation fluid Since (134a) is equal mass can (134b) to per also the specifies rate of as that
d(mV__) dt the unbalanced of momentum is the mass flow force acting with rate,
(134b)
on
the
of change time
(mV)
time.
increment be written
equation
F =w g A useful derived
dV
(135)
be
relation, sometimes called the from secondlaw considerations. in figure resistance the downstream in the upstream direction is 12. Gravitational (force) and direction
equation Consider forces
of are
motion, an element assumed
can of neg
fluid ligible. of
as indicated A fIictional is subjected acting in fluid
is indicated and
as R s. The fluidpressure Therefore,
element and the net
to fluidpressure
boundarysurfacepressure
forces
friction forces acting force in the downstream
direction.
F=pA
+(p+
d_)dA(p+dp)
(A+dA)dRt
(136)
Expanding, yields
simplifying,
and F=
dropping  AdpdR I
secondorder
differentials (137)
8
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
The
mass
of the
element
is m:pAdx (138) (134) yields
Substituting
equation
(138)
into F_
equation dV dt
pAdx g
(139)
Since
(140)
equation (139) can be written in the F_pAV g Equating (137) with (141) now yields form dv
(141)
F=AdpdRs= and dp + VdV+
pA VdV g dRs 0
(142)
pFiA
(143)
p+dp 2
A+dA
f % ,% f
Flow
p dx V
p+dp
V+dV
dRf FIGURE 12.Forces on an element of fluid.
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
If we now
let (144)
where
ql is heat
produced
by
friction,
in J/kg
or Btu/lb,
we have (145)
dpp __V_VdgV+Jdq1= For isentropic flow, dqs0. Conservation For system electrical a steadyflow or or part of of that etc., part energy, (and nannuclear) must If have we system. we still V2/2g, of
0
Energy process, equal can the neglect internal energy Z, the energy chemical energy heat entering that energy, u, flow q, and
a system
a system
energy
leaving
to consider potential
energy pv, mechanical
kinetic energy work I¥,. Thus,
P lvl
"Jr V12
_j[_Z1
p2l'2_l__ ,
V2" _2_4_W Tr 2 .4 Z
(146) s
u,+jwhere u Z q W, For by specific specific internal potential
_gj energy,
j+q=u:+ J/kg; J/kg; Btu/lb (ft)
j2g
JJ
energy,
(lbf)/lbm Btu/lb be neglected. In addition,
heat added mechanical a gas system,
to system, work (lone the
J/kg; Btu/lb by system, J/kg; energy can
potential
definition
h=u + j
Thus, equation (146) reduces
"{72
pv
(147)
to
V 2
(148) gd Equation (148) is the it. Total The in flow Thus, V2 h ' _h + 2gJ 10 (149) sum of the enthalpy and and Conditions the kinetic energy is always appearing quantity. basic form g of the steadyflow energy balance
as we will be using
problems,
it is convenient
to use
it as a single
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
where The that cept
h' is total concept corresponds is most can
enthalpy, of total to the when
in J/kg enthalpy total In
or Btu/lb. leads can be us The according to the as and concept the of total conheat (115), (150) Combining equation (150) defined behavior temperature constant
temperature.
Total useful
temperature
enthalpy. that case,
totaltemperature to equation
idealgaslaw
capacity
be assumed.
h'h=cp(T'T) where with T' is total temperature, yields in K or °R.
equation
(149)
T' = T+ 2gJcp
The attained to rest The pressure use temperature, total, of a fluid equation total when temperature a gas and brought p. Since (129) at static Thus, these two T' can be
V2
(151)
of as the called temperature V is brought stagnation pressure static we can
thought T and used can p'
temperature total terms pressure isentropically between temperature are
velocity
adiabatically.
is also be regarded
interchangeably. as the a velocity V and
or stagnation, to rest the to write relation
from and
p is isentropic,
(152)
where With should its use energy be seen, tion, heat change, pressure,
p'
is total regard
pressure, to the
in N/m 2 or lb/ft _. abovedefined total conditions, certain points and the
be emphasized. The concept of total enthalpy is general, involves no assumptions other than those associated with balance is a very For use an of but as we have useful only systems total to the isentropic considered for it. Total temperature, the burden and or total behavior reaction recommended. with the static and not convenience involving temperature assumptions path for easing idealgaslaw chemical is between associated
as will of calculaconstant a phase Total temperatotal
it is rigorous the
capacity.
in addition
ture, involves conditions. Flow Let occurs work. each us now, with This part
Process terms heat is the
With of total transfer one
No
Heat
and
No examine
Work a process nor heat losses) that in
in
conditions, (adiabatic occurs the rotor,
neither process
process) (neglecting at constant
mechanical radius, when 11
that
of the
turbine
(including
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
the
velocities Substitution
are of yields
expressed equation
relative (149)
to the into
moving equation
blade). (148) and rear(153)
rangement
h2'  hi' = qW_ The energy balance for q and a flow W_ now equal looks something as we were we get like first the First Law
of Thermo
dynamics If we set
process,
exposed
to it in college.
to zero,
h_' =h,' Therefore, constant. that total for Further, temperature adiabatic from flow also with no (118) work, and total (150), enthalpy it can
(154) remains be shown
equations remains
constant.
TJ =T/
Note enthalpy Total and tions, (155) it can that the and and pressure process total the does temperature is another idealgaslaw that for not have to be isentropic constant. equations flow with (122), no work, From in order
(155)
for total (152), assump
to remain matter. and adiabatic eJd' l _= P_' p2'
constantheatcapacity
be shown
(156)
Only
for isentropic For flow
flow with
(ds=0), loss
therefore, (ds>0),
does there is
total
pressure
remain in total
constant. pressure.
a decrease
Speed An wave important propagation
of
Sound
and of
Velocity gases called, is the the
Ratios speed of pressureFrom
characteristic or, as otherwise theory
speed
of sound.
smallpressuredisturbance
a=_/g(_p), where From to a= The factor called 12 ratio of fluid velocity V _gRT to sound characteristics velocit_y a is speed the ideal of sound, gas law in m/sec and or ft/sec. process relations, this
(157)
isentropic
reduces (158)
a is an important This ratio is
in determining the flow the Mach number M:
of a gas.
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPT_
M= V
a
(159)
only for identifying to flowcertain static (158),
Mach
number
is a useful also the
parameter
not
behavior regimes, but expressions. Consider temperature, (159), and given (128) with
for simplifying and generalizing relation of total temperature (151). (151) Combining yields equations
in equation equation
T'
l_I_7__
M 2
(160)
Another velocity critical velocity
ratio
often
used
is the
ratio
of fluid
velocity
to
V V Vc,acr where sound is equal condition (160), V. at is critical critical to the at velocity velocity, condition, of sound in m/sec in m/sec at the M1. or or ft/sec, ft/sec. and The a. critical The from
(161) is speed velocity critical equation of
critical
condition.
is that condition where the critical condition
Consequently,
2 T.=3"+ and substitution of equation (162) 1 T' into equation (158) yields (162)
acr=_/_lgRT' Thus, for the as the while perature The critical (128), the The because in any the entire static ratio the Mach in relation velocity and flow process value process, temperature of fluid velocity critical number the velocity ratio. velocity is not denominator). between ratio (151). T T '1 3,1(V) _ 3"t1 2 static results and from total combining temperature equations in terms (161), Its of the with constant value to ratio (since total of the temperature (Vc,=a,) speed of sound
(163)
(no heat remains
and
no work),
critical changes.
velocity
constant (a) changes called number temof the (163),
whilethe
critical
velocity preferred is a square
is sometimes over root Mach
critical
use is often there
is directly
proportional
to velocity, of static
(164) 13
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
APPLICATION The the (flow the in the turbine. equations through process is isentropic). lossfree varyingarea already turbine
TO
FLOW are
WITH sufficient losses about rotor,
VARYING to analyze that the and there behavior exit in a turbine,
AREA completely are no of the losses use flow we can
presented passages, there
flow
provided are
Although to learn passages Effect
something (stator, of the yields Flow relations Prot)er the
diffuser)
of the
Regime a,mon_ manipulation equation pressure, velocity, previ
We area ously
flo_v:
are change,
going and
to
examine
Much equations
number.
of the
presented
following
for isentropic
_(I_M_
)dV V(1) change is less for
1M 2alp 7M 2 p all Much
dA A numbers amt (2) the in area flow), way By passage the
(165) change depend equal to static which of definition, in : in of on 1
Equation velocity the whether (sonic let pressure static Let A. changes
(165) is opposite the flow), Much that
shows
that and than
to the number a nozzle and the flow
in l)ressure with than
directions
in velocity or greater
pressure
changes 1 (subsonic flow).
1 (supersonic is a varyingarea
us specify pressure
in which passage
decreases us examine Subsonic 1. Increasing
a diffuser various (M<I): cases
is a varyingarea from equation
increases. (165)
pressure
(dp>0): area increases (dA>0).
Velocity decreases (dV<0) and This is the subsonic diffuser.. 2. Decreasing pressure (dp<0): and Velocity increases (dV>0) This is the subsonic nozzle. B. Supersonic 1. Increasing Velocity This 2. Decreasing Velocity This C. Sonic Both Area critical, mumarea 14 flow is the flow (M>I): (dp>0): (dV<0) (dp<0): (dV>0) nozzle. and zero occur 1) : (dp>0) must section equal can and and
area
decreases
(dA_0).
pressure decreases supersonic pressure increases supersonic (M=
area
(tecreases
(dA_0).
is the
diffuser. area increases (dA>0).
increasing change condition
decreasing (dA=0). only at the
(dp<0) Thus, inlet,
pressure. the exit, sonic, or or mini
of a varyingarea
passage.
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
You dition must portion.
may (M= have
also
want
to note either up
that portion
in order followed Nozzles with
to cross by an
the the
critical flow
con
1) going
or down
in velocity,
passage
a decreasingarea Flow
increasingarea
in
Since diffuser nozzles. entering nozzle. the the (and throat) mences lowered, At some What Mach nozzle. tion the tions velocity, gas
we
are
concerned
primarily
nozzle
flow
rather
than
flow in turbines, we will narrow We will further limit the discussion the This nozzle is subsonic, us to the with at the T'. static as pt. and gas a static The When since first case from (and exhaust, pressure this nozzle.Let corresponds is supplied temperature as p, and is designated and flow value and number Therefore, happens the throat of p,, M= the rate consider
the discussion to flow in to the case where the flow is the the case of most interest. Assume where a static is comto pc. to sonic that condiin to equaa (in the simple previously. (zero pressure at the less with velocity) p' static nozzle than Pt still p', and exit flow equal convergent
Convergent nozzle total)
A2 mentioned a reservoir total) right
is maintained
or outside,
pressure
designated
pe is a little increase, throat further? be remains
pressure velocity velocity throat.
pt is equal both at the lowered 1 cannot throat pressure,
to pc. As p_ is progressively becomes We have in in the The static according a equal seen critical
1 at the than flow how the is
if pc is now greater the at (129)
attained
convergent pressure
at the much critical
(M= throat (162)
1) no matter remains and
p_ is lowered.
which
P'=P_'=P' Once the the The with the pe is reduced flow nozzle an within and increase the then process equations that the (p'/p,) means below nozzle. expands from are throat greater that the p,, The the
{ 2__ "_/(_') \_,+ 1/ exhaust expands from pressure from with p' has no
(166)
effect the
on
gas
to pt=p, (which later),
within nozzle. occur and
further and will
Pt to pe outside shocks a little
expansion
Pt to Pe occurs not valid condition than nozzle
in entropy
be discussed
isentropic The fact ratios (p'/p_r)
for this part of the remains constant or equal mass to the flow
process. for nozzle pressure remains state, 1 at value correin 15
pressure ratio constant the mass the the throat
critical also
rate
under these conditions. Thus, flow rate reaches a maximum and thereafter flow remains can be constant The pr6ver_
for a fixed value when no that matter this
upstream M becomes to what condition
exhaust
pressure
is reduced.
fact
st)on(is
to maximum
mathematically.
A nozzle
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
this more the sure the flow
condition involved nozzle ratio exhaust p'
is said case and
to be choked. nozzle.Let of the with gas T'. us from will less now the consider nozzle. same 13, p' reservoir showing this (curve occurring of the lowered and the throat AD still AB at passage (curve velocity velocity in fig. diffuses the somewhat assume of presIf 13), throat maintained plots discussion. in fig. the convergentdivergent Figure than Again,
Convergentdivergent to be supplied against pressure with this case, diffuser. at some the sonic higher
at pressure
temperature nozzle the length, pe is a little
supplement
commences
lowest
pressure
(pt_P_). In as a subsonic 13), equal that the to Eventually,
the divergent section As pe is progressively throat decreases value Pt, and of p_, the (curve gas the
is acting AC in fig. increases. becomes 13). Note
pressure
p, at the particular velocity, than
or Mr1
p_ is still
subsonically
_X._I / rpt
I/
I
/ /r Pe
I
Th roat
I I I I

A ,ll
B
.B
&
 _r .....
_'_"_'_'_
.=
N Z
K
H
E
Length
FmuR_;
13.Nozzle
flow
processes.
16
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
in
the
diveruent pt:pc._pe), to achieve is less than the critical p_ place is a_ain because where nozzle,
section. we the
Since see that
the the
throat nozzle
condition pressure
is now ratio
critical (p'/pe) to
(with required nozzle achieve If only condition
critical
condition
in
a convergentdivergent
the nozzle condition lowered, equation the the critical throat
pressure ratio (p'/p_:p'/pc,) required in a simple convergent nozzle. the throat condition state must can remains remain us that exist. value. the constant, the Thus, at the throat as and the critical (165) showed
is the with the mass
convergent
flow must remain critical condition and If the the convergent of the flow part of This pressure flow subsonic supersonic that does the is area, mass case pendently divergent to discharge servation relations. shows that isentropic isentropic The flow Observing optical in the waves. changes temperature is a rise process weak. normal shock. flow occurs Strong shocks) Weak direction means flow. Shock may in static
constant at is maintained part conditions to only and be of the
its maximum at the throat, nozzle the and for as any well It the some therefore, these pressure as is in figure values Pe_pt Pe_Pt cannot throat.
As long as the nozzle is choked to behave indethe area conwhich assume either 13) fig. or 13). by occur shock state Total there the because the AE, to allow fig. AE,
continues isentropic given the 13 of by ratio p_ will
beyond supersonic then exhaust one
throughout of throat satisfy curve
of the
nozzle,
energy, continuously. between to
isentropic
process,
is represented
falling
unreasonable p_ that AD, (curve (curve
is impossible
diffusion expansion take gas place, flow
to some
be isentropic. conditions changes flow are the fluid density in the and even pressure
under
nonisentropic
reveals that surfaces of abrupt These apparent discontinuities waves be across with shocks and shocks (and of the that are of very as remains there small thickness, considered a shock pressure, occurring constant
instantaneously. but, though
is a loss in total
an increase in entropy. occur normal to the result occur are shock thus in subsonic at some called small oblique supersonic, shock.
Shocks may be strong or flow (and are thus called downstream with respect and the the of the to the velocity number angle shocks), but
velocities
downstream is less Let for the If the D, than
remains of the the
Mach
upstream
us now region exhaust
complete of pressure pressure shock the
discussion between
of convergentdivergent points a little point D and below the
nozzles 13.
ratios
E in figure value part such
p, is reduced at some rises
at point of the that nozzle
a normal and
occurs
in the
divergent to a value plane
nozzle, isentropic
l)ressure diffusion
instantaneously from the
subsonic
occurs
shock
to the
17
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
exit. with and normal
The AK LF
flow being being shock H,
process the moves
in this
case
is illustrated KL As exit, At some being and
by
the the the
path normal
AKLF, shock, the is and
an isentropic isentropic toward such normal nozzle
expansion, diffusion. the shock is AEH. points and the E, H weaker and nozzle as AMNG.
pe is reduced value at the
further, flow process exit,
represented ing the to point flow For occur higher nozzle When flow the path
by a path the in the
of pe correspondnozzle
will be right
values because than exit, is again
of pe between it is too p_. In with the this shock strong case,
E,
a normal in shock previously, values to
shock occurs the
cannot pressure at point the E. final
would weaker
result oblique
a static
becoming isentropic.
as p_ approaches
p_ corresponds completely the from
to point nozzleexit
as mentioned For static lower pressure
nozzle outside
of p_, the pe occurs
expansion nozzle It should esses do tions abrupt, a shock shown not
in a nonisentropic be pointed in figure exactly place out 13 over effects from are
manner. that the previous In and distance. the The shown and general in figure the subsonic 13. Tables flow and Charts many in as discussion actuality, pressure flow Also, the realfluid and shock rise, the proceffects although consideraof are however,
idealized.
occur takes may
instantaneously a finite that make
produce similar
downstream
different
isentropic. to those
processes,
qualitatively
ThermodynamicProperty In sets books order of and to facilitate and charts Some properties reports.
FlowFunction and listed and its
thermodynamic have of these of been are air
calculations, and published 3 to 7. products 3 and with the
tables
constructed
as references combustion capacity and also
Thermodynamic functions charts ture. and The tables
of temperature include
are the
presented variation
in references in heat of air
4. These temperaindividual oxygen, 4 as
thermodynamic of air water and its vapor,
properties combustion and are argon) also
components carbon and properties well dioxide,
products are
(nitrogen,
presented the effect
in references 5. The of pressure,
5. Compressibility presented
factors in reference
presented
in reference
5 include
as temperature. compressibleflow of Mach number functions (TIT', pip', p/p',A/Ac,, and 7
Isentropic others)
as functions values normal
are presented ratio. shock Also
in references included are Reference _hock velocity
4, 6, and tables and 6 preequa
for various charts sents tions 18 for
of heatcapacity and oblique
calculations. and critical
a listing in terms
of compressible of both Mach
flow number
function and
function ratio.
THERMODYNAMIC
AND
FLUIDDYNAMIC
CONCEPTS
REFERENCES
1. 2. KUNKLE, pressed NELSON, JOHN Gas L. C.; S.j WILSON, OBERT, SAMUEL NASA E. F.: Eng., D.; How col. WILLIAM Products AND to 61, COTA, Use no. W.: from the RICHARD New . . 1954, of 3500 A.; ED: Com
Handbook. AND
SP3045,
1969. . Generalized pp. ° R. 203208. NACA
Compressibility 3. ENGLISH, Properties TN 4. 2071, ROBERT of 1950. Air
Charts. E.; and
AND
Chem.
WACHTL,
7, July Charts 300 ° to
Thermodynamic
Combustion
KEENAN, JOSEPH Inc., 1948. HILSENRATH, LILLA; KIAN, ties ties of of
H.;
AND
KAYE,
JOSEPH:
Gas
Tables.
John
Wiley
and
Sons,
5.
JOSEPH;
BECKETT, J.; MASI,
CHARLES JOSEPH
W.; F.;
BENEDICT, NUTTALL, W.: Tables
WILLIAM RALPH of and L.;
S.;
FANO,
HOGE, YERAM Gases Air,
HAROLD S.;
AND
TOULOUProperPropNitrogen,
WOOLLEY,
HAROLD of
Thermal Transport
Comprising Argon, Steam. STAFF: 1135, Carbon NBS
Tables Dioxide, Circular
Thermodynamics Carbon 564, Monoxide, National and Charts
Hydrogen, Bureau for of
Oxygen, Nov. l, 6. AMES
and 1955.
Standards, Flow.
RESEARCH Rep.
Equations,
Tables,
Compressible
NACA 7. LEwis
1953. COMPUTING Ratios STAFF: from Tables 1.28 to of 1.38. Various NACA Mach TN Number 3981, 1957.
LABORATORY for
Functions
SpecificHeat
19
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SYMBOLS A
a aj c_ b_ c
flow
area,
m2; ft _
acceleration, m/seC; ft/sec 2 speed of sound, m/sec; ft/sec general constants for polynomial, heat capacity at constant pressure, unbalanced conversion force, N; constant, lb 1 ; 32.17 eq. (116) J/(kg)(K); (lbm) Btu/(lb)(°R)
F g h J M M_
m
(ft)/(lbf)(seC)
specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu Mach mass, absolute heat heat number, weight, lb pressure, N/mS; lb/ft 2 Btu/lb J/kg; Btu/lb (°R) 1545 (ft)(lbf)/ to system, by J/kg; kg; added produced defined kg/(kg by eq. mole); (159) lb/(lb mole) molecular
P q ql R RI R*
friction,
gas constant, J/(kg) frictional resistance universal (lb mole) gas constant,
(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) force, N; lb 8314 J/(kg
mole)(K);
(°R) J/(kg) (K) ; Btu/(lb) K; °R (°R)
8
specific absolute time, specific
entropy, sec internal absolute volume, work rate, flow
T t
temperature,
energy, velocity, m3/kg; done kg/sec;
J/kg; m/sec; ft3/lb by
Btu/lb ft/sec
V
V Ws w x
fluid specific
mechanical mass length, specific ratio
system,
J/kg;
Btu/lb
lb/sec
in; ft potential of heat energy, factor, capacity volume lb/ft 3 condition condition (M: 1) J/kg; defined at constant (ft)(lbf)/lbm by eq. (14) to heat capacity pressure
Z
Z
compressibility at constant
P
density, critical critical exhaust throat
kg/m_; state flow
Subscripts: c cr e t Superscript: ' 90
absolute
total
state
CHAPTER 2
Basic Turbine Concepts
ByArthur. Glassman J
This efficiency, nitions, the the blades end chapter and and diagrams, of this introduces performance and blading chapter. turbine dimensionless geometry are geometric, parameters. defined flow, energytransfer, by Terms in the means of defito at referring
characteristics
primarily
GLOSSARY,
TURBINE
FLOW Analysis
AND
ENERGY System
TRANSFER
Coordinate energytransfer coordinate system of rotation, and These three variation wheel. form
An bine through directed ally gentially
analysis requires
of the some
flow
and
processes system. consists For
within fluid directed directed radial, of flow flow use
a turflowing raditanand in the t)aramaverage planes
convenient wheel, axis
a turning parallel the to three average) For many the directions plane
a logical
of one
coordinate
to the axis rotating
one one are 21. planes.
coordinate coordinate the axial,
through
of rotation, indicated
tangential These radialaxial blade eters. values. are of
in figure
coordinates depicts radial types and
Analysis desired the and
the
circumferentiallyaveraged of the ignore values we can
(or bladetocircumferential just
axial
of calculations, is called value Velocity are
(or bladetoblade) Such Calculations usually the third made at some
variation in the constant calculations
of parameter axialtangential (rather diagram, usually
a calculation
an axisymmetric or radialthan as made well
analysis. tangential conditions) planes. When 21
for average in these
coordinate.
as bladetoblade
velocityvariation,
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
2
Vu
FIGURE
21.Velocity
components
for
a generalized
rotor.
flow turbine, nantly plane
is predominantly the axial, is used. such as
radial, in an
such plane axialflow
as
at
the
inlet When the
to flow
a radialflow is predomi
radialtangential
is used. turbine,
axialtangential
Velocity One is the tions. shapes For interest. ered other of flow _2 of the fluid To and flow For relative blade relative most, with velocity assist types, in and flow to the row if not in the and we use across in and rotating
Vectors the most,
and
Diagrams variables flow different and absolute velocities of relative in this similar later and that energy coordinate in depicting velocities must chapter, to the velocities flow analysis we will transfer direcblading are of and in
important of turbine in the analyses the rotors, In terms
be concerned
analysis its variation these the across
us in making
velocityvector stators, the
diagrams. be consid
blade.
parameters
to be discussed passage.
a rotating
can be analyzed
in a manner
in a stationary
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
Velocitydiagram downstream inside ferential represent The velocities. Relative
or
calculations various In blade making rows.
are rows the
made
at
locations diagrams,
upstream the
and circumvectors relative
of the blade
or at just velocity
infinitesimal velocity and that velocity the
distances
the
variations in flow the circumferential velocity diagram the In making
are not average both
considered. The of the flow. the absolute note diagram,
shows velocity
velocity=Absolute
velocityBlade
(21)
where W V U Since consider relative absolute blade blade the velocity velocity velocity velocity vector vector vector is always that
W=VU
(22)
in the is, the
tangential blade
direction, speed. So,
we need we can
only write
magnitude,
W= The shows this absolute velocity the velocity and diagram components diagram relative in figure of the to be 22 absolute drawn
VU represents and in an be equation axialtangential expressed in terms (23) and plane, of
(23) also the their
relative
velocities.
Assuming
velocities
can
Absolute Relative angle angle of flow, cl7 I I I
of flow,
V V x = Wx
VU
FIGURE
22.Typical of absolute
velocityvector and relative
diagram velocities in
having the same
tangential direction.
components
23
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
components
in the
axial
and
tangential 2
directions
as (24) (25)
V2:V_2qV,, and W 2=W2+ where V V= Vu W IV= W_ magnitude axial tangential magnitude axial tangential of V, m/see; component of W, m/see; component ft/sec
Wu 2
component
of absolute
velocity,
m/see; velocity,
ft/sec m/see; ft/sec
of absolute ft/sec velocity,
component
of relative
m/see;
ft/sec m/see; ft/sec
of relative
velocity,
If this diagram (fig. 22) were drawn the values marked as axial components From figure 22, we see that we can W_,=V,,U
in the radialtangential plane, would be radial components. write (26)
A are shown gram and in valid.
sign of the
convention components exact same 22. of we
must of We 23. the will and
be
established since shape have, and and for instance,
for not as the
the all the
angles velocity example the
and
the
tangential
velocity, could In this
diagrams diagram diacomponents are directed (26) that is velocity
geometrical
in figure shown flow angles
example,
in figure directions,
tangential velocities that equation
absolute adopt
relative obvious stick with
opposite
it is not
Therefore,
the
convention
Relative angle of flow,
13_
rAbsolute angle of flow, cI
._ t FIGURE 23.Typical absolute
Wu
Wx = Vx Wx = Vx U I components of
velocityvector ap.d relative
diagram having tangential velocities in opposite directions.
24
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
all are we
angles in the can
and
tangential of the that in positive analysts above then opposite see figure
components blade to the equation 23, value use positive of a rotor. Also, many if you direction should by used of at velocity blade (26) where the and
of velocity and velocity. remains a above a location negative work than In many analysts rather have someone small are
are With valid
positive this for
if they are
direction
negative
if they convention, the value value for all for
in the diagram minus Not Some
direction now a larger all use turbine the and shown
velocity of Vu Wu. cases.
positive
U yields
a negative convention immediately directions cases this with the
convention switch
upstream at locations working defined direction velocitysure information. that
of a rotor immediately with with
downstream values. to the
avoids angles axial to use
negative respect
tangential generated convention
as we are using. diagram you are aware
Therefore, of the
occasion else,
information
make this
in generating
Energy The tively of the a the of the 1 and sumed. regarded being The mutually in magnitude rise to an change a radial nents the basic simple generalized angular by at fluid 2 are as inlet rotor any at any the energytransfer and is only to a fluid velocity. path, radii points traversing Fluid and 1 and velocity the velocity velocity must radial the
Transfer for all turbomachines Second 21 axis point the at Law represents of rotation 1, passes 2. The angle, of steady inlet for and the the mass into The the rotor gives velocity rotor bearing. rise compofor and state outlet of the is rein of Motion a rotor and through directions points is asare flow three change gives The to
relation a form a rotor. with enters 2 are the at is discharged
of Newton's Figure 00 rotor any at
as applied
turbomachine,
at point arbitrary
rl and
r2. A condition the values can discussed components be taken by velocity axial nor motion change that results average vectors
Further, considered. and
vectors
representing outlet
be resolved previously. through a thrust components the radial of the
perpendicular of the axial force, axial
components which of the Neither on the
in magnitude bearing have any load. effect
angular It is the of velocity fluid
(except and
effect
of bearing
friction). components of the
in magnitude corresponds in the
radius
of the transfer. Net outlet
tangential
to a change desired energy
in angular
momentum
and
rotor products
torque
is equal
to
the
difference times radius,
between or
the
inlet
and
of tangential
force
r:(F_r)_(F,,r)2
(27) 25
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
where net F_ r torque, m; ft equation to V=V (134) in the and tangential setting direction, w=m/t yields integrating from Nm; force, lbft N; lb tangential radius,
Applying V=O
at t=O
at t=t,
_w_ Vu F,,g where w g rate of mass flow, constant, equation kg/sec; lb/sec (lbm) (27) (ft)/(lbf)(seC) then yields conversion 1; 32.17 (28) into
(28)
Substituting
T =
W
g
Yu,
lrl
_
w V,.2r2
=
g (V_.lrtV_.2r2) to the product of torque
(29)
Power angular
(rate
of energy
transfer)
is equal
and
velocity: p_r_ w _(rlV_ 1r2V_ 2)
J gJ
.
,
(210)
where P J Since
roo:V
net
power,
W;
Btu/sec rad/sec 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu
angular conversion
velocity, constant,
(211)
we can
write p=W gj (UIV_.,U2V,.2) P=whh' (212)
But (213) or Btu/lb. Substituting equation
where (213)
h' is total into equation
enthalpy, (212)
in J/kg yields
(214)
J t
where machines between between 26
Ah' is here (214) and the the fluid two
defined is the and UV_ the
as hih2. basic the rotor terms. work must The equation equation. way be accounted equation for All all the forms energy of turbotransfer difference it Euler
Equation
is called
for by the (214)
is stated,
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
can with fluid will
be seen the
that
Ah' must balance, as positive.
be positive equation the Euler with diagrams radial Actually, although the
for a turbine. (146), equation 24, are velocity in where into
This work another shows
is consistent done form. an for the by the This inlet the can
energy
is defined be done blade outlet. or the for
It is useful turbine and There inlet sarily
to transform with The outlet same the aid along section
of figure
which
axialflow planes.
diagrams axialtangential of velocity locations are
velocity to be no locations, radius.
is assumed at the
component these the case. we get
at either not also
neces
following
derivation
be made From
a general (24)
threedimensional and (25),
equations
Vx *: V 2 V= _ and Wx_=W*W,, Substituting equation (26) into (216) _ gives
(215) (216)
Vx, 1 = Wx, 1
Wu, 1
Ul
of rotation ''e*
Direction
V_. _z E'
,__i/_,," Vx, 2 = WX,2
u2
\
' Vu, 2
FIGURE
24.Rotor
section
with
inlet
and
exitvelocityvector
diagrams.
27
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
W,_=W*(V,,U)
Since Vx= Wz, combining equations (215)
2
and (217) U2 yields
(217)
V 2 V,,2=W Therefore,
_ V,,2+2UV_
(218)
UV,,= 1 (V_+U2W
Now, adding subscripts for inlet and outlet
2)
yields
(219)
U1V.,,
1 (V_+U2
W2 )
(220)
1 U2V _ _:2 (W+U_2W_ _) Inserting yields Ah'2gJ Equation relation. By (222) definition, 1 (V2 V2_+U__U2_+W2_ Wt2 ) these values into the Euler equation (eq. (214))
(221)
finally
(222)
is an
alternative
form
of
the
basic
energytransfer
,
,
Vl _
V__
2gJ (223) equation (223)
Ah'=hlh2=hl+_h2. Therefore, shows that comparison of equation 1 Ah:h_h2=_gj Thus, in static change of terms transfer. the U 2 and enthalpy in absolute are W 2 terms across kinetic the (UI2U22 of equation rotor, while across to as energy referred Blade As mentioned tum the of the rotor. fluid The change is actually fluid flows a centrifugal previously, that in results following tangential transferred through force acts (222)
with
+W22W_ (222) the the the
2) the represent three of
(224) change the pairs energy
represent V 2 terms These
rotor.
sometimes
components
Loading change transfer and in the of energy figure and passage 25 the tangential from concern way momenthe fluid the to the of cause
it is the in the discussion to the the on
of this energy blades, 28 As the
momentum wheel. curved
in which each of the pair
between
it in the
direction
pressure
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
Stations
1
2
f
Flow
sur,_ce J \\1
/ / Suction surface "_ ]
I
Flow
Axial chord
pll
Pl
m
P2 Suction surface,'
Axial distance
FIGURE
25.Blade
row
with
surface
staticpressure
distribution.
29
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
(concave) surface. Since the free to move in the direction must be established its curved and toward passage surface. resulting to balance through the flow in the suction The
fluid is constrained of the centrifugal the centrifugal pressure (convex) pressure
and, therefore, force, a pressure force and turn the
not force fluid
path. The the suction at the
force is directed surface. Thus, surface on and the
normal to the pressure lowest blade at the
is highest distribution
of static
pressure
surfaces axial point
is illustrated distance. At where the tion value. flowing point, trailing crease the
in figure 25, where pressure or near the blade leading edge
is plotted against there is a stagnation
velocity becomes The stagnation to On the the exit the along two the pressure
zero and the pressure point is the dividing sides blade surface, and curve The of the surfaces the then blade. static increase in the decreases
reaches its stagnapoint for the fluid From pressure back figure curves the toward will up 25 stagnation the to the blade deexit often
around edge. below
suction pressure
pressure. The pressuredistribution the the bladeloading blade force diagram. acting in the
illustrated area between direction.
is called represents
tangential
Relative Flow flow moving similar in a rotating passage passage can by
Conditions be analyzed considering relative total in a manner conditions total enthalpy enthalpy. similar in a manner to
in a stationary
relative
to the
passage. Let us first define to the definition of absolute
h"__h+2_
where examine through to equation h" the is relative what happens (225), rotor. total enthalpy, (224)
J
in J/kg or Btu/lb. as the Now fluid
(225)
let us
to relative
total
enthalpy we substitute
flows
If in equation we get
for W 2 according
h '2' h ','Therefore, through For quently, constant We enthalpy. 3O can the purely we see that rotor axial no change for the also This define flow, rotor the where flow relative only there speed, process.
U_ UI_ 2 gJ total is no the enthalpy is a change change relative total of the in the in radius enthalpy to relative T". fluid blade and,
(226)
flowing speed. conseremains total When
changes in blade
if there
a temperature the relative
that
corresponds temperature,
is called
total
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
idealgaslaw we can write where c_ T heat
behavior
and
constant
heat
capacity
can
be
assumed, (227)
h"h=%(T"T) capacity at constant K; pressure, °R with equation W 2 T" From and equation relative total (151) and = T _ 2gJc_ (228), related
V__W 2
J/(kg)(K);
Btu/(lb)(°R)
absolute
temperature, equation (227)
Combining
(225)
then
yields
(228) we see as follows" that the absolute
equation are
temperatures
T'
T"
2gJc_ write T_') shows U_ V12 2gJcp like remains defined a relative relative constant as the total for pressure that
(229)
For
the
rotor
flow
process,
we can
h_'h_'=cp(T_'Combining this with equation T_'(226) T_'
(230)
(231) enthalpy, purely of axial a fluid a static
Therefore, depends flow Relative brought pressure through
relative only on a rotor. total to rest
total blade pressure
temperature, speed can and be from
]!
isentropically
velocity
W and
p. Therefore,
where p" _, relative total pressure, N/m2; at lb/ft 2 pressure to heat capacity at
ratio of heat capacity constant volume this equation and
constant
From
equation
(152),
we also
see that
p"
p' For crease, the rotor or remain and flow on process, the
(T"y/(,')
=\_;,T/ (233) total on purely pressure the change axial can flow, increase, relative detotal total 31
relative depending losses. For
constant,
in relative
temperature
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
pressure it must We
will remain decrease. can define
constant
only Mach
if the number W
a
flow Mr_
is isentropic; as
otherwise,
a relative
M,_=
(234)
and
a relative
critical
velocity
as
Wct=a_.,_=_l where
gRT"
(235)
We,
act, ttt
critical speed gas
velocity, of sound
m/sec; at relative J/(kg) similar
ft/sec critical condition, m/sec; ft/sec
R Then, and
constant,
(K) ; (ft) (lb) / (lb) (° R) to the way we derived equations (160)
in a manner (164), we can
get T" 1+ T 21 M_e_ (236)
and T,,1 3,+1 Reaction The enthalpy) portant energy classifying of reaction, types fraction that way of of total energy by a exit transfer a change turbine kinetic (change in static stage. energy used Reaction The is one in both in absolute is one in is the parameter change in in way total imof kinetic degree for static total total total _ (237)
is obtained classifying of the row. The simply, diagrams,
enthalpy change important cases
as a fraction a blade or more
parameter the reaction. and
is used
for classifying
of velocity
it is also
an important as the
correlating losses. Stage reaction.Stage enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy through we can across across across across the write stator. tile the the the rotor
reaction stage. stage rotor, Note is the since
is defined of the the as the above that same total
as a fraction
change change cha_lge
in absolute absolute in absolute remains of stage
enthalpy detiIlition
constant reaction,
According
to the
R_'_hl' where ditions 32 R,tc is stage reaction, and and
hlh_ hi subscripts rotor, 1 and 2 refer
(238)
the
to con
upstream
downstream
of the
respectively.
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
The
preceding
equation
for equations
reaction (222)
can
be and
expressed (224)
in terms into equation.
of
velocities. Substituting (238) yields
R.,,Reaction (U_2U_ Zero stage rotor, can 2) and reaction design. and all the be positive, (W2_Wl_). is one If Rst0=0, work
(U?U22) + (W 2W ?) V22)+ (U2 U22) (W22_W2) +
negative, or zero, depending on the
(239)
values
of
important there done by
value is no the
that
characterizes in static is a result
a particular enthalpy of the in the change in
change stage
absolute kinetic energy across the stage. This stage is called an impulse stage. In the general case where the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at different and radii, enthalpy an equal an impulse in one effect. change For stage in the purely may other axial result direction flow, of relative WI= W2. basis of from by the any having a change (U 2) by only. the in static Thus, of static effect direction contributed centrifugal change
contributed velocity
relativevelocity
enthalpy must be caused by a change an axialflow impulse stage must have Some pressure definition people in the in terms define rotor impulse rather than pressure is due on the no
no
change the same
in
static This as that the
change
in static For
enthalpy. flow,
of static difference coincide.
is approximately to losses.
used herein. The definitions exactly Simple windmill, from the lawn rotation. Bladerow energy energy to that kinetic bladerow stage For at the blade energy reaction. a stator examples or the sprinkler
isentropic
of impulse paddle nozzle. that wheel ejects
turbines operated the water reaction blade These or row are
are by
the the
child's impingement
pinwheel, turbine thus as of the the the
the is
of a fluid causing kinetic kinetic relative change Therefore, by in
a stationary
A simple
example from is as a the
of a reaction nozzles, defined fraction kinetic rotor, to that
reaction.Bladerow within row. For the exit. a bladerow corresponds represents
develol)ed
energies
stator to the
axialflow in static similar
change
enthalpy.
reaction
an effect
represented
blade
row,
reaction
is defined
as
R,,
V1_ V°21 V12 For a rotor
V°2 Vl 2 blade row, reaction
(240) is defined
where
as
Rs, is stator
reaction.
33
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
R
W22W1_=
toW22
l

W12
W22
(241)
where tions stream In velocities equations first
R,o is rotor upstream of the some rotor,
reaction. of the stator, the of and than kinetic (241)
The
subscripts downstream reaction This that
0, 1, and of the
2 refer stator,
to condiand downterms similar of to
respectively. bladerow energies. except (i.e., is defined definition velocities than V2). is in appear
literature, instead (240) rather
the
to the
power
squared
V rather
Turbine For formation velopment when this the fact presented gaslaw shown peratures pressure, veniently all adiabatic expansion of work)
Expansion processes, kinetic for This later
Process the maximum or energy ratio from and the With pressure energy transfer trans(de
(development of mechanical process equations graphically and that (but
energy) a given can
is obtained previously the ideal
is isentropic. a little
be proven discussion.
we will not
do it here),
we will illustrate previously by temtemperature, we can conexpansion diagram. against with from
in this
constantheatcapacity energies and energy and temperature entropy all the by being ideal
assumptions, we have changes can be represented Therefore, and with actual variables (isentropic) of interest,
changes.
and
represent
processes in a turbine The temperatureentropy entropy increasing for lines temperature
means of a temperatureentropy diagram is a plot of temperature pressure. decreasing Since pressure, entropy as can and
of constant
increases be seen
Constantentropy
b.
E
Pl > P2 > P3 E
b
I
Entropy, s
FIGURE
26.Typical
temperatureentropy
diagram.
34
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
the
discussion 1, by a shown the pressure the into four
of in
the
coastantentropy1)rocess or A increasing diverge; temperature increasing. the each be turbine shown combined Ts, 26. At constantentropy values therefore, difference
thermodynamics diagram of at looks process temperature increasing between process Ts a single any will diagram. diagram. like is repre
in the and values two be
chapter example sented entropy, of constant For divided These The the given
temperatureentropy, figure line. curves the is also of clarity, steps, with will then
a vertical pressure entropy, curves four diagrams purposes
expansion in a separate into
four diagrams represent the stator expansion process relation between absolute and relative conditions
(fig. 27 (a)), at the stator
P()" id P'L
_,,_JcT_= T_ TO
Ti
Tj'
7
vl
p?
T1 Tl, kJ NJCp 0 (a) (b) T1
i.
p_
/
P_'
T_'
Ti' : T_'
/
T_
2gJcp >2gJCp P2 T2
hl_
T2 ....
CPl
(c)
l Entropy, s
(d)
(a)
Expansion
process
across
stator.
(b)
Relation relative
between conditions between conditions at steps at
absolute stator relative rotor of an exit. exit.
and
(c)
Expansion
process
across
rotor.
(d)
Relation absolute
and
FIGURE
27.Temperatureentropy flow
diagrams turbine.
for
flowprocess
axial
35
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
exit blades
(fig.
27(b)), 27(c)), at the
the rotor shows and
rotor and the exit the curves after by the were
expansion relation (fig. 27(d)). expansion represent expansion. vertical isentropic, 1,id. The increase that than we the
process between process the The
relative relative across static between with final state and kinetic
to the and the
moving absolute The total at each state If that from by ideal in be (151).
(fig.
conditions Figure four state point the state the by the indicated small pressures and
27(a) before the by
stator.
constantpressure is represented total the expansion 0 to state arrows. actual process 1 with It
absolute energy the static
distance the actual the be
state subscript can
point
in accordance
equation would
process kinetic
proceeds as indicated energy by the
a small be noted is less
in entropy, developed through
developed the rotor
process
would analyze
process. As mentioned terms of relative the absolute and are gies terms represent expansion. If the related and total expansion of the the For expansion static The
previously,
flow
conditions. Figure 27(b) shows the relation between relative total states at the stator exit. These states and across conditions. and relative axial the the absolute rotor The total flow the and is shown four is relative in figure before so would and that kinetic 27(c) curves after T;'= indicated the T_'. enin are indicated in the figure.
isentropica]ly, temperatures process relative
constantpressure
pressures assumed, state
simplicity, were 2,id. by
isentropic,
final
be that
by the subscript state 2, as indicated Here by the again it can actual
The actual process proceeds from state 1 to the small arrows, with an increase in entropy. that the relative would and be kinetic energy by states related at one relative by being, Note the ignore that line 28, the alone. across subscript where subIn the 2,id the developed an at ideal the isenstage is less the figure and 27 static, than relative 27(d). absolute are now developed total are energies into and
be noted
process between in
process. The relation rotor exit
absolute states kinetic
is shown
These
tropically, and the exit are indicated. The shown state through enthalpy point figure script figure entire 36 (p_, 27(c), the 2,id 28, stage four as diagrams figure
relative of figure The the
combined total, are the ! time indicated
diagram total arrows the the in
28. for
absolute For right state line. expansion to the The
processes the
turbine state
expansion points. on the the point
appropriate T2._d), state refers the (both which the the
differences is not to
indicated is on same ideal 2,id and
of the
figure.
constantentropy in figure figure the 27(c), rotor In ideal
as in(licated across l_,_t_fing
it is on
0 constantentropy refers rotor).
subscript stator
expansion of the
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
T_" T_
i1 ii
To T_? T_' '_
p
=_ _Po \
P2
Ah'
(h6Ahid
lh j,,J
T1
T_
Ca
E
T' 2, id
I
Ahid (h 6 " h2, id )
T2 TZ id
Entropy, FIGURE 28.Temperatureentropy
s for a stage of an axialflow turbine.
diagram
is,
therefore, from
ambiguous figure from 28 an
but that by ideal
is commonly the T owork T_) turbine is less
used than
in both from the (as the work
senses. real that
It turbine could
is
obvious process
obtained process
(as represented
be obtained To T;. ,d).
represented
by
BladeRow Since parameter used actual blade for turbine this blade purpose rows do not
Efficiency operate efficiency, by the ideal isentropically, One exit common kinetic which we need as the of the a
to express
bladerow is bladerow divided
performance.
parameter energy
is defined
exit kinetic energy row. For the stator,
V_I
(242)
where
_
is stator
efficiency. 27(a). By
The
relation
between
V_ (151),
and
2 Vl._a
is
indicated in figure (155), we get
applying
equations
(152),
and
L For the rotor
\pod
(243)
Wi _'°=W_, ,d
where Vro is rotor in figure efficiency. 27(c). The For relation axial between flow, W_ and
(244)
W_._d
is indicated
purely
37
TURBINE
D]_SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
W_,,d=2gJc_,T;' Thus, with inlet conditions in than and
1\_,/ efficiency of known kinetic
j for a given exit static energy as is blade
(245)
row,
it is possible Bladerow expressed
to calculate performance as a loss rather
exit velocity terms
for a specified
pressure. sometimes
as an efficiency, e=ln
(246)
where total
e is the pressure.
kineticenergy performance Several the
loss coefficient. also can be expressed of this type used ideal for Axial
t
Bladerow differing by dimensionless. actual dynamic
in terms have to make dynamic this been
of a loss used,
in
coefficients
each
normalizing parameter Inlet total pressure, exit head have all been used
the coefficient head, and exit as follows:
purpose
Stator:
I
rotor:
/I It
y,
popl,
Po
f f
YTo_P'
ff
P2,,
PI
_f
(247a)
v'
Pop___._ "P;Pl
! !
,, yT o__P, P2 p_ p_
I¢ t!
'
(247b)
V"
"PoPl
Y"o
P_
P2
p2
P2
(247c)
• 'tP_pl
where between pressure stated,
Y,
Y', the
and
Y"
are can
totalpressure loss a Mach and transfer the coefficient be derived.
loss These
coefficients. and the relations
Relations totalsimply
kineticenergy they involve Turbine
various are not
loss coefficients and
number Stage
dependency.
Efficiencies when isentropic, The energy above which the expansion we need parameter as the transfer. The are or from that a
Turbine process parameter that ratio This we use
or stage is isentropic.
energy Since turbine
is maximum is never or stage
process
for expressing is the energy is known ways sections
turbine transfer as the
performance. (isentropic) or adiabatic the
or stage
efficiency,
is defined efficiency. definition
of actual efficiency
to ideal isentropic
several different discussed in the Overall stage or the we 38 stage turbine are process. to
that we can to follow. efficiency ratio energy of actual transfer condition
apply refers energy based to the
e_ciency.Overall It is the the ideal or stage
to the transferred on exit and
overall
turbine turbine flow Note at
in the
isentropic pressure. are not,
inlet
discussing
aerodynamic
efficiency
present,
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
considering seal friction. We will turbine. however, energy. absolute in figure Now to do total
mechanical define actual energy energy enthalpy consider basis
inefficiencies energy is the transfer transfer across the transfer one as
due
to items as the by shaft
such
as bearing done by
and the
work
This actual Actual total 28.
definition
used
most herein
people; work and ideal is the this
occasionally, l)lus exit kinetic decrease is indicated available inlet, the is available in
is defined defined turbine
as shaft or stage, the
we must work on the
whether of static because work. used
to define or total the inlet
energy At the
conditions. kinetic
state
is ahvays
used
energy
for conversion conditions are used. plenum, energy shaft for expand the If the then could work
to shaft sometimes the have
At the turbine or stage exit., static and total conditions are sometimes kinetic is just a case, because with total state energy wasted. have it would zero would in tile would stages they on the on energy basis most gas and, are may basis the we use is dissipated, This been the exit be wasted static desirable energy. the as in a kinetic to state to In exit
turbine
exhaustflow energy In static the such work been turbine. exit case, 1)ut to use
exit kinetic
if it could
converted
in the
computation down to the ideal
of ideal
state exit
exit. kinetic equal above not be basis serves
this desirable static state. If we were the loss. are shaft kinetic The carried work.
considering energy from energies to the the the the turbine total before turbine state last other
a multistage only next the stage, stages are last the leaving stage
turbine stage other where rated
situation, as a but to static exit purof this to velocity the total cases based inlet The and are on exit total a wasted,
be considered converted of their a useful work example be expanded a high between the inlet The of these work
kinetic over Thus,
is rated
of its exit
condition, while total conditions. In pose, from case high leaving The total exit effi('iency total rel)resented in(licated the exit total kinetic energy) efficien('y between the cases the the is the velocity the and where entire exit
turbineexit is rated conditions. turbine. leaving the the on
kinetic the The the engine, ideal
of ideal obvious must therefore,
computed
jetengine
Here
is not based on ideal is ideal 28.
a waste. work available the static between efficiency. for each the ideal is culled available tile be total seen that decrease efficiency.
efficiency exit based by
static on the the
('.on(litions work called enthall)y It can must based than
conditions in figure
conditions
con(tition than that higher two
be less (as long on the exit static static with efficiency, increasing
as there condition. with exit.
is some Thus, the
is always
difference energy. 39
increasing
kinetic
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Overall
turbine
efficiency
_ and
stage
efficiency
_tg
are
defined
by
similar equations. The inlet and exit conditions, stage. Overall turbine
subscripts instead static
in and ex are used to denote turbine of the subscripts 0 and 2 used for the can be expressed as
efficiency
(248a)
For the idealgaslaw reduces to
and
constantheatcapacity T',.T',_ V / p,, \(_l)/_l
assumptions,
this
T;.
Overall turbine total efficiency is expressed
J
as
(248b)
hh' h;.h',_ _' = ._7, =h' _'
(249a)
For the idealgaslaw reduces to
and
constantheatcapacity
assumptions,
this
._, _ T_
T'_.T',_ [1 \p__/ _(''>"] (P_= are similarly defined but overall performance efficiency (249b)
Stage
total
and
static
efficiencies e3_ciency
with
the
appropriate Relation efficiency turbine. stages effect (248b) a given which ture figure perature stage though the the gram, 4O
subscripts. of turbine is useful However, to stage a true efficiency.The overall of the turbine of the of the as a measure of the
it is not
indication
comprising the turbine. There is an inherent thermodynamic hidden in the overall turbine efficiency expression. If equation or (249b) stage gas the gas is then all the overall pressure would entering losses entering capable individual turbine of stages. can as be shown 29. by The means solid of a temt)eratureentropy verticnl line O2,id diarepresents figure for a stage of the 28, were written ratio the of one the of and stage. stage following delivering stages still may for a stage, stage For appear stage have it could the be seen energy to as can form work. the on same the the that transfer, teml)eratemeven and for efficiency, is prol)ortional a turbine, in the (T_T2,_,).
be (ToT_),
be __een from This following efficiency, ratio
of a higher Therefore, stage
additional del)ends
efficiency
pressure
number This effect such
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
Pk
k _ \\ 1
b
E
¢D
i '
\\ A,'i .,tg
\
_\ Ahld: stg
E
¢D b
\I:
\\
Ahld, stg
2,id
Entropy, s
FIGURE
29.Temperatureentropy
diagram turbine.
showing
reheat
effect
in a multistage
isentropic dashed taking The difference with p_), that greater constant EF ing the which and the sum the line place
expansion 02 in three work ideal values the
from stages, obtained work
inlet the each for
pressure process having each As lines Hence, by the of work lines stages, that represented from
Po to of overall the same stage
exit
pressure
p_.
The _' _'sto.
represents
turbine stage
efficiency efficiency previously,
actual
is ,7_tg Ah_,.stt, pressure second CD work for stage is greater this stage EF
where the (p_ stage an(l, to is for
Ah_d. stg is
a stage.
mentioned for the
of temperature isentropic by of by virtue than work turbine work AB. the B2,id. for it can ideal the
between of entropy. represented Thus, the inefficiency actual With three work be seen
of constant the the line
increases than
increasing represented stage ideal is the B2,id.
isentropic will CD, and Z Ah;dstg by
previous and
efficiency,
be greater.
Similarly, representthan of 0A, Ah_, AB,
is greater
0A,
2; Ahld. stt representing is greater the sum
of these,
41
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
The these
total two
actual be values
turbine must
work by
obtained either Thus, ' 7'
from
the
expansion _tg
from
Po and
to P'2 can
represented
Ah',d or
Z Ah'_.,t,,
be equal. 'Ah'
(250)
or
, __
z ah,_.,,, Ah'_
(251)
Since greater This between The stages
2_ Ah'_d,s,g than effect
_Ah_d,
the
turbine
overall
isentropic
efficiency This external for must
is not
the stage isentropic efficiencies, or _' _tg. in turbines is called the "reheat" effect. with the which for process is also calculating stage pressure of adding called overall ratio heat turbine p_/p_ from an "reheat".
be confused
source several stage
stages, equation of constant _t_ is
efficiency and
constant
efficiency
,
_1 
I
1_,t_ 1 \_oo/
1\_£]
( p i t nt(.y_ l)l_, ]
J)
(252)
where n is the number be found in reference The on the not higher sirable In order ciency fact that stage ratio, pressure
of stages. 1. efficiency raises of two of their is helped all reheat small a gas where a true
The
derivation from turbine
of this efficiency,
equation
can
differs machines by
depending ratios one be is of deeffiand and for isen
an important aerodynamic the
consideration. of different behavior, effect. would from increment It efficiency have reheat this
A comparison pressure as the would
of turbine a true
efficiencies comparison ratio
pressure to be able
to express
aerodynamic effect, stage.
for a turbine. to be the p
to eliminate
of an infinitesimally T, suppose stage
Infinitesimalstage temperature temperature an infinitesimal tropicefficiency (TdT),
eff_ciency.Starting is expanded d T is the we write efficiency
pressure (pdp) using of temperature
to pressure vp. By
of isentropic
the
definition,
d T = _pT E l (ppdp and dTT_ _1o[1(I 42
) (_ ' ) /_]
(253)
__)(_
z,l_]
(254)
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
These
equations definition. should than
are
not Some be
quite
rigorously ignore
in accord the fact
with that
the the
isentropicactual work authors across seems to differen
efficiency differential tial make the be the Using evaluation rather the
authors
proportional statictemperature that there that expansion (254) so that
to the
totaltemperature differential. in kinetic the Other energy it ahvays
the stage,
assumption temperature series
is no change is used in
infinitesimal static the
d T'd T. However,
infinitesimalefficiency (1#x) n= 1 +nx for
expression. approximation yields of equation
dT 7_1 dp T _ 7 I' Integrating between the turbine inlet
Tfn
(255)
and
exit
yields
In _(256) z/P7"Y
1 In p_"
Pex
Equation
(256)
can
be written
as
The dynamic efficiency from called we get
infinitesimalstage efficiency, is also method where a l)olytropic for the the known
efficiency exclusive as the the process of an the
_p is SUl)posedly effect of pressure efficiency. process , and the v from exl)onent for
the This
true ratio. name
aeroThis arises is law,
l)olytropic polytropic
of expressing n is called process.
irreversible
path the ideal
as pv"= process gas
constant,
Substituting
l)olytropic
T,n
{p,n'_
(nl)/n
\p,,!
Equations process relate were l)olytropic (257) and efficiency (258) as and are the very similar, and if as the
(25s)
turbine we couhl
to be expressed
a ])olytroi)ic polytrol)ic
process, exponent
then
n1
n
),1
?
(259)
If we neglect
inlet
and
exit,
kinetic
energies
for
the
overall
turbine 43
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
process, ciency.
we Actual
can
relate
turbine drop
overall could
efficiency be expressed
to as
polytropic
effi
temperature
T_ _Te_='_T_,
or
E1 \__,/ y"l)/_ (Pe_
1 J
(260)
_1
(_e_)
_'{(_
1)/_]
L \_/
Equating (260) with (261) then yields
k
J
(261)
_=1\_/
(262)
This proach unity. ciency
relation each However, levels,
is illustrated other at the two as higher
in
figure ratio can
210. and ratios, differ
The
two
efficiencies each at lower
apeffi
pressure efficiencies
efficiency especially signiticantly.
approach
pressure
.9Turbine
¢
pressure
r_tio /.,///
_.,,_
09 .8 B
b
.5
1
.7 Turbine
I
,8 poly_ropic efficiency, ffp
I
.9
I
1.0
FIGURE
210.Relation
between Specific
turbine heat ratio
overall 7, 1.4.
and
polytropic
efficiencies.
44
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
DIMENSIONLESS Dimensionless classify number introduced turbine of the and parameters geometry, serve and
PARAMETERS to correlate classify turbine velocity diagrams, A use are of
performance. parameters for the
more commonly used dimensionless discussed in this section. The basis is dimensional Dimensional analysis. Analysis that allows
dimensionless
parameters
Dimensional comprising light taining the sional that number some procedure on the two variables
analysis a physical nature or the more necessary physical
is a procedure relation relation. number variables. to include relation equation term the forming 1)rocedure may The
a group they groups,
of variables throw each will once some the conbe and states of a of
to be arranged
so that
of the
It is a procedure of dimensionless number all the between is the variables them. The of such
for grouping groups basis in the of the group. from reference problem basic
into
a smaller
minimum analysis a complete of of the
at least
to represent
of dimenform powers The formal 1, which of fluid physical ratios geometrical rather than change of the analysis based effect Mach Froude exnumbers of relations. of pertinent
as a formal physical each and terms, variables
7rTheorem, a product
which
be expressed
representing dimensionless
a dimensionless groups including to the the nature terms of velocities. general
for
obtaining
variables is presented served as the basis for Application flow yields relations. dimensions, term the implies actual The ratios that magnitude
in many texts, this discussion. analysis into ratios dimensionless and linear (as a ratio
of dimensional considerable resultant of forces, shape of each insight
of the
represent The
of linear dimension
dimensions), by itself,
is a con trolling
factor. Another term expresses of pressure in the fluid to the fluid. based on These viscous effects; number), number, pressing are the The matic, similitude. ]'his on an is a basic fluid. flow There of a real Reynolds Weber parameter expresses expresses effects, parameters of dimensionless dynamic If two quantities operating ideal attributes the the forces; which which real fluid significant concept and
the ratio of the force due to the inertia force due to the motion characteristic other that which for dimensionless modify the which expresses expresses a gas effects. the Reynolds flow. as ratios _o are the such of geometric, idea that of reduces and Of and these Mach effects; of ideal the an are fluid, number, groups,
parameter
various
include
number, (which
surfacetension to the the terms
an elasticity
compressibility gravitational in general, for gas groups leads conditions
kineor dimen45
similarity all the
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
sionless of the obtained.
terms separate
have
the
same then
value,
regardless similar implies
of the physical
individual conditions
values are the ratios similar
variables, physical
exactly similarity
Complete
(1) geometric are everywhere the velocity
ity, which means that the linear same; (2) kinematic similarity, are the same; and (3) dynamic of the different forces are the physical can similarity is the inexpensive to the than is ever operation fullsize severe be approached sufficiently experiments machine. with
dimension ratios which means that similarity, same. It but closely
which means that is doubtful whether for most of smaller be performed use practical utility. linear with ambient to be of great
the ratios complete purposes One the it use
attained,
of similarity relatively applicable the rather operation
of models can the fluid
scale
so that results involves
Another condition.
of similarity
of machines at some
at or near
conditions
design
Turbomachine Application flow results in are rows parameters the blade of dimensional the previously
Operational analysis to the
Parameters general set of problem parameters. of fluid These
mentioned
important for the of turbomachines.
detailed examination of flow within In addition, dimensional analysis operational characterin the relation of head flow rate, of the of the and fluid. more power The impor
has great utility in the analysis of the overall istics. For any turbomachine, we are interested (for compressible in conjunction following variables tant relations : Volume Head, Power, Rotative Characteristic Fluid Fluid Fluid From drop lation, density, viscosity, elasticity, these variables, flow H, J/kg P, rate, flow, _4th are this size, used relates speed, to ideal and the work),
properties some
to demonstrate or ft3/sec
Q, m3/sec
or (ft)(lbf)/lbm
W or Btu/sec speed, N, linear rad/sec or rev/min D, nt or ft
dimension,
p, kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3 u, (N) (sec)/m E, five _or lbm/(ft) 2 groups in order can be formed. the If we manipu(sec) N/m 2 or lbf/ft
dimensionless constants groups can
the dimensional the five
conversion
to ease as
dimensionless
be expressed
_fcn The Q/ND 46 capacity, 3, which or flow is called
_2_' rate, the
pN3D 5' is exl)ressed capacity
u
' pN2D2/ il_ (limensionless It can be
(263)
form further
by
coefficient.
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
rel)resented
as Q VA VI) 2 V V (264)
Thus, the capacity coefficient is equivalent to V/U, and a given value of Q/ND 3 implies a l)articular relation of fluid velocity Io blade speed or, in kinematic terms, similar velocity diagrams. The head is expressed in dimensionless form I)v H/N21) ', whi(,h is called the head coefficient. This can be rel)rcscnted as H H N 2D,_a: _
(265)
Thus, a given value of t./N2D 2 iml)lies a particular rclatiol_ of hea_l to rotor kinetic energy, or dynamic similarity. The term P/pN3D 5 is _t power coefficient. It represents the actual power And thus is related to the capacity and hea(t coefficients, as well as to the efficiency. The term pND2/u is the Reynolds number, or viscous effect coefficient. Its effect on overall turbine 1)erformance, while still iml)ortant, can be regarded AS secondary. Ti_e Reynolds number effect will be discussed separately later in this chapter. The term E/aN2D 2 is the compressibility coefficient. Its effect depends on the level of .XIach number. At low NIach number, where the gas is relatively incoml)ressible, the effect is negligible or very secondary. As NIach number increases, the compressibility effect becomes increasingly significant. VelocityDiagram Parameters
We have seen that the ratio of fluid velocity to blade velocity and the ratio of fluid energy to blade energy are inq)ortant factors required for achieving similarity in turbomachines. Since completely similar machines shouhl perform similarly, 'these factors become iml)ortanl as a means for correlating performance. Since the fa('tor._ I_/'U aud H/U z are rclatc(I to the velocity (liagrams, factors of this type ar(, refcrrc(I to as velocitydiagram I)aramcters. Several velocity(liagram parameters are co,mnonly us(,_l ill t_,rt)illc work. NIost of these arc ,ise(l I)rim'trily with rcsl)e('t to axialttox_ turbines. One of these parameters is the speedwork parameter X::U 2
gJ/W 'Fh(_ re(:ipro('al of the sl)ce(lwork parameter is also oflcn use_l, aml it 47
(266
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
is referred
to as the
loading
factor 1 ¢=X
or loading g JAb' U2 write
coefficient
(267)
For
an axialflow
turbine,
we can
(268)
Therefore,
equations
(266)
and X=
(267)
can
be expressed
as (269)
1
U
¢AV_ is the U
p_ "_fj
Another
l)arameter
often
used
bladejet
speed
ratio
(270)
in m/see velocity st, atie or ft/sec. The across jet, the
where ideal stage
V_ is the expansion or turbine.
jet, from
or spouting, is defined inlet is, total
velocity, as the to exit
or spouting,
velocity That
corresponding (:onditions
to the
Vj2= 2gJ,_h,,_ Substitution of equation (271) back into equation (270) yields
(271)
U _= 7= _ 2gJAh,d A relation parameter the static can between the definition zXh' n =Sh_ The resultant relation is v= _/____ _ This must speed shows also ratio that related is related frequently if efficiency onh is a funclion other. actual While diagram of ()ne of these the speedwork diagram, and to the parameter the Is veloc)tv bladejet by speed ratio and (.266) the and
(272)
speedwork (272) and
be obtained
use of equations
efficiency
(273)
(274) parameters parameter bladejet the flow efficiency. it
be a function
of the to the to the used
is directh Another 48
velocity
velocitydiagram
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
factor,
or flow
coefficient
(275)
The flow coefficient can be related to the loading coefficient as follows:
v, / v,
By using equation (269) and the velocitydiagram (V,,. ,'_ al kAVu / geometry, we get (277)
_=#
cot
The term Vu. I/AV,, cannot be completely specific types of velocity diagrams, such next each can angle. It related parameters. next one section of the chapter. efficiency. or the two flow is thus to each This and Where We seen that In be will for these shown type generally For are other required. is usually to four for chapter, of the this function different term becomes type types a function of velocity (a different for each in terms
generalized. However, for as will be discussed in the of loading diagram). the and coefficient Therefore, flow the coefficient stator exit are to these case in the in the next only alone for
of velocity of the
diagrams,
be expressed
loadingcoefficient velocitydiagram efficiency an more general can idealized diagram is required use the general
parameters be related specific real case for
other.
addition,
a somewhat
a particular at speed Lewis ratio.
of velocity
is specified,
velocitydiagram
parameters a more
correlating parameter correlation, be the
speedwork efficiency
bladejet of these coefficient, Relation
parameters and the of show a single axial type turbine
One parameter must the loading coefficient. Parameters how static speed ratio. (W_: assume _'= static diagram that
Efficiency
VelocityDiagram specific the (U_= U_) ease
We can that with stage through be
will now related we have constant of this this
for an idealized to axialflow velocity
efficiency Assume W2) stage for 1). The a flow
mathematically
bladejet
impulse A velocity Further
(V_._=V_,2). in figure is isentropic 211.
is shown stage is exit
(total energy.
efficiency The
only loss, therefore, definition is
kinetic
efficiency
h'oh'2 Ah' ,7 h£h2. ,_ _h,_ Substitution of equation (268) into equation (278) yichts
(278)
49
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
a1
Vu,1 j/
V2
Wu, 2
FIGURE
211.Velocityvector
diagram
for
an
axialflow,
impulse
stage.
UAV,, = gJAh,.,t The change in fluid tangential velocity is
(279)
zxV,,=V_,,V_,z
From the assumptions we adopted, W_. 2= W_. 1 From equations V,.2=W,.5+ (26), (281), and (280), we get 1 U) + U=V_.I+2U (Wl W2) and (W,._= W,.2) and the
(280) sign (281)
convention
U=W,._+U=(V,.
(282) and AV.=V..,IV.,2=V..1(V..,+2U)2V..I2U From the velocitydiagram geometry V_, 1= V1 sin m Since flow is isentropic and the Vl=_ Substitution 50 of equations (284) turbine 2gJAh_e and (285) into equation stage is of the impluse (284) type (285) (283) (283)
(h2, _d=h_=hl),
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
yields AVe=2 Substitution of equation sin al_/2gJAhia2U (286) back into 4U _ 2gJAh_ speed ratio from equation (287) (272) (288) case and any constant ratio for of equa212 equation (279) (286) yields
4U sin al _4'2gJAh_a Now using the finally yields definition of bladejet n=4z, Equation stator only. an 0.88 jet tion exit The (288) angle, variation with ratio and shows static a stator at a bladejet can be found the setting that
sin a,4_3 particular is illustrated of 0.47. by The
for this and angle speed
efficiency exit
is a function
of bladejet in figure
speed efficiency
is parabolic
example is reached speed (288)
of 70 °. A maximum ratio
optimum
blade
mathematically derivative equal sin al 2
differentiating
to zero:
Vo_t
(289)
I
.2
I
.4 Bladejet
I
.6 speed ratio, v
I
.8 1.0
FIGURE
212.Effect
of axialflow,
bladejet impulse
speed stage.
ratio Stator
on
static exit
efficiency angle, 70 °.
of
an
isentropic,
51
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Since the
the sine
stator of the
exit angle
angle does
is normally not vary
in the greatly, with are,
range the
of 60 ° to 80 °, where optimum of this very the speed total bladeiet type would and the and, is a
speed ratio for most cases of interest be in the range of 0.4 to 0.5. Equation specific. ideal indeed, very Likewise, While case, good the it does. (288) the We basic and levels find other figure and that parameter 212 values trend for
a turbine of course, case remain bladejet static
idealized from ratio same;
for a real should case, both
will differ
parabolic
a real for
correlating so are the
and
efficiency.
velocitydiagram Design Parameters
parameters.
The operation turbomachines tion (263). This less parameters dimension D variables machines would variables Such groups. speed be
of dimensional analysis led to the dimensionless does not, however, exhaust that would apply are possible. be desirable to Also, because, apply can as / Q \l/2/N2D2\3/4 parameter is found be a range in found this by
on the variables relating to parameters shown in equathe number of dimensionthe linear remaining turbospeed remaining speeds. previous specific as the N having of the rotative of two the of the
A parameter not because values of geometrically not case, at combining D having values
would desirable would parameters The N8 and
similar
of all sizes.
a parameter
to a turbomachine that excludes
all rotative
is known
NQI/2
When exit
used
for
a turbine, exit. Thus,
the
volume
NE),/2
flow
rate
is taken
at the
stage
or turbine
(291)
The Ds and
parameter is found as
that
excludes
N
is known
as the
specific
diameter
( H D_=\_VD2] With the volume flow rate
,,_1/4 (V) taken at the 1/2
DH1/, Q1/2 exit or turbine
(292) exit, (293)
stage
D,Commonly, are 52 quoted but with not rotative exclusively, speed
DH1/4 Qi/_x the N in values revolutions for these per
parameters minute, exit
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
volume flow rate H in footpounds of units, to be the Specific presented specific the less because it is specified
Qe_ in cubic per pound, speed units and are value totaltostatic not
feet per second, ideal work, and diameter D in feet. With diameter The but value can (hh_). be related blade to the speed is are head not truly for consistent. (5h;_), H is usually
or head, this set taken
specific
dimensionconvenience, previously
totaltototal as the speed velocity
sometimes,
and specific diagram
diameter parameters. _ND K
The
Uwhere K is the head is dimensional constant
(294) (27r rad/rev or 60 sec/min). The
H=JAh_d=J_d Combining (294) and equations (291), (295) yields (293),
(n) _ and (272) with
(295) equations
The eters. all The
ratio Some
of total definitions authors thus
efficiency of ideal prefer interrelation by
to static work to the use used the can
efficiency same ratio equation be
appears the work in (274) ideal from
because various equation terms into definition
of the paramin the (296). of equation
differing cases,
in defining
eliminating
efficiency
parameter parameter
expressed
speedwork (296)
substituting
NsD8 ' : K v/g_'X "/l"
(297)
Specific coefficient.
speed The
and specific exit volume
diameter flow rate Qe_=A_V_
can is
also
be related
to the
flow
(298) ft 2. Combining (298) equations yields
where (291),
A_x
is the
exit
flow and
area, (275)
in m 2 or with
(293),
(294),
equation
NsD,
3= KD2 _'_A_ diameter be used are to related correlate to the
(299)
Since diagram
specific
speed
and
specific can
velocitythen 53
parameters,
which
efficiency,
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
specific efficiency. Specific
speed speed
and
specific and specific
diameter diameter
can
also contain
be
used variables
to
correlate that the
velocitydiagram flow rate, and equation diameter also often (299), are dictate
parameters do not. These are diameter their use leads to terms, such as D2/Aex that referred the type imply shape. to Thus, as specific shape speed since sometimes referred of design Overall parameters.
and volume appearing in and the specific They shape are will
sometimes
to as design
parameters,
to be selected. Parameters that entire be some that used we have When represent to correlate parameters and stages. encountered been discussing can
The these for applied
dimensionless to a stage the to the similarity and overall values are
parameters or to the thus can might the the parameters turbine,
be applied equal
turbine.
applied similar
to a stage, conditions When identify as overall a help
efficiency. serve
of these
the type of design that rapid means for estimating The parameters: Overall specific speed following are
be most appropriate number of required commonly
most
__
No1/2
N.Overall specific diameter "_ Overall speedwork parameter
___e, H3/4
(2100)
D"_H1/'
(2101)
(2102) gj_'_ Overall bladejet speed ratio ,
;=
U..
(2103)
The script Of nificant erally for that
subscript () these refers
av refers to the its only, on the specific value while nature speed overall
to value
some for
average the entire specific always for evolved values
condition, turbine. perhaps speed the
and
the is most
supersiggen(2100)
parameters, is almost the can of the
because depend
determined other the geometry. to show
by Equation Let
application
considerations overall
parameters considerations
be restated of overall Q,_=wv,_
contribute
to the
value
specific
speed.
(2104)
54
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
where flow
ve_ is specific rate be expressed
volume as
at exit,
in m3/sec JP
or ft3/lb.
Also,
let
mass
w_
_'H
and (2105) into
(2105)
Then, (2100)
substitution yields
of
equations
(2104)
equation
_,=1_.7 Thus, three gas useful choice by the in other of N and The the terms. and the overall The specific first term The
/
vex kll21 can
t
,=\ be expressed depends as the only This product which second term
oo)
of can is a ; performance, on the specified
speed reflects second cycle
expected term conditions.
be reasonably
estimated. thermodynamic the have Often, the product
for evaluating is available) application. cases, P, manner
effects that different fluids on the turbine. The third both by the rotative rather application. specific speed the overall speed than and the
(in cases where term is dictated are specified values the tur
power
N_/J__,
individual influences
is established in which
axial flow
axial flow Onestage, _'_
A
flow
[
.2
I
.3
I
.4
I
.5
I
.6
I
.7
I
.8
I
.9
I
1.0
I
1.1
I
1.2
I
1.3
Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless
I
20
I
30
I
40
I
50
I
60
I
70
I
80
I
90
I
100
I
110
I
120
I
DO
I
140
I
150
I
160
) Specific speed, Ns, ( ft3/4 )(Ibm314 )/(min)(sec 112)(ibf3/4 t FIGURE 213.Effect of specific speed on turbineblade shape.
55
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
bine bine ratio speed.
passage and For for the the of hub
shape oneradius radius
is illustrated and to twostage, tip radius turbines, Thus,
in figure axialflow, decreases
213
for example
a radialflow turbines. increasing number speed
turThe specific
with the
axialflow ratio.
increasing the overall
of stages for any
decreases
specific
application indicates the type The values of some of the proximation Dividing for stage of the equation specific number (2100) speed yields N_
or types of design overall parameters required specific for
that will be required. give us a rapid apa given application. (291) by equation
of stages for overall
speed
Qe_
1/2 (2107)
If we neglect change per
the stage,
reheat we can
effect, write
which
is small,
and
assume
equal
head
H=nH Further, these yields n:(NsY/3 last if the two expansion effect conditions and ratio assume into is not that equation too large, (2107) we and can
(2108) neglect the of
compressibility
Qe_:Q_:._t_.
Substitution rearrangement
(2109)
\NJ
Since assume specific application number discussed from stage speed. basis metrically parameter assuming suming equal the stage specific can in order speed tell speed us is a correlating value level specific (2109) a given and effect overall equation 2, where of estimate speedwork parameter. however, value Or, (2102) blade per stage, speed parameter of stage speed gives us on of efficiency. for specific Thus, known an this is often value for of be the the efficiency, speed with from estimate estimate is presented. obtained for the overall blade on the parato the for is stage experience a reasonable
to achieve assumed The
requirement, of stages. in reference type overall
of compressibility a compressibility for number and of speed speed (266) overall the turbine parameter Knowledge requires of blade blade for for equation of stages
correction an assumed a value can may a knowledge
A similar
speedwork Often, of stress by
speedwork
parameter, a reasonable
be selected varied
considerations. Dividing equation work
if desired. a constant
for stage _peedwork (U2=U_v),
speedwork parameter, and as
ah' =n h'
56
(2110)
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
yields n==), useful for (2111)
Equations studies
(2109) associated
and with
(2111) preliminary
are particularly system
parametric
analyses. Parameters in equation Another to w the (263) choice volume are of flow
Performance The perfectly variables, performance. rate Change which actual ideal ratio, number equivalent istic eluded viscosity constant. Now, as temperature. work work Q because of considerably turbomachinery correct however, The for for
Specification parameters presented flow for degree pressure on both the P,
compressible is often flow the expressed flow of power work initial rate
machines. expressing of
preferred
nondimensional Q changes constant. to H, and to Ah'. Since temperature a characterare inand weight, initial express Since Mach is pressure
mass any
w is preferred while
significant turbine, as depends
expansion, remains is
throughout pressure Instead is the depends
ratio preferred in total as well
preferred ratio term
for compressible
pressure
specific on the initial on
or drop temperature
enthalpy variable. of
as on the
we include depends
temperature temperature, elasticity. still R, which here, the the
as another introduction Rotative The specific implies
to introducing D are gas #. For operating constant simplicity with w=fcn(_h',
speed fluid heat
N and
dimension
of interest.
properties ratio
a molecular
3' is assumed
variables p'_,, p_,, the f Ah' T'_,, N, D, R, #) (2112)
dimensional
analysis
produces .
following:
w_/RT,.
, P; D_
ratio but
 Icn_R_n'
, _ ) _/ RT,,,'_T"7 'P_
assumed terms constant, modifying to see may law, there the what and flow,
ND
p,..
w
(2113) would be
If the
specific
heat
had
not
been
some complicated, and speed terms. Let we can by using tionality us operate get out on
secondorder, of the equation, above the
work,
some The
terms parameter idealgas
significance the propor
of them.
massflow
be transformed
the continuity AocD _, so that
RT .
(2114) 57
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Substitution (2113) yields
of this
relation
into
the
mass
flow
parameter
of equation
Thus, the
the critical,
mass mass
flow flow
rate rate
is represented to the mass
nondimensionally flow rate when as the
by velocity
the
ratio equals
of actual The
or sonic, parameter
velocity. may be transformed ND
speed
U U oc ,7_,_, oc_]RT't,, _RT,_ ac, Thus, Mach parameter implication fluid certain machine singular with the have fixed the rotative speed Division V/U, analysis Mach with dimensions, as for of the in order the is represented to critical of the the is that number, respect nondimensionally velocity, massflow for but to the which parameter of not must velocity. rotative but must becomes be inlet by only For speed by
(2116)
the the must
ratio speed The the a a in
of rotorblade number. gives
velocity
is a kind similarity. also
of rotor
kinematic
condition similarity, the critical the flow, rotor
of this a certain velocity of fixed variable temperature
have a given is not
therefore, fluid. for the
incompressible effect
associated expressed temperature as equation
All variables
dimensionless form to be correlated. For (2113) a given can gas, be
of varying
dimensionless as
parameters
presented
expressed
(2117)
p__ _Icn _T'
For
a given
gas
in a given
turbine,
the
parameters
further
reduce
to
_=fcn
_r,
7'
r,
(2118)
Depending tions (2113), performance.
on
the
particular or
case, (2118)
the can
parameters be used
presented to express
in equaturbine
(2117),
Equivalent It and 58 is very specific useful and heat to report pressure This ratio.
Conditions under that standard molecular results conditions weight at obtained
performance and sometimes is done
of temperature
of fluid
in order
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
different easily sure, known of these Let constant. subscript can then used 101 as following
conditions to determine are 325 the
may standard weight, standard
be
directly
and
readily used: heat NACA
compared atmospheric
and
also The presK or are The basis
performance conditions or 14.696 29.0; and conditions, work, are
for any usually psia; specific or and speed
condition temperature, ratio,
we desire. 288.2 1.4. These air. on the
N/m _ abs
518.7 ° R; molecular NACA performance variables standard us use With the the
standard
of flow,
expressed
conditions parameters subscript equivalent as
known
as equivalent (2113) standard the but
conditions. with diameter and conditions the
of equation std denoting conditions,
conditions similarity
eq denoting be expressed
P
!
(2119)
P_. ah' RT_.R_,. N / Rearrangement conditions ,
Pst_ Ah'eq l_,d N_q (2121)
(2120)
of
these
equations
then
yields
for
the
equivalent
p',. w,q.=w
Ah_q,_h
taT' ta ,
RT',_
(2122)
,
(2123)
N_q= N 4R_ta T:,a / ,
(2124)
by
As you may recall, assuming constant the case, Let The yield ratio since us now fluid. do not heat
we started off the discussion of these specific heat ratio for all conditions. specific add heat ratio can change effect that but out left with into are only depend a specificheatratio corrections all conditions, that are terms, are terms number, effect under the
parameters This is not temperature the at above critical on both with, the With conditions commonly
always and used (sonic) specific and have
parameters.
specificheatratio similarity However, and Mach small
velocity. only
cumbersome the equivalent
to work
a very
on equivalent
conditions.
commonly used are expressed as
specificheatratio
59
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
8q
V_.v_,,.J \p,.:
t
(2125)
_:,=t,h' ,,,_7 )
N_q_ where Nj(V_'d.) '
(2126)
(2127)
.>,,S. _2 V,;(,,,:,)
"\%,,+1/ (2128)
_and, as you recall,
.d__Ly<.,,,
'\,y+ 1/
2 27 V<,__l gRT' ratio, equations (2125) (2129)
Therefore, 127) reduce Finally,
for
constant
specific (2122)
heat
to
(2
to equations we define
to (2124).
0=(
kYcr.
Vc,
8ldl #
)2
(2130)
and ._P_",
Pstd
(2131)
The
equivalent
conditions
are
then
expressed
as
w,q=w
_
_
(2132)
_kh
#
_'_
0 N
(2133)
Neq=_ One operation of both reduce effect the point actual that can be seen flow of and from these than similarity speed. of jet Effect number was Both equations will cause of these example aircraft
(2134) is that factors of this days.
at temperatures mass output
greater a powerplant.
standard
a reduction
equivalent performance Number form
A wellknown
is the reduction
in takeoff Reynolds
on hot
The to 6O be
effect one of
of viscosity the
in the
of Reynolds
shown
dimensionless
parameters
affecting
turbomachine
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
performance.
While
its
effect
is secondary,
it is still
important. correlated
The in
effect of Reynolds number the following manner: Expressing efficiency 7' we can write as
on turbine
efficiency
is usually
A '
hh'_
'
Ah' 5h'
_h J
ld
(2135)
,
• 7
If we assume that the only loss
,
=
,o,
(2136)
is friction
loss,
(2137)
where length.
f
is the friction factor, For turbulent flow,
and
L is the
characteristic
flowpath
1 fOCR_0._ where and Re (2137) is the into Reynolds equation number. (2136) Substituting yields equations
(2138) (2138)
1_'
1
(2139)
Adding dividing yield
subscripts the equation
for
conditions for condition
1 and 1 by
2 to the
equation for
(2139) condition
and 2
equation
Since
for geometric
similarity '_,_d, equation
L_/DI:L_/D2 (2140) 17; 172
and for dynamic to
mmilarity
V_/Ah_.,_=V22/Ah
reduces
(Re_'_ °'2 \Re1/ Actually, on the losses, between is it has 0.2, the machine. and been but This fraction In found usually occurs of view
(2141)
This exponent the all range the
is an for losses
ideal this are
correlation. type not type depending viscous loss
that varies
the in loss
of correlation
is not
of 0.1 to 0.2, to viscous suggested
because total of this,
attributable another
varies
machines.
of correlation
61
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
1v_A
{Re2"_ °_
(2142)
where the and loss 0.3 be
A and the
B are
fractions A and in
such B serve turbine
that
A+B= the
1. In equation viscous the that at Lewis, loss fact values that as well of
(2142) exponent, not all as the about to
exponent is viscous
is maintained loss. Recent
at 0.2 to reflect tests values here
coefficients presented compromise
to represent 1, indicate of 0.7 Reynolds
discussion a good
reference for correlating
to 0.4 for A and
corresponding
to 0.6 for number
B seem effects.
REFERENCES
1. 2.
SHEPHERD,
D.
G.:
Principles J.;
AND
of
Turbomachincry. WARNER L.:
Macmillan Use of of 1967.
Co., Similarity
1956. Param
GLASSMAN, eters Ratio for
ARTHUR Examination
STED/ART,
of Turbines.
Geometry NASA TN
Characteristics D4248,
tlighExpansion
AxialFlow
62
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
SYMBOLS A
a
flow area, Reynolds speed heat Reynolds diameter, specific modulus kinetic
m2; ft 2 number correlation m/sec; at constant ft dimensionless; N/m2; coefficient, loss ft/sec number m; correlation
coefficient coefficient pressure,
in eq. in eq.
(2142) (2142) Btu/(lb)(°R)
of sound, capacity diameter,
B
C_
J/(kg)(K);
D D_ E
e
(sec I/2) (lbfl/4) / (ft I/4) (lbm 1/4) lb/ft 2 defined by eq. (246)
of elasticity, energy
F
]
g H h J K L M N
force, N ; lb friction factor conversion head, J/kg; constant, 1 ; 32.17 (Ibm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec 2) (ft) (lbf)/lbm
specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu conversion constant, length, rad/sec; 2_r rad/rev; m; ft rev/min (ft 3/4) (lbm 3/4)/ (rain) (sec 1/_) (lbf 3/4) 60 sec/min characteristic Mach number rotative specific number polytropic power, absolute volume speed, speed,
N,
?%
dimensionless;
of stages exponent W; flow Btu/sec N/m2; m3/sec; lb/ft 2 ft3/sec (°R) rate, J/(kg) number m; ft temperature, K; ft/sec m/sec; (defined mZ/kg; m/sec; kg/sec; loss ft/sec by eq. (271)), m/sec; ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec defined from from by eqs. (247) or radial or radial direction, direction, °R pressure,
P P
Q
R Re
r
gas constant, reaction Reynolds radius, absolute blade absolute ideal specific relative mass
(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm)
T U V Vj
V
speed, jet speed
m/sec;
velocity, volume, velocity, flow rate,
W
20
!:1
OL
totalpressure fluid absolute
coefficient, measured measured
angle angle
axial axial
deg fluid relative deg
63
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
7
ratio ratio
of heat of inlet
capacity volume total
at constant
pressure standard by
to heat
capacity
at
constant function efficiency 0 squared perature temperature speedwork viscosity,
y
pressure heat
to NACA ratio, defined
pressure (2128) turbine NACA inlet tem
of specific ratio to
eq. on on
of critical critical
velocity velocity defined by lb/(ft) (sec)
based based eq. eq.
standard
parameter, (N)(sec)/m_; speed kg/mS; ratio, lb/ft a lbft defined rad/sec
(266) (272)
bladejet density, torque, flow loading angular
defined
by
p
T
Nm; coefficient,
by
eq. (275) by eq. (267)
¢
coefficient, velocity,
defined
Subscripts: av cr eq ex /d in loss opt p r rel ro st std stg u x 0 1 2 average critical equivalent exit ideal inlet loss optimum polytropic radial component relative rotor stator NACA stage tangential standard condition
condition
(M 1)
component
axial component at stator inlet at stator exit or rotor at rotor exit
inlet
Superscripts: _ ' " 64 vector overall absolute relative quantity turbine total total state state
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
GLOSSARY The terms defined herein are illustrated in figure 214.
Tip___
FLow _
I Blad_
_Hu b
I/Suction Leading edge/" Pressure surface J/
surface
Camber line_ /Trailing Axis/
/ / /
edge
Tangent to camber / line at leading edge 4.
\ \
_ Opening, or th roat Chord
l Spacing. or pitch
Blade inlet angle 7 \...\ Axis,, Flow inlet angle/ FIo_ /
I
/
/
Incidence angle J /
/_Tangent to camber line at trailing edge Flow exit angle
Axial chord Deviation ant Blade exit angle
FIOURF
214.Blade
terminology.
65
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
aspect axial
ratio. chord.
The The
ratio length a line
of the parallel of the angle and the
blade to the axial turbine between turbine angle
height turbine chord the axial
to the of the
chord. blade, as set axial in the length
of the
projection
turbine, onto of the blade. axial blade blade blade solidity. exit height. inlet trailing angle.
axis. It is the to the tangent the radius direction. by by the and the spacing. to the
The
ratio The edge radius The
between
camber hub. camber
line
at the
direction. at the to the tangent line
The angle.
at the angle and the blade.
tip minus the
at the leading edge bucket. Same as rotor camber tangents equal camber leading surface chord. onto The the camberline line. angle. to the The sum
axial
external camber of the line line
formed leading formed blade
intersection trailing chord It edges. line
of the It is the the and from
to the
at the
angles of the
tangents. The mean profile. extends the edge to the trailing edge, and the suction surface. length chord of the line. perpendicular It is approximately halfway projection equal between of the to the pressure profile distance side
blade
linear laid
between chord line. up on where
surface.
the leading edge and If a twodimensional
the trailing edge. blade section were is the blade
convex
a flat surface, the front and
the chord line the rear of the
line between section would
the points touch the
deflection. ference deviation
The between angle.
total the The
turning flow flow exit
angle inlet angle
of the and minus fluid
fluid. the the flow
It is equal flow blade exit exit
to the angle. at the
dif
angle
angle. blade at the
flow exit angle. exit and the
The angle between the turbine axial direction. The angle the turbine section as hubratio. The The front, The flow
direction flow
flow inlet angle. blade inlet and hub. hubtip hubleading mean nozzle pitch. pressure pressures radius 66 ratio. incidence The innermost ratio. Same
between the fluid axial direction. of the blade. ratio. hub blade. between to tipradius ratio of the of the
direction
to tipradius angle. edge. section. blade. The on
radius the blade the between blade.
to the inlet hub
tip radius. angle. and the tip.
inlet or nose,
angle
minus
The blade section halfway Same as stator blade. in the The highest. as hubto tipradius direction surface adjacent are blades. concave
distance surface. Same
of rotatioll of the ratio.
corresponding this surface,
points
Along
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
root. rotor
Same blade. The
as hub. A rotating ratio The of the angle as pitch. between blade. surface of the of the blade. Along this surface, the chord line and the turbine axial blade. chord to the spacing.
solidity. spacing.
Same
stagger angle. direction. stator suction tip. blade. surface.
A stationary The convex
pressures are lowest. The outermost section edge. The rear,
blade. blade.
trailing
or tail,
of the
67
CHAPTER 3
Velocity iagrams D
By Warren. Whitney nd J a Warner .Stewart L
As the indicated in chapter in the and design from their through step required specify to the methods to the diagram work were entirely chapter of the at the in chapter from 2. Various efficiency efficiency for and produce. one 2, one blade the of is the the of the row use flow, most to the of velocity work, geometry angles addition, expected capacity and the from velocity of the parameters in by chapter an idealized that for are radial Only variations and of the important is the The diagrams. rotative velocity is very velocity the velocities of the next. variables velocity absolute blade row Once speed diagrams. important that diagrams turbine. diagrams turbine 2, were and case. can the used. be associated and diswith their This The constage. The in the direction axialflow in the to of and are the are
be considered fluid relative universally overall established, Their that blading significantly The relating cussed the relation chapter first sidered Usually, second diagrams and from turbines part general them in chapter velocity relation these
or analysis relation
of turbines speed
as it passes velocities described design the next to the diagrams affect
to the
requirements
evolution flow In level
blading
is required
constructing flow
dimensionless also was concerns the to the presented illustrated subject a single flow blade
to turbine is devoted of this representative the part that the are
of velocity diagram conditions radius radial in the radius.
diagrams.
average
conditions of this result variation considered
mean to the of forces with
is devoted balance speed chapter. blade
in this
69
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
MEANSECTION In this section, between their review, the (214) the hub velocity and by to 31 no can tip) the stage shows change diagrams are turbine.
DIAGRAMS occurring The and at the different their stage radius mean the types selection velocity 2 and through the the section average of diawhen diagram nomenstage,
(halfway conditions grams, staging In clature. equation indicating
assumed
to represent
encountered relation figure vector is required
efficiency, an in as illustrative mean
are discussed. relations be written described in chapter
Assuming
ah ' =UA V_' gj where h' U V, g J This The rate, total blade enthalpy, speed, J/kg; m/see; component constant, constant, relates component conditions, the of and Btu/lb ft/sec of velocity, 1 ; 32.17 1 ; 778 stage the the (lbm) m/see; (ft)/(lbf) ftlsec (sec 2)
(31)
tangential conversion conversion equation axial state
(ft) (lb)/Btu specific work vector the to the relation (32) velocity to diagram. the flow
velocity area by
_0 Vz = P_an
is related
where Vx w o Aan axial mass density, annulus angles the the studies shape. the such as U2 U _=gJAh'AV,,The 7O speedwork parameter is used in g JAb' AV_ 2 this chapter because (33) diagram component flow rate, of velocity, kg/see; lb/sec m/see; ft/sec
kg/m3; lb/ft 3 area, mS; ft 2 are axial velocity expected parameters because Such the key and velocitydiagram swirl is often efficiency are parameters parameter, velocities referred and used were which parameters (the to in as blading values discussed can tangential the swirl geometry. can be in because they not of but
Flow only the also link
component velocity) with related chapter In addition, velocity
absolute affect
dimensionless diagram diagram include ways,
association
parameter
to the 2 and
speedwork
be expressed
in several
VELOCITY FI0w
DIAORAMS
VX,0 Station 0
Vx, al'"
VI
w z v/Ivu,
Vx, 2
i" i'll
,,
I
!
FIGURE
../
u
WU,2
_/Vu .2
I
31.Velocityvector
diagrams
and nomenclature.
types normalize
are
related the
to
the
swirl
distribution by AV,.
and
it
is convenient
to
diagram
velocities
VelocityDiagram After diagrams shapes on the related stator parameter. the can depending Diagram parameters, exit (V_._) and diagrams in this diagram. overall be design evolved. on the type such the and section: Diagram requirements Velocity diagram refers shape as stage rotor their exit type and
Types are the the and The and established, have value values swirl following swirl physical different of the constraint split the velocity sizes speedwork imposed between three the are and
diagrams to some
determines reaction (V_._).
of performancecommon
types of discussed (1) (2) (3) These shown velocity efficiency.
reaction (V_._ 0) (W, = W2) (V_W2
characteristics
Zeroexitswirl Rotorimpulse Symmetrical three diagrams in figure 32. head The or the
diagram diagram diagram for
and
V2:W1) parameter the entire a loss are exit in
several
values many
of speedwork cases, thereof where either
Zeroexitswirl
diagram.In swirl zeroexitswirl
component diagram,
represents
Vu., _ 1 hVuand
(34a)
71
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Speedwork parameter Zero exit swirl
Diagram type
Impulse
Symmetrical
O.25
0.5
1.O
FIGURE
32.Effects
of
speedwork stage
parameter
and diagram.
diagram
type
on
shape
of
velocityvector
V_.2_ AV,can be used an to reduce axialflow the to such rotor definition loss. (UI= of U2) stage
0 (34b)
For (239)
having reaction
constant presented
axial in
velocity equation
(Vz.1=Vz.2), reduces
W2 R.,1
_, 2
W2 u, 1 2+W ,2W .t
(35)
where Rst_ W_ By (35) stage reaction component (26) of relative and as Rs,g= This 0.5, is equation which zero, which which, and is plotted indicates as can increase be in an For shown, in static figure impulse example, represents pressure 1 1__ 33(a). diagram. rotor. at At At _1, k=0.5, _=0.5, the rotor. the reaction the reaction negative reaction decrease Because is in of (36) is equations velocity, (33) m/sec; and ft/sec equation tangential using can equation be
(34),
expressed
indicates is encountered.
a conservative
Below _,0.33,
reaction 0.5, velocity 72
a substantial across the
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
1.0
Symmetrical_
\
.o_
ZeroS,
(a)
_ Impulse
I
/
I
1
I
.5::3
N
Zero exit swirl, 0
,m
(b)
I
0 .25
I
.
I
1
1.0
.50 .75 Speedworkparameter, _, (a) (b) Reaction. Exit swirl.
FIGURE 33.Effects
of speedwork parameter and velocityvector on reaction and exit swirl.
diagram
type
potentially avoided; X<0.5. Impulse stage reaction
high therefore, Figure
losses, 32
such
high the
negative diagrams zeroexitswirl
reactions are seldom diagrams cases. and the
are
usually used for for the for (37)
zeroexitswirl presents impulse, and this to Rst_=O
positivereaction,
negativereaction case, WI=W2
diagram.For reduces
equation
From axial
equation velocity,
(26), the rotor
equation inlet and
(33), exit
and swirl
the
assumption can
of constant be expressed 73
velocities
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
as
V_, _ AVuand
Vu
X+0.5
(38a)
__= The swirls exit are swirl characteristics at are _ values
_,0.5 shown greater in figure than 33(b). 0.5, and
(38b) Positive negative
encountered
swirls are obtained and zeroexitswirl figure because seldom, one in 32. Because positive if ever, which to have
at _ values less cases coincide. swirl swirl when velocity _ is greater third shape. decreases
than 0.5. At _=0.5, These effects are leaving a 0.5. turbine impulse work, than
the impulse illustrated in is a loss and are used is are diagrams
stage type and
used the the
Symmetrical specified
diagram.A statorexitsame
of diagram rotorexitvelocity
commonly
triangles
In terms
of velocities, (39a) (39b) reaction reduces to
V1 =W2 and V2=W, Under this condition, the equation for stage 1 R,tg=_ From axial equation velocity, (26), the swirl equation velocity (33), and the assumption can
(310) of constant as
components X+ 1 2
be expressed
Vu. 1 AV_ and
(311 a)
Vu. 2 h_l AV_= 2These typical is the at 0.5. this (e.g., decreases, This the type reaction diagrams same as the the exit good and swirl characteristics in figure increases, is conducive for stages stages Stage A significant 74 aspect of a turbine but diagram the are shown 32. The at _= total exit in figure 1. As the
(311b) 33, value with of
illustrated zeroexitswirl swirl reaction and middle
symmetrical remains efficiency, swirl
diagram constant making a loss
reaction
to high where
of diagram front
attractive
is not
of a multistage Efficiency design is the
turbine).
expected
efficiency.
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
The type blade on basic sented effects.
efficiency
is an
important
function
of,
among
other
things,
the
of velocity diagram surface. Therefore, the efficiency relations and used in References between herein 1 and chapter
used and the pressure the diagram selection of point used turbine hh' _Ah_d 2, the up intended and of some as a basis stage diagram to 2 are parameters
distribution is greatly application. efficiency the for more this efficiency
on the dependent Some are preimportant can be
requirements
development.
As presented written as
static
(312)
where stage Ah' hh_ stage stage static Expressing static work, ideal efficiency J/kg; work Btu/lb based J/kg; on ratio of inlet total pressure to exit Btu/lb of actual ah' ,hh' +Lot'b where
Lst Lro
pressure, ideal work
in terms
work
plus
losses
yields
Lro+
V22
(313)
stator rotor stage
loss, loss, leaving for stage (313)
J/kg; J/kg; loss,
Btu/lb Btu/lb J/kg; Btu/lb n' is the V]/2gJ. same except for the elimi(33)
y /2gJ
The nation into
equation of the equation
total
efficiency loss,
leaving yields
Substituting
equation
,1
gJ(L,,TLro)
1
V2 2
(314)
In it was kinetic
relating assumed energy
the
stator that the
and the blade
rotor losses rows.
losses were That
to the proportional is,
diagram to
parameters, the average
across
L,,:K_, and L_o=K_o
V°2b V_2 2gJ
(315a)
Wl2+W2_ 2gJ
(315b)
where/4
is constant
of proportionality. 75
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Equations efficiency. be found efficiency (1) axial work (eq. related (4) the work The erence presented that the determined associated (5) The The
(314) exact in references is as follows: velocities tangential and axial by values of previous curves for and the for the above eq.
and nature
(315) of
serve the
as the terms
the
basis and
for for
estimating can estimating and speed
assumptions
equations
1 and are
2. Briefly, in are the or or
procedure of their in terms type means them
expressed
tangential of the
components. components according (34), components assumption an angle for the test the to (38), are expressed diagram (311)). by of an applicationto the are a range tangential selected on by relating parameter (26) being considered
(2) The
(3) The components The basis
evaluated
massflow
assumption. constant experience. can then be generated diagram are presented are the are total types. as obtained in figure actually symmetrical representative efficiency. 34. for This the from The refcurves diagram as and for characteristics diagram over of speedvarious method of proportionality
Efficiency parameter total2 by
staticefficiency symmetrical )4elds maximum
analytically
diagram, diagram, of those
in reference efficiency
2, approximates characteristics
a symmetrical diagram. The were not obtained for )_ values negative The For higher efficiency __0.5, other the decreases High diagram rather designer exit this The swirls chapter, static static the two efficiency more total types than must and parameter, than at and, for each reaction total diagram },, value the in that type, region.
curves for the zeroexitswirl less than 0.5 because of the
diagram undesirable
efficiency
characteristics the highest of 1. The
are
presented occurs for to the all
in figure at efficiency values
34(a). is slightly
efficiency efficiency is equal
a speedwork of _. The at
s)_nmetricaldiagram
impulsediagram efficiency is equal not are rather less to shown, than fiat.
zeroexitswirldiagram }_1, although }, values rapidly. efficiencies, for static, still the before efficiency efficiency" exit velocity curves
symmetricaldiagram efficiency than _1 below with Even merit, previously either and 0.5, any where however, later 34(b). efficiency static },_0.5, efficiency of these total, the in of the
the
impulsediagram becomes 0.5. less Between
As h is reduced are than such achievable about as the 0.5. of
therefore, greater is the aspects type
_ values efficiency consider
criterion effects, is selected. are lower
discussed
threedimensional a diagram characteristics is substantially head
to be discussed in figure the The total highest
The because 76
presented than a loss.
represents
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
efficiency diagram, diagram. _=0.5,
for and For where
h values for the there impulse
less
than greater diagram, exit
0.5 than
is the For
obtained 0.5, the with efficiency
with the
the
impulse at
X values is no
zeroexitswirl diagram,
is a maximum
swirl.
symmetrical
1.0
.8
f,,_.._=_'u
.6
e
%
_6 .4 Diagram type Zero exit swirl Impulse Symmetrical .2
(a)
I
I
I
I
I
//
/
/
/
/// /
/
(b) 0 .2 .4
I
.6 ;_ Speedwork parameter,
I
.8
I
1.0
(a) (b) FIGURE 34.Effects of speedwork on efficiency.
Total Static
efficiency. efficiency. and from velocityvector ref. 2.) diagram type
parameter (Curves
77
TURBINE
DESIGN .90 
AND
APPLICATION
Total efficiency, 7'
.80t
L_
• 70
iency, "q
1
6O 65
I
70 Stator exit angle, % deg
I
75
J
8O
FIGURE
35.Effect
of stator exit eter X, 0.5.
angle on stage efficiency. (Curves from ref. I.)
Speedwork
param
the The very
efficiency little
is a maximum
at to 0.5.
X= 1,
where
there
is
no
exit
swirl.
zeroexitswirldiagram as _, is reduced is affected but also to the reference and the about of about this level the shown are means The are total angle static best that If be angle of stress been swirls One type is related from the total by flow not
efficiency only the angles. 35, depends by
is highest the An
at _ = 1, but
decreases and V=, can be 1,
Efficiency diagram which obtained shows
speedwork throughflow example
parameter component effect exit stator is desired, from reference
velocity
of this of stator
1. Figure angle total
which upon is static
is taken which desired,
efficiencies
as functions
angle. is to be exit a the area. hence,
It is evident maximized. angle stator of The could It large use back are stream shows 78 should exit
efficiency the complete since the it
maximum
efficiency
60 °. If maximum 75 ° is indicated. does not
efficiency exist
However, therefore, annulus
freedom affects and,
selection rotor has exit
always and, by the values
throughflow influence
component angle that
of velocity is also influenced selection. at low
annulus
area
of
speedwork reductions and turbines turbines efficienc:_ swirl the of such turbines.
parameter, in static the flow 3) the (ref. 36(a) are lower is through diffuse
encountered, of increasing which 36. In to efficiency referred stators,
with the remove this as of
associated static the
efficiency.
of downstream to axial. presented staters that the
characteristics figure, 1Xstage the
turbines with Figure
in figure
down
efficiencies
l_stage
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
than are no
those due gain
of the to the of this
1stage additional additional efficiency
impulse friction friction over
turbines. losses loss, that 0.35 in static
These of the the
lower
total turbine turbine For can
efficiencies stators. achieves until the X values
downstream
Because value below through
l_stage 1stage 36(b)). efficiency
in static about use 0.35,
of the (fig.
of X is below
approximately substantial gains stators.
be achieved
of downstream
1. O0
Diagram type
1Stage llSt_e llStage l_Stage
impulse impulse symmetrical impulse (two stators}
downstream
o
I
I
I
I
.60
¢.
.40
0
.i
.2 Speedwork
.3 parameter, h
.4
.5
(a) (b) FmuR_; 36.Effect of downstream
Total Static
efficiency. efficiency. stator on efficiency. (Curves from ref. 3.)
79
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Multistage
Turbine
Efficiency
When the turbine requirements are such that the speedwork parameter is quite low and high efficiencies are still desired, multistage turbines are used, and the required work is split amongst the various stages.
t
o_ ro
stages Turbine
2 2
ta_
I
I
I
1
I
.!
o
7° I
50
/
.f/..i
_ N
//,,,"
/,
•40 0 tb)
/ ,/,/"
I
• 10
1
I
]
.ZlO
I
.50
.20 .30 Overall speedwork parameter,
FIGURE 37.Comparison
(a) Total efficiency• (b) Static efficiency. of efficiencies of 1, l_/r , and 2stage from ref. 4.)
turbines.
(Curves
8O
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
Twostage turbine the stage with the results reduction two exit
$urbines.The in about of stage work. by
addition doubling As the
of a second average in stage to adjust stage shown previously,
stage an
to
a 1stage through in and addition, split
X value In work turbines 2stage
increase
_, is accompanied stages swirls
an increase possible
efficiency. the stage
it becomes efficiency 4. The compared the
so as to maximize
efficiency. of 2stage of 1, 1Y2, and 37. turbine At has an is preturbines
A study sented (from higher than the ref. total the 2 and
of the 4) are
characteristics efficiencies in figure 2stage
in reference
overall static
speedwork efficiency between for total smaller turbine for are exit a exit split first type and the the swirl no 50:50 stage. swirl work has and of output.
parameter,
_, of 0.50, efficiency turbine. 24 1stage and the turbine 2stage values reaction. between 1stage turbine 1stage
a 2percentagepointthe difference points The 2stage loss work 37 and swirl with for zero work impulse stator. This a type each of the the total figure split exit
and a 9percentagepointhigher As _ is reduced increases points static occurs smaller efficiencies by varying criteria efficiency zeroexitswirl efficiency stage At associated as an impulse 38 (a) In in figure compounded. (or is achieved and _=0.125, diagram and diagram At _=0.5, for to 0.15, static to 5 percentage efficiency. for the of the in work positive diagrams with efficiencies because fraction presented stage of no
efficiencies percentage total is a much obtained good and turbine
efficiency difference than 2stage The maximum while negative work split for
leaving
imposing and
is maximized is achieved
symmetrical maximum second first The stage.
As _ is reduced, maintained produced increased second diagram kno_:a turbine (fluid by stages as in the the to 75:25.
an increasing the features represents
fraction
optimum
as well
secondstage general, turbine in the first
is illustrated velocity is a twostage velocity increase)
of turbine
a velocitycompounded in which stator all expansion and all subse
threestage)
quent blade rows merely turn As k is reduced below 0.125, maintained, but work fraction. Figure twostage stator. exit The swirl 38(b) turbine, diagram and with of this with increasing the
the flow with no change the velocitycompounded exit velocity for swirl and decreasing for without X=0.125 A study made
in velocity. condition is firststage type with of zero
illustrates the shown both type
diagram turbine the equal. was
another case of the
counterrotating is again speeds of turbine blade
a secondstage efficiency 5. Effiwere the the 81
characteristics ciencies obtained secondstage
in reference
higher than those for conventional because of the elimination of one work depends upon the swirl
twostage turbines blade row. Because the first stage,
leaving
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
(a) (a) Velocitycompounded turbine. FIGURE 38.Velocityvector diagrams Overall speedwork
fb) (b) Counterrotating for special types parameter _, 0.125. turbine. 2stage
of
turbines.
second 75:25 are lack also
stage, for the
in
general, of the
would diagram).
be
a lowwork The and ratio. their engines the Such for rockets. use used turbines
stage and Because compactness
(work work of their due utilized
split splits
is
illustrated at low as
efficiencies
functions potential row, applications turbines.In requirements than turbines, turbines efficiency stages (for two
bladespeed ), levels directlift the
high to the in such
efficiency advanced nstage and ably speed more
of a blade
counterrotating many dictates stages vapor for nuclear are turbines of cr stage and as _,=_
are
being for
V/STOL in which applications production,
aircraft. of work considerinclude and of are blade are
applications required. hydrogen zeroexitswirl work stage
combination
of turbines power
fandrive turbopump The impulse examined speed related were
characteristics _<0.5) Overall (2111)) 6. Equal
multistage and
turbines stages (for constant
composed h>0.5) stage parameters
in reference assumed. as eq. (derived
speedwork
(316) Total total stage, obtained the stage effect efficiency and where static stator efficiencies. discussed for a first inlet For stage for velocity overall 2, a
where general is equal
n
is the stage
number
of stages. and were from the reheat or last
(statorinlet
velocity to stage were exit then
is axial) velocity) obtained
efficiencies
(intermediate
as functions
of X. Overall in chapter
efficiencies static 82
efficiency,
neglecting
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
w
o+
where firststage exit total generalstage to exit Ah_, , generalstage to exit This small. equation By using static total ideal work ideal ideal based J/kg; work work
n_'
,
of inlet total
(317)
on ratio Btu/lb
pressure pressure pressure
to
pressure, pressure, pressure, the
based J/kg; based J/kg; effect,
on ratio Btu/lb on ratio
of inlet of inlet
total total
Btu/lb which reference equation 6 shows (317) to be
neglects the
reheat
stageefficiency
definition,
Tb
becomes
_
1,.4_n
2+1_
(318)
Overall on the
total basis
efficiency of stage
differs total
only
in that
the
last
stage
is evaluated
efficiency.
n
Therefore,
_'
1, f n1,
(319)
The are Figure efficiency This function aspect may ations here. large total imposed, shown because
multistage in this 39(a) (in of level ratio, vary This shows
efficiency figure total as factors case, other 39, 0.88)
characteristics which was efficiency well etc.) as in from at low
obtained obtained when those all
in from stages
this
manner 6. k1. is blade and varieither high is a limiting at
presented
reference are number, shape The the
as a function all
of _. The
is reached (stator
efficiency, blade solidity,
described Reynolds to diagram value. (0.1 number The although turbine described static however,
herein,
of many upward figure
angle, addition the
or downward with illustrates varying that
indicated are, _, values
in efficiency increases efficiencies lower in figure of the
diagrams of stages are on expected. trends,
concern
or less), to achieve
in the or, 39(b) leaving
number if some show loss. used ratio. ratio must
required the
restriction be similar
of stages efficiencies levels at lower
efficiencies
Another in terms overall 2 (eq. ing ratio
commonly of diagram speed as the kinetic the tubine.
method This
of presenting is to plot parameter blade speed speed with the ratio was
performance of in chapter correspondpressure to speedwork 83
parameters of the
efficiency
as a function
bladejet (272)) across
to a velocity totaltostatic is related
to the
energy
associated Bladejet
TURBINE 11
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
'_
.S .6_
..... Number of stages
Limiting efficiency
(_
I
_ I z l Illl ....
I
l
I J I llJl
.8 i_.5
• _
.4
32
I/ of stages/ 1
.z( b_
.01
t
.02
J I = I= I=1
.04
I
L
l = 1= I=1
.4 .6 .8 I
.06 ,08 .I .2 Overall speedwork arameter, p
FIGURE 39.Overall
(a) Total efficiency. (b) Static efficiency. efficiency characteristics.
(Curves
from
ref.
6.)
parameter From of the effect specific actual the life), the
and
efficiency of stages
according in this and velocity level imposed of the design structural
to equation it is clear diagram and
(274). that have dependent speed must to the selections upon In represent by component the an type an important utilized. (dictated
discussions expected (actual the final among
section,
number on the work design,
efficiency or ideal) selection such
are very and blade
turbine integrity
diagrams (related
a compromise cycle compactness,
goals
as performance
requirements),
and weight.
RADIAL In assumed In 84 the first half having of
VARIATION this average a relatively chapter, conditions high
OF
DIAGRAMS velocity the entire diagram blade ratio was span. (about
a single over hub
to represent
a turbine
to tipradius
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
0.85 lower
or
greater), diagrams not The
such are radial
an
assumption however, and in average
is reasonable. substantial the flow diagrams conditions are due
In
the
case diagrams
of
hubor may span.
to tipradius represent
ratios, the variations and
variations for must mean become will on the the
in the entire radial exist in section very consider velocity
velocity may blade
encountered,
meansection
to the
variation the flow. diagrams important the radial diagrams.
in blade speed The considerations must in also the final
the that
balance of forces that were described for the end regions, This and their which section effect selection.
be applied diagram in flow
to the conditions
variations
Radial Consider 310(a). sulting pressure force path. the must an element When force. acting When force the there The of fluid flow pressure fluid to for and (fig.
Equilibrium in the 310(b)) serves the the of the (streamline) flow net turbine component must to fluid flow be field, as in figure the by rea
is a tangential force to keep path
of velocity, maintained the along this force. balance
circumferential on the required
centrifugal its curved path linear part from
moving along
throughflow
is curved pressure
(fig. 310(c)), curved Any
maintain as part
be accounted
acceleration of the of which is in the horizontal. is termed The The figure in the radial pressure 310(b). x direction, The radial
flow must have radial direction of forces will on
an associated pressure force, if the streamline is inclined to account formulated of fluid If unit (directed for these
balance equilibrium forces Fluid the
required now an be element force
factors
equilibrium. mathematically. are length radially indicated is assumed inward) is in acting weight net
is neglected. pressure
Fp.,et:(p+dp)(r+dr)dOprdO2
(p+?)
dr
sin dO 2 (320a)
where
F_, n_ g
net static angle
inward
pressure N'm rad
force,
N;
lb
P 0
r
pressure, of rotation, of rotation, higherorder
2; lb/ft _ m; ft (product of three differentials) and
radius
Neglecting setting sin
terms yields
(d0/2)=d0/2
F_. ,,, =rdpdO The mass m of the fluid being acted on by the pressure force
(320b) is 85
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
!_!ii2iiii!_i!_::: dr
J
(a)
p+dp + dpl2_ P .____ dBI2 Vu e (/dr_ or_ _ !p/ _ / / p+ dp/2
\ \
._____Vx
rVm.
ame .I vr
(b)
(a) (b) Rotation plane (re). FIGURE 310.Radial Element of fluid in turbine (c) flow field.
(c)
Meridional
plane factors.
(rx).
equilibrium
m=p[r(r+ which reduces to
dr)_wr
_] d_f0 2r
(321a)
m=prdrdO The ferential net pressure To flow, balance the radial force the results pressure from force is the force three factors
(321b) mentioned with circum
previously.
centrifugal
associated
F_,cm g 86
Vu _ r
prdrd0 g
Vu 2_p V2drd r g
0
(322)
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
The
radial
component force
of the with
pressure flow
force along
required the meridional
to
balance streamline
the
centrifugal is
associated
FT, 0m g where V,_ r,_ a,_e The velocity radius angle positive that radial along
V_,
cos rm,
a,_=
prdrdO g
V*. r_
cos
am_
(323)
meridional
streamline,
m/sec; streamline, streamline,
ft/sec m; deg and inclination angle (323) in this ft
of curvature of inclination directions in figure the balancing component
of meridional of meridional for streamline 310(c). of the the The pressure
curvature minus force pressure
are as indicated indicates case. the The linear
sign force
in equation outward is required
is directed streamline
to produce
acceleration
along
meridional
Fv • Z=g Setting various the net
dVme " sin _dt radial (eqs. pressure (322),
prdrdO g force (eq. and
dV,,_  sin a,_ dt (320(b)) (324)) equal yields
(324)
to
the
components
(323),
_gdp p drEquation contributing plete line form. curvatures (325) For is the axial (1/r,_)
V_ r radial
V_, dVm_ cos a_esin a,_e r_, dt equilibrium not equation convenient flow), angles the (am,) and to use meridional are both includes in its
(325)
all comquite
factors.
It is, however, flow (or nearaxial inclination and
stream(325) often be
small. Therefore, the last two terms are small as compared to the first neglected. Thus, we can write gdp pdrThe approximation radial represented equilib.rium. Radial In those other assumed total order effects to illustrate that the Variations nature second will radial (149)) is no (eq. by
on the right (rotational)
side of equation term and can
V_ r equation (326) has become
(326)
known
as "simple"
in
Velocity radial variations If streamline of velocity, as in velocity, and certain slope and is the
of the order be can
are usually assumptions there
will be neglected, made.
simplifying to be zero, enthalpy
component be written
definition
•
87
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
"  2gJDifferentiating substitute for with dh (and respect since 1 jp to radius
2gJ and using equation
(3z7)
(18) to
p= 1/v) yields dp dr 1 _ 2gJ d(V_ 2) 1 dr _ 2gJ d(Vx 2) dr then Further, the
dh' ds dr T_r_ If the flow entering the
(328) total if the in
turbine exit
is radially is radially
uniform, constant.
enthalpy
at the
firststator
stator loss is radially constant, then the entropy at the firststator exit is also radially constant. The rotor, as will be discussed later this chapter, may or may not probably turbine, on various have radially constant work (total enthalpy) loss. At enthalpy gradients due For entropy tion into extraction any place and imposed simplicity, are (326), equation radially the (328), and in the by the does not have therefore, radial the blade uniformity rows, that these radially gradients inlet
constant in total flow, the damping and substituted the
entropy mixing.
depend
of the
and the gradient the total enthalpy
to radial
it is here constant. "simple" we get
assumed With radial
assumptions expression,
and with
equa
equilibrium
v. 2 , 1 d(V. 2) 1
_ 2 In specify often, order to solve this of swirl dr I_ dr 0 to V, been has (329) independently and V_. Most specified (330a) as equation, velocity V,,: or, in terms of meansection it is necessary r or between radius with Kr N
a relation a variation
between
V_ or V_ and
conditions,
vZ:=,,E:
Substituting (329) and equation then (330b) and between its differential the limits form of r,_ and into integrating
v.
(330b)
equation
r yields
V,.,_V, where (331) 88 a_ is the valid
{1tan' absolute for the
am flow special
( i)rc,r
I_\_/ angle case at the of N=0
mean
,l
_I} radius. V_).
(331) Equation For this
is not
(constant
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
special
case,
integration
of equation
(329)
yields
r 71/2
v=V_=[12 A case the and absolute equation of interest flow angle (329) not covered to
tan _ _ by
In _.j
(332) is that V,=V= where tan a,
equation
(330b) In this case,
is radially
constant.
integrates Vu
V=(r'_
sin'a
(333)
The for
radial
variations from radius flow the flow angle
in swirl above angle are
velocity, equations, of 60 °.
axial are The
velocity, presented radial on the
and flow angle, in figure in specified 311 axial swirl
as computed a mean and velocity
variations
largely
dependent
E _.._>= m_ 1.0
_
_
___"'Exp°nent'N1 0
.5 2.0
]
I
I
V u = Kr N
 J
Q .m
"N
L.
_ E " :>_
Vu = KVx 1.C
_2 1
x
B e
O
........
60[ 1
30
.7
<
.8
I
.9
I
1.0
I
1.1 r/r m
I ""z
1.2
I
1.3
Ratio of radius to mean radius, FIGURE
311.Radial
variations flow
of angle
velocity a,,,
and 60 °.
flow
angle.
Meansection
89
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
velocity increases and flow
variation (value of N). As the swirl distribution exponent N or decreases from a value of 1, the changes in axial velocity angle with changing radius become associated lengths. larger to 1). The on stage chapter. more pronounced. As
seen, the axial velocities of N cannot be obtained can be used for design of rh/r,, illustrated in subsequent shorter variations discussed (values
and flow angles with all blade purposes and rt/rm in figure sections FreeVortex becomes closer 311 of this
with certain values The range of N that as the effects velocity blades of the diagrams become radial are
Diagrams exponent N in equation (330a),
When then
a value
of  1 is used
for the
rVu=K This for is the such condition a swirl turbine. design is used radial variation in the of the for flow in a free is referred vortex, to as and a turbine
(334) designed design,
distribution
a freevortex
or a freevortex The turbines freevortex in which
vast majority of axialflow diagram is accounted for. If outlets, because diagram (331), variation then the is the in
this condition is specified at there is no radial variation UVu Thus, valid axial mass from entire design vortex An products both entering
both the stator and rotor in specific work, _x(UV_), leaving the rotor from the if N=I Thus, meansection in equation the radial
and
are radially
constant.
the specific work computed for the entire flow. Further, velocity Vx is radially flow per unit area the meansection flow within an is one set of simplicity designs example
constant.
(pV_) is small, and the mass flow rate obtained velocity diagram can be used to represent the accuracy of the velocity of main 0.1 percent for for a in the most wide cases. use This of freedesign is reasons
for axialflow
turbines. diagrams freevortex tip sections of a blade in the diagram shape for this an swirl must for at the example is diagram with high the when A a a speedwork impulse distribution, standpoint taken hub lowradiusratio section. be conservative, aerodynamic parameter
shown in figure 312 for the hub, mean, and with a radius ratio of 0.6. The radial variation is considerable. 1. The The associated while (_t1.56). is the the in order efficiency). the tip Thus, critical Therefore, to ensure meansection diagram hub for diagram a diagram section diagram, satisfactory diagram having is very freevortex from special an care especially diagrams is nearly symmetrical )_m of reaction hub (lowest selecting blades, 9O (_h=0.56), section zeroexitswirl
meansection
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
45. 30....
Radius ratio, rh/r t = O.6
Hu_ section
rm/r t ° O.8
Mean section
rt/r t = 1.0
Tip section 312.Radial variation flow. Stator meansection exit eter Xm, 1. of velocityvector diagrams for freevortex angle a,,, 60°; meansection speedwork param
FIGURE
very
high
reaction
tip
diagram
can
also
be
troublesome
because There case
it is a illushub and a
increases Another considerable trated to
leakage across the potential problem radial 312, tip, variation the
blade tip clearance space. is that of rotorblade twist. in rotor inlet angle some hub angle. varies results and tip For from the inlet causing of the
in figure
rotor thus
45 ° at the problems
38 ° at the
a variation
of 83 °. This
in a blade sections
having of such
an overhanging bending stresses. blade is illustrated
tip section,
fabrication
The positioning in figure 313.
91
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
./*
_ ip section
\\
n
FmURE
313.Relative
positioning
of hub
and
tip
sections
of freeovorgex
turbine.
NonFreeVortex Freevortex are often potential trated having vortex flow, design section for 0.6, 0.8, any closer 311, At the having The 92 0.889, the the sections, sections, or are the nonfreevortex in figure (N2) designs designs 314 are are are the the (N=I) with which shown 1.25. For For of 0.889 As the section. exist of 0.75 the are are so commonly the common used
Diagrams used heading with the that all other some design. for the The the The the designs The of the Illuscases superwheelmeansame of tip Gf tip
classified
under
of nonfree to alleviate freevortex in diagrams 311. design, design. ratios to the to the section
vortex.
in an attempt variations
disadvantages velocity
associated radial variations
illustrated constantswirl design, freevortex at a radius diagrams with with hubare, cases exit and 1.25 a blade
in figure (N=0) and (N: ratio at a huba hubcorrespond to tipradius to a blade no the 1)
design,
solidrotation, compared Also and values diagrams,
constar_tflowangle
r/r,_ of 1, are to tipradius hub hub to tipradius ratio diagrams as shown are the same
all cases. 1.111, r/r,_
radius
r/r,_ of 0.75, ratio and ratio and decreases, relatively to show in figure for all
correspond
respectively. r/r,_ values respectively. value mean values to the 314 no real any
a blade blade
arLd 1.111
particular
of r/rm corresponds There for axial the (az._:0). diagrams are rotor particular
of course, for which, diagrams
in figure
for those ratio, swirl
velocity. meansection similar to diagram the free
radius exit
swirl
distributions. zero constantflowangle
This is due to the selected quite
VELOCITY Radial swirl distribution
DIAGRAMS
Ratio of radius to mean radius, rlr m
Super vortex (N = 2)
Free vortex (N = l)
Constant swirl (N = O)
Wheel flow {N = 1)
Constant flow angle
1. 250
(a)
(a)
1.111
(a)
1.flOf
O. 889
O.150
(a)
aNo real value for axial velocity. FIGURE 314.Radial variation of velocityvector distributions. diagrams for various swirl
vortex rotorblade the stator The any case.
diagrams twist a small The radial
and, and
therefore, low hub stator
present reaction. has diagrams no (about severe
the twist, 12°). appear axial on
same while to have than velocity blades
problems advantage the
of high is that freevortex of can
A possible
constantflowangle has sort. The amount (N= blade variation supervortex
of twist 2) is more of statorexit
no advantage the is large with hubdiagrams freevortex velocity ratios about designs number absolute below hub these Mach losses axial and the for freevortex and
twist
for
not be sustained (Vx becomes radius ratios much below 0.8. The alleviate design. large below 0.85 and than those and about for for the the these relative constantswirl the bladetwist here for the However, cannot 0.70 (N=0) and too the
imaginary) and
to tipdo is
wheelflow variation with (N=O) In exit For are
(Nl) in hubdesign higher high cause
hubreaction radial on blades 1) design. stator velocities
problems
of the
be sustained (N= at the
to tipradius
constantswirl
wheelflow velocities freevortex higher
addition,
design. flow design.
relatively could
turbines,
higher
than
of a freevortex
93
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
M  0.58
M/_ 0.77/ 4z" M =o.sr 
8
Sectionat r/rt  O.68 (a)
Tip section, rlrt = 1
16. °__ 6
_r \
_ "_'_
Mr "0./_,_ _'" &'i_
M,.oW
Mr" 1"01_'_ I1__, "7° _45. 3o /M0.74
\
Sectionat rlr t  O.67 (b)
Tip section, rlr t 1.0
FmURE
315.Comparison twisted
(a) Freevortex turbine. (b) Nontwisted turbine. of velocityvector diagrams of freevortex turbines. (Diagrams from ref. 9.)
add
non
94
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
A design termed design should results design in figure exit tions
procedure
for
rotor design,
blades twist
of constant in the 8 and with study design. stator than rotor,
inlet
and
exit 7.
angle, Such a
a "nontwisted" completely be easy comparing velocity 315. is also to fabricate.
is presented
in reference which, 9 contain of reference velocity The twist
eliminates freevortex diagrams A large closely twist exit, design in this used radial
therefore, experimental designs. at (N) the The stator condivalue of from positive is higher (0.72). 9 are shown
References designs for the vaIiation nontwisted
nontwisted
in axial
present rotor the The rotor
statorexit has increased the hub the and hub design
correspond the At tip.
to a swirldistributionexponent is eliminated, design the bladeinlet (0.85) than to more swirl Mach 30 ° for at the at freevortex
_. Although 10 ° for design. at the for the
freevortex relative
nontwisted
is negative for the
number
nontwisted
However, over that same The work tion tions error section by compute turbine vortex additional As seen alleviate freevortex Mach plexity. designs deviations been used It
the reaction at the hub of the nontwisted design is improved of the freevortex turbine. The two turbines have about the
efficiency. nonfreevortex and, may may flow because flow not occur in mass rate designs of the represent if such the and With this therefore, complexity from the numbers, has from cannot rotortwist designs been be results increased shown sustained improved flow flow radial per unit true a turbine conditions rate. The more all feature Thus, radial in axial the conditions, on the turbine hub design than variation velocity, and basis should and the tip design meansection of the in in specific radial variacondimeanto gradient area. average
considerable be designed order
is designed between proper complex design disadvantage. the use
conditions.
A nonfreevortex
integrating work is, turbine.
of a nonfreevortex of a freethis to with hub comsmall 10, have however, designs associated as from in reference higher design However,
much
computerized is no real discussion, and in stator that over designs, turbine
procedures,
of m_nfreevortex problems such increased spans. and blade
hubreaction other twist, large all
problems deviations
freevortex
freevortex
as reported performance.
to obtain
COMPUTER
PROGRAMS
FOR STUDIES
VELOCITYDIAGRAM
This diagram staging, the best
chapter selection, and
has radial
presented including variations.
some diagram of stages
of the types,
basic their that
aspects relation the
of velocityto efficiency, of requires 95
It is evident
determination
diagrams
and number
for a given
application
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
many designs, tion. such
considerations. meridionalstreamline then such computer
If
it
is
desired are out
to of the
include and realm
nonfreevortex radial of hand to variation calculaperform
curvature analyses programs have
effects, been
in efficiency, Therefore, tasks.
evolved
One such The program the only radial allows entropy correlation program reflects values no real computer dependent independent tions This instead proven generated rotor and
computer includes equilibrium
program is described in references consideration of streamlinecurvature equation radial loss exit information swirl of these meridional the (swirl solution velocity). 311. in a program variation The valid that as input. variation modification, in meridional modified turbine (meridional distribution input velocity because velocity) The and radial but gradients in flow. also reference and inputs. specifications, (Vme=V_/cos of with a large small of as In includes rotor However, variations from
11 and effects
12. in and
in enthalpy addition, an internal a basis. work for a,,_) variations these either
in determining for blade using uses exit the stator
it not loss This (which many there or is the in in condi
as an input
13 as
distribution
swirl) for find
combinations cannot variable variable
solution
variation
existence
is indicated problem 14, ef swirl very with
by figure has resulted
as reported velocity has can be program designs velocity.
in reference
wherein velocity any
the and
radial shows
is used
successful
reasonable
in meridional
REFERENCES
1. STEWART, teristics ASME, 2. STEWART, WARNER in Dec. Terms 1961. L.: Analytical Terms Investigation of Work WARNER Turbine with NACA WILLIAM T.: of and L.: SingleStageTurbine Speed Analysis RM E56J19, and Speed Requirements. of Efficiency Stators 1957. Requireof TwoStagein L.: of A Study Velocity of AxialFlow Diagram Turbine Efficiency Paper Charac61WA37,
Parameters.
WARNER
Efficiency Characteristics in NACA RM E56G31, 1956. 3.
WINTUCKY,
WILLIAM T.; of and a of Work Efficiency NACA RM WILLIA_a RM
AND
STEWART,
Characteristics Terms 4. Turbine ments. 5. WINTUCKY, ments. ciency RM STEWART, WARNER
SingleStage Speed
Downstream Analysis
Requirements. in Terms
L.; AND WINTUCKY, Characteristics E57F12, T.; 1957.
of Work
ANY STEWART, WARNER Efficiencies 1958. Investigation of Work and in Terms
L. : Analysis of Work and
.of TwoStage Speed RequireEffiNACA
Counterrotating NACA 6. STEWART, WARNER
Turbine
E57L05,
L. : Analytical in Terms 1958.
of MultistageTurbine Speed Requirements.
Characteristics E57K22b,
96
VELOCITY 7.
SLIVKA,
DIAGRAMS
WILLIAM R.; AND SILVE_RN, DAVID H.: Analytical Aerodynamic Characteristics of Turbines with Nontwisted NACA TN 2365, 1951.
Evaluation of Rotor Blades.
8.
HEATON, THOMAS R.; SLIVKA, WILLIAM R.; AND WESTRA, LEONARD F.: ColdAir Investigation of a Turbine with Nontwisted Rotor Blades Suitable for Air Cooling. NACA RM E52A25, 1952. WARREN J.; STEWART, WARNER L.;
AND MONROE,
9. WHITNEY,
DANIEL
E.:
Investigation of Turbines for Driving Supersonic Compressors. VDesign and Performance of Third Configuration with Nontwisted Rotor Blades. NACA RM E53G27, 1953. I0. DORMAN, T. E. ; WELNA, H. ; AND LINDLAUF, R. W. : The Application of ControlledVortex Aerodynamics to Advanced Axial Flow Turbines. J. Eng. Power, vol. 90, no. 3, July 1968, pp. 245250. 11.
CARTER, A. F.; PLATT, M.; AND LENHERR, F. K.: Analysis of Geometry and Design Point Performance of Axial Flow Turbines. IDevelopment of the Analysis Method and the Loss Coefficient Correlation. NASA CR1181, 1968.
12.
PLATT,
M.;
AND
CARTER,
A. F.:
Analysis
of Geometry
and
Design NASA
Point
Per
formance 1968. 13. 14.
SMITH,
of Axial
Flow
Turbines.
IIComputer of Turbine 467470.
Program. Efficiency.
CR1187, Aeron. Soc.,
vol.
S. F. : A Simple Correlation 69, no. 655, July 1965, pp.
J. Roy.
CARTER, A. F.; AND LENHERR, F. I_.: Analysis of Geometry Point Performance of AxialFlow Turbines Using Specified Velocity Gradients. NASA CR1456, 1969.
and DesignMeridional
97
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SYMBOLS A flow area, m_; ft 2 force, N; lb constant, 1 ; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)
g h J K L
m
pressure conversion
specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1;778 (ft)(lb)/Btu proportionality loss, mass, swirl number J/kg; kg; Btuflb lb exponent lb/ft 2 of stages N/m_; m; ft J/(kg) °R m/sec; mS/kg; m/sec; kg/sec; flow angle, deg lb/ft 3 (K) ; Btu/(lb) (°R) constant
N
distribution
P R r
8
pressure, reaction radius,
T U V
t)
specific entropy, temperature, K; blade absolute specific relative mass fluid angle density, speed, velocity, volume, velocity, flow rate, absolute
m/sec;
ft/sec ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec deg
W
W o_
efficiency 8 k of rotation, kg/ma; speedwork parameter
Subscripts:
a
first stage annulus component hub general ideal component mean section meridional
net
c
due stage due
to circumferential
flow
h i /d 1 m
me
to linear
acceleration
net
r ro 8
radial rotor
component
component stator stage
due
to streamline
curvature
st
98
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
t
_g
tip tangential component axial component at stator inlet at stator at rotor exit exit or rotor inlet
0 1 2 Superscripts: '
overall absolute
turbine total state
99
CHAPTER 4
BladeDesign
By Warner L.Stewart nd a Arthur . Glassman J
The design of a turbine of the established of velocity of stages. of the blading and covers blade conditions conditions chord can must integrity be expressed or axial profile chapter. chapter. design, Channel used solidity that which surface flow spacing some and overall by consists the This that diagrams. of the of three major of flow, with the steps. work, the The The and first is the These step efficiency third step of design. speed, dictates chord fabrication of blade (ratio part inlet basis of inof this geomelast the for is convelocities is
determination are usually the evolution number and/or required the size, This The the
requirements particular was diagrams
speed. second
application. in chapter involves
consistent discussed This blades. important overall the enough step
desired 3. The and
is the design
will produce
flow angles
by the velocity shape, chapter state state selected The which to spacing) many Blade
the determination aspects of blade of flow, which blade mechanical selection
of the more by the the selected value during
height fluid
of the
is set
requirements diagram, The with The chord in the exit turbine. to allow
and inlet usually siderations. and chord volves chapter. tries part in the assure spacing,
velocity consistent operation. of axial blade
throughout be long
to be a minimum
accurate as solidity first and
structural
nondimensionally (ratio will be discussed includes profiles, theory, the
to spacing),
considerations connecting
as well as the of this next procedures
is then which profile
discussed is the design,
in the
analytical
to accomplish
is discussed
_A_}l___
i_._f,9_i.(L
Y _,. A_
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SOLIDITY One of the important solidity, value flow, aspects which and is the cost. and due of turbine ratio However, increased affecting diagram and the solidity. that to separated factors blade blading thereby loading concepts reduce of velocity desired from blading the chord spacing flow. This solidity design standpoint reduction eventually section selection. is the chord selection
of the blade A minimum weight, mechanical decreased itself cussion with
of chord
or axial
to spacing. of reducing by in dis
is usually
cooling blade the
is limited results
considerations, efficiency aerodynamic the effect between and
will concern The on solidity will be a for use to
will include
requirements Also included studied solidity. are being
and the relation description suppress
of advanced separation Effect
permissible on inlet
of Velocity a typical set
Diagrams of blade around
Solidity as well in this chapter referring in the blade from with slightly
Figure as the figure pertains equations rows rather that and if the tions, height fluid used inlet and are
41
shows
ai_d (,xit diagrams The velocities in this When velocities discussion bla(t(_ rows. absolute
staticpressure shown we and than to rotor blade must figures. with are exit
distribution as absolute rows use Since stages, chapters.
a blade. The than
velocities. rather chapter exit
as well as to stator in this The
to a rotor,
relative
we are
concerned will differ
the angle
convention values. The
in previous taken and
tang(_ntialvelocity inlet values
component are positive direcof unit by the 2) is (41)
flow angle
as negative same then inlet 1 F,, =g smV.,2(
tangentialvelocity if in the the twodimensional blades, blade the
components direction. flow through
ar_ in opposite a passage exerted (subscript
negative considers
If one
between as it flows
two from
tangential
force
(subscript
1) to exit
V,, ,_ V,_ ,_)
where
Fu
tangential conversion blade density, axial tangential tangential 2. The
force,
N; lb 1; $2.17 s m/see ; ft/s(,c m/see; must shows ft/sec b(, _h(_ sam(, t h(_ blade, a typical _s the force of velocity, by the fluid 41 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (see 2) m ; ft lb/ft of velocity,
constant, kg/m'_;
8 P
spacing, component
V_ Vu This due
component forc_ exerted part
to the staticpressure lower
distribution of figure
around
as was
discussed
in chapter 102
staticpressure
BLADE Stations 1
DESIGN
surface'" "_ / Such'on'_r
Vx, 1
L y2_Vu,
2
.,__...._
C X _
pl
P
Pl
13
P2. "'" rs, mln Axial distance
FIOUP, E
41.Typical
bladerow
velocity diagrams distribution.
and
surface
staticpressure
distribution between the flow in the
around two tangential
the blade curves direction.
row as a function the total Thus,
of axial blade
distance. force acting
The on
area the
represents
F,, = c_ where
C_
L'
(pp
p_) d
(42)
axial
chord,
m; ft static static m; ft ¢z, is (43) 103 pressure, pressure, N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft lb/ft 2 2
Pv P,
X
pressuresurface suctionsurface axial axial distance,
The
solidity,
{T x
_

8
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Substituting
equations
(41)
and
(42)
into
equation
(43)
then
yields
a_ =
(44)
g
At this point, been first used is the we introduce the used actual
/0
two tangential blade loading loading that and
d
loading by coefficients blade Zweifel (l) (ref. total that loading. 1). have The This
to relate widely is based static
to an ideal assumes equal surface
coefficient to be constant In equation
introduced
coefficient on the and to the (2) the
on an ideal pressure pressure.
the static
pressure pressure and equal
pressure exit static
surface
to the inlet
oil the suction
to be constant
form,
t'
_, = where
_Z
(pp
p.)
d (45)
pl'  p_
Zweifel inlet exit static The second static of static can never
loading
coefficient N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 defined surface on that coefficient, this second except is equal surface. that This the loading hand, assumed minimum coeffiit must can ex_b is de
pl r
total
pressure, pressure,
P_
coefficient pressure pressure exceed
is similarly on the (see a value suction of 1, and form, fig. 41) Zweifel
constant value cient ahvays
to the purposes, coefficient
for all practical loading
be less than
1. The
on the other
ceed a value fined as
of 1. In equation
/o
where p,,m,, is the N/m 2 or lb/ft2_ _. The pressed velocity as minimum components
(pp
p_) d (46)
pl p
ps
,min
static in terms
pressure
on
the and
suction flow
surface are
in ex
of veloerity
angle
V_ = V sin a and V_ = V cos a 104
(47)
(48)
BLADE
DESIGN
where V
ot
fluid velocity, fluid flow angle, equations using the
m/see; deg (45)
ft/sec
Substituting (44) and
or
(46), relation
(47),
and
(48)
into
equation
trigonometric
sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a yields
mVQ (K1) sin 2a2
VQ (K1) sin 2a2 (49)
where inlet
K is the to that
ratio
of tangential at the and blade
velocity exit.
component
(Vu.1)
at the
blade
(V,.2)
Derivation velocity pressible and flow
of incompressibleflow loading With are with no loss.
relations.Relations usually evolved by this assumption,
involving assuming density
solidity, incom
diagrams,
p is constant,
Bernoulli's
equation P'= 1 Pkz pV 2 zg (410) (K1) into equation sin2a_ (49) (410)
can be used.
Substituting (K1)
equation sin2a2
yields

(411)
¢ ,,W,,
where Let V_ is the velocity on the suction surface where parameter p = p_._,. D, as us now define a suctionsurface diffusion
D_ =
V_ 2
(412)
Many parameters the deceleration indication this of the definition
of this type have been of the flow on the suction susceptibility (412)) (K_ = (eq. in equation 1) sin 2a2 =
used to represent a measure of surface. This deceleration is an blade to separate. Using (411) (Kyields 1) sin 2a2 (413)
of the flow on the
Equation constant coefficient can be seen
(413) for each _, which that
shows particular cannot
that exceed
the
solidity a value results
parameter requirement. of 1, does primarily not
a,_D, vary
or
a,_, loading
is it
velocitydiagram solidity
Since
greatly, suction
decreasing
in increased
105
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
surface later gential 42(a). value and represents exit primarily solidity sents increases diffusion move value
diffusion in this velocity A value of K=tangential parameter
(higher The K ratio
D,), for
the
consequence parameter values a reaction blade, Positive same blades.
of which is plotted of exit blade and values flow
will be discussed against angle axial with the tana 1 in figure inlet, inlet (413), repreparameter diagrams any given an exit with and of K <encountered
chapter.
solidity several an represents blade. in the of rotor
of K=0 1 represents
impulse
a value and are
a negative
reaction velocities is equal there
of K represent equation solidity velocity that for
direction angles
in the tip sections
As seen from
to zero for all exit is no turning K values. must It impulse. solidity value Thus, can
for K = 1. This
the case where with from
of the flow. The if excessive as the be seen increase
decreasing toward
suctionsurface
is to be avoided, reaction of 45 ° . (413) the can equation
of K, a xnaximum
of solidity
parameter
is obtained of the inlet
exit angle Equation angles
be
modified derived
2 COS COS
to a function in reference
o_2
to yield
1.
ax_z O/1
sin (m
a2)
(414)
For brevity, (414) of the angle given In the each which shows flow for exit inlet
this is expressed that angles angle, angle relation the only. values solidity decreases can solidity
only
in terms parameter
of the _ angle can
coefficient
_,.
Equation in terms exit flow For angle. for R, a
parameter inlet (m> flow
be expressed against 42(b).
Solidity of the parameter with
is plotted with
several
in figure increasing solidity
increases
inlet parameter
region
of most
interest
0 °, a2 <45°), exit. angle. one in terms this
decreasing 2 as
Wl 2
A third
be evolved,
of blade
reaction
was defined
in chapter
RlV= 2
(415)
Substituting
equation
(48)
into
equation
(415)
yields
R=
1(
c°s a2_ 2
\cos al/
(416)
for
the
twodimensional, of equation
incompressibleflow (416) 2 _=x/lZ R sin Aa back into
case, equation
where (414)
V,a=Vx,2. then yields
Substitution
(417)
wkere 106
Aa is ma2.
BLADE
DESIGN
Exitflow angle,
m x O
% deg 45
__ X tD t..
E
1
75 or 15 60 or 30 (a)
O
°.5
I
I
I
J
1.5
0 .5 1.0 Tangential velocity ratio, K
3F
_lnletflow
angle,
Y,
I
30 45 60 75 Exitflow angle, % deg
3 [
!
,
Turn ing angle,
z_
deg ,_ or 120
g
2___...._
0 . 25
0
.25 .50 Reaction, R
.75
I. O0
(a) Effect
of tangentialvelocity ratio and exitflow angle. (b) Effect of exit and inletflow angles. (c) Effect of reaction and turning angle. FIGURE 42.Effect of velocity diagrams on solidity.
107
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Equation reaction reaction that, creasing angle turnings Radial diagrams and value flows radial of axial (zero varying and
(417) turning for several
expresses angle. values The varies
the The the with
solidity solidity angle solidity turning the
parameter parametor in figure parameter unless radial both was the very
in terms is plotted 42(c). decreases for high
of blade against with inlow
of turning solidity little
It can be seen a turning
as indicated reaction. of 90 ° and are used.
previously,
parameter
is a maximum
or very
variation.Chapter that velocity must occur equilibrium. diagrams, The exit Consider and ratio °, and hub from at the solidity. inlet of 70 Since
3 discussed in order there nature swirls), axial
variations varying shown variation to
in velocity blade vary in the inlet speed with desired and exit exit the
to satisfy solidity
will be a radial of this radial turbine constant rotor swirl the (414) are
variation having axial hub
will be illustrated axial a constant this ease,
by an example. hubtotipradius flow angle flow values angles
a singlestage of 0.7, an impulse freevortex and tip and equation
velocities, with For in the
a statorhub solidityparameter following
distribution. shown
corresponding
computed
table:
Stator
Rotor
Inlet angle, deg
Exit angle, deg
Solidity parameter,
ffx_z
Inlet angle, deg
Exit angle, (leg
Solidity parameter,
ffz_ z
Hub
0
 70
0.64
54
54
1.90
Tip
0
 62
.83
2
63
.79
Note what are
again different negative.
that
the from
angle that that This us
convention of previous the is to how a loading
being chapters.
used
in this
chapter stator exit
is someangles the
Herein,
Assume enables
coefficient desirable solidity and must
_b_ is to be maintained condition, to the and directly solidity
constant assumption parameter.
radially.
reasonably
proportion the hub row
Let us now determine shown solidity radius 108 in the preceding blade variation (because in any
tip values physically be
of solidity consistent. to
parameter The radius) axial to and
table
can bc made is directly
blade
inversely
proportional
spacing
proportional
directly proportional to
parameter corresponding 0.64X0.7=0.45, fore, axial a considerable chord at the tip hub which axial can increase of the were rotor, held value
axial of taper
chord. If axial the from radius axial be half
For chord of the tip
the solidity
stator, held
the
axial
solidity then the be the
is 0.64.
were desired
constant, of 0.83. used solidities at the which from Taper but stress. axial velocity coefficient. hub
axial
parameter value is often
would so that
is almost with the constant, would of 0.79. so that solidities standpoint especially a radial
Theredesired is 1.90. of the larger is to
to hub
and yield solidity then the 1.90X0.7=
the higher parameter
at the tip. In the If axial axial than often radius cally used, axial this where turbine Effect the used and case chord corresponding 1.33, taper tip. axial at the desirable, blade turbines, tip value is still hub from with
solidity
parameter value blades the is not from results lower the cases,
desired in rotor yield
Therefore, axial chord desired
to tip increasing hub
can decrease
tip in the rotor desirable and radial the there fabrication solidity
only aerodynamically
is also mechaniTo simplify taper With is not the those effect on
of reducing for smaller of the loaded, term variation
in many selected variation blading
in loading meansection in many will not
on the basis in loading is not highly
diagrams,
cocfficient
cases, have
especially
a severe
performance. of compressibility.Thc
pl r
p*,min
in equation shown loading
(49)
reduces (413). yields
to 1/D, For
for incompressible flow, division
flow
conditions, the (49)
as same
by equation coefficient (413)
a compressible
flow case having of equation
¢ as for incompressible
by equation
1 2g t_ V_D'
O"x
(418)
_*,inc pltPs,,nin
where equation between (161), equation
ax,,,c such
is the
incompressible (414), ratio, to and density,
flow or (417).
value
as
determined the (13), (eqs.
from relations (152), (412)),
an
as (413), velocity and
By introducing pressure definition
critical (163), (418)
and the
(164))
using
of D, (eq.
is modified
109
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
0"2:
(419) 7'+1 Vc, 2
O'X
, inC
where 7 Vc. Then, equation ratio of specific heat constant volume critical by using (419) velocity, binomial m/sec; expansion at constant pressure to specific heat at
ft/sec and by neglecting as the secondary terms,
can be approximated
O" x
 1 a_,,._ The (V ratio approximation diffusion 43. The increases effect represented 1. The parameter compressibility from with value _'+1 by
e 2(7+1) equation ratio effect a value of ( V (420) values becomes is quite of critical more
(420)
good
for
Vcr)_ values in figure
up to about
solidity
_x/¢=._,_ is plotted
against velocity is no
suctionsurface as D, either compressibility 2, the required
for several
pronounced of less than of (V/Vc_)_.
or decreases for any decreases
of 2. At D, = 2, there values
V,r) 2. For D, values increasing
solidity
1.50

Exitcriticalvelocity ratio, (V/Vcr)2 1.2
.__1. 25 O
1.0 .6 0
.50
1
I
2 3 Suctionsurface iffusionparameter, s d O
FIGURE
43.Effect
of compressibility
on
axial
solidity.
110
BLADE
DESIGN
For
Do values
of more the
than
2, a region of good
that design
is only
of academic the
interest ratio D, values
because
it is beyond
limits
practice,
solidity
increases with increasing (V/V_r)2. should be maintained below about Relation It is well recognized pressor Correlation described This reflecting evolved parameter energy neglect is assumed parameter turning is defined on the suction that the =0), (Vp.,,i, blade is an of blade in reference includes and that important loss 2 and two solidity. ratio pressure surface the Dwith the
Experience has shown that 2 to avoid excessive losses. to Solidity of a turbine of both within blade
of Loss loading function a is used terms, An
or of a comand reaction. was field. was
solidity the reaction
compressor widely analogous one reflecting in reference
diffusion
parameter compressor parameter
and the second diffusion in kinetic energy. enough as If it to
diffusion 3, where
for the case of the turbine as the and then pressure
an overall kinetic is low
of the
sum of the minimum diffusion
decelerations
surfaces
to the exit velocity
overall
2
parameter
is defined
V,_.,
V22+ V12 V_ 2 (eq. (412)) and R (eq.
(421 (415)),
)
With equation
the
use (421)
of the
definitions to
of D,
reduces
D=D,R As seen from equation (413), _ =_D_ Substitution yields
2 COS COS _2 _1 .
(422)
(423) (414) into equation (422) then
of equations
(423)
and
D _z_
sm AaR
(424)
This
relation and (ref.
is like solidity. have 4)
that
for made
compressors, to correlate (ref.
with turbine 5)
the
two blade
terms loss
involving with both A
reaction Attempts overall
been and
suctionsurface loss with could not parameter and
diffusion
parameters.
definite trend but complete blade different not Consider figure 44(a). loss give the with values
of increasing correlation diffusion of reaction loss. the effect
increasing diffusion be obtained. Such alone would giving on loss, from not the same
was established, a correlation of be expected, value since of D do in near 111
solidity
same first
of reaction is reduced
as shown
qualitatively high value
As reaction
a relatively
TURBINE unity, reaction tion flow of the The frictional on the of these
DESIGN AND APPLICATION occurs with from a gradual values reaction are highly desired increase cause the is caused discussed accelerating in many when solidity. unit flow unit required. The value in blade by the loss. Further rapidly. as the The blading increases, is increasing loss occurs suctionsurface change 6) reductions This nature variaof the reaction because in
there in loss varies high effect
to negative (which
loss to increase in chapter to diffusing.
in boundarylayer negative avoided is used. A minimum the amount is reduced, because diffusion of as a result of
characteristics regime, although
applications, conventional As solidity is increasing. surface
is usually in figure
loss encountered of solidity at some surface hand, surface area the optimum per
on loss is indicated
44(b).
loss occurs other
As solidity
loss per
area
the increased
diffusion factors.
A minimum of the
opposing
Reaction, R
o .I
(b)
Axialsolidity,ox
FIGURE 44.Loss 112
(a) Reaction. (b) Solidity. trend with reaction
and solidity.
BLADE
DESIGN
parameter factors tribution, such
corresponding as Reynolds rate about and
to the number,
optimum shape
solidity of suction
is a function surface previously,
of many disvalues
velocity
of turning.
In gencral,
as mentioned
not exceeding
2.0 are used.
Selection Both optimum Zweifel tion the locus analytical solidity. loading and
of Optimum attempts to 0.8. can and
Solidity have been made value in figure represents to identify when the of the in equa45 (a)
experimental _b, is equal solidity The the
According coefficient axial
to reference
1, minimum By using be determined
loss occurs this
(414), bladerow of points
optimum inlet range and
as a function curve
exit flow angles, dashed blading. optimum the stagger
_X
this is plotted
for a wide In order
of angles. for impulse
(longshort) values angle in terms
to determine to determine
of actual
solidity,
it is necessary
as, because
_COS as
(425)
An analytical to the solidity figure determined measured The solidity were 45(b). with
blade obtained The in this four is seen
model and the
was axial
used
in reference Thus, and of inlet
6 to relate optimum exit angles,
stagger
angle in was 46. as
flow angles
solidity.
values
of actual solidity
as a function of reference the rotor data with
as shown efficiency in figure such efficiency
authors way different
6 compared of reference in reference to that as shown yielding presented solidity) 47
an optimum 7, where here 6 from
solidities,
determined
as optimum to be quite close
a figure
figure 45(b) for this case. function reaction in relative various optimum curves solidity the from the exit the nounced of figure exit
maximum
Loss coefficients blades
based
on cascade ratio replotted impulse curves larger region not the It must obtained blade
data blades here indicate
are of
in reference and against exit
8 as a for for the in As pro
of pitch/chord terms, angles. For flat solidity. are rather from angle and are
(inverse
angle coefficients, solidity
(al = 0) and These the in the does
(al =  a_). These the importance values loss, and some increase becomes
in figure negative) any
of selecting deviation in loss. more departs as those
(more cause become
of exit angle,
of minimum minimum
optimum gets the loss
significant loss region severe that blade
smaller, value. the
penalties
more
as solidity curves shape velocity such
optimum Thus,
be recognized by using a given and
47 are usually optimized is somewhat
and varying distribution of such a
spacing.
shape
resultant and the
cannot be correlation
for each clouded.
solidity,
significance
113
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Inletflow
6
\
\
angle,
\
\
\
\
_1_ \ 2
Typeof bladerow
_4
_ "" _. _ _ _ _
"_
Impulse   Decelerating
"_3
40
\ \ \\\\\
\\
g'
1 (a)
o1.1_
I
I
I
I
Inletflow angle,
I
I
m
\ \
\
\
\ \ \
\70
% \ deg
\80
\ \ \ \ \
\
\
\
\ \ \ \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \
(b)
o
20 30
I
I
I
I
70
I
80
40 50 60 Exitflow angle,o2, deg
FIGURE 45.Effect
(a) Axial solidity. (b) Actual solidity. of inlet and exit angles on optimum coefficient _= =0.8.
solidity.
Zweifel loading
114
BLADE
DESIGN
•9O _
Optimumsolidity from
Number blades
• _
. 88 • .86 .8 I 1.2 I [ 1.6 2.0 Solidity, o I 2.4
o
o
24 of 64
" I 2.8
FmURE 46.Variation 10,
of efficiency
with solidity
for four turbines Exitflow angle, a2, deg i" 70
_ 60 I
of reference
7.
\
\ 8i

Reaction blades(ol = O) Impulseblades = a2) (al
\
_ _I
6'_
__
"_40
4
I ""*
_ .... %
_ _
>"
80
,,7o
Ol
1.5
2.0 2.5 Solidity, o
3.0
3.5
FIGURE 47.Effe(:t
of solidity and exit angle on bladeloss
coeffi(.ient.
The figure with that not and time mental factors
optimum 47 those are obtained for most curves impulse with results that exit the act
solidities plotted between exitangle do cross (al = a_) angle analytical pertain to determine
obtained exit and values. other not blading, results
from angle shown
the
cascade 48 the the
results and are
shown compared results and It is obvious
in
against analytically the each are just to one
in figure in figure and
45(b). analytical experimental variations can and
agreement good the
experimental Although for both the involve similar. blade
is the
analytical solidity
the reaction All that profile,
(c_ = 0) blading in optimum be said the there are that at this experimany we do 115
indicated many solidity
is that
assumptions, in a manner
particular optimum
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION

Based analytical esultsof fig. 4_b) on r Based experimental on resultsoffig. 47 Inletflow angle, al, deg
 2
a 2
10
E (]2
o
30
I
40
I
I
I
10
I
80
50 _ Exitflow angle,(]p deg
of optimum
FIGURE
48.Comparison
solidities.
not are
yet more
fully results, ¢,
understand. used of 0.9 such values
Analytical to determine shown to 1. 1.0,
results, in figure which
such 47.
as those solidity Current higher
of figure are than design
45,
frequently
optimum
than
experipractice the 0.8
mental
as those
is to use recommended
is slightly
in reference
UltralowSolidity In the occurring some The approach boundary increasing the are blade. the success. Studies alternate tandem, test references The minated 116 is suppressed treatment layer the Two past, the limitation suction in blade to reductions of the high Such concept must layer
Blading in solidity blade. losses })e utilized do not could boundary layer been have, are rotor tests in the the have that which and region has such occur. of separation include layer explored perhaps, illustrated concepts blades removing by blowing, with better marginal potential 49. as the plain, in is one the or on been lower that separation solidities, separation
on the and
surface
To achieve
modification
the associated of the boundary solidity. by suction,
to reduced
treatments
energizing of the concepts concepts blades,
turbulence of these alternate and the concepts 9 and jetflap
boundary
by use
of turbulators
Certain
blade jetflap
tandem applying blade and
in figure as well
boundarylayer to stator blades 10, respectively. blades tandem
treatment Cascade and
are summarized 11 to 14. Turbine are presented
in references results
of lowsolidity rotors
are presented
in references jetflap that, 2), The
with 15 and
lowsolidity operates diffusion the point
16, respectively. on the principle is utilized of separation. (perhaps although the front a high value foil is terthen diffusion
tandem
blade
of suctionsurface at about
remaining
BLADE
DESIGN
Tandem blades
Jetflap blades
FIGURE
49.Lowsolidity
blading
concepts.
takes The trailing the own
place
on the
rear
foil with mainstream
a clean
boundary
layer thc
and
with
perhaps out the the rear
20 to 30 percent
of the
air going
through
slot. jetting moves
jetflap blade operates with edge perpendicular to the point around the Figure 1.2 the jet 410 trailing delivers shows In addition,
a secondary air stream main stream. This jet edge, some thereby force to the
stagnation lift.
substantially blade velocity
increasing througl_ distributions its
momentum.
experimental
1.0
(1 Jeton (4 percentflow) 0 Jetoff .._ O..[:r
_,
Suctionsurface
IJ
_ e'
6I I°
4
Pressure
surface
f_
I
2
__
, I
20
I
I
I
80
I
100
0
40 60 Axialchord,percent
FIGURE
410.Jetflap
experimental
velocity
distributions.
117
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
around longer
one such
blade
with for the with
the jet velocities edge. load
off and The
on. With loading surface
the and
jet on, there pressure
is no
a requirement shape, the the
on the suction coefficient _ more
surfaces
to be equal a rectangular unity. thus tial other Both sidered Also,
at the blade diffusion
trailing the
diagram
now approaches approaching reduced, the potenbe confor
closely
on the and the The
suction
is substantially concepts air flow offer
suppressing for solidity only purposes,
tendency
to separate. tandemblade jet flap, however, a secondary will probably
the jetflapblade reductions. for applications such
where cooling.
is required
as blade
BLADEPROFILE After determined This involves to and connecting designed channel exit must the blade from surface provide thc free the chord solidity profiles. stream. required length has of the The The inlet been inlet and
DESIGN selected the blade and exit parts and itself exit the must blade spacing and must the the loss. inlet the be and blade
considerations,
be designed. blade
determination a smooth,
geometries of the between
efficient surface flow turning Exit
transition profiles with
connecting minimum
provide
Consideration throat, trailing reference the blade discussion significant 411, new just station The diagram which within and edge loss. effect shows the the Trailing
of the suction consistent This
blade surface with
exit
section the
includes throat
the and
trailing the the As of the
edge,
the edge.
between of turbines, mechanical
trailing
edge.In
the design
it is wise to utilize considerations. thickness causes thickness exit region. with the as part blade with The velocity the obtain blade this the
smallest shown in in a
17, an increase effect in chapter of the
in trailingedge is discussed addition, effect 7. In
an increase turbineloss also has
further in the
trailingedge will be made at station
on the flow blockage blockage blade example diagram blade
Consideration exitvelocity
use of figure used. is located due to the at region. 2a than A
sections region. beyond used to
nomenclature 2a, which area at station trailingedge
is constructed in a higher just been
trailingedge results have
reduced
trailingedge equations
blockage that
2, which
is located
"withintheblade"
at 2a include
conservation
of tangential V,,.2, = V,,,2
momentum: (426)
and
continuity
:
(p
S COS or2
_)_
(427)
118
BLADE
DESIGN
Station 1
0
$
FIQU_E 411.Blade
section and nomenclature.
where between
t is the
trailingedge from equations 2a and
thickness, (426) The 2 to bc either to produce at station assumptions. flow 3Iach in the high inside a turbine fig. 411)
in meters and blade
or feet. by
The (since
flow angle the the to have
asa flow an
is determined stations are usually
(427) must
assuming
incompressible
changes
small)
or isentropic.
be designed angle determined angle blade
exit angle of a2a in order 2 outside the blade row. The preceding is often blockage the design Mach number and the to be station equations and specified can cause flow rate
a velocitydiagram 2a can also be the at the
as at station from the large 2)
Because number subsonic choked. the blade blade
as is often exit the (station
(65 ° or greater)
region, row
trailingedge important such that with of
2a to become be obtained.
It is, therefore, will occur
to determine Throat.Since,
whether
choking cannot
in general, opening o (see One in
row operates area, a rather velocity
as a nozzle, the determination critical diagram. suction aspect to give this
the flow accelerating of the the throat design procedure. use of the no change
up to the throat, technique conditions
or minimum becomes used
successfully and a straight
dimenIf one surface 119
sion makes assumes
"insidethetrailingedge" flow
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
between obtained equation:
the from
throat the
and velocity
station diagram
2a,
then
the
throat 2a by
dimension using the
can
be
at station
following
o(
= where throat o is the and the throat opening, that the If it is assumed "freestream"
1
8 cos (T2a
cos a:_
(428)
in meters velocity station
0 = 8 COS
or feet. loss do not change between the
and
2, then
q2
(429)
When the (428) measured
this and
method of the (429)) exitflow indicates solidities
is used, throat angles close
the
effect but throat those
of trailingedge not its length. dimensions. predicted at exit down angles that from exit
thickness Both Reference greater would methods
changes (cqs. This 60 ° and could be across (428) then at the section (up to, 8 compares
angle
position with
give similar
by equation
(429). than occur
comparison deviations due to lower the throat. The or If the from exit. (throat) divergent perhaps, achieved additional case, the following (429) flow the For
agreement
of up to 5 ° for exit angles
to 35 ° . This
deviation
as well as larger dimension as
gradients determined the bladerow
throatopening applies within throat 5[ach to the the
equation velocity, condition choking numbers
case
wherc row must throat within For greater
flow is subsonic. for expansion
blade dimension
expands
to a supersonic to account 1.3, the such that i\[ach supersonic
this computed sonic exit must
be modified to the than the about channel
condition be located
at the back
numbers is obtained.
a convergentcan be and the In by this the
passage
low supersonic
1.3), it has if the throat flow required equation:
been found that satisfactory performance is still located at the exit of the channel, occurs exit downstream dimension from o would the throat. be computed
expansion channel
(430)
o = o_ \A _} where throat opening computed velocity, flow, m; ft m2; ft 2 flow, me; fC" from equation (428) or (429) for
058
supersonic Act A,, 120 flow area flow area
for sonic
for supersonic
BLADE
DESIGN
1.0
¢3
.9
Rt
1.1
Mach
1
I
number
I
1.4
1
FIGUttE 412.Variati(m
ill flow area with supersonic
flow Mach munl_er.
This exit,
area
correction, in figure the such 5[ach surface
with 412. downstream throat number
assumed from and
isentropic throat.The edge as structural and associated surface
flow between selection on the suction integrity losses, area
throat of the surface type
and of
is shown between from region,
Suction surface be made edge design. A "straight unity) or transonic paragraph, on the tail problems solidity 5lost ture fusion ably at curw'd from effect the the
trailing
must level of the
considerations level (D_), and
in the desired resulting
trailingfrom
suctionsurface
diffusion back" blading, uses this of the and the design and type blade the
blade when edges
is used trailing
low values by the associated the can become utilizes region.
of D,
(approximately High subsonic next in the low.
are specified
long
are permissible. discussion losses to prevent
as would and surface
be indicated in order the that edge keep are
of surface
flow acceleration Principal lowflimsy. of curvasome difangle of this (which curvature the effect in for the on the instead be lower is considerpreclude
with designs
a straight
low D, values some This and
long trailing and
structurally amount permits it adds the 0.8, than effect 413 the 0.8), selected
conventional throat and additional
gasturbine h)ading integrity
blading
between to the exit. surface is small.
trailingedge on the ()f the loaded great. 5Iach blade
tail of the blade, blading
structural
by introducing is used, t)y figure
a wedge
If eonv(,ntionally on loss is not exitflow severe. number between velocity if the constant. curvature At higher
As indicated number numbers design The and type
ref. 8), if the
is less than (greater curvatures of curvature edge the
(,xit Mach Therefore, regions. the throat decreases distribution.
on loss can become higher 5[ach suction surface
should
trailing from throat
has an effect velocity edge
suctionsurface is improved of remaining
In general,
distribution
to trailing
121
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Mach number 1.0
__o .
j
m
_\\ L°7
.2 .4 .6 .8 Ratio ofblade spacing surfaceradiusofcurvature to
FIauR_
413.Variation
of between
profile throat
h)ss
with and exit
Math (from
numl_er ref. _).
and
surface
curvature
Inlet The than erally number velocities diffusion numbers, to choke used and inlet and edges ellipses, leadingedge the exitregion radius geometry geometry. earl usually and then the case toward that inlet. a serious In inlet of a turbine At increases the be used, blade blade because through row is usually inlet, the the .\lach blade less critical large is genlead5 [ach high 5[ach as were
a relatively number row. and The high
leadingedge
low at the inlet blading. in the and care the
ing edge bccomes
concern can
for lowreaction lead the to high area
blading binding, values With and
of lowreaction i:_creased Equations and arc
excessively high inlet which
region
of suctionsurface is not so severe (427), a bladeinlet to check this opening for bladeis arbitrary in the and as can leading such edge,
a tendency must blade bIade at the exit,
losses. (426)
be taken
contraction
for thc choking.
can also be used flow angle
to det('rmin(' 5[aeh usually number
"withintheblade" circular limit result the region.
Although could can leadingedge pressuresurface
leading freedom The large
edges of
specified, with
velocitydistribution associated peaks edge. Other around peaks. on both
selection circular the suction
curvatures velocity leading
in undesirable portions permit of the variations or eliminate
geometries, the leading
which
in curvature the velocity
be used to minimize
BladeSurface Once task 122 the leadingand trailingedge them with
Profile geometri('s a profih_ that, have yields been the selected, required the flow
remaining
is t:o join
BLADE
DESIGN
turning desigu Two pressure turn velocity of these procedures The the
and
a satisfactory must sufficient major flow occur as a result Radial as a result influence should the flow analysis and
velocity to impose across of the
distribution design the controls arc channel
around through (e.g., the
the
blade.
The rows 414. to the to both
procedure of the
describe
the flow conditions
the blade diffusion in figure required suction and,
to an accuracy Velocity
limits).
considerations
illustrated from
gradients surface flow. occur factors used
staticpressure in streamlinc velocity serves
difference position considerations. distribution,
variations
therefore, Since the design nature. design comthe
of radialequilibrium the bladesurface be at theory in the ncxt least that programs chapter.
of a quasithreedimensional as the basis for these available to perform
channel
procedures putations
computer
are discussed
Pressure
surface7
_ Suction
_su rface
..Pressure surface
Crosschannel
Suction surface_..
distance
(a)
__
'Nl
,
_ I
¢";1
, 'lEi.:_.i:!_._.:._::..::::::_i_! Tip : _i_ Rotorf_ii!i _
°
"' Tip
NN
_::
/
,Hub
Velocity (b)
(a)
Crosschannel (b) Radial
variation. variation. velocity variations.
FIGURE
414.Turbine
bladerow
123
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
REFERENCES
1.
ZWEIFEL,
O.:
The
Spacing Brown
of
TurboMachine Rev., vol. C.;
Blading, 32, no.
Especially 12, Dec. 1945,
with pp.
Large
Angular 2. LIEBLEIN, sion
Deflection. SEYMOUR;
Boveri
436444. L.: Diffu
SCHWENK,
FRANCIS and
AND BEODERICK, Blade
ROBERT
Factor
for Estimating Blade Elements. L.;
Losses NACA
Limiting E531)O1, J.;
Loadings
in AxialFlow
Compressor 3. STEWART, amination Parameters.
4. STEWART,
RM ARTHUR
1953. MICHAEL Using R.: Ex
WARNER
GLASSMAN, Turbine
AND VANCO, Characteristics
of AxialFlow Paper
WARNER
BladeLolling ASME,
WARREN
Diffusion
67WA/GT8,
L.; WHITNEY,
Nov.
J.;
1967.
AND MISER, JAMES W.: Use of
Effective NACA 5. WosG, for Four
6. MISER,
Momentum RM E56B29, Y.; Based
Thickness 1956. AND STEWART, on Wake Turbine Rotors.
in
])escribing
Turbine
RotorBlade
Losses.
ROBERT Losses a Series Transonic
JAMES
WARNER Blades NACA
L.;
L.:
Correlation with
of
TurbineBladeParameter and for Cascade
Element
Momentum in RM
Thickness
Diffusion
of Subsonic Turbine
W.; STEWART,
TwoDimensional E55BOS,
WHITNEY,
1955. WARREN in Blade H.: Four of Rep. J.: Analysis
WARNER
AND
of 7.
Turbomachine RM JACK E56F21, A.; of NACA
l). G.; AND
Viscous 1956. WHITNEY, a RM
Losses ROSE L.;
Affected
by
Changes
Geometry. Experimental RotorBlade
NACA HELLER, Solidities.
8. AINLEY,
AND CAVlCCHI, Designed
RICHARD at
Investigation
Conservatively E52C17, 1952.
G.
Turbine An Examination Turbines.
MATHIESON,
C.
R.:
the
Flow
and 2891,
Pressure Aeronautical
9. BETTNER,
Losses
in
Blade
Rows Gt.
of
AxialFlow Britain,
M. :
R&M
Research
L. ; AND
Council,
NOSEK,
1955. Summary of Tests Cascade on Two Highly Paper Sector.
JAMES
STANLEY
Loaded
Turbine
Blade ASME,
Concepts Nov. 1969. R.
in ThreeDimensional
69WA/GT5, 10. LUEDZRS, cepts 2, Apr. 11. STABE, Blade 12. NOSEK, tion 13. NOSEK, JetFlap 14. STABS, Stator 1971. 15. BETTNER, Solidity 16. 17. BETTNER, Solidity, PRUST, Geometry ing. NASA JA_ES Tandem JAMES Jet HERMAN and TN H. G.;
AND ROELKE, to Increase pp. 198206. and ])esign
J.:
Some Blade
Experimental Loading. Cascade of 0.5.
Results J. Eng. Test TM Power, of
of Two vol. 92,
Conno.
Designed 1970, ROY with
STANLEY
Turbine
G.: Ratio
TwoDimensional Chord to Spacing
JOHN
Turbine X1991,
Stator 1970. Investiga
of Axial
U.; AND
NASA
KLINE,
F.:TwoDimensional
Cascade TM X1836, 1969. Cascade
of a Turbine STANLEY Turbine ROY G.: Blade
Tandem M.;
Blade
Design. JOHN NASA F.: TM
NASA
AND KLINE, Blade. and Ratio
Twol)imensional X2183, Cascade to Spacing 1971. Test of 0.5.
Test
of a
Rotor
l)_ign with
TwoDimensional of Axial Chord
of a JetFlap NASA TM
Turbine X2426,
L.:
l)esign Rotor.
and NASA and NASA AND on 1972.
Experimental CR1803, Experimental CR1968, HELON, the Performance
Results 1971. Results 1972. RONALD M.:
of a Highly
Loaded,
Low
L.: W.,
l)esign Rotor. Jm;
of a Highly Effect of
Loaded, TrailingEdge Stator
Low
Flap
Thickness 1)6637.
of Certain
Turbine
Bind
124
BLADE
DESIGN
SYMBOLS A
C
flow area, chord, diffusion
m_; ft 2 parameter 1; 32.17 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) of velocity ( V_ ._/V,._)
m; ft
D F g K
o
force, N; lb conversion constant, ratio throat absolute reaction blade absolute axial blade of inlet opening, pressure, spacing, m; ft
to exit tangential N/m2; lb/ft
components _
P R
8
m; ft thickness, m; ft ft/scc axial direction, deg deg to specific heat at m/sec; from from at a by equation by equation (46) (45)
t V
X
trailingedge distance, stagger
velocity, angle angle
m; ft axial direction, constant
fluid absolute
o_8
ratio of specific heat constant volume density, solidity loading
_bz
pressure
kg/m'_; coefficient coefficient
lb/ft
defined defined
loading
Subscripts" cr inc max rain opt p s ss u x 1 2 2a critical incompressible maximum value minimum optimum pressure suction supersonic tangential surface surface component value
axial component blade row inlet blade within row exit edge of blade row trailing
Superscript" ' absolute total state
125
CHAPTER 5
Channel Analysis Flow
ByTheodore Katsanis
The chapter determine analysis
design
of a proper
blade
profile, of the
as indicated bladerow surfaces. This used for this that were
in the flow
last
section in order
of to the also
4, requires
calculation
field
the velocities on the blade theory for several methods programs
chapter presents calculation and developed at
discusses associated computer Lewis Research Center. The cannot nonsteady, passages. simplifying simplified surfaces Similar mean surface), directly, actual velocity be calculated viscous, To calculate assumptions to flow at this
NASA field of
distribution time
throughout because velocity of the flow through made. various The
a bladerow extreme geometrically therefore,
flow complexity
threedimensional a theoretical must be
complex certain flow is Such
distribution, twodimensional
threedimensional surfaces.
on or through
are illustrated in figure 51 for the case of a radialinflow turbine. surfaces are used for an axialflo(v turbine. A flow solution on the hubtoshroud shown but provides stream in figure surface does (commonly not (fig. yield for the 51 (c)) called the meridional velocities surface which a velocity mathematical solution of the and potentialyield dis51 (a), bladesurface bladetoblade solutions,
information
required
(fig. 51 (b)) and orthogonal surface the desired bladesurface velocities. There tribution formulation of the problem, we are over two of the will parts to a method surfaces. and streamthe For the one of these problem, problem. discuss (streamfilament)
of analysis The second and first part
to obtain part is the is the
numerical formulation
mathematical
mathematical potentialfunction The
methods and
velocitygradient
methods.
stream
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Hubtoshroud
stream surface _ 
Blade_,blade surface]
I
(a)
0_)
, Ortho_nm
(c) (a) Hubtoshroud stream surface. (b) Bladetoblade (c) Orthogonal surface across flow passage. FIOURE 51.Surfaces used for velocitydistribution calculations. surface.
128
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
function solution. The
methods A similar
will be described type of analysis equation assumptions herein: relative point the is steady at any system. the idealgas given is rotating, surfaces. are
relative
to the
bladetoblade
surface surface.
can be made
for the meridional is general the This does not not
velocitygradient following The if the coordinate The flow blade
to be presented made to flow law
and can be used various means vary methods that with relative the time. to a
for solutions The (1) surface Thus, fixed (2) of analysis
on any of the discussed
in deriving the would blade.
velocity
on the blade
be steady
fluid obeys
p=pRT where p p R T absolute density, absolute pressure, kg/m_; J/(kg) N/m_; lb/ft S (K); (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) K; °R lb/ft 2
(51)
gas constant,
temperature,
or is incompressible (3) The
(p = constant). A nonviscous fluid therefore, has no boundary as if the free layer. stream
fluid is nonviscous.
The bladesurface velocity is calculated, extends to the blade surface. (4) (5) (6) inlet. (7) The The The For fluid total the has a constant heat and flow is isentropic. temperature streamthat and the total
capacity. pressure are uniform the across additional the
potentialfunction flow is absolutely curl Y = VX V =0 vector.
analyses, irrotational.
assumption
is made
Therefore, (52) this means that
where particles their particle particle net blade,
Y is the do at not may times shape
absolute change change. t and its location
velocity their For ttAt. and
Intuitively, with shows instant frame figure 52
absolute example, In the shape
orientation absolute at a later the frame
time,
although the the to the
a hypothetical of reference, of time, relative but
changes the particle
rotation
is zero.
Of course,
in a frame because
of reference
has rotated,
of reference
has rotated.
129
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Direction of rotation
Time = t
rl
LJ
Timet+At
I
I
(Absolute frame of reference)
Time=t + At (Relative frame ofreference)
FIGURE
52.Absolutely
irrotational
flow.
Some also techniques excellent given
numerical
techniques However,
for solving it must
the
mathematical that
equations there only a few. cascades
will An is
be discussed.
be emphasized
are many
for solving theoretical
these equations, and we will discuss discussion of flow in twodimensional 1.
in Chapter
IV of reference
STREAM
AND
POTENTIALFUNCTION StreamFunction Method several that ways, there
ANALYSES
The simplest cascade 130
stream as shown
function in figure
can 53.
be
defined
but two
perhaps blades
the of a
is in terms
of streamlines.
Suppose
we consider
It is assumed
is twodimensional
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
1 .8
Mass flow fractbn
.6 .4
0
\\\\
FIGURE
53.Streamlines
for a stator
cascade.
axial
flow here,
so that
the
radius flow
r from in the
the radial
centerline direction. The indicates blade and has
is constant There may
and be
there is no variation of the rotation about the centerline. Shown the line. blades Thus, passing in figure is w. The the upper between surface have
53 are a number number surface by each surface (which the upper
of streamlines. streamline of the lower
mass
flow between of w 0, and stream
the fraction the given the value
is a streamline)
the lower streamlines
of the upper blade has the value of 1, while the remaining values between 0 and 1. Note that a value can be assois called function. the stream
ciated with any point in the passage. This value function value and can be used to define the stream It will be recalled (or uniform) that mass flow can be calculated flow by w= pVA
for a onedimensional
(53) 131
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
where
W
rate of mass fluid absolute flow area
flow,
kg/sec; to the
lb/sec m/sec; direction ft/sec of the velocity V, m2; ft _ expression:
V A This
velocity,
normal
can be extended
to a varying
flow by using
an integral
w= f a pV dA Since relative this streamfunction (blade velocity rows), W, which analysis the fluid that any by
QI
(54) to both will blade be stationary expressed row reduces and rotating of
applies velocity
cascades
in terms to absolute
for a stationary our cascade two points
velocity V. We will assume the mass flow wl._ between fig. 54) can be calculated
has a uniform height b. Then, QI and Q2 in the passage (see
wl._ /Q
_ pW,,b dq
(55)
'_Q1
•
FIGURE
54.Arbitrary
curve
joining
two
points
in
flow
passage.
132
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
where hand that The
Wn is the normal integral
relative
velocity
component
in the direction passing Q_ and
of the rightmeans Q1. is inthrough Q2 and
of the line going is a line of path integral
from
QI to Qt. This a streamline the points
sign convention
wl.t will be negative
if Qs is below between flow relative (55),
dependent With
for steady
to the cascade. expression can be written
the use of equation function
an analytical (x, y) :
for the stream
u at a point
/Q(_'Y) pWnb dq
o
u(x,
y) =
W
(56)
of the lower blade, This of path, example, the point that and the
where integral in figure Since tively calculate is still
Qo is any is taken 55. the easy
point along
on the
upper
surface
any curve in equation the point partial
between (56) Let
Qo and
(x, y).
is indicated it is relawe will (x0, y)
integral to calculate
is independent of u. For 56. Then Xo<X such
derivatives in figure
Ou/Ox
at the
(x, y).
in the flow passage,
as shown
/c_ pWnb u(x, y) 
dq} fc ffipW_b
W
dq (57)
FIGURE
55.Curve
joining
(x,y)
with
a point
on the
upper
surface
of the lower
blade.
133
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
(Xo.Y)ff c2 (x,y}
FIGURE 56.Curve
joining
horizontal line through (x,y) surface of the lower blade.
with
a point
on the upper
where zontal depend
C_ is an arbi'_rary line between on x. Along
curve and
between (x, y).
Qo and The and pW_b
o w
(x0, y),
and along
C2 is a horiC_ does not
(Xo, y)
integral
C2, we have
W, = W_
dq = dx. Hence, dx
Ou (x, y) = Ox or
(58)
Ou
Ox
aW,,b
w
(59)
In a similar
manner,
we can calculate Ou_ Oy pW_b w that the and OV._ flow is absolutely the above (510)
Now From
we will make the definition
use of the fact of the curl
irrotational.
operator [OV=
assumption, OV,_'_k=O (511)
curlV=fOV.
\or
OV=_ i
+(OV_
\ox
ov/
wherei, 134
j, and
k are the
unit
vectors
in the
x, y, and
z directions,
respec
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
tively, m/sec
and
Vx,
V_, and in the
V,
are
the
absolute
velocity respectively.
components Since
(in we are
or ft/sec)
x, y, and
z directions,
considering
twodimensional
flow only, V.=O (512)
and OVa_ Oz Hence, equation (511) requires OV:,=O Oz (513)
only that OV_ Ox OVx Oy (514)
Since V_= W_ and Vu W_+_r where equation _ is the (514) angular speed (in rad/sec) in terms OW3, Ox Actually, in this the particular flow is irrotational case. Now, from with OW_ Oy respect to the (510) moving and (5.9), (5.18) pb cOy w Ou pb Ox (519) into equation (_17) coordinates and the radius (516) r is constant, as (515)
can be expressed
of relative
velocities
(517)
equations
w 0_t
W_ 
=
Substituting equations (518) and
(5.19)
yields
0 (1 cox; 0u\ since w and b are both constant. flow,
0 (10u_=
; oy/
and
0
(520)
For incompressible
p is constant,
0_U
02U
(591)
which called is Laplace's a harmonic equation. function. Any There function satisfying deal Laplace's of theory equation concerning 135 is is a great
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
harmonic complex The number solution Laplace's specifying along The in every figure flow /_ DE, 58. the first
functions variables. important of functions that two entire thing satisfies things: equation
that thing that (521)
is related to know satisfy or of the
to the theory here is that conditions. (520) and is the 57. (2)
of analytic there are and will be
functions a tremendous
of
equation equation region, region.
(521),
we must determined
find
a by
certain (1) must can this
boundary a finite
The solution a boundary region. region upstream that the the way FG, flow
to either condition A typical same in the angle along stream entire of u Along of
boundary that cascade we along Similarly, the flow defined, and FE,
be specified in figure consider
solution Since far and the From
twodimensional passage,
is shown that part AH
the flow is the so that flow the on the is, the in the value direction
a finite is sufficiently
solution
as shown
It is assumed
is uniform is known. and that was CD,
of the
boundary that boundary u0; than
it is assumed angle we can specify BC,
is uniform
_0,_ is known.
function boundary AB, along HG, HG
conditions and along that
ABCDEFGHA. and FE is exactly
Along a periodic
u= 1. Along
condition _ is the
exists;
1 greater where
it is along distance
AB and CD.
AH and DE, Ou/O_ the outer normal.
is known,
yl
Wx
x
FIGUI_E
57.Twodimensional
infinite
cascade.
136
CHANNEL FLOWANALYSIS
H
6/
"_'. E
Uniform flow n
Uniform flow
L
A y __x FIGURE 58.Finite solution region. B P _ C W
Consider
the
differential
of u in the direction
of the velocity
W:
du = OxO'u dx+_ The Along differential and AH, Ou Or and substitution from equation (522) Ou_ 07 However, du "dx Further, uniform Ou/Oy there. is constant Therefore, Ou [u(H)u(A)'] .... 8y s where (525) s is the and blade spacing in equation in the (524) along 8u 8x is 0 because the velocity the vector stream
dy  0 function be tangent is constant to
(522) along a
streamline,
must
a streamline.
(523)
yields (524)
Ou dy Oy dx
tan _
(525)
AH,
since
it is assumed
that
the
flow is
1 s Substituting AH
(526)
y direction. gives along
equations
(526)
(527)
ia 8
137
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Similarly,
along
DE,
one can calculate
o,,, = We now have shown unique (520)), subsonic There After throughout function. this specify problem solution a boundary 58. These solution the condition boundary equation is always along
s the entire For boundary will always compressible if the flow
(528) of the region determine flow is strictly or (521). and velocities of the problem and from This stream is to this will of solving a (eq.
in figure
conditions (521). determined
to Laplace's
a unique throughout are numerous
region. techniques is obtained, can as the later. for solving by direct on the equation differentiation problem. blade or inverse, surface distribution. (520) bladesurface velocities
the stream the This a desired
function passage is what
be obtained The
is known
A method
will be discussed velocity that
indirect, this velocity
distribution will give
determine a blade shape not be discussed here.
PotentialFunction For defined. streamlines. as the stream twodimensional If lines The of equal potential irrotational potential function ¢ exists but the main are flow,
Method a potential they function in the same then can be to detail it can
drawn,
will be orthogonal
will not be defined properties (i.e.,
function,
and relations
will be given.
If the potential function be defined so that
the flow is irrotational),
 = Vx Ox and  Vv Oy We will refer tional system for pure relative assumption axial to absolute to the of absolute flow, since velocities coordinate irrotational This the rotation here, system flow, since used. we must This, that if there respect have coupled the
(529)
(530)
flow irrotawith coordinate function in blades, the
implies
does not rotate.
does not exclude
use of the potential to the
has no effect
is no change
radius; that is, the flow is actually irrotational with as we saw in the discussion of the stream function. From the continuity relationship for steady flow,
o(pvx) +o(pv,) =o
Ox 138 Oy
(531)
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
Substituting
equations
(529)
and
(530)
in equation
(531)
yields
0(oo,o()
If the flow is incompressible, p is constant, a_ a2_ and
=0
So, the potential satisfy function flow, same the boundary same the satisfies both differential solution over the Laplace's the stream equation region entire equation. function (Laplace's shown Thus, and the pressible, function difference We specify BC and irrotational lies in the boundary FG, 0_ where V, is the velocity normal to the blade surface. Along AH, V, = 0
(533)
for incompotential The We can Along
equation). 58.
conditions. in figure boundary as follows:
can consider
conditions
(534)
(535)
and
along
DE,
oue
The
inlet
and
outlet
axial
velocities
are given
W
by the
equations
(v_) ,. and
p_nbs
(537)
W
(V_) o_t
po_tbs condition exists. Since
(538)
Along uniform
AB,
GH,
CD, AH,
and
EF,
a periodic
the flow is
along
(0yy_),.,= Substituting
[_(H)
_(A)Is
 (V_) _,
(539)
V_ = V: tan/_
(540) 139
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
into
equation
(539)
yields _(H) =¢(A)qs(Vx)_, ¢ is exactly at the = ¢(D) outlet, +s(Vx)o,,, tan #o_, the lines FE and (542) CD. solution, value of a tan s(Vz)_,_ _,, tan _, greater
(541)
along HG
Because than
of the AB.
periodicity, Similarly, O(E)
along
Equation This The but
(542) completes a solution solution
gives the conditions,
the
difference however, an arbitrary these (533)
in ¢ along do not boundary
boundary
conditions
for equation determine conditions additive constant.
(532) a unique
or (533).
boundary only
within point,
If the
¢ is specified unique
at one
will determine flow, or to equation
to equation
for incompressible
(532), for strictly subsonic compressible As for the stream function, there are equation ary the (532) or (533) subject to the conditions. A method velocity distribution 2 and Choice 3. of Streamfor solving to determine
flow throughout the region. numerous methods for solving preceding or equivalent boundproblem of specifying shape is described in
the inverse the blade
references
or PotentialFunction and incompressible, and the potential
Method there is little to function. In this
If the flow is steady, irrotational, choose between the stream function case, the conditions However, pressible choice The choice (the if any flow) of stream existence is made on the basis differential equation of the is not function of the three applicable, or potential stream
of ease of solution for the boundary is the same: Laplace's equation). (steady, we may function. is proven from the mass of path. Some used out the the continuity crossing requires assumpthat other on flow. three flow is flow This irrotational, be restricted or incomas to the then
assumptions
function
equation. For a line between that tion the is necessary flow was to the
the stream function to be defined, two points must be independent incompressible irrotational, for the axialflow or steady. We which case for the blade flow to be unique.
the flow be either absolutely
additional assumption However,
turned
to be irrotational
relative
considered.
assumptions the stream This of mass The
could function flow
be made for other problems. Another restriction is that it can be defined only for twodimensional since two the stream points, function and function coordinate this can is defined is meaningless be shown system. This if the in
can easily
be seen between of the
as a percentage
dimensions. existence potential given irrotational 140 relative to the is necessary
CHANNEL
FL_OW
ANALYSIS
because is, if
we must
have
equality
of mixed
second
partial
derivatives;
that
02_
m
02& (543) OyOx
OxOy then
0 V _ Ox _Oy and the flow must flow; with the be that respect must be continuity irrotational. is, the made potential to assure equation. Solution there are many for to the
V.
(544)
A similar function coordinate
situation exists system being solution.
exists only used.
in threeflow is Finally, can be
dimensional irrotational an done assumption by using
if the This
a unique
FiniteDifference As posed stream flow. stated by before, streamfunction detail function
StreamFunction ways of solving theory. of the direct incompressible, subject function. but equation
Method various We will problem to the The with points 59. (521)) problems consider for the boundmethod a lower in the Then a A can be in figure 1 and 0 is
or potentialfunction solution case of steady, Laplace's
in further
the finitedifference for the simplest we must potential for the 58. point four solve discussed
irrotational
In this case, for the step
ary conditions of solution rate region written typical 510. points denoted in figure tively. tions, mesh When The first shown at mesh The
in the section function finite
on the stream is quite solution. grid is shown equation stream mesh distance
similar,
of convergence
difference a rectangular grid the to Laplace's
is to establish approximation
of mesh in figure (eq.
in figure each mesh with
A typical where
finitedifference
function points the between
is unknown. is shown four points neighboring h4 as indicated u0 to u4, respecvalues
point
neighboring is labeled The distances
point
in consideration 1 to 4, as shown. similarly, The value the other
0, and
are labeled hi, and 510. With equation points. this
are h2, h3, and
of u at points series can
0 to 4 are labeled expansion by using only
the use of a Taylor (521) (Further the
for u in the x and ydirecof u at 4.) is given in ch. 6 of ref.
be approximated of this expression
[ 2U3
explanation following
2Uo]
is done,
is obtained:
2U4
2ul h_(h_Th2)
2u_ 4h2(h_+h2)
+h_(h_+h4)
2Uo ] _j=O (545) 141
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
N
I ] Ii'_ "_ _ .." _
. ! 1
!
"
li, ¸ ii I I _ i [ \_, I i\ I .
\
N
_
_\! " ' "
fl II, IJ."_
r A•
'..I
ilII i, I
_ 1
1 1
"F
Jl
!
E I
e
,l
'_\{
i
;
j i
il ,II II Ill LI] Lil
: I I I
.,
FIGURE 59.Mesh used for a finite_lifference
: !
!
\\
solution.
I)
h2
h3
D
0
h4
,4
1
FIGURE 510.Notation
for adjacent
mesh points and mesh spaces.
142
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
Solving
equation
(545)
for u0 yields
4 UO= E i1
the
expression
aiui
(546)
where h 3+ h4 al= a0h_ (547)
= 
h3_ h4
aoh_
(548)
hi+h2
a3 
aoh3
(549)
hl+h_ a4 aoh4 1 1 (551) (550)
1 1 ao=(h3Th4)(_T_)+(h.+h,)(_+_,)
Equation boring used. but these Ou/O_ the
(546) points
holds
at every surface,
interior then
mesh the
point.
If one
of the point
neighcan be be used, at 59,
is on a blade points along conditions by equation
value
of u at that (546) alternate AH
At other points. is given
the boundary, can be used along (527). gives
equation to obtain
cannot
boundary
equations in figure then,
For example,
the upstream If point
boundary
0 is on line AH,
a finite
difference
approximation
Uo= u4+h4 Similarly, if point 0 is on line DE,
(tanBin)
(552)
Uo= u3
h3 (tans_°"'
)
(553)
can be derived 0 (fig. 511) the boundary. 1,s is a distance 511. Substituting by using the
For the boundary
the
points between that
along A and
AB
and
CD, If
equations the the point point in figure I is outside
periodic
boundary
condition. B, the point where
is on
However, s above this
it is known point
ul=ul.s1, ydirection,
1 in the
as shown
143
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
H
2 31
G.
I
I
u2 "u2,s
+1
A
2,s
FIGURE 511.Mesh condition in equation (546) gives
4
point on line AB.
uo=alui..I
_,
i2
aiuial
(554)
This The greater mesh HG. below
equation points than In this line below point
holds along the HG,
along HG
CD need
(fig. 58) not point must where be
also. considered, AB. The since since 2,s they point is a are just 1 equation for the first 2 is on line distance 512. s
corresponding therefore, us=u_._._l, negative condition
Zto = alltl_
along the
be modified, point gives
case, this
2 in the
ydirection, (546)
_
as indicated
in figure
Substituting
in equation
a_Na ,_.
aaus _ a4u4 { as
(555)
FE (fig. 58). to each region are will of unbe in the as there is unknown be applied
This One mesh interest
equation point
also
applies (546) the same
to the or stream number the
first (552)
mesh to
line below (555) can is unknown equations function points.
of equations for which the to give These to simply that in n unknowns. values The
function of linear stream points. mesh
knowns. referred Suppose tions n. The and apply. 144
points there
where
as unknown The points
mesh
are n unknown
We then consecutively point, one
have
n equafrom I to will point,
can be numbered first point, At each i, could point. point,
of u will then up to un at the
be ui at the last
us at the second equation
so forth
equation
at a typical
be written
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
H
/
1,2
G
Ul "Ul, s  1
FIGURE 512.Mesh
point on first line below HG.
_"_aijuj
_ki
(556)
The value around
values
of the
aij are determined five, at most, zero, is always of the except
by one aij are for the that
of equations zero, the can and the outermost aij matrix for the valuable there iterative is relaxation. point Storage unknown uj. be obtained
(547)
aii
through
= 1.
(555).
All but the
The points non
of ki is always boundary. there solution These equations but an few and roundoff The the the simplest estimated hence
unknown is always
It can be shown a unique are type; to equation that
singular; techniques. of linear unknowns, small, the required. changing satisfy procedure The ever, time the factor. the change
solution
A numerical
(556) particularly is, where equation. with of u at
by iterative systems number To consists point, values of are start is of the of u. Howpoint
techniques of this terms error initial
in solving requirements methods. mesh This at every in the exci_ssive greatly the and the
are a large
in each is minimized estimate
iteration,
every
iterative value until and rate for that
procedure of u at each After
in succession
so as to
equation is repeated
point. there
this
is done change so that _, called relaxation, 4 that
is negligible converges slow,
procedure is required. When
is simple The
it always
for this
problem.
convergence in u at each w= 1, the It
is extremely
computer
convergence iteration procedure is proven
can be accelerated by a factor is straight in reference if 0 <:_ <2. there
by increasing overrelaxation when _:> 1, (or rate value of 145 of
it is overrelaxation. underrelaxation) convergence occurs
overrelaxation greatest
is convergent when
However,
1 < _ < 2. In fact,
is an optimum
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
between To give estimates estimate calculate
1 and
2 which factor
gives expression
the
most for the
rapid
convergence.
This procedure,
optimum 4. we will initial an initial
overrelaxation use a superscript are
can be calculated ul. That ui ° and
as explained overrelaxation value. by
in reference
an explicit denoted
on the
is, ui m is the m th iterate may be any Then, For if ui m is known
of ui. The example,
of ui°=0
is satisfactory.
for all i, we can
ui re+l, for i = 1, 2,...,
n in succession
uim+l__
uim_0J

Z jI
aijui
re+ljii1
aij_J
m'gf]gi
uim
(557)
any other
After method), tions
a solution (59) and
for
u is obtained to calculate as
by the
overrelaxation velocities with the
(or
it is necessary (510)
use of equa
w(OZ)
Yz
(558)
pb
and
o
W_ = pb au/Oy curve, blade must such surface, angle. Analyses and is best at the are called axial, the calculation by comLewis blading bladetoTURBLE, radial, with or the NASA for be estimated done, the either curve, two (559) The partial derivatives discrete or by The mesh values fitting points. and
au/ax
and
from
the
calculated differences, the from points. at unknown
of ui. This a smooth velocity On the the blade for
can be readily from the
by finite through
as a spline velocity
resultant
is calculated tangent
components is calculated
one component Computer
Programs the solution
StreamFunction equation which written programs program to analyze
As can of velocities puter. Research by blade which mixed solution 146
be seen,
of Laplace's procedure have been of flow
is a lengthy computer for the (region In Center
calculation programs analysis Most
done
Several
through The
turbomachine
streamfunction analysis flow. is described
methods. shown in reference aqcordance method, The the TSONIC
of these
in fig. 59). with the
5, can be used flow must program,
constraints be subsonic described
associated throughout in reference
streamfunction region.
the entire 6, super
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
sedes addition, flow gradient
TURBLE extends equation (lower called flow Another a detailed or in the MAGNFY in the by problems.
in that the Transonic of the mass TANDEM, in tandem program,
it
performs solutions
all are
the
same (local
calculations supersonic by using section
and, velocities) a velocityto extend solution. rows
in
solution type
to transonic described
obtained in the next
a A
preliminary program to analyze splitters. 8, obtains blade and Flow indicated turbomachine described
flow rate) which or called in the are or 9 and
subsonic is described blade
streamfunction in reference rows and described blades. flow. flow axialcan or _IERIDL, The or blade
7, can be used with of any in reference regions TANDEM surface, mixedflow which subsonic is by as
slotted
MAGNFY leadingor slotted
solution region
or trailingedge
slot
of tandem restricted (mean fig. by plane
programs meridional fig. can 414(b)
to subsonic hubtoshroud of any called solutions
51(a)), a program
be analyzed
in references
10. Transonic equation
be obtained
the use of a velocitygradient streamfunction solution.
to extend
a preliminary
VELOCITYGRADIENT As methods within additional give sonic, the called involves guided method blades. such guided defined. shown guided half must an possible basic indicated previously, are the limited region. however, solution in streamfunction to solutions the subsonic the
ANALYSIS and that are potentialfunction entirely subsonic and to subthan is also equation can be extended regime. alone It other to obtain
of analysis the computation assumptions, approximate to use transonic, ones the
By use of a velocitygradient solution flow transonic without the
a velocitygradient or supersonic indicated earlier. analysis method that on the in figure and the other 59, and is, a solid degree 411, associated hand, less surface surface. than for
method solutions The because
of analysis
assumptions analysis and velocitygradient
velocitygradient curvature can only both Therefore, solidity suction velocity suction ends the provided and/or
is often equation
a streamfilament streamline,
or streamfilament, of analysis where boundary. passage most (high of the surface half a passage
position. within streamline of this turbine angles), the the a
A velocitygradient passage; depends For region, On region, in figure as shown the orthogonals intersect
give solutions of all by usefulness small
of flow guidance
a wellguided
surface distribution row, only velocity
is within such
can be well as that the front is within on the
a lowsolidity of the can case,
blade
surface
velocities In this latter
be computed
of the suction
the streamfunction
analysis distribution
be used if better
definition
of the suctionsurface
is required. 147
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Method The sidering narrow passage velocity idea of a velocitygradient case. Suppose as shown in figure method we have 513. can We be demonstrated assume the height the by cona of the average
a simple passage
twodimensional
flow through
to be b, and the can be calculated
width d. If the approximately W.,o 
mass flow is known, from continuity by
W
pbd across the width we are centrifugal 3 for consideration of the force
(560)
However, and With the
there
is a variation
in velocity velocity
passage, in. against of radial
in turbomachinery a forceequilibrium pressure gradient
it is this equation, as was done that
difference
interested
by balancing in chapter
equilibrium,
it can be shown
dW dq where radius q is the distance from of curvature for the
W ro (convex) surface, and The sign convention
(561)
the suction streamline.
re is the for rc is
important; rc is positive cave downward. For the can be integrated curvature for integration along from the to be equal
if it is concave upward, and negative if it is consimple case shown in figure 513, equation (561) a radial inner line by assuming to the to any ro r passage point radius W Wo the streamline radius. in the There passage, (562) radius results, of in magnitude
Row
FIGURE 513.Flow
through a curved passage.
148
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
where
Wa r. r
relative radius radius The mass
velocity of inner, of passage,
on inner, or suction, m; ft the
or suction, surface,
surface, m; ft
m/sec;
ft/sec
flow through
passage
is expressed
as
wrl
rm+d
pWb dr into (563) and integration,
(563) with
and
substitution density
of equation assumed,
(562) yields
constant
w
w. =
(564)
In a similar puted as
manner,
the
outer,
or pressure,
surface
velocity
can be com
W

(565)
Thus, by not using
an estimate equation
of the (562),
bladesurface which to
velocities
can be obtained equation. If there were gradient equation. x, as shown W,, W_, and 514 flow.
simply We are some could Since in figure We. The are a, the
is a velocitygradient passage, a velocity
necessarily
restricted
twodimensional
variation of velocity in the height of the be calculated in that direction also. We will now we are coordinate 514. plane angle Also meridional interested system indicated component W_ and The consider with are a very radius the the the following Ws= W_ is the general r, angle velocity x axis. resultant in turbomachinery,
velocitygradient we will use 0, and components, of W, the hold Also shown axis
a rotating
cylindrical
and W_. The in figure for the between
meridional W and the
is a plane between plane.
containing
x axis,
and/_,
angle
meridional
relations W sin/_
components: (566) (567) (568) (569)
W,_ = W cos/_ Wr = W_, sin a W_ = W_ cos a
149
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
W
FIGURE
514.Cylindrical
coordinate
system
and
velocity
components.
In line, of the
addition as shown
to the The if the in figure
r, 0, and 515. _0. The
xcoordinate, is the distance mdistance meridional plane; meridional meridional upward. along
it is convenient along a meridional the true is less than streamline that is, the streamline streamline.
to use stream
an
mcoordinate. line distance a streamline The radius We distance constant want neglected. positive
mcoordinate angle in the
stream
The
is the projection 0coordinate where sign Let The curve. is r_ is is 1/rc,
meridional of the of the gradient For the (rV_,) dW dq=a dr jq+b
curvature
of curvature if the streamline the velocity this curve. along angular
of rc is q be the and
is concave
an arbitrary inlet, dO
case of constant at the dx
total
temperature
momentum
dq +cdq
(570)
where
W arc COS ol COS 2
W sin _
r
/_+sin
a cos _ 2_ dm
dW,n
sin _
(571)
150
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
Meridional streamline 7 _'
rc
Q r
m
J
Axis FIGURE 515.The mcoordinate.
_x
b =  W sin a cos 2 _+cos re
a cos/_
dW_______ dm
(572)
c=Wsinasin[3c°s[3+rc°s_(ddWWm These ential vature, A great to tial (573). blades, distance We=0, equations any a, and number For equation are derived velocitygradient involving 8. These channel, these of special example, in figure (into to the are as equations equation, streamlinegeometry not cases suppose 516, page). and and We l_=0. known
). (B13)
+2_sina and (B14)
(573)
of reference to solve such reasonably equations passage where (570). 516, with
11.
In using
it is necessary parameters, precisely
a differas curwell. (570) no However,
in advance. from annular component dW/dn,
for a guided
parameters we can Let
can be estimated have an
can be obtained no velocity calculate q=n from
as shown normal then
in the tangenn is the Since be it can
(0) direction
streamline.
in equation figure
dO/dn=O
Further,
Outerwall, Meridional streamline ,
Llnner wall
FIGURE
516.Annular
passage
with
no
blades.
151
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
seen to
that (573),
dr/dn
= cos a and dx/dn
=  sin a. Then,
from
equations
(570)
dW_ dn Thus, tion for this (561). Computer Several machine NASA CTTD computer blading Lewis program, to use or velocity orthogonals orthogonals. are flow rate to as illustrated Computations passage. mass than blading, of the mediumThis by Research which This programs Center. has for One case, equation (570)
W rc reduces to the simple form
(574)
of equa
Programs the that analysis methods was in reference which used of flow have been for many by the through written years more turboat the is the to axialgeneral 13. to and flow the
velocitygradient is described program, can be used both from This made for the results 517, for can also
12 and is limited is described axial, to tip along equations along hub,
flow turbines. and easier The flow turbines CHANEL
program CHANEL compressors. variations and
now been
superseded
in reference radial, are used
program
to analyze from hub
or mixedmeridionalmean, mass along good
Velocitygradient blade to blade
determine streamline tipstreamline surface, rate. blade for
in a flow solution which satisfies of these program indicated may be obtained used basic
for an orthogonal surfaces the gives
in figure program
a specified
a number be used The As only
to compute
maximum results more for lowguided
(choking) definition solidity sections plane
channel. blading. by this can
highsolidity because
previously, be needed for fully
can be provided solutions passage. methods plane the for uses the
program
Velocitygradient and bladetoblade analysis 14, which Since convenient onalplane reference orthogonals. was more velocitygradient quasiorthogonals. presented reference centrifugal
have
also been The centrifugal lengths are
to obtain method
meridionalfor a meridiin it
solutions.
mixedflow orthogonal to base along programs 11 for
impellers equation not known on program lines, turbine and
is presented along the streamline use were analysis impeller vaned plane and diffusers in advance,
velocitygradient a computer fixed for
of the called are in of
equation Such
straight
which
meridionalplane impellers turbine equation,
in reference compressors.
a radialinflow or radial for
15 for backwardswept
A program
a bladetoblade impeller as
analysis
that uses quasiorthogonals in reference 16. A further viously 152 use of the
for a radialinflow velocitygradient is to extend a subsonic
is described preto
mentioned solution
in this chapter,
streamfunction
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
obtain the gradient
local flow
supersonic and
velocities. streamline Programs for
The
subsonic
solution required solutions
is used for the based
to obtain velocityon this and
angles equation.
curvatures transonicflow
method are presented in references in reference 6 for a bladetoblade
9 and 10 for a meridional solution.
solution
Orthogonal su Hace _/
/
j,f
su rface
.Suction Tip orthogonal I surface
f
Midchannel stream line,
i
Mean
Parallel to axis of rotation_
i
Hub
T
FIGURE
517.Turbine
blades
with flow
threedimensional passage.
orthogonal
surface
across
153
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
REFERENCES
1. JOHNSEN, AxialFlow 2. COSTELLO, Velocity 1950. 3. COSTELLO, Detailed scribed 1060, 4. VARGA, gram Surface 6. KATSANIS, on 1969. 7. KATSANIS, Calculating a Tandem 8. KATSANIS, Calculating face 9. THEODORE; Velocities Blade AND McNALLY, and Streamlines NASA McNALLY, TN WILLIAM on TN O.: FORTRAN Stream 1969. FORTRAN Program Stream for SurProgram Surface for of 5. KATSANIS, for GEORGE R.;
CUMMINGS,
IRVING
A.;
AND BULLOCK, NASA Method in
ROBERT SP36, 1965.
O.,
EDS.:
Aerodynamic
Design
of
Compressors. GEORGE Distributions R.:
of
Designing
Cascade Potential L.;
Blades Flows.
with NACA
Prescribed Rep. T., 978. JR.: PreRep.
Compressible ROBERT for
AND
SINNETTE,
JOHN Blades
Computational Velocity 1952. RICHARD S. : Matrix AND Distributions
Procedure in
Design
of
Cascade
with NACA
Compressible
Potential
Flows.
Iterative MCNALLY,
Analysis. and TM Program
PrenticeHall, I).: on 1969. Culculating Revised
Inc.,
1962. ProStream
THEODORE; Calculating
WILLIAM Streamlines X1764, for
FORTRAN
Velocities NASA
a BladetoBlade
of a Turbomachine. THEODORE:
FORTRAN Stream
Transonic NASA TN
Velocities D5427,
a BladetoBlade
Surface
of a Turbomachine.
a BladetoBlade D5044, ]).:
Turbomachine. AND
THEODORE; Velocities
WILLIAM Region D5091, on
in a Magnified NASA
a BladetoBlade
of a Turbomachine. THEODORE; Velocities of an Axial1973. or
1969. l).: FORTRAN IUser's Program Manual. for Flow NASA
KATSANIS, Calculating Surface TN
AND McNALLY, and Streamlines MixedFlow
WILLIAM on the Turbomachine.
HubShroud
MidChannel
D7343,
10.
KATSANIS, Calculating Surface NASA
THEODORE; Velocities of an TN Axial
AND and
MCNALLY, Streamlines
WILLIAM on the Turbomachine.
1).:
FORTRAN HProgrammer's
Program Manual.
for Flow
HubShroud
MidChannel
or MixedFlow 1974. Use of Arbitrary Meridional Plane
D7344,
11.
KATSANIS, THEODORE: Distribution in the 1964.
QuasiOrthogonals of a Turbomachine.
for Calculating NASA TN
Flow D2546,
12.
KATSANIS,
THEODORE;
AND
DELLNER,
LOIS
T.:
A
QuasiThreeDimensional an Axial Flow Turbine
Method Blade. 13. KATSANIS, culation NASA 14.
HAMRICK,
for NASA
Calculating TM X1394,
BladeSurface 1967. Program and Choking
Velocities
for
THEODORE: of Surface TN D6177, T.;
FORTRAN Velocities 1971. GINSBURG,
for Flow
QuasiThreeDimensional for Turbomachine Blade
CalRows.
JOSEPH
AMBROSE;
AND
OSBORNE,
WALTER
M.:
Method
of Analysis of Arbitrary 15. VANCO, Meridional D6701, 16. KATSANIS, Distribution D2809,
for Compressible Design. R.: of Plane 1972. THEODORE: on 1965. a Use of NACA
Flow Rep.
Through 1082, 1952.
MixedFlow
Centrifugal
Impellers
MICHAEL
FORTRAN a Turbomachine.
Program
for
CMculating
Velocities NASA
in
the TN
ICentrifugal
Compressor.
Arbitrary
QuasiOrthogonals Surface in a
for Turbomachine.
Calculating NASA
Flow TN
BladetoBlade
154
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
SYMBOLS A
ai
flow area, mS; ft 2 coefficients cascade passage distance constant distance distance absolute distance radius, blade absolute for equation height, width, between in equation m; ft m; ft mesh points, (556) m; ft m; ft (546)
b d h
ki
m
?t
along meridional streamline, normal to streamline, m ; ft pressure, along m; ft spacing, m; ft K; °R temperature, J/(kg) N/m2; (K); lb/ft curve, (ft) 2 m; ft arbitrary
P q R r
8
gas constant,
(lbf)/(lbm)
(°R)
T t
u
time, sec stream function absolute relative mass fluid velocity, velocity, flow rate, absolute m/see; m/see; kg/sec; angle ft/sec ft/sec lb/sec of inclination to blades, from out axial of the direction meridional boundary, in the plane m; ft
V W
W
meridional plane, deg fluid flow angle, relative (in the tangential distance in direction 0
P
direction), deg of outer normal
to cascade rad
angular density, potential
distance kg/m3; function
in direction lb/ft a
of rotation,
o3
angular velocity, tad/see verrelaxation factor
Subscripts: c in m n out p r s x y z curvature inlet meridional component outlet pressure component normal surface to streamline
radial component suction surface axial component in ydirection in zdirection 155 component component
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
8
tangential meshpoint
component designations
o 1
1, 4 3, 2, I
156
CHAPTER 6
Introductiono Boundaryt Layer Theory
By William McNally D.
As shown certain ducing work aspects Before causes. on the work. in chapter of ideal The portion design can be 2, the energy of the pressure that One ideal ratio energy more of the across that losses. to understand their a turbine to the important turbine and is not provides for converted difficult a proto
amount is considered of turbine losses The blade
is available of the
to be a loss. predicted,
is the prediction
it is necessary
primary cause of losses is the boundary layer that develops and endwall surfaces. Other losses occur because of shocks, flows, operation. which disk is used losses. friction chapter to calculate _Iethods and (windage), gives an flow incidence, needed the are basic and partialThis introduction to boundaryto estimate viscous loss in the
tipclearance admission layer viscous and next the theory,
the parameters mixing losses
(friction) associated chapter.
for determining
trailingedge
presented
NATURE When velocities, thin the and hand, layer boundary conditions thc velocity a real the in the fluid influence immediate At the agree there nonviscous) of the layer. (such
OF
BOUNDARY flows on the edge those past of the of this calculated At
LAYER a turbine blade. the with the blade This the layer use on at normal is called of ideal other
as air)
of viscosity outer with flow fluid
flow is confined layer
to a relatively
neighborhood
flow is frictionless, wall, (noslip the
(frictionless,
assumptions.
is zero in all directions
condition). 157
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
It is the frictional, velocity boundary point and laminar. surface sufficiently ness of the or changes Most are significant boundary tance. bulent flow are that turbulent layer It usually boundary amplified, pressure slide from layer A boundary at the
or viscous, layer
forces
in this thin value finite and fluid local negligible at a point 62(a) blade
layer
that
reduce
the 61.
fluid The
its freestream, develops edge The other. from
frictionless a small blade portion layer, have
to zero at the thickness at the both
wall. stagnation the to the suction is always blade are time
on a turbine of the initial
is illustrated grows of the layers along boundary
in figure
leading surfaces. over damped overall in some being each
layer
In a laminar
boundary so that they way, The blades through In the this the value, leads velocity
parallel
Any minute velocity
fluctuations influence is either indicates. it from this and
in velocity on the steady with
smooth
flow. The smooth ducted in this
as figure
flows
to a turbine, fuctuating type of cannot transition to the flow. at
or entering components flow. remain region, random In the any region point With region weak laminar
a combustor, have flow, great the disa turin the layer, a
in nature. influence on the passes layer. and flow, a mean also
of velocity overall for any disturbances boundary
a transition
becomes
fluctuations turbulent oscillates turbulent the
in velocity in a random boundary layer. blade When surface. surface positive of
are characteristic about 61 Separation layer manner
of turbulent
as in turbulent fashion Figure layer. The a boundary stream a turbine
as figure occur the happens along the fluid
62 (b) indicates. in the away in the moves rear laminar boundary from in figure of the increases. 63. suction This
shows separates, this
a separated
can likewise
in which blade, static
is illustrated portion correspondingly
rTurbulent boundary layer
As the free
velocity
decreases
pressure
_ Transition _ region
Laminar boundary layer ....
/
__ _, ,,_,,a, lull _' _Z////'_ \
Separated regiont
FIGURE 61.Boundary
layer
on blade.
158
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
Steady Steady t t
I t
(a) Laminar FxovaE flow. 62.V_riation of velocity with
Unsteady t
(b) time Turbulent at a point. flow.
FIoUrtE
63.Boundarylayer
separation.
pressure boundary layer
gradient layer and can be retarded
(adverse causes to such to that at
pressure it to lose a degree the
gradient) energy. that flow at the very reverses leading
retards The flow closc
the in the the to the
flow
in
the
boundary This blade as a is
wall it moves blade. separation
in a direction separation. point. can turbulent Finally, layers sent can laminar for lew_'l ()f the equati()ns The also
opposite The laminar point and
of the mean layer
flow passing itself edge to
which
is the the
boundary layer. This
of a turbine surface 64.
separatc boundary it should be either and the Mach
immediately that Just
reattach both laminar are
itself in figure and
is illustrated
be noted number. turbulent incompressible
turbulent depending equations there are variations
boundary on the to repredifferent of each. 159
incompressible
or compressible, as there different flow,
boundarylayer and
compressible
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION Turbulent boundary Separat ion layer 7 _ II I I __I __' ' .....
Laminar boundary layer_
bubble;,
,Z__...1f_.rrt_
c Stagnation point
FIGURE
64.Laminar
separation
and
reattachment.
Boundary layers should be considered relative Mach number exceeds values equations discussed for these in this various cases chapter.
compressible of 0.3 to 0.4. and
if the freestream The boundarylayer solution methods are
are derived
DERIVATION The Stokes equations, equations general equations In
OF
BOUNDARYLAYER of motion of viscous fluids
EQUATIONS are called there The equations. are the Naviersuch
equations. can
normal of the from
coordinate coordinate the
systems, directions.
three The
one for each be derived
boundarylayer Navierthe law of conis lengthy, and the complete on equaform
NavierStokes
Stokes equations themselves can be derived servation of momentum to a fluid element. will not be repeated here. References 1 and
by applying This exercise 2 both have
derivation, in two somewhat There are various forms what tion assumptions represents the are made
different forms. of the NavierStokes during constant their equations viscosity:
equations, The combined into
depending following vector
derivation.
NavierStokes fluid with
for a compressible
du dt where
u
gf_g__ Vp+_U V2u+ p p
__
p
V(V.u)
(61)
general time, general conversion
velocity sec
vector,
m/sec; 1;32.17
ft/sec (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) mass (sec _) N/kg; lbf/lbm
t g f 160
constant, body force
acting
on a unit
of fluid,
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
P
density, static dynamic equation,
kg/mS; pressure, viscosity,
lbm/ft N/m2;
s lbf/ft 2 2; Ibm/(ft) velocity (see) vector x, y, and with components
P
/z
(N) (see)/m a general
In this u, v, and
u represents three
w in the
coordinate
directions
z, respectively. (62)
u=uiTvj+wk where The i, j, and total, k are the unit vectors in the three coordinate In any of the
directions. coordinate
or substantial,
derivative
of u is du/dt.
directions, d 0 0 0 0
Oz
In equation rather vector than quantities, du _ _=g'p Expressing which may the g VP+Uo V(V.u)p V operator familiar in terms to the (61), to a scalar the Laplacian (61) operator If the term becomes _ [VX(VXu)]+_ of gradients, reader, equation curls, 1 p V(V.u) and V2 is applied to the function. V2u is expanded into
(63)
vector simple u
equation
(64)
divergences, becomes
be more
(64)
du gf'q grad d/= p
pf_ grad(div P
u) _
p
curl(curl
u)
+_
1 _l P grad
(div
u)
(65)
In order to derive The Ou three the boundarylayer scalar equations, equations are 02u 02u\ _y2+0_) equations, equation of the (61) has
to be expanded directions. Ou Ou
into three
one for each
coordinate
resulting
+U x+V y+W
Ou Op __u /O_u _zz f . .... gpox p t0_t=g
l u 0 [Ou
Ov
Ow\
Ov
Ov
Ov
Ov
g Op __u_/O2v
020
02v\
_t u _x kv _y + W oz = gf u ....
l u 0 [Ou
Ov
Ow\
161
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
aw
aw
_
+ w aw
g Op.
tt [CO2w. O_w.
COho'_
+5_ t,_+_+_)(6s)
P
1 tt cO[cOu
cOy
cow\
where
f,, fv, and f, are the Laminar
components
of the body Boundary
force
f.
Incompressible Prandtl's the following equations. Since for
Layer equations for assumed flow the laminar in the con
In (1) writing (2) tinuity
order
to
derive flow,
boundarylayer assumptions This has already
incompressible Viscosity of the Flow equation
will be made: been
is a constant. preceding is
is incompressible.
incompressible
/cOu V. u=div the final terms (3) and (4) (5) Thus, With following Flow (67). Flow Body these is steady. forces are This eliminates from the for the consideration, in equations as well
cOy
cOw\ )=0 (69)
u=t_x+_yy+_z (66) to (68) This involving
can be eliminated. equation (68) from (66) w or O/cOz in equations
is twodimensional. as all terms
eliminates
cOOr terms. to inertia (66) and viscous and (67). reduce to the forces. equations
negligible
in relation NavierStokes
f, andf_
can be discarded assumptions,
equations
two equations
x and ydirections:
COu u_+v cOu 00p ___ /O_u CO'u\ _= __ ,,_,_+_)
(6_0>
(611)
u_+__:
Likewise, the continuity
COy
COy
g__ + __ / cO_v cO2v cOp \
. _ . t,_+_)
becomes
cO u cOy
equation
_x+_yy=0 In order boundarylayer and show that velocities 162 some and to make equations the (610) check with directions to (612) is performed respect pertinent suitable on to the the
(612/ for the analysis made Figure boundary dimensionless, terms shows layer. to the 65 various of
flow,
equations
are traditionally to others.
an orderofmagnitude are negligible coordinate
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
U =u uO_
u_5 _
full
Trailing
y
x
L
FmURE 65.Boundarylayer
velocities
and dimensions.
The
following
dimensionless
parameters
X X =
are defined: (613a)
L
(613b)
u
U0
(613c)
(613d) Uo
(613e)
Re = o.L
Uo (613f)
where X L Y U dimensionless characteristic dimensionless dimensionless freestream dimensionless xcoordinate length velocity velocity velocity (in this case, in xdirection upstream of blade, m/see; ft/sec in ydirection 163 the blade chord), m; ft ycoordinate
u0
V
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
P Re From And order
dimensionless Reynolds figure
pressure
number 65, we see that since x is proportional boundarylayer less than layer (610) and by are 1. Likewise, much smaller in terms multiplied resulting to L, X is of order thickness since _, since than _/,u, 1.
since
y is proportional = _, a quantity in the
to the much 1. And
Y is of in
$r,m/L
u is of order velocities those in the
U0, U = u Uo is of order the ydirection xdirection. In order quantities, equation equations
V = v Uo is of order
boundary
to put equations (612) are
equations (610) is multiplied
to (612) (611) L/Uo. are The
of dimensionless by L/Uo _, and dimensionless
OU
OU
OP
1 /O_U
02U\
OV
OV
OP
1 [02V
O2V\
u +v
.....
OU OV = 0 terms in these equations 1, and __+__
(615)
(616) can now V
The are
order of order
of magnitude with e, each
of the other.
various Since
be compared
X and
U are of order
Y and
OU 1  == OX 1 OU OY oV OX OV == OY 1
1
(617a)
(6175)
 = _ 1
(617c)
1
(617d)
O_U 1 == 1 OX 2 1.1 O_U
0 y2
(617e)
1
e e
1
e2
(617f)
164
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
a2V
e  E 0X _ 1.1 02V OY _ Furthermore, magnitude order 1. Relating to (616) the as the these yields OU OU OP 1 /02U 02U\ change change orders _ _.e 1 e to X is of the to X, terms so that same
(617g)
(617h)
in P with of U with
respect respect to the
order
of is of
OP/OX
of magnitude
in equations
(614)
v
v oT=
=  1 + (_)
i3X +
(1+_)
(618)
(1) (1) + (e) (!)
OV
OV
OP
1 /02V
02V\
v
+ v oT= or
(t2) (_+!)
+
)
(619)
(1) (_) + (E) (1) = _+
OU
OV
(620)
1+1 By examining can be reached: (1) inertia (618), 02U/OX Reynolds (2) In dominating is to dominate, smaller fore, allows than P=P(X) In equations (618) to (620), the following conclusions
boundarylayer 2) + (02U/OY must be must
theory,
it is assumed same For d, since terms large. l/Re are of order this
that order
the
viscous
terms as the than the
2.
1/Re[(O2U/OX terms 1Re 2 and
2) ] are of the
of magnitude larger
U(OU/OX)+V(OU/OY). of order the two with terms be relatively dominates (619), _, the and that
to be true 2 is much
in equation
02U/OY
in parentheses. _ and
Therefore, with unless
02V/OY
number equation 02V/OX OP/OX,
of order
e. Therefore, a function the
OP/OY ThereThis in the 165
it too must or p=p(x),
be of order and the
e or less. Therefore,
OP/O Y is much of X alone. layer
P can be considered OP/OX=dP/dX across pressure
or Op/Ox=dp/dx. boundary
us to assume
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
ydirection flow pressure (3) order (4) small Since _, the In
is essentially existing the second equation first
constant. at the equation
It can be assumed of the boundary 1, and be leaves the is of order
equal layer. second
to the potential equation is of it is so dimension
outside
equation (618), with
can be neglected 02U/OX 02U/OY _ can 2. This
completely. neglected the because following
in comparison
less equations: OU OU dP 1 02U U _ T V OY  dX {Re 0 Y_ = OU OV (622) in dimensionless are size useful of the boundary form. layer in and So, to (621)
OX +_=O These The the are Prandtl's of the fluids. boundarylayer equations Reynolds From equation number equations in this (621) form on the
boundarylayer
in determining
influence
for different
we see that
as Re increases
magnitude, the viscousforce smaller. The boundarylayer as Re increases, decreasing The variables by Uo/L. of the boundary _i_u decreases. layer decreases viscosity boundarylayer by multiplying The resulting
terms (1Re) (02U/O y2) will get smaller thickness will correspondingly decrease. Furthermore, as the can (621) are Ou Oy
Ou Ov
increasing decreases. in terms Uo2/L and
Re corresponds rule, of the thickness dimensional (622)
if pL Uo is constant. equations equation equations Ou u +v Ox
So, as a general viscosity be put by
equation

g dp p dx
_t
_ 02u p Oy 2
(623)
+=0 Ox Oy These laminar, are Prandtl's boundarylayer flow. Density gradient solution. equations and viscosity along the blade The remaining for
(624)
twodimensional, constant dp/dx, is also are u and v, in
incompressible
arc assumed surface, unknowns
and known. The pressure known from an idealflow and equations (623) It should be noted the presence of shock of large layer depend gradients boundary shock Mach and that
(624) are sufficient the boundarylayer (i.e., where the occur). Just as
for their equations flow
calculation. arc not valid adverse pressure
waves
instantaneous number,
magnitude
phenomena conditions
in the in a
on mainly
Reynolds
wave depend on primarily the Mach number. number is not included in the boundarylayer about the interaction of shock waves and
Since the influence of equations, they tell boundary layers.
us nothing 166
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
The velocity boundary
boundarylayer v is much layer the right up is very calculations NavierStokes
equations smaller than
are net u. Very and
completely used close in their to the are since in the equations to (68)
reliable derivation separation
as separation is that point, order used where point be used development of the not the the as u. in calV is of for
is approached.
One of the grows
assumptions
rapidly,
v begins equations point, error these
to be of the the
same region
Nonetheless, culations significant separation detailed The
boundarylayer to the small, in the separation and However, equations little
generally location should used
is incurred.
neighborhood (66)
of a separated
flow region. in the
of the boundarylayer equations were derived of coordinates in which the radius of curvature axes flow wall can is quite arises over and large (i.e., wall. where the curvature question (fig. 66) as to how boundarylayer the xaxis to it, a new a system. the blade assumption the radius result are in curvature equations terms the with variations equations provided near sharp there edges. boundarylayer
for an orthogonal system of each of the coordinate effects equations are negligible). would coordinate change The for system equations are relative given radius orders manner wall, dr/dx applied and ._ l, walls. to in on the
a curved is introduced the yaxis
If a curvilinear
orthogonal
wherein is normal in the in such
is in the direction set of NavierStokes These equations dependent The the
of the curved
be derived 1. The
for flow terms
reference of curvature of magnitude as was thickness for the the same
arc very
r at a position of the is small individual previously. compared no large fiatplate occur
x along With
surface. that of curvature
can be estimated
in the same of the so that bc
done
boundarylayer
case where the walls
occur,
boundarylayer as well,
as were equations no large
obtained may variations
for fiat
Therefore, curved such
in curvature,
as would
y
x x
Y
FIGURE
66.Curvilinear
coordinate
system
on
a blade.
167
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Laminar An orderofmagnitude
Compressible analysis were assumed equation constant, of state can
Boundary also layer. was not be
Layer performed to derive variations the a function and density compressible, which heat, and of the energy the case, were of to
equations viscosity neglected, case, temperature, temperature, equation can be
for a compressible and and density the energy
boundary
In the used.
incompressible For
constant, viscosity is used
temperature is considered pressure some three
compressible
density
is no longer the equation and,
to relate
if the process The
is not isothermal, flow will involve These for viscosity Sutherland's are
form for
is required. related are
boundarylayer
equations viscosity, as a function relation
nonisothermal, thermal There The most
variableviscosity to temperature. several relations is probably
parameters specific
conductivity. of temperature. 1) common (rot.
z [T_3/2To+S _=\_o] T÷S where
_o
(625)
dynamic Ibm/(ft) absolute reference a constant, complicated, power law
viscosity (sec) static
at the
reference K; °R S=
temperature
To, (N) (sec)/m_;
T
temperature, K; °R
To
S A less is the
temperature,
K; °R (for air, but also
110 K or 198 ° R) temperatureviscosity relation
less accurate,
_o= \_o/ where by the _ is a constant. heat range and
0.5<oo<1.0 0.65. be related particular related variables problem equation, and with
(626)
For air, _0 is approximately thermal conductivity fits these relating of the for With can the variables these
Specific perature v, p, and tinuity equation, The that
to temperature gas and temto u, constate to temperature, reduce the will be the
leastsquares unknowns cquation, and
polynomialcurve involved. in the one
compressibleboundarylayer equations component equation. analysis for flow. For of the momentun_
T. The four
the energy equations equations
orderofmagnitude for incompressible the
continuity flow flow
momentum identical nonconstant following: to
(NavierStokes) viscosity, 168
compr,.ssible con,pressible to _()10)
is almost are the
analogous
to (612)
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
Ou
Ou
Op,
0 [
pu _+ pv oy g _v_ =
L2" ou 2 
[Ou
Ov\l O [ IOu Ov\l
(627)
Ov
Ov
pu _xx+P,
Oy
g Op.
0 [
Ov
2
/Ou
Ov\l
a [.lay
au\l (628)
O(pu) Ox If an orderofmagnitude to that layer for the equations result: analysis
+O(pv) Oy
=0
(629)
is performed equations,
on these the
equations
similar
incompressibleflow
following
boundary
pu _x{pv =g Oy
dxt_y
_
(630)
o(pu)
+ Ox The equation of state flow. The is also state
o(pv)
0 Oy (631)
required equation p=pRT
for the is
solution
of compressible
boundarylayer
(632) (K) or the of state, boundary by energy gas, means written (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) continuity is the layer energy (°R). equation, is derived the from equation. orderof
where The The the
R is the final
gas
constant, and for for The the
in J/(kg) besides equation gas
equation equation, equation equation check. steady
required
momentum energy energy
a compressible a perfect is the
of another in full:
magnitude
following
equation
for compressible,
twodimensional
flow of a perfect
pc, where
Cp
U_xxTV_yy
=_xxi_Oyy.Oxx
k_x)T_yy
k_yy)+_j_
(633)
specific conversion thermal
heat
at constant constant,
pressure, W/(m) (K);
J/(kg) Btu/(sec)
(K);
Btu/(lbm) (ft) (°R)
(°R)
J k and
1 ; 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu
conductivity,
j
(634)
169
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
If an orderofmagnitude following boundarylayer
check energy
is performed equation
on the results:
above
equations,
the
(635)
Equations layer a gas obeying
(630), thc
(631), ideal
(632),
and
(635)
are
the laminar compressible
boundaryflow of
equations
for nonisothermal, gas law.
twodimensional,
Turbulent It is desirable of turbine probably formance. motions) fluctuations present. the fluid There flow. sional, required, stretching ever, handle mesh
flOW.
BoundaryLayer a turbulent boundary blades, flow has that motion on the boundary layer with main irregular fluid closedform is very mean
Solution layer
Methods over the major separation in their or (mixing (see since are fig. 62). are the often portion will pereddy These at in
to have If the on the
blades. occur Turbulent
is not
turbulent, decrease
a resulting motion
fluctuations solutions
superimposed are Yet,, the due are than two first since the mixing those is the
so complex
not feasible stresses of greater
important, of velocity motion.
to fluctuating approaches exact
components to the solution
magnitude The
due to the
solution of the The
of turbulent timedependent, could at the never present
boundarylayer threedimenequations represent flow. time arc the Howcannot enough
NavierStokes of eddies, largest the threedimensional to represent second
equations. which
threedimensional mechanism of turbulent
twodimensional computers solutions fluctuating is to write of mean and by of velocity, u'. as follows:
calculations available of these components the equations and for So the fluctuating In this example,
is a prime
even
equations
on a small
of velocity of continuity, components approach, the is denoted density,
of turbulent momentum, of pressure, time by average the and _ and
The and density, of the velocity
approach in terms
energy
temperature, u component of fluctuation are written
velocity.
velocities,
pressure,
temperature
u = _+ u' v=_+v'
p = _+ p'
(636a) (636b) (636c) (636d) (636e) and specific heat are
p = p + p' T= T+ The 170 fluctuations in viscosity, thermal T' conductivity,
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
negligible as functions If the continuity, compressible These They the are are product not
and
are not considered. timeaveraged listed and set "apparent" pu '_ and v'. These
So these value in equations energy of stress turbulent pu'v', new For where terms this
three (636) terms
parameters
are calculated into the and stresses. time of additional equations or th_ before
of the
of temperature. are substituted for arises incompressible in thees or Reynolds average additional terms over add equations stresses, u'v' is the in the reason, Reynolds for which
flow properties momentum, flow, the form of the to the presently are
a new
equations.
are called
of u r and
equations empirical stress
unknowns approximations turbulent
boundarylayer available. substituted
problem for the
expressions
boundarylayer Turbulent
equations Incompressible
can be solved. Boundary (636) into Layer equations (610), analysis boundary
Substituting (611), yields layer and the flow:
the (612),
relations and then equations
of equations performing for turbulent,
an orderofmagnitude incompressible,
following
(637)
(6a8)
These flow. (_ and equations Notice, are analogous however, equation. the This making adds three to equations presence a new of the (623) and (u'v') only (624) stress two Layer into equations all turbulent, for (627), orderofcomfor laminar term in the two Reynolds with Boundary (636) then equations
momentum
unknown
to the original equations.
_), thereby Turbulent
unknowns
Compressible relations and the flow: yields of equations (633)
Substituting (628), magnitude pressible, (629),
the analysis
(632),
and
performing
following
boundarylayer
o(_)
. o(_,)
, o(p'v')
ox
+
o
(639)
(640)
/5 =_RT
(641) 171
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
1
0
_
k
0_
0
(642)
where
T, is the
absolute
total
temperature,
in K or °R, and
is defined
as
T,= +
We have now derived and as are for far the basic note basis boundarylayer incompressible at this for the time many, that many solutions solutions equations and this are dimensional, boundarylayer the These starting equations laminar point turbulent, as the
(643)
for twoonly which various compressible is really concerned.
flow. We should only
boundarylayer boundarylayer
methods under
presently exist circumstances.
obtaining
SOLUTION After parameters Included pressible velocity
OF profiles
BOUNDARYLAYER are discussed of the and solution the
EQUATIONS important will solution, boundarylayer be discussed. as comas well
defined, will be the methods.
some
methods
flatplate,
incompressible
Velocity One tions the of the principal results of the The
Profiles from profile most in the boundarylayer boundary layer mathematically solualong
obtained velocity velocity
is a description blade surface
profile
(fig. 67).
describes
FIGURE
67.Boundarylayer
velocity
profiles.
172
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
Outeredge of boundary layer_
/
!

°e:J
u
/ (b)
J IlL rll//llllTII/I/,
la) U/1/:frillill/I1
(a) Laminar profile, FIauaz 68.Laminar
(b) Turbulent profile. and turbulent velocity profiles.
the dimensionless y/5:,,, stream _],m, from the from at a distance velocity from the blade u,. profiles those
velocity The the a y from at surface. where
u/ue surface,
as a function u is the and equal the to _:_, differs
of the velocity velocity the by
dimensionless in the boundary u, is the defined
distance layer free
the blade.
velocity
external
distance Alternately, the velocity
boundarylayer as that from the 1 percent tend (fig.
thickness, distance external in
is often
velocity, Velocity shape, monly originated
for laminar for turbulent
flow
(fig. 68(a)) blunted u/ue for
to be parabolic 68(b)). flow
while used
flow are
A comis that
mathematical by Pohlhausen
expression (sec ref. 1) :
in laminar
ua The constants
_}b
( ,_y+c ( ."__ ( :,y Y+
d are defined in terms of a dimensionless
(644) shape
a, b, c, and
parameter
u wherc
dx
(645)
}, a = 2 +6 (646a)
k b =  2 X
(646b)
c=
(646c)
173
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Shapeparameter,
;:!== 0
o.
1
.2 .4 .6 .8 Fraction of boundarylayer height, y/Sfull 1.0 FIGURE 69.Laminar veh)city profiles.
d = 1 
6 shc, wn in figure represented 69.
(646d)
Velocity Velocity law
profiles profiles
for various
values
of _ are flow are
for turbulent
often
by the
power
 =
Ue
_
kS/,,H/
(647)
Pipeflow Reynolds is most n can
experiments number appropriate be related and
show varies
that
the
exponent 4 up
n is a mild 10. The plate. 0, which
function value The
of the of n= 7 exponent the dis
from
to about
for boundarylayer to other _fand boundarylayer the momentum
flow on a fiat parameters, thickness
namely
placement thickness in the next section. Definitions Solutions often In obtained to placement order thickness thickness boundary little attains distance 174 of the thickness define of the is rather layer a value from
are described
of Important twodimensional of three 5, the these arbitrary, to that which the wall. outside is very however,
BoundaryLayer boundarylayer important parameters. 0, and thickness The
Parameters equations These the to first the velocity form are are the factor define inside This at most disH. the the is of layer a small thick
in terms
momentum parameters, layer, since because close 8/,,n. it takes
it is necessary definition from transition place the
boundary
of boundarylayer
asymptotically. in the the external velocity boundarylayer
importance,
velocity
boundary
to the
It is possible
to define
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
ue
Ue
,(u e  u) ue
II!_1111/_ rllllilllllllll r/Ill,
(a)
llill, 'lllll/ll/llfll 'llll[lll//
(b)
(a) Actual FzGva_
velocity
profile.
(b) thickness
610.])isplacement
Equivalent profile equal mass flow. of a boundary layer.
for
ness as that from The the
distance
from velocity
the blade u,.
where
the
velocity
differs
by I percent flow,
external displacement
thickness
5, for
compressible
boundarylayer
can be defined with the decrease in mass friction is given by
the help of figure 610. flow within the boundary
As seen from figure 610(a), layer due to the influence of
_[ass
defect
=
t/=81u.ll
(p,u.
on)
dy
(648)
where the the layer. distance outward
pe is the 5, the
density, layer. by
in kg/m This
3 or lbm/ft mass
3, in the defect
free
stream
outside
of by a It is
boundary distance
integrated thickness, external of the the distance
[.y=Sfutt
can be represented in figure field 610(b). of flow
displacement which the
as shown potential
is displaced boundary equation
as a consequence 610 shows,
decrease _ can
in velocity be defined
in the by the
As figure
(p.U.pU)
yO
dy
(649)
Solving
for _ gives
=  1 The displacement
peue _uO
[_,s.,, thickness
(p.u.
pu) dy = I 1 J_:z"':"u (Pp_u_)
0
dy
(650)
for incompressible dy=
flow reduces 1(_) due dy
to
_= 1 f_,=_, `n (u.u)
Ue _ yO
f.=',,<,,
_ _0
(651)
presence of
The friction
loss of momentum is given by
in the
boundary
layer
to the
175
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
l"
y= I/ull
Momentum
defect
= I
d
pu( u,y=0
u) dy
(652)
This
momentum
defect
from
the
momentum by the
of purely equation
potential
flow
can be represented
by a distance
0, defined
p,u,20 =
Y=PJfull
pu (u,
u) dg
(653)
" y=0
Solving
for 0 in this equation boundary
gives
the
definition as
of the
momentum
thick
ness for compressible 0=Pe LIe2 _ y=0
layers
pu(u_u) thickness
dg=
_ y=0 pc_le
1flow reduces to
dg
(654)
The
momentum
for incompressible
0=/_e2 y=0
u(u,u) H for both
dy=
]
" y=0
l"/e
1
dy
(655) flow is
The defined
form as the
factor ratio
compressible thickness 5 H =0
and
incompressible
of displacement
to momentum
thickness: (656)
There These
are many three,
other and however, studies. Physical
boundarylayer especially are the
parameters principal
besides
_, 0, and boundary used in
H for layers. general
twodimensional, boundarylayer
for threedimensional, parameters
Interpretation from a blade a region
of Separation or a casing with fluid an adverse particles pressure is deflected the gradient occurs, away from pressure cannot, because away fluid and some the of the surface gradient in general, of their from move the in a particles
When retarded toward exists penetrate small surface behind direction defined immediate
separation fluid in the the main along too and far
of flow boundary stream. into into
layer retarded region main
is transported
When the the
a surface, energy. moves
of increased layer pressure stream. the
kinetic
Thus, the
the boundary follow
In general,
the point
of separation
opposite to the external as the limit between forward neighborhood of the wall.
stream. The and reverse At separation,
point of separation is flow in the layer in the
_yy/_=0=0 Figure 176 611 illustrates separation occurring along a surface.
(657)
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
TItEOR_/
(;),.o
>o
,_\\\',, ..... LSeperation point
FIOURE 611.Velocity gradients as flow
o
  _x_
undergoes
separation.
By relation the
examining between
Prandtl's pressure that adverse of an to infer
boundarylayer gradient separation pressure (623), with dp/dx
equations and gradient the velocity in a steady
and flow
considering only at
the u(y), in the flow),
distribution will occur decelerated conditions
it is possible presence being dp/dx>O. surface
(i.e., boundary
From
equation
u = v = 0, we have
dp
\Oy_/__o We dp/dx can now through relate velocity of the on the at the profiles (658). wall, wall pressure The the = g dx to Ou/Oy, cquation curvature its gradient, changes profile that O_u/Oy _, and indicates of the dp/dx, sign and with exist that velocity the the
(658)
finally in to the
equation only profile shows
immediate of the gradient. Figure layer
neighborhood velocity 612(a)
profile, curvature pressure
02u/Oy 2, depends
a velocity
would
in a boundary figure 612 (b)
subjected
to a decreasing
pressure.
For such
a profile,
y
(c)
(a) Velocity profile, FIGURE 612.Velocity
(b) Velocity gradient, distribution in a boundary
(c) Velocityprofile curvature. layer with pressure decrease. 177
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
indicates Furthermore, Ou/Oy, subjected profiles Figure with near gradient). the
that is negative
Ou/Oy figure
is positive 612(c)
for
all
y and (658),
decreases we know will
as y increases. is the that have (the slope negative layer velocity form of of
indicates dp/dx.
that
02u/Oy _, which
for all y. From to negative pressure indicative a profile due that to an 613 (b) not shows flow figure surface;
equation
02u/Oy _ corresponds which 613(a) Here, blade are
Consequently, dp/dx)
a boundary
to a decreasing
(negative of impending which would that
separation exist pressure Ou/Oy
fig. 612(a)). in a boundary (adverse has (fig. cases there 613(c)). a positive layer pressure slope This decelerated increasing
indicates
is, O_u/Oy _ is positive since in all the surface, of inflection
corresponds be less than point layer velocity
to positive dp/dx. However, zero at some distance from 02u/Oy_= profile. O. This is a point that It follows
O_u/Oy 2 must must exist a boundaryflow potential
for which
of the
in a region
of retarded
• j
Y :::_/Point of inflection
(a
(b)
TRY
_y2 .
FIOURE
(a) Velocity profile, 613.Velocity
distribution
(b) Velocity gradient, in a boundary
(c) Velocityprofile curvature. layer with pressure
increase.
Stagnation
Sudion _'_"_Adve rse gradient
Fmuug
614.Pressure
distribution
on a turbine
blade.
178
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
(positive point (with that, can
dp/dx),
the
velocity the surface) used the
profile velocity must
in the profile have flow
boundary at the equation
layer point (623), (i.e., on the where
will have of separation it follows separation in regions surface
a
of inflection. 8u/Oy with occur the only 614 blade.
Since
= 0 at the when indicates The
a point is retarded distribution as
of inflection,
assumptions gradient).
in deriving
potential
of of a is
adverse Figure turbine readily part
pressure
a typical danger zone, portion is taking
pressure as far place.
separation surface,
is concerned, the major
seen to be the rear of the blade diffusion
of the suction
Laminar Prandtl's It was equations This later Memorandum German
Incompressible boundarylayer translated (ref. work 3). and The was
Boundary theory first the was
Layer
on
a Flat
Plate
first reported in 1928
in 1904 in Germany. NACA of 4). from dp/dx the ffiO. of Blasius (ref. the velocity and Technical Prandtl's in 1908. solution
published
as an
mathematical fiatplate translated p(x) reduce 82u
to be published with
solution by NACA
was also later steady equations, 8u is constant.
On a fiat plate potential solution The boundarylayer
flow at zero incidence, Therefore, therefore, 8u to
is constant
u _+v
where v is the kinematic viscosity
0U
o_
,/p,
¢9V
oy=
in m'/sec or ft'/see, and
(659)
(6e0)
The following are the boundary u=v=O
U=Ue
conditions: at
at
y=O
y= oo
(661)
With
the
use
of a stream (659)
function into
_b, Blasius the following
transformed ordinary
the
partial
differential equation:
equation
differential
f d2f+2 dy 2 where f is a normalized stream function
daf=0 dy 3
(662)
f(,)179
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
which
depends
on the dimensionless
ycoordinate, Y
n, where
=
(664)
This
equation
has
the
following
boundary
conditions:
f=_fy=O
at
n=O
(665) df
_=1 dy Equation mate able (662) df/dy, the curvature solution point. with and velocity asymptotic (662) in the expansion More a high profile at the wall cannot form be solved of a power the Howarth of accuracy, 615. rather at _= oo
exactly. series two (ref. and This
Blasius expansion 5) solved provided df/dy profile
obtained about the being joined Blasius the
an approxi71 0 and = equation for f, gives small an at a suit
for ,1 = _, degree
solutions
recently,
tabular
values solution a very
d2f/dy _ as functions of figure and turns
of 7. Since
= u/u_, further
possesses
abruptly
from
it in order
!_
E
s. 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 Boundarylayervelocity ratio, u/ue Fmuaz 180 615.BlasiusHowarth velocity profile for flow on a flat plate.
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
to reach inflection, From
the the
asymptotic
value.
At the
wall itself,
the
curve
has
a point Prandtl's
of
since
for y = O, O_u/Oy _= O. analysis we had the performed to obtain equations, relation
orderofmagnitude
boundarylayer
(666)
For a semiinfinite flat plate, the Reynolds Rezu,x
p
number
can be expressed
as (667)
In order
to make
equation
(666)
dimensionally
correct,
we can say
x2
or
Rez
(668)
_is.u ¢c
(669)
The
constant
of proportionality flow, we obtain the
can be obtained useful relation
from Howarth's flat plate for the
numerical
solution in laminar thickness
and is equal
to 5. So, for a semiinfinite
at zero incidence boundarylayer
(_s_zz=5.0 With the use of Howarth's for other solution
v/_ equations, parameters the
(670) follow
to the Blasius
ing relations
important
boundarylayer
for laminar
flow on a flat plate
can also be obtained:
= 1.72
v_
(671)
0=0.664
v]_
(672)
gr,,
pUe 2
= 0.332
_/":_U_g =
0.332 (673)
1.328 D = _ b _¢/_plu2 g
(674)
181
TURBIN]_
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
1.328 CI = 1.328 __ "uJ where
I"W
(675)
shear total width length
stress drag
on the surface, on both sides m; ft m; ft
N/m_;
lbf/ft
_
D b l
of fiat plate,
N; lbf
of fiat plate, of fiat plate, number that
Cf
Re_
dimensionless Reynolds be noted flow over boundary (671) the
drag or skin friction based on plate
coefficient length l
for fiat plate
It should flow; of laminar to turbulent equations plate occur, (674).
all of these only where length
relations
are valid
only that
for laminar is indicative
that is, they
are valid layer point. will
Rez < 106, a value of the plate. occur, only from to turbulent than that
the entire
For Re_ > 106, transition and the expressions layer by in does the leading boundary calculated edge of the equation
will probably will be valid If transition be larger
to (675) drag
to the transition then
Integral
M_thods
for
Solving
the
LaminarBoundaryLayer The tions two are principal by integral means of solving and by solutions, based original the on work
Equations the laminarboundarylayer finitedifference exact solutions methods. are since yon (ref. equaBoth extremely integral that it
methods
means provide cumbersome. Integral formula. and was was not Von later
approximate are
methods K_rm_n's translated
Khrm_n's 6). Von
momentum Khrm_n equations equations realized
was published
in 1912 in Germany for every close by satisfying in the or Such fluid to the the
by NACA the external
necessary Instead, in the
to satisfy he satisfied region over the the where In the the
boundarylayer boundarylayer region equation (eq. and result. thickness. to y=_/,,n, and equations momentum
particle. wall and boundary layer,
flow is approached of fluid (623)
conditions. a mean from over are
remaining differential
boundary a mean by and of dis(654)) incom(630)) (623)
only
is satisfied. If equations if the For thickness
is obtained integration (630) placement are pressible
momentum boundarylayer from (eq. y=O (650))
equation
integrated thickness the
definitions (eq. laminar,
introduced, flow,
following
dO+ (20+,_) u2 dx
u. du. = gr._.._. d'x p
(676)
182
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
For laminar,
compressible flow,
uJ d_ + (20+_MJ0) u, du, = pT._2_ d_ p, at the outer (677)
where layer.
the subscript (676)
e denotes or (677) profile, 6, the for
conditions leads u/u,.
edge of the boundary differential a suitable 0, and layers. profile under equation form the His is asthe (676) work assumed "Velocity various disto was by Proauthors different was known laminar that velocity incomof
Equation for the sumed stress obtain published Pohlhausen files." have families Thwaites distributions pressible differential and and layer. the profile. flow. form placement
to an ordinary provided This that allows thickness, boundary The velocity chapter, in this
boundarylayer for the velocity thickness, a solution in 1921 was
thickness,
us to calculate
momentum was the 1).
shearing
at the wall,
T_. Pohlhausen (refs. 7 and earlier
first to use equation
incompressible
discussed Pohlhausen's in regions and
Although tried
solution of rising extend which
is probably pressure. his method
the simplest, by assuming
it is known
to give poor results of velocity work (ref. 8). from equations. factor with for
As a result,
to improve among
distributions. those and method He relates nondimensional the that use of exact pressure a nearly followed and Pohlhausen's all for Thwaites exact collected approximate does the compared solutions the
A famous
Thwaites'
not require wall shear,
solution a type laminar adverse
of ordinary at the wall, of velocity were among defined these boundary gradients,
its derivative quantities existed
to one another
without forms universal gradients. solutions
specifying of these relation For for the
To do this, It developed
evaluated
quantities
favorable
Thwaites selected a single representative relation. A unique correlation was chosen that reduced the solution of an incompressible problem to the evaluation pressible heat formation compressible One laminar Their stream of the method or pressure transfer of a single fluids by Rott is negligible, proposed best by integral layers applies axially to incompressible is that integral. and and Thwaites' the Prandtl (ref. method number 10) was extended to comthat to when relate of 12). twofreepresCrabtree (ref. 9). They could solutions. to date Reshotko It handles for the (refs. flow solution 11 and over recognized is equal be used
to 1, a trans
Stewartson methods
boundarylayer to appear and of Cohen
boundary
to compressible symmetric and
or incompressible surfaces. well in areas
dimensional
arbitrary of adverse
distribution
performs
sure gradient. A surface temperature level may be specified, and heat transfer is calculated. Cohen and Reshotko's method is based on Thwaites' correlation concept. Stewartson's transformation (ref. 10) is first applied
183
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
to the
Prandtl's wall shear, Then utilizing
equations. are expressed the surface Thwaites'
The heat
resulting transfer,
nonlinear, and the of these of reference
firstorder parameters transformed interdependence quantities 11. With and Young Reshotko's, different the
differential related freestream of these carried resulting important published but from which 1. a the is then to
equations velocity. parameters out by relations, method allows
in terms concept The solutions
of dimensionless of a unique
is assumed. the methods (ref. are
evaluation for In the
exact
derived
calculation Luxton and
of all the
boundarylayer the Prandtl
parameters. 13) which number
1960,
is as general to have
as Cohen values
slightly for
FiniteDifference
Methods
Solving Equations
LaminarBoundaryLayer Finitedifference have digital work good reference recently computers. in developing of interest with results come methods into this is that relatively Smith and for solving have (refs. (ref. running the because
boundarylayer of the 15). a considerable These on the methods computer. in
equations of of very recent give amount
prominence Clutter technique of Krause short and
development Another
done 16). times
14 and
EddyViscosity Turbulent Before length" used stresses matical leads stitute flow. velocity, the referencing flow, be of the by this By should in many produced form and any the discussed.
MixingLength BoundaryLayer
Concepts Flow for viscosity" concepts to relate mean the values are given governing values solving
of the concepts
current of
methods "eddy to date to the into only stresses
turbulent "mixing been Reynolds of velocity a matheequations, of density, conhave
boundarylayer
and the
These
approximation
methods the upon equations These point means,
developed motion Reynolds the
mixing
components.
which, pressure.
substitution containing transformed calculation problem
to differential starting first
mean
differential of the in 1877. flow mean
equations boundarylayer with
for the on this
Boussinesq coefficient
worked
In analogy
the
of viscosity
in Stokes'
law for laminar t_ Ou r,g Oy
(678)
where mixing
rz is the coefficient,
laminar A,,
shear
stress,
in N/m s or lbf/ft stress in turbulent
2, he introduced flow by putting
a
for the Reynolds
A, 0_ r_ g 0y (679)
184
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
where
rt is the the
turbulent concept
shear of eddy,
stress,
in N/m _ or lbf/ft viscosity,
_. In 1880, Reynolds _, where
introduced
or virtual,
AY
, =Thus, the eddy stress viscosity can then is analogous be expressed paa g Oy With the use of this concept, terms
p to the as Pu'v' g (637) and (640) kinematic viscosity
(680)
p= u/p.
Turbulent
(681)
in equations
such
as
can be written
as
A similar or a virtual,
concept
can
be applied is that A,
to the and
energy The hence
equation difficulty _ depend between
where with these
an eddy, the It is,
conductivity method necessary velocity.
can be defined. empirical
applying
eddyviscosity therefore, and In the free theory Prandtl's fluid good deal the 1925, Reynolds path in the concerns mean
on velocity.
to find introduced His mixing theory with with the
relations
coefficients for mean kinetic whereas clusters requires all of which of a
Prandtl since
a completely argument length the the of gases.
different
approximation mixinglength to the is that
stresses, kinetic itself deals Deriving in reference
is called is somewhat The main
Prandtl's analogous difference
hypothesis,
microscopic macroscopic expression model final
motion motion for is
of particles, of large stress flow, shear
concept
particles.
Prandtl's of his physical 1. His
rt =
of discussion
of turbulent
is contained
expression
PU'V'
p l 2 Ida da =
g }_y dy in m or ft.
g
(682)
where (eq. mixing (682) than
l is the mixing (681)), length is equation
length, that second
On comparing viscosity _ of the is generally
Prandtl's it appears l of the more (681).
expression little
(eq. has
(682)) been been
with that The replaced
of Boussinesq unknown eddy unknown equation motion to the 185
gained. However,
first expression suitable
has merely expression. for the dra_:
by the Prandtl's
calculation is roughly
of turbulent proportional
Turbulent
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
square mixing property mixing
of velocity, length length of the length
and
the
same local the
result function,
is obtained although to make _, and
from
(682) say about
if the it is a the the
is assumed fluid.
to be independent It is far simpler eddy over
of the magnitude we cannot assumptions this
of velocity.
So, mixing
is a purely about
1 than
viscosity that for
constitutes
superiority
of Prandtl's Integral Turbulent
expression Methods
of Boussinesq. Solving the
BoundaryLayer
Equations equations, there the are both
Just integral since
as
with
the and
laminarboundarylayer finitedifference Both for turbulent the first turbulent A rash calculational and the 10) (ref. boundary Tillmann, skinfriction are 18), likewise equations. proposed layers. momentum an translated is still used methods of these
methods exact solutions was
for solving approximate for solving His work most was (ref.
turbulent solutions,
boundarylayer Gruschwitz in Germany improvements Gruschwitz. many empirical equation.
equations.
provide
flow are now impossible. a method layer. followed, and work in 1950 in the in many improved which current whose term used the was data equations published making used by an in Gerintegral for solving for incomequation integrable parameter is boundary of works technique by NACA in many
to propose
for an incompressible in 1931. to the Ludwieg was for (ref. in 1951 turbulent determines relation This
of them published
empirical
in 1949 and
17), proposed Stewartson's
momentum methods method is directly
relation
methods.
transformations Maskell, pressible and thus
the turbulentboundarylayer
He replaced thickness.
the momentum A profile
by an empirically obtained Tillmann tribution pressure translated and and, tion. flows. brodt's with 20). been power the Prior utilized law, turbulent like It applies method use
determined the
approximation
from an empirical auxiliary differential equation. The Ludwiegskinfriction formula is used to calculate the skinfriction disand gradient. whose work was (ref. does published 19), proposed not use the and in Germany solutions flows. The momentum rotationally accurate turbulent were first and velocity skinfriction in 1952 and for both method integral results, boundary treated Tucker integral profile, was by NACA Maskell's in I955 method, to both is still of integral work, one with and laminar is simple equato determine a separation point for flows with adverse
Truckenbrodt,
incompressible
boundarylayer twodimensional and relatively layers by for incompressible boundary Reshotko
symmetrical Truckenlayers. (ref. had the When adequately in 1957 equation usually relations.
Because
of its simplicity used turbulent
Compressible
methods the
to their
K_irm_tn
momentum
an assumed of several
boundarylayer empirical
186
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
pressure tiplying normal The solved heat form (ref. heat (ref.
gradient the to the
was present, equation, was of the and then
an auxiliary used. (This momentum integrating and the
equation, equation integral with auxiliary
usually equation
the momentby mulby a distance distance.) were flow and then with
ofmomentum
is obtained to that equation
integrand surface integral
respect
momentum and and are and
equation method, gradient, equations. with the
simultaneously. Tucker's pressure applicable These use are (ref. suitable shearstress velocity Separation becomes available used in many available of Sasman is made equations. of numerical SasmanCresci results and for profile to compressible expressed 18). The transfer and 10) also uses the momentum of Stewartson's moment
Reshotko ofmomentum
integral uncoupled the relation through and the when ago, best was
in incompressible transformation LudwiegTillmann flow with concept through to simplify point method, the the until today. 22). It is where
results is used
of Maskell in a form for the powerlaw
skinfriction transfer 21).
for compressible referenceenthalpy distribution are used zero. computer today Cresci It method. to uncouple These This is located as the
application
of Eckert's
An approximation layer friction, years layers.
boundary the skin
momentofmomentum several boundary One turbulent simply the and same of
equation. extrapolated, the best
compressible programs for (ref. uses the
turbulent compressible somewhat momentum are solved disthat of pressure based on 22) 24). techturbulent (ref. turbulent than
It is still widely integral layers of the but after is that
the
methods
boundary an extension analysis,
ReshotkoTucker integral
no attempt introduction
momentofmomentum obtained from
equations
simultaneously tributions boundarylayer
boundarylayer analysis in regions a computer SasmanCresci on
shearstress is better
recent The
of equilibrium of adverse program (ref.
analysis.
ReshotkoTucker gradient. McNaUy the CohenReshotko An niques.
at predicting separation (ref. 23) has developed (refs. 11 and 12) work and source is the of information
additional analysis
compressible
boundarylayer
of Herring for
and Mellor Solving Equations the
FiniteDifference Turbulent Finit_difference equations large and (refs. Patankar the work Atwell 28 have have and and portion methods recently begun to date on have the
Methods BoundaryLayer for solving (refs. methods use developed equations field at the
the
turbulent and 27).
boundarylayer Smith have done Ferriss, layer equation. for handling A great deal of a Bradshaw, boundary energy
to appear.
Cebeci
of this work 29) based
25, 26, and of the still (refs. present
also developed
for the turbulent turbulent another 30 and time, method 31).
Spalding
turbulent is going
boundarylayer on in this
and
no method
is yet 187
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
clearly (refs. integral
superior 32 and and 33) finite
to
any compare
of the
others. of
Two the
relatively most prominent turbulent
recent
publications methods, both layer.
many for
difference,
solving
the
boundary
CONCLUDING The layer able. that of selection problem This have solution can been has techniques, whole of a method requires be achieved mentioned been the some by of solution familiarity studying The to show
REMARKS suitable with some present the the of the to a particular various more boundarymethods recent of the avail
references methods of
herein. intended variety
discussion historical and where
development the complexity
solution of the
of methods problem,
available, especially
boundarylayer
turbulent
flows
are involved.
REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. HERMAN_ (J. KESTIN, TRANS.)" Boundary Layer Theory. McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., any edition. BIRD, R. BYRON; STEWART, WARREN E.; AND LIGHTFOOT, EDWIN N.: Transport Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960. PRAN_rL, L. : Motion of Fluids with Very Little Viscosity. NACA TM 452, 1928. BLASIUS, H.: The Boundary Layers in Fluids with Little Friction. NACA TM 1256, 1950. HOWARTH, L." On the Solution of the Laminar Boundary Layer Equations. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Set. A, vol. 164, no. 919, Feb. 18, 1938, pp. 547579. YON K_RM_N, TH: On Laminar and Turbulent Friction. NACA TM 1092, 1946. POHLHAUSEN, K. : Approximate Integration of the Differential Equation of the Limit Surface of Laminar Motion. Zeit. f. Math. Mech., vol. 1, Aug. 1921, pp. 252268.
SCHLICHTING,
8. THWAITES, B.: Approximate
Calculation
of the Laminar
Boundary
Layer.
Aero
naut. Quart., vol. 1, Nov. 1949, pp. 245280. 9. ROTT, NICHOLAS; AND CRABTREE, L. F.: Simplified Laminar BoundaryLayer Calculations for Bodies of Revolution and for Yawed Wings. J. Aeron. Sci., vol. 19, no. 8, Aug. J,952, pp. 553565. 10. STEWARTSON, K. : Correlated Incompressible and Compressible Boundary Layers. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A, vol. 200, no. 1060, Dec. 22, 1949, pp. 84100. 11. CO_EN, CLAaENCS B.; AND RESHOTXO, ELI: Similar Soutions for the Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Pressure Gradient. NACA TR 1293, 1956. 12. COHEN, CLARENCE B. ; ANY RESHOTKO, ELI: The Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. NACA TR 1294, 1956. 13. LVXTOS, R. E.; AND YOUNG, A. D. : Generalized Methods for the Calculation of the Laminar Compressible BoundaryLayer Characteristics with Heat Transfer and NonUniform Pressure Distribution. R&M3233, Aeronautical Research Council, Gt. Britain, 1962.
188
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
14. SMITH, A. M. 0.; AND CLUTTER, DARWIN W." Solution of the Incompressible Laminar BoundaryLayer Equations. AIAA J., vol. 1, no. 9, Sept. 1963, pp. 20622071. 15. 16. 17. 18. SMITH, A. M. O.; ANY CLUTTER, DARWIN W.: Machine Calculation of Compressible Laminar Boundary Layers. AIA_ J., vol. 3, no. 4, Apr. 1965, pp. 639647. KRAUSE, EGON: Numerical Solution of the BoundaryLayer Equations. AIAA J., vol. 5, no. 7, July 1967, pp. 12311237. LUDWIEG, HUBERT; Stress in Turbulent AND TILLMANN, W.: Investigations Boundary Layers. NACA TM 1285, of the 1950. WallShearing Layer in Aircraft Laminar
MASKI':LL, E. C. : Approximate Calculation TwoDimensional Incompressible Flow. Establishment, Nov. 1951.
TRUCKENBROIYr,
of the Turbulent Boundary Rep. AERO 2443, Royal for Calculation of the
19.
E.:
A Method Layer 1955.
of Quadrature
and Turbulent Boundary Flow. NACA TM 1379,
20. RESHOTKO,
in Case of Plane and Rotationally
Symmetrical
21.
ELI; AND TUCKER, MAURICE: Approximate Calculation of the Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. NACA TN 4154, 1957. ECKERT, E. R. G. : Engineering Relations for Friction and Heat Transfer to Sur
faces 587. 22.
in High
Velocity
Flow.
J. Aeron.
ROBERT
Sci., vol. 22, no. 8, Aug.
J.:
1955,
pp. 585
SASMAN, PHILIP K.; AND CRESCI, Layer with Pressure Gradient 1966, pp. 1925.
and
Heat
Compressible Transfer. AIAA
Turbulent Boundary J., vol. 4, no. 1, Jan.
23.
MCNALLY, WILLIAM D.: FORTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Boundary NASA TN D5681, 1970.
HERRING, H. JAMES; AND MELLOR, G.
Program for Calculating Compressible Layers in Arbitrary Pressure Gradients.
L.:
24.
25.
A Method of Calculating Compressible CR1144, 1968. CEBECI, T.; SMITH, A. M. 0.; AND MOSINSKIS, G.: Solution of the Incompressible Turbulent BoundaryLayer Equations with Heat Transfer. J. Heat Transfer, vol. 92, no. 1, Feb. 1970, pp. 133143.
Turbulent
Boundary
Layers.
NASA
26.
SMITH,
A.
M.
0.;
AND
CEBECI,
Layer 1967. 27.
Equations.
Rep.
T. : Numerical Solution of the TurbulentBoundaryDAC33735, Douglas Aircraft Co. (AD656430), May
CERECl, T.; ANn SMITH, A. M. O.: A FiniteDifference Method for Calculating Compressible Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers. J. Basic Eng., vol. 92, no. 3, Sept. 1970, pp. 523535.
P.; FERRISS, D. H.; AND ATWELL, N. P.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the Turbulent Energy Equation. J. Fluid Mech., vol. 28, pt. 3, May 26, 1967, pp. 593616. BRADSHAW, P.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the TurbuBRADSHAW,
28.
29.
lent Energy Equation. Lab., Jan. 30, 1969. 30.
IX: Summary.
Rep.
NPLAero1287,
National
Physical
PATANKAR, S. V.; ANY SPALDING, D. B. : A FiniteDifference Procedure for Solving the Equations of the TwoDimensional Boundary Layer. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 10, no. 10, Oct. 1967, pp. 13891411.
PATANKAR,
31. 32.
Layers.
S. V.; AND C.R.C. Press,
SPALDING,
D. B." Heat
and
Mass
Transfer
in Boundary
1967. Computation of Turbulent Conference. Stanford Univ.
COLES, D. E.; ANn HIRST, E. A., ED8.: Proceedings, Boundary Layers1968, AFOSRIFPStanford Press, 1969.
189
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
33.
BERTRAM, SP216,
MITCHEL 1969.
H.,
ED.:
Compressible
Turbulent
Boundary
Layers.
NASA
190
INTRODUCTION
TO
BOUNDARYLAYER
THEORY
SYMBOLS turbulent constant flow mixing in eq. (644) coefficient, (N) (sec)/m_; lbm/(ft) (sec)
A_r
a
b Cf
e, cp
m; fwidth of flat eq. (644) plate, ft constant in skinfriction constant specific total Blasius general component component component conversion form factor, unit vector conversion unit vector constant drag heat coefficient in eq. (644) pressure, N; lbf stream vector, force force force function N/kg; defined N/kg; N/kg; N/kg; by eq. (663) lbf/lbm lbf/lbm lbf/lbm (sec _) J/(kg)(K); Btu/(lbm)(°R) at constant (644) lbf/lbm for a flat plate
D d
on flat plate, in eq.
f
f
dimensionless body force of body of body of body constant,
f in xdirection, f in ydirection, f in zdirection, (Ibm)
f, f.
g H i J
1; 32.17
(ft)/(lbf)
defined by eq. (656) in the xdirection constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu (K); Btu/(sec) chord), (ft) (°R) m; ft in the ydirection
J
k k L 1 M.
n
thermal conductivity, W/(m) unit vector in the zdirection characteristic length (e.g.,
the blade
Prandtl mixing length, m; ft length of flat plate, m; ft Mach number external to the boundary exponent dimensionless static pressure, number number number of curvature in eq. static total gas constant, Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds radius constant absolute absolute reference time, sec velocity velocity of general in xdirection, upstream velocity of blade, vector on the turbulent N/m2; J/(kg) based based based (625), temperature, used lbf/ft (K) velocity defined 2 ; (ft) pressure, by eq.
layer eq. (647) (613e) (°R) by eq. (667) (613f) (675)
profile,
P p R Re Rez Re_
r
(lbf) / (lbm)
on L and
U0, as defined in eq. by eq.
on l, as defined on x, as defined surface, K; °R K; °R in eq. (625), K; °R
of blade
m; ft
S T T,
temperature,
To
t U Uo
U
temperature
K; °R defined m/sec; by eq. (613c) m/sec;
dimensionless freestream component ft/sec
ft/sec xdirection,
u in the
191
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
U U.
general
velocity
vector,
m/sec; at the
ft/sec outer edge of the boundary (613d) m/sec; m/sec; layer,
freestream
velocity
V
p
m/sec; ft/sec dimensionless velocity component ft/sec component ft/sec dimensionless of general of general
in ydirection, velocity velocity vector vector defined
defined u in the u in the
by eq.
ydirection, zdirection,
tO
X
xcoordinate,
by eq. (613a)
Y Y
Z
xcoordinate, m; ft coordinate parallel to boundary surface, m; ft dimensionless ycoordinate, defined by eq. (613b) ycoordinate, m; ft coordinate perpendicular zcoordinate, m; ft displacement thickness, thickness, defined boundarylayer eddy viscosity
to boundary m; ft m; ft (680), by eq.
surface,
m; ft
_yuu
¢
m2/sec;
ft2/sec eq. (645) To, (N)(sec)/m_; (664)
a dimensionless quantity much less than 1 Blasius transformed ycoordinate defined by 0 momentum dimensionless dynamic dynamic Ibm/(ft)
p P P_
thickness, shape viscosity, viscosity (sec) viscosity, (N)
m; ft parameter (sec)/m at reference m2/sec; ft2/sec to lbf/ft lbf/ft lbf/ft 2 _ 2 the boundary layer, kg/mS; defined 2; lbm/(ft) temperature by eq. (sec)
kinematic
density, kg/m _; lbm/ft 3 freestream density external lbm/ft laminar turbulent shear function Blasius constant stress a shear shear stress, stress, N/m2; N/mS; N/m_; (634) m2/sec;
T! Tt Tw _0
at the wall,
defined by eq. stream function, in eq. (626)
ft_/sec
60
Superscripts" time
t
average component
fluctuating
192
CHAPTER 7
BoundaryLayer Losses
By Herman .Prust, r. W J
The builds are blade the the surfaces, mixing by for primary up on the the trailing friction cause blade of losses in a turbine surfaces. the flow from from is the of the the of the boundary viscous blades the fluid layer these over past that losses the the from
and endwall
In particular,
loss resulting pressuredrag edge, and the
loss resulting loss downstream boundarylayer 6 presented the the surface friction, layer. The bladesection blade plus discussed. in bladerow of fluid through in this ideal based from used discussion coefficients This chapter
flow of fluid
resulting
of the lowvelocity fluid. means Chapter of which
fluid with boundarylayer analytical theory boundary endwall design the chapter express
highvelocity can be
freestream theory, analytically methods associated primarily obtaining dimensional
an introduction covers
to boundarylayer buildup and and mixing herein Methods from the the experimental losses refers for twoenergy the kinetic flow with
described. determining the with
trailingedge,
boundary
presented layers. losses
to twodimensional threedimensional results are also objective from the flow
A fundamental loss resulting final energy energy through by the and 71. expressions
is to minimize blade the energy energy this 2. and row. are in terms of the
Therefore,
for loss developed These part Efficiency coefficients definition with the and the of the
of kineticactual
loss coefficients. as a fractional the blade row. these efficiency
loss in fluid
kinetic on kinetic unity, in chapter station
can be obtained is consistent
subtracting bladerow Before loss These
proceeding coefficients, and velocity pressure
of boundarylayer locations with and the and
parameters associated dis193 the aid of figure associated
bladerow velocity
pressure
distributions
will be introduced distributions
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
cussion layer, higher Figure
refer loss,
to an attached and cannot indicates
boundary
layer in the station
only. same
A separated is thicker, manner, that
boundary yields a
with its associated 71 (a)
reversal be analyzed the
of flow at the four
surface,
if at all. will be referred
locations
,_ $ ._
Station 0
r la
r"
'1
(a)
.... 
Total pressure Static pressure Velocity
Station 0
v,,,,, !,/ .1
Station la
_r]
I'''I
rq
Station i
Station 2
(b)
FIovr_
71.Station
(a) Station locations. (b) Pressure and velocity distributions. locations and associated press_Ire and
velocity
distributions.
194
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
to in this station, 71 (b). boundary pressure stream flow from the
chapter. a uniform Station layers profiles
Station total la developed as shown region value pressure beyond is just
0 represents pressure within on the in figure at the of the solid the
the
inlet
to the blade as indicated edge of the varies There Total across friction where with the too, pressure result
row. blade.
At this in figure The and freeno varies blade as is la,
po' is assumed, trailing surfaces Velocity edge. surfaces. blade 71 (b). blade trailing
in velocity from pressure pl_ at the station loss has the the the is, of course,
value through This
V:,.I,_ to zero the
freestream static
P']8.1,,= po' to the static is assumed the blade where in figure entire constant loss occurs. blade wake across row constant la, only the surface trailing little but
surfaces. Station layer has fluid
the flow angle
a_o. At station the void,
occurred. boundary
1 is just has filled This are
edge, mixing by
free stream profiles pressure stations with the
occurred.
is indicated the assumed
1 (b) region. the that The
station1 static Between mixing, and
showing la and associated profiles In have inlet have both
flow throughout l, the trailingedge loss, uniform.
Here station. complete
and flow angle sufficiently
Station
2 is located velocity
at a distance totalpressure of variables Uniformity Experiments across infor. 1. In some place, of
downstream mixing are again
of the has
taken
place. and
order been
to simplify assumed tests that stream
analysis
discussion, the various that
a number stations. usually do vary la does applications. and take
constant but and seldom pressure boundary
across exists layer mixing state
conditions shown free
is a universal static
convenience
can be approached somewhat
in component
in actual
and flow angle at stations this of the is merely
stances, Although pletely
which some uniform
will be later downstream downstream
identified,
variation flow
can be accounted
a com
a hypothetical
convenience.
BOUNDARYLAYER When between in the velocity surface _:,u. the these a real the region to fluid flows and the adjacent freestream of the over a surface, surface. region V:, layer, at
PARAMETERS a loss results between by from full and parameters thickness, here; kineticenergy zero energy form As shown varies the due to both the figure layers 72, velocity resulting factor) friction of fluid the on fluid the from Some others will of were height
fluid
surface
and friction
to the velocity
in the
boundarylayer the losses boundary thickness,
boundarylayer are used. in addition, coefficients
To describe presence (displacement
in flow, momentum, certain momentum the desired
introduced
in the last chapter
and will be reviewed
specifically used for obtaining be introduced and defined.
195
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Freestreem velocit L Vfs =i
, Full boundary
W)odty, v
=;/
layer height.
_full
¢////////.4, Surface
_'//////////_
FmuRz
72.Typical
boundarylayer
velocity
profile.
The
displacement by
thickness
5, which
is indicative
of the
loss in mass
flow, is defined
(0V)s,=L
where $ V
P
(pV) f. dY_0
_lul!
(pV)
dY
(71)
displacement boundarylayer fluid velocity, fluid density, distance freestream (71) states
thickness, thickness, m/sec; kg/m3; (ideal) that
m; ft m; ft ft/sec lb/fP normal to boundary layer, m; ft
Y
in direction
()f.
Equation ary layer
conditions the loss in mass ideal flow which displacement flow of the would pass fluid in the through for bounda length _ yields
is equal equal
to the to the
(or an area)
thickness.
Solving
['/"u =o The momentum by thickness
dy_
dY fo_:=u ...... pV (pV):. is indicative of the
(72) momentum
O, which
loss, is defined
O(pV_):.=Jo where the 0 is the momentum
fs:.u
(pVV/,)
dy_
fo_,,u
pV 2 dY (73) states
(73) that to the
thickness, of the fluid
in m or ft. Equation in the boundary layer
loss in momentum
is equal
196
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
ideal
momentum equal
of the to the 8=
ideal
flow which
would
pass
through
a length
(or
an area)
momentum
thickness. dY
Solving PV_
for 0 yields dY (74)
fa'"' o
pV (pV)t. can
fo s_'" similarly
(pV )i.
The energy
loss
in kinetic defined
energy by
be
expressed
in terms
of an
thickness
_ _b(pV_)/,=_ where the ideal ff is the kinetic energy energy
_0
(pVV_,)
dY
_0
(pV 3) dY (75) layer pass through states
(75) that to the
thickness, of the ideal energy of the
in m or ft. fluid in the flow which thickness.
Equation would Solving
loss in kinetic energy equal
boundary
is equal
a length
(or an area)
to the
for ff yields
[6/.,, =o
,V
dy_
fo sf"'z
,V 3 dY (pV3)s.
(7fi)
Ratios of the aforementioned
thickness terms are also used as basic
boundarylayer parameters. The form factorH isdefined as H= _ (77)
Substituting dimensionless
equations distance
(72) y as
and
(74)
into equation
(77)
and defining
a
yyields
1
Y _futt
(78)
1
(pV)I,
H =
1
(79)
(or)f,
An energy factor E is defined as E= _8 Substituting yields equations (76), (74), and
(or'),,,
(710)
(78)
into
equation
(710)
197
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
ff E= fo
pV (pV)/,
dy
fo 1  pV 3 dy (pV3)I. (711)
(pV)j, pV
dy f[
pV2 (pV_)1. dy often represented by a power
Velocity profile of the
profiles type
for turbulent
flow
are
V _yn (712)
where Note profile pressed The wherein
the
value this 1In
of the power
exponent profile (647)) with as n, that
n is most is here general are
often
between
0.1 and the
0.25. same exusage. 1, for specific used
that as the
expressed
as yn, while as yl/n. The with form
in chapter exponent value
6 (eq. is consistent
is expressed however,
exponent theory the being reference
boundarylayer is consistent derived. on the and (711 Therefore,
expressed equations
follow
numerical the With in series expressed ratio
to be used profile, the form of the resulting 1 4 n+l
for n will depend equations and energy (79) n and the derived 5A_. 5n+1
exponent. this velocity form, and The in terms ) can be integrated flow can be velocity 1 are critical factors for turbulent freestream in reference
exponent equations 3A f, 3n+l
A/,
V/Vcr.
{
F'(713)
H= 1 (n+l)(2n+l) and
+
+
A_,
_Jl*
(3n+l)(4n+l)
(5n+1)(6n+l)
2
E.__
(n_l_l)(3n_q_l)I1 (n+l)(2n+l)
(3n+l)(5n+l)+(5n+l)(7n+l) Af, (3n+l)(4n+l) A_,
_+• I o
t
+
(5n+l)(6n+l) (714)
where (715)
As._"/
_+1
1 (_)
2 _
198
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
and
_, is the (Mach
ratio
of specific and
heat
at constant fluid For and velocity, (714)
pressure in m/sec reduce
to specific or ft/sec, flow, to where
heat
at
constant critical approaches
wlume,
Vc, is the condition. (713)
at the V/V,r
1) flow
incompressible
zero, equations
H_.c=2n+l and 2(2n+1) E_._ = 3n+l for turbulent from factor exponent presented They drag the compressible
(716)
(717)
Values
of the
form
and
energy
factors
flow
are shown in figure 73 for V/V_r varying from 0 to 1.5. It can be seen that the form does The refer certain tained where simpler the ideal parameters parameters" the energy factor. For of V layer work. the any V¢r. just type instance, physical pass on the constant is almost independent boundarylayer to a boundary aerodynamic directly the and from more so and
0 to 1.4 and varies much n, the are
n varying more than factor and useful can however, row, it is part thickness thickness thickness. of can in
energy
parameters on any For to the could are momentum
general
of body. thickness. the termed basis
are directly of a body work, of the blade as a fractional row. The
be ob
In turbine losses the
flow is confined quantities are that
boundaries blade
meaningful
to express herein
through
expressed defined
"dimensionless trailingedge
of zero
Freestream criticalvelocity
ratio, (VNcr)fs f0 //0.6
2.2
hJ L=
V/21.o
,,,,
_ 1.47
,0
1.8 E"
\\\
I
2
\
rL00 1
Power n usedin velocity equation VNfs =yn
r].25 ' _LS0 6 7
1.4
I
3 4 Form factor. H 5
FIGURE 73.Effect
of compressibility (Data
on variation of energy from ref. 1.)
factor
with form
factor.
199
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
"%..\
Station _ _'_'_ _____ _ J
t 8
Ys
_cos FIGURE 74.Nomenclature for trailingedge
ala region.
These suctionWith the losses the row are
dimensionless and the assumption
thickness that
parameters thicknesses. flow conditions parameters and energy that for one
must
represent
the
sum
of the same, the by 74, or bladeloss, (718) (719) (720)
pressuresurface thickness momentum, ideal total of the The
in all channels are could the obtained pass by through bladerow
are the dividing channel one in figure
dimensionless in flow, corresponding channel. composed
for a single channel,
quantities losses
as indicated
suctionsurface
loss plus
pressuresurface
Stot=$,A_p Otot O,.FOp q/tot= _,A_ where and defined thicknesses the subscripts boundarylayer are expressed tot, s, and value, as p denote total Thus, the value, suctionsurface of the
value, previously
pressuresurface
respectively.
in terms
thicknesses,
dimensionless
boundarylayer
($*=
s cos a(pV)I, e,o,(pV2)i.
S COS ot(pU2)$,

s cos a O,o,
8 cos c_
(721)
0* =

(722)
_/ tot
_* ....
8 COS 8 COS 0t (_)(pVa)l. a
(723)
200
BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES
where dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless
8 O_
0*
displacement momentum energy m; ft from axial and
thickness thickness
thickness direction, (723) as fractions trailingedge 1, beyond the deg the losses respective is assumed station edge. in flow, ideal la, momenquantiwithin
blade
spacing,
fluid flow angle (721), energy, blade edge,
Equations tum, These the and ties for the trailing
(722), respectively, row can if the
express
of their thickness trailing
to be zero.
equations
be subscripted
to apply
at either
or station
BLADEROW As mentioned kineticenergy friction, the kineticenergy previously, loss coefficients. and loss coefficients
LOSS the mixing losses losses
COEFFICIENTS are and to be expressed them in terms in terms of the of
In this section,
methods expressing
for evaluating
trailingedge,
will be presented. Losses _la, defined energy of the as the of the loss in kinetic actual
SurfaceFriction The energy kineticenergy as a fraction be expressed as loss of the in coefficient ideal terms
kinetic
bladerow
flow, can thicknesses
boundarylayer
dimensionless
_11a8
COS
O_la(pWa)
fs,la
_1_= (s cos oq__*_s cos axet) where 74 Since trailing t is the for the this bladerow trailingedge in the only region the thickness, of the to station as t t* S COS _la
(pV3)i,
aa (Refer of the
(724) to fig. blade.)
in m or ft. trailing edge within loss.
nomenclature coefficient thickness it represents
is referenced is expressed
la, just
the bladerow
edge,
surfacefriction
If a trailingedge
dimensionless
(725)
equation
(724)
reduces
to
ela

1  _*_ t* _ from equation energy (726),
(726) it is _b_* 201
In order necessary
to evaluate to know the
the
loss coefficient of the
values
dimensionless
thickness
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
and either
the
dimensionless experimentally
displacement or analytically,
thickness determining
$1". These
can be evaluated herein. loss values, Instead, related the p0'bladeexit P'lo for one express which thickas to friction are po', the directly.
as will be discussed experimental velocity and total velocity density and
Experimental it is impractical pressure pressure static loss consist data
determination.In to measure are taken, The and pressure the the the
density required
functions. pressure
data upstream
for computing pressure data
of (see fig. 71) p,,, and
the totalpressure
loss survey
blade space. Since the dimensionless boundarylayer thicknesses the losses of the blade row as a fractional part of the ideal quantities could ness pass through the blade in terms row, the dimensionless flow across one displacement blade
8
can be expressed
of the
pitch
s cos ,._.(pV)i.,1ot*s cos a,a(pV)s,,,_ cos a_of0 (pV)_odu
_i*.where (727) u is the simplifies distance to
s cos _o(pV)_,,_.
in the tangential direction,
(727) in m or ft. Equation
_l_a
=
It*
fo
pV
,.
d
(728)
In a similar nesses
manner,
the as
dimensionless
momentum
and
energy
thick
can be expressed
01*=
(pV2)1o,1,,
1 V pV
= fo and
[1(V_f,),,]
(_),d
(u)
(729)
¢l_a 
(pf.V}.),.
pVd
Assuming 202 that the total temperature T' and the static pressure
(730)
p_, in
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
the
boundary
layer relation,
are the
same
as in the free ratio
stream,
the
density From
ratio the
(p/p/,) isentropic
l, can be related
to the
pressure
P'ljPo'
as follows:
p
(p_V.T
I.,1=Since ps,.l==po' ' and
plJp/.a==plJpo ' '
7 \p 1_,.,., ' (from (731) the by ideal equation gas law,
(732) with yields
'
T'I,=T_o.la=To'),
division
of equation
(732)
P_s,/  \po' ] ,. The (p/p') isentropic write velocity relation, ratio (V/Vs,)la as follows: equations can From (151) be and related (152) to the pressure definition
(733) ratios and
1,, and pl=/po'
the totaltemperature
of chapter
1, we can
V_ 2gJcj, T'where g J
Cp
T fp_C.y_>/v 1__ = 1\_/
(734)
conversion conversion specific heat
constant, constant,
1;32.17
(lbm)
(ft)/(lbf) J/(kg)(K);
(sec 2) Btu/(lb)(°R) for freestream the second, and
1; 778 (ft) pressure, once first
(lb)/Btu
at constant (734) the
Subscripting values recalling at la, that
equation dividing
for station of these
la and again by
equations
P,_oa,, Po' and T_°aa = T_= yields =
V
1 7" \Pla]
pin _ (vl)/v
(735)
With
the
density (728),
and velocity (733) (729), thicknesses. from equation and
ratios and Then, (730)
expressed (735), and the thus
in terms evaluate
of the the loss
measured
pressures equations
by equations
it is now
possible
to integrate dimensionless coefficient $1=
boundarylayer can be computed The
kineticenergy determined
(726). is a twodimensional 203
kineticenergy
loss coefficient
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
coefficient; cascade cascade order and are taken the calculated arylayer to tip:
that or from
is, it is based a constant often is, the
on data
either
from
a twodimensional (The annular In data are hub row, from cover a turbine.)
radius
of an annular full stator loss coefficient
cascade.
can be, and to obtain at a number
or rotor
a threedimensional
for a blade
of radii sufficient dimensionless for each obtained are then
to adequately boundarylayer radius. by radial
the annulus, boundfrom
twodimensional as shown thicknesses
thicknesses
previously
Threedimensional integration
ff'
h
$*_(pV)I.,I,,
cos alo r dr
(736)
"' (pV)/°jo
k
cos al. r dr
cos. , r dr
Ol*.a_ " (pV2)f.,1,,
h
(737) cos alo r dr
d/_,,(pV 3)i.,h cos al. r dr
_la,D
(738) "* (pV3)s..I.
k
cos al_ r dr
In terms
of the
measured
pressures,
these
integrals
are
expressed
as
L:i,_o(pia)i/'y[l__(P"_(_')i'_l'l' 5" Ia,SD
_"
j
COSalo r dr (739)
S,:' <,,>"'[
\p_41
j
cos al. r dr
204
BOUNDARYLAYER
I_SSES
O*a(Px_}l/v [
\po']
j cosaz_rdr
(74O)
\p_0' ] j cos a,_ r dr
\p0'] &:_,_ = \_ / j
j
cos ax, r dr (741) cos a,a r dr
The
threedimensional similar
kineticenergy to equation (726) :
_/la,SD
loss
coefficient
is then
obtained
in a manner
_1_,3_ = 1  _*o.aD t_* where t_* is the trailingedge the the dimensionless average value thickness for the blade loss determined as experimental consuming boundarylayer computer at the at the mean row. coefficient
(742) radius _1_ can anaAnaare are
and is used to represent Analytical thickness lytical lytical discussed not layer Center another An simple, also be evaluated values methods and with are much for referenced programs
determination.The parameters. While less calculating not costly
kineticenergy as reliable and time the basic require in use
use of analytically
boundarylayer values, to obtain. parameters solutions BoundaryResearch and Lewis
in chapter methods currently
6. The boundarylayer solution. NASA
and the better
computer
include one (ref. 2) based based on the finite difference equation used in the study thickness momentum 0.231
on an integral method solution method of reference 3. of reference was 4 to compute
turbulent
boundarylayer
01a
_
,
\_ccrlfa,
la
×
(743)
205
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
where parameter
X
defined along blade
by equation surface from lb/(ft)
(715) from forward to stagnation rear point, m; ft point, forward (sec) in reference velocity referenced the 4. It profile. equation is asIn stagnation
distance m; ft viscosity,
l
bladesurface (N)
distance (sec)/m_;
The sumed
development that the 4, the
of this boundary exponent
equation layer n was
is presented has obtained from
a powerlaw
reference
n Equation surfaces equktions bladesurface channel Values form for factor both the obtained thickness evaluated turbine calculated thickness ably tained from directly parameters sufficient have procedure reference meansection have In (1) by the shown the The to be close from (743) of the (743) must The and be (744)
,
are
L\_Iy. for
xj
1
the and suction densities values obtained 5. (743) and by and adjacent any
(744) pressure for to the of the of the can be known be the as
evaluated freestream those These
both
blade. boundary
velocities freestream can be
required
layers. techniques factor
flow analysis of the from form equations suction the blade blade Hla and
discussed
in chapter in equation With the loss 4, the
H as required factor and (714). surfaces,
energy and and equations
Ela at station
la for each various in this
surface
(713) pressure the
01a, Hla, and E_ coefficient chapter. analytical
boundarylayer $_ can For values, momentum were reasonobobtained calculated thickness of radii also a of Such method method made: section; would results
parameters from stator from for the to the
kineticenergy presented in reference earlier the
studied and
equation experimental (743) programs
(743), for the will
of two not
boundarylayer individually however, as those could be
surfaces
values. of references to (738). over over
In general, be as accurate 2 and parameters The the the determined blade so the losses Results following blade at 3.
equation
the computer from
Threedimensional equations would have
boundarylayer (736) the to be analytically variation somehow, considerable used. 5, the loss for the
twodimensional at a number length and surfaces.
to establish determined, would
endwall from
require
effort,
simplified
5 for predicting losses good method average agreement
threedimensional with experimental
twodimensional by this are mean
is commonly of reference
obtained results.
assumptions surface the blade
momentum
can be represented
dimensionless
momentum
thickness
206
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
Approximate area o{one end wall
sc as) cos 7
t
Approximate s_de of blade
F/:iiii::iilfi:,i::iiiiiii::::i::ili::fiiiiii::iiiil direction [ ]!{i]_[i] []]]_]]]_][:i]i[]i][][ ]]]]]]]][]i]i !1 ][_ ]]i]i]_]![i]i]i _ __:_;_i_;;_i_!_i_ _I_i_::_]_;_
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::× :':':"::_i_''"' • " "::::_!:i:i:_:
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::i ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :
============================= ..... :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: • _''" _
_%%_,_. •
I s
FIGURE
75.Schematic late
diagram the effect
of equivalent of endwall
twodimensional area on blade loss.
blade
used
to
calcu
(2) and stant
the (3)
momentum the blade section, given is
loss per unit momentum configuration spacing, blade. and The
area can
on the
inner area
and
outer
end
walls surface;
is
the same equivalent
as the average twodimensional of the
loss per unit as shown stagger surface angle area
on the blade approximated 75, to those having
be satisfactorily in figure equal
by an a conmean blade
blade,
cross
at the
section
of one
equivalent
(see fig. 75)
Ab = 2ch where Ab
C
(745)
total blade blade inner
surface chord, height, outer
area m; ft m; ft endwall
(sum
of suctionsurface
and
pressuresurface
areas) h The
of one blade,
m_; ft 2
and
area
for one passage cos a,
is (746)
Aw=2sc where
Aw
total blade
surface stagger
area areas), angle,
of passage m2; ft _ deg
end
walls
(sum
of inner
and
outer
endwall
Now,
taking
the average
momentum
loss O'a.,,, over
the blade
radial
length
207
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
and
modifying
it to include
the
endwall
losses
yields
01"3D=0" The are then threedimensional calculated as
fAbtAw_O* energy and
(1_ displacement
sc°sa') thickness
(747) parameters
* _la,3D and
_
Ela
* ,mOla,3
D
(748)
5" la,3D = Hla , m01*o D ,3 Meansection the energy boundarylayer satisfactorily dimensional tion (742). TrailingEdge The with mentally kineticenergy flow past the or analytically. determination.Experimental values of blade loss coefficient blade trailing _te that edge can Loss represents be values and form used are used factors as is done for the energy and defined (748) is then form factors. 4 that (749). obtained
(749) Although they The from can be threeequa
were
originally
in terms and
of individual
thicknesses, kineticenergy
it is indicated in equations loss coefficient
in reference
the loss associated either experitrailing
determined
Experimental
edge loss coefficient _te are obtained twodimensional loss coefficients loss and blade trailingedge loss, and loss. Thus, surfacefriction
from differences _1, which include
between experimental both surfacefriction include only the
loss coefficients
_1_, which
e,e= :1 e_.
Loss coefficients _1_, which previously. that the locations. just loss and include Loss only loss, surfacefriction :1, which determined are loss, include
(750)
are obboth the are were la, loss loss, of the
tained as described surfacefriction same manner except measured at different based where the blade on data the
coefficients
trailingedge
in exactly
totalpressure loss and static pressure The surfacefriction loss coefficients within not at the yet blade trailing To just loss and 71, where edge at station the occurred. determine trailingedge downstream
obtained include must mixing,
trailingedge which
loss has both be made to station
coefficients
surfacefriction a location 1 in figure
measurements little
row, corresponding
the trailingedge drag joints coefficients Included of different in
loss, but are the 208
has occurred. reference number data for 6, experimental discontinuities. sheetmetal of surface
Analytical presented reference
determination.In for a large are experimental
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
T
¥I _u11
FIGURE 76.Schematic diagram of body in boundary layer.
geometry, edges. behaves Therefore, lytically layer.
bolt similarly the
and
rivet that regardless
heads the to flow due
of different pressuredrag
geometry, loss due over edge in the body
and to the the path
airfoil
trailing
It is indicated
discontinuity discontinuity. anaof a boundary h, equal to the to the
of the past
flow direction a trailing placed of a small height 76, part of the corresponds
loss due
will be treated
as if the loss were in reference the as shown pressure Thus,
to a body drag
As indicated to or less boundary effective height than layer, dynamic
6, the in figure of the
of height
full boundarylayer
6y=u, placed boundary layer
in a turbulent equal
approximately
of the body.
D = q_IihCD where D h drag height drag and the on body, of body, coefficient dynamic pressure q_f_ is expressed as N/m; m; ft lb/ft
(751)
effective
qell=h
J o
2g
dY
(752)
Drag
is related
to momentum
thickness
as (753)
D= O(pV_)I° g Therefore, trailingedge with a properly a dimensionless loss is obtained subscripted momentum by form combining of equation thickness equations (722) : e*, representing (751) and
the (753)
209
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
q,LrhCo
8",(pV2)fs 8 COS 0_1 
(754)
g The flow angle and must a, is related (754) dynamic to the can The pressure angle ala as discussed the effective to in chapter dynamic pressure 4 (eqs. presto
(426) Before sure the
(427)). be evaluated, ratio of the is equal effective dynamic be determined.
equation
freestream
ql, For turbulent with flow, the equations the use h of velocity simple (712) power yields
dr
(755)
variation of the (78) and
in the profile
boundary presented
layer
can be
expressed Combining
previously.
V/. Assuming layer tion and (164) that free the stream total are temperature the same 1 gives and and static the pressure ideal in the
(756) boundary equa
using
gas law and
of chapter
To'
P/*
7+ I
_
I, (757)
To' Substituting the parameter equations A _, defined (756) and
"y+ 1 (757) in equation yields (755) and using
by equation
(715)
1
A
fs
\_u/l/
Performing qy!=(l_A/, qy,
a binomial
expansion
and
integrating
then
gives
) [( h ) 2" 1 ( h _4'_ A,. L\ (i/,, ,z/ 2 n l_l I k _. zt/ (4n+l)
+ (h_y \(_f.../ 210
_ (6n+l) A_
+.
]
(759)
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
Substituting thickness
equation t in place
(759) of body
in equation height h finally +
(754) yields
and
using
trailingedge
0"
tCD (l_As,) 2s cos a_
L\__!
2n+l
_,
(4n+
1)
+ The boundarylayer sum of the (760) well known, flow thickness suctionthe and and _f_u to be used pressuresurface flow. simplified (commonly
(6n+l) in equation values. In many used
+"" (760) at least which turbulent
(760) should when flow),
be the
Equation n is not is adequate: incompressible
is for compressible following n=l/_
cases, for
equation,
assumes
0",=0.375_The information be set trailing verted edge and equal edge. 0.22 The for in reference to 0.16 for corresponding basis In such as equation trailing a case, a square
t
_futZ
ted
S COS oq
(761) the edge drag and coefficient 0.22 for C9 can a square contrailing of _i/_,
6 indicates values edge.
that
a rounded
trailing (761)
reported
in reference
7 and
to the same
are 0.14 for a rounded Frequently, flow, 5to, instead
will be available.
for incompressible
(762) and for compressible flow, (763) 1(1  Ay.) 1 , (n_t_ A/. A_, t 5_t, , • • ")
6full

Equations momentum kineticenergy factors,
(760) due to
and the
(761) blade
give
the edge.
fractional To find to find and (714) the
loss the
in
bladerow losses energy are
trailing
corresponding fractional and
loss coefficient, energy. from
it is necessary (713) and (717)
in flow and kinetic evaluated flow and from used to obtain
As a simple equations (716)
approximation,
the form for
compressible flow,
equations
for incompressible
5*, = He*, and d/*, = EO*,
(764)
( 765 ) 211
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
At station flowed into
1, which the
is just
downstream the trailing Therefore,
of the edge
blade
trailing
edge,
fluid has a void
area behind blockage.
and there
is no longer
due to trailingedge is obtained as
a kineticenergy
loss coefficient
*
This ideal were loss coefficient kinetic the only values This (761). energy loss. expresses of the The the loss in kinetic flow that would energy if the as a fraction trailingedge loss thickness loss exist
(766)
of the loss for 77 by is with friction is dis
trailingedge against on the
kineticenergy trailingedge momentum with but Expression this thickness
coefficient in figure
incompressible for several thickness. equation not the energy included
flow is plotted of the ratio figure The is based flow
of trailingedge loss associated Therefore,
to boundarylayer as expressed friction kineticadditive
bladesurface trailingedge combined
in equation loss
(766). coefficient.
loss coefficient
is approximately,
not rigorously, of the
surfacefriction
and trailingedge loss in terms cussed in the next section.
of a kineticenergy
loss coefficient
. O2O
Ratio of trailingedge thickness to boundarylayer height,
U_ul;
1.O i .015 .5
_
.olo
.!
_
.005
0
.05
.10
.D
Dimensionlesstrailingedge thickness, t*
FIGURE 77.Effect of trailingedge blockage on kineticenergy factor H1.3; energy factor E1.8; drag coefficient
loss coefficient. Cv0.16.
Form
212
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
Combined As stated thickness combined experimental which versions obtained is just experimental in the parameters friction and
Friction of the
and
TrailingEdge loss, the
Los boundarylayer expressing by making to way, station we obtain subscripted of _1 is then the the 1,
discussion and
trailingedge
a kineticenergy at of the a location trailing and
loss coefficient corresponding edge. (730). In this appropriately
trailingedge
loss can be obtained
measurements downstream values (728),
of &*, 01", and (729),
_1" from
of equations as
The value
Analytically, obtained Before The ever, with there by the boundarylayer adding they the must and trailingedge
161" thickness loss parameters to the at station trailingedge
(767)
1 are loss. flow. Howflow 1, where thickness ideal
surfacefriction be expressed
the friction
boundarylayer on the basis at station
thickness of the same la where (61", the
parameters ideal
01*a,
can be added, frictionloss expressed there
dimensionless of an ideal
thicknesses flow without blockage the to the for
_l*a) are
in terms must
trailingedge la, flow ideal the true
blockage. ideal at station blockage)
is a trailingedge Therefore,
at station frictionloss
blockage
be comparable to account
is no blockage.
boundarylayer (with
parameters are flow as follows:
adjusted
_* 1,/_
_*(s la
s c°s Olat al" COS
)
(768)
0* and
0* (s sc°sal"
(769)
, ,( _bl'! = _bx_ s scosa_ cos al_ t ) where friction parameters the subscript at station f refers 1: 6x* = _I.IA_ t. 01" = Ox,/AO t, and
_ll* IY l,f 'fire
(770) friction. the Adding combined the loss
to the loss due loss parameters
to surface then yields
and
trailingedge
(771) (772) (773) (767). 213
And
the value
of _1 is then
obtained
from
equation
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
AfterMix The aftermix loss is the total loss, and as described the has aftermix loss that
Loss includes the surfacefriction loss,
the trailingedge $2 is determined is obtained pressure plete To determine mixing
the mixing loss. The aftermix in this section, and the mixing the previously downstream is impractical determined of the for loss experimentally This would
loss coefficient loss, if desired, $_. that the com(1) (2) the for the flow had enough For the with large. where reasons: require
by subtracting measurements
_1 from blading several
be made
occurred.
The length for complete mixing, while quite long, is unknown; aftermix loss would have to be corrected for sidewall friction mixing mixed, that these use (station the of length, values reasons, either thus leading to possible po'p2' error; error loss are or and (3) after and the small of aftermix values would be constant would obtained
possibility
of measurement of aftermix
be relatively analytically determined
experimentally
analytically the
beforemix
1) loss parameters. for determining of mass, momentum axial direction 1) and (station aftermix conditions are in the tangential direction, mixing. mixing Equating (station the mass 2) yields
The basic equations those for conservation and momentum before in the mixing flow rate
during after
o(pV)1 From conservation
cos
o1
d in the
=cos
a2(pV)2 direction
(774) we get
of momentum
tangential
f0 and from
(pV2)l
sin al cos al d of momentum
=sin in the
a2 cos a_(pV2)_ axial direction we get
(775)
conservation
g fo p_ d Although can the static these
'
+ equations survey
(oV 2) cos 2 al d are data angle. subscripted were available
= gp_+cos
_ a2(oV2)_
(776) flow, they in in be
for twodimensional flow by integrating at station even 1, the with equations were available, In the case evaluated conservation
also be applied above equations and
to threedimensional could flow be directly These
radially. integrals variations could
If experimental pressure
written for any beforemix location at which data used to evaluate the aftermix loss coefficient. beforemix station is not station 1, it would
and then where the
not be possible
to determine
214
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
the ever,
mixing
loss completely final made pressure and
by a little
experimental loss that farther have are angle (774)
means. is desired,
In most and survey of the damped across
cases, trailing out.
howedge, 1, it is
it is only the are usually angle and pressure to express differs from for
aftermix variations flow
measure
ments where possible used herein used
downstream somewhat constant
If static
station of the 1. The Equation void,
equations parameters, that
to (776) 1 only
in terms in reference the la herein. trailingedge
previously analysis station (728) can be
boundarylayer in reference
as was done to station there is no
of reference l, where
in that
beforemix
1 corresponds station
subscripted written as
fo Subscripting (777) yields equation
1
(pV)ld
=(1Sl*)(pV)l.a for station I and combining it with
(777) equation
(729)
(pV2)l Substituting (776) momentum mined: yields equations the in terms
d (777)
= (18,*01") and equations boundarylayer
(pV)f,,1
(pY_)l..l into parameters
cos a2(pV)2
(778) (774) of mass to and deter(779) (780) (781)
(778) for
equations
following of the
COS
conservation
previously
oq(181")
sin al cos al(1 81"01") gpl+cos These energy reference for both For equations, equation 1 to 2 al(181"01") along (TI'= obtain with T_'), _, and flow, the the the can
(pV2)s0a
= sin a_ cos a_(pV2)_ _ a2(pV2)_Wgp_ and the
(pV2)ioa=cos ideal be gas solved law
conservationofas shown loss coefficient, in
simultaneously kineticenergy
aftermix solution
compressible
incompressible
flow. for _2 is
incompressible
sin 2 al (1  _l* 01"\ _ _2=11+2 COS 20t1[(1_1*)
)+co 2
(782)
2(]81*01*)_
For steps
compressible are required
flow,
no explicit _:
solution
was
found,
and
the
following
to obtain
215
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
(1)
The parameters
C and D are computed
from
(1As.a)
?+1 +cos_ _7
at(X*t*01*)
(V)' _
y.,t (783)
C
D
V =(Vf_,)t,,tsinal\ is obtained
(l_x*0,*_ ]__1" from
/
(784)
(2)
The quantity
(V,/Vc,)2
(___,.)_ (3) The density ratio
.yC ,+1 X/(.yC )'_l+(.y1)D, 7;il  74i / (o/p'): is obtained from
(7s5)
(_)_1 (4) The total pressure ratio
('),'_[I p2'/po'
,V_, \:]'I ''('') from
(786)
is obtained
i0_I
P
c,
j.,_.7_.,_x(1 _,*) cos
(787)
,o,
\O gc,l_
(5)
The
pressure
ratio
(p/p')_
is obtained p p
from v
(78s)
(6)
Finally,
_2 is obtained
from
(789)
(p,'_(',"/, \pi /
1
Values the blade
of _ include row, the
all the bladerow trailingedge loss,
loss; and
that the
is, the frictional loss. Values
loss of of $1
mixing
216
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
include
all the
bladerow
losses
except
mixing
loss. Therefore, (790) energy due to mixing.
_miz = & _ where _m;z is the fractional loss in available
BLADEROW In the effect this various section, types
LOSS
CHARACTERISTICS and analytically and will be discussed of Losses experimentally loss coefficients and at three loss _1._, the stations just at the and at three reprethe mean just loss loss for drag, and within determined compared, losses and of the
experimentally considered geometry will
be presented
of bladerow
on losses and
Distribution Figure analytically different senting blade beyond at the the (arithmetic mean 78, angle different trailing mean the trailing section; including taken settings losses. edge, from values for The
Comparison 8, stator
reference a given the
compares
determined
of kineticenergy
loss coefficient section; the the endwall
$1,.m, obtained coefficient _2.3D represents friction, the experimental
represents radius) edge, and blade the represents and
surfacefriction friction
obtained total and
loss plus trailingedge tra_lingedge
coefficient between good.
annulus
mixing. In general, agreement loss coefficients is reasonably
analytical
.04 __
0
Experimental results
t'3 Analyticalresults O_" .0:
e2.3D"
!
?
¢,m v g_ ¢t_
Mixing and endv/all losses
Trailing
edge loss ela. m .0:
Meansection blade suf/ace friction loss
o
70
I
100 Percentstatorareasetting
I
Do
FIOURE 78.Comparison
stator
of experimental
area settings.
and analytical
(Data from
loss coefficients for different
ref. 8.)
217
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
A el,30 .05 0 el, m 0 ela, m
,o
,Mixinq loss
Endwall loss
¢,.
.01 
Bladesurface friction loss
o
.5
I
.6
I
.7 (VNcr)i, m, 2
I ....
.8
I
.9
Meansection ideal aftermix critical velocity,
FIGURE 79.Variation
of loss coefficients
with
velocity.
(Data
from
ref. 9.)
Figure row, taken locity. but
78 does
gives not reference
some
idea
of the the the
distribution and variation the mixing
of losses endwall in loss with and
in a stator Figure with
blade 79, ve
separate is seen
mixing
losses. coefficient increasing
from
9, shows separately losses. the
Loss coefficient
to decrease
slightly
velocity. as well stator
This figure also shows as the other bladerow In this particular ideal loss The case, loss. the energy about vary will and loss was about
endwall 2 percent loss. The the total shown
losses, of the
case,
friction of the
loss was about total loss. stator as was primarily vary with total
onehalf
of the
trailingedge trailingedge in figure ratio of the design, be of 77. and total but conloss for this
onequarter with loss, with mixing does which the
In general, of the
trailingedge was design, will, indicate
blockage about up the of course, that each depending
endwall will vary The The
15 percent remaining of the
on radius 10 percent the losses stator may
spacing.
loss made
loss breakdown
comparison
sequence. Effect A study layer 218 of the of BladeRow of turbine in reference Geometry geometry 10. In that on Losses boundarywas
effect
on turbulentflow study, the
loss is presented
assumption
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
made
that
the momentum Reynolds
loss per unit number
blade
surface
varies
as the
inverse
of the chord
to the m power:
_Re7
C
_
(791)
where equation into
Rec
is
a Reynolds (722), effect and
number and then
based using
on
blade
chord (747)
c. Expanding substituting to express the
(791)
by multiplying yielded
dividing
by like terms, of the form
equation
equation
threedimensional
an equation
0,*¢¢ (_)m
_1 +cos
a._ (O,ot_
(_)1_Re__,,,
(792)
fC.),(",,)
where the as blade given ponent hess order Reh is a Reynolds of the c/s, and, and number momentum geometric height in reference therefore, derivative to each to _/_ in the based on blade height h. As indicated, can be expressed ratio reference The minimum of solidity. momentum was in terms h/s, value a exthreedimensional a function solidity solidity thickness parameter Reh. The on the variablesheighttospacing Reynolds becomes analysis. of the of the value dimensionless variables variable thickin geometric of each obtained number 9, is based of O,,,/c, as explained m is set equal 10, the respect 08* with loss for
a function
In reference
to find the minimumloss (there values
of the other With the loss around analysis in the with
variables optimum the from each change Figure value results number may loss. curve chord
is no minimum for height Reynolds number). known, the relative variations in momentum values were then of the a wide causes Figure from results determined. 710, geometry variation little 711 effects optimum in figures than also area. to the the The 711, variation (50 results and 712. 10 are shown in figures
minimum reference figure in each 710 from and be varied Comparison shape Reynolds around
of the
Also shown
is the
nature that
associated or more)
variable. shows the percent in h/s This optimum two area. increase shows 710 in momentum in chord solidity but not shows that and the loss.
the
counteracting
of changes with some,
Reynolds of a blade excessive, that ratio. the The of
endwall
considerably of the
711
loss is more
sensitive of figure number
to solidity 711 and
heighttospacing counteracting
reflects endwall
influences
219
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
/_
_/////_/////// I ! I I
i
I
/
H n
,;7 .=L4E._I 1.21_',==P
J/,4
==o
I \
IX,
.2 .6 LO
¢/s and Reh are constant
L4
1.8
2.2
Z6
Heighttospacing ratio relative to optimum ratio, (htslllhlslopt FIGURE 710.Variation of momentumthickness ratio with spacing ratio. (Data from ref. 10.) variation in he_htt_
_<'//////////(/
I I I I
Y/'//////
///i
I
_
= .=_ i. 4o . \
_'_Z_ _
b;'/ _:,,, j', J"
_i/I
,/
his and Reh are co
Lo
.4
I
.6
t"_ I _
.8 LO 1.2 Solidity ratio, (cls)/(c/s)opt
I
1.4
J
1.6
FIGURE 711.Variation
of momentumthickness from ref. 10.)
ratio
with
solidity
ratio.
(Data
220
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSEF
t
//. /////Z I ! I
1
_Ls
4
_
1.6 1.4
//[
.,
I7
L8 2.0 ratio a change in Reynolds The curve to the an inThe with in
/
his and c/s areconstant
.s
o
I ._
I .4
I .6
I .s
I Lo
I _2
I
].4
I
L6
HeightReynolds umberratio, RehlReh, ef n r FIGURE 712.Variation of momentumthickness ratio with height Reynolds number ratio. (Data from ref. 10.)
Figure height Reynolds number
712 Reynolds
shows due
the
variation ratio.
of momentumthickness While the figure the indicates change in geometry, in inlet
number also result
number could
to change from
change
flow conditions.
shape, then, results from the Reynolds number to the m=_ crease in height Reynolds height Reynolds number of different turbomachines.
loss being inversely proportional power. These results show that results used in improved in correlating performance. the
number is sometimes
performance
REFERENCES
1.
STEWART, WARNER,
L.:
Analysis of
of
TwoDimensional Blade 3515, for in
CompressibleFlow Rows in Terms of
Loss Basic
Characteristics BoundaryLayer 2. McNALLY, Laminar NASA 3. PATANKAR, Layers. 4. WHITNEY, mental acteristics 1956. TN
Downstream Characteristics. l).: 1970.
Turbomachine NACA TN Program Layers
1955. Calculating Pressure Compressible Gradients.
WZLLIAM and D5681, S. V.; CRC
FORTRAN Boundary
Turbulent
Arbitrary
AND SPALDING, Press, J.; 1967. STEWART, of Turbine
D.
B.:
Heat
and
Mass
Transfer
in
Boundary
WARREN Investigation and
WARNER with
L.;
AND
MISER,
JAMES NACA
W.: RM
ExperiCharE55K24,
StatorBladeOutlet Theoretical Results.
BoundaryLayer
a Comparison
221
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
5.
STEWART,
WARNER
L.;
WHITNEY,
WARREN Parameters RM E,55L12a, Drag. RONALD
J.; in
AND WONG, Predicting
ROBERT
Y.:
Use
of
MeanSection Turbine 6. HOERNER, Stator
BoundaryLayer Losses. F.: NACA
ThreeDimensional
1956. Midland Park, N.J., 1965. GeomBla_ling.
SIGHARD W.,
FluidDynamic AND HELON, the
7. PRUST, etry NASA 8. PRUST, Air TM
HERMAN and TN
JR.; on
M. : Effect of Certain
of TrailingEdge Turbine Stator
Thickness D6637, W.; Area VStator 1968. Stator
Performance
1972. MOFFITT, on Detailed THOMAS of Losses P.; with AND BIDER, BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect Suitable Area. of for NASA Performance a SingleStage 70Percent
HERMAN Cooling. X1696,
Variable
9. MOFFITT, Variable
THOMAS Stator
P.; PRUST, Area on
HERMAN
W., JR.; AND of
BIDER,
BERNARD: Turbine Design
Effect of for NASA
Performance Detailed Losses
a SingleStage with 130Percent
Suitable Area.
Air Cooling. TM 10. MISER, of NACA X1635, JAMES RM
IIStator 1968. W.;
STEWART, Viscous 1956.
WARNER Losses
L.] Affected
AND WHITNEY, by Changes
WARREN in Blade
J.:
Analysis
Turbomachine E56F21,
Geometry.
222
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
SYMBOLS
Ab
surface surface parameter drag blade specific
area of one blade, defined of end defined m; ft at constant area walls
m2; ft 2 (715) m2; ft _ (783) for one passage,
,41, A. C
C
parameter
by equation by equation
coefficient chord, heat pressure, J/(kg) (784) (K) ; Btu/(lb) (°R)
Cp D E
drag, N/m; lb/ft parameter defined energy factor kineticenergy conversion form factor constant,
by equation
loss coefficient 1; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec _)
g H h J l
m n
blade height, m; ft height of body placed in boundary layer, conversion constant, 1 ; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu blade exponent turbulent absolute dynamic chord height radius, blade absolute trailingedge distance fluid distance m; ft distance distance fraction velocity, along from from surface distance from (791) velocity lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 profile forward m; ft in equation boundarylayer pressure, pressure, Reynolds Reynolds m; ft spacing, m; ft K; °R m; ft direction, ft/sec surface normal normal axial from at from m; ft thickness, in tangential m/sec; blade surface surface from angle volume displacement thickness, thickness, m; ft heat temperature, N/m2; N/m_; number number
m; ft to rear stagnation point,
exponent
P q Re_ Reh
r 8
T t
U
V
X
forward layer,
stagnation m; ft
point,
Y Y
(x o_m
to boundary to boundary deg thickness
layer
expressed
as
of boundarylayer axial
fluid flow angle blade ratio stagger of specific
direction, constant
direction,
deg to specific heat at
3_
pressure m; ft
constant boundarylayer boundarylayer
223
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
0
boundarylayer viscosity, (N) kg/m3; density,
momentum (see)/m2; lb/ft 3 energy
thickness, lb/(ft) (sec) m; ft
m ; ft
P
boundarylayer Subscripts: cr eft f fs h i inc m min mix opt p ref s t te tot x 0 1 la 2 3D critical effective friction free hub ideal incompressible mean section minimum mixing optimum pressure surface reference suction surface tip trailing total edge stream
thickness,
flow conditions
axial component bladerow inlet just beyond trailing edge of blade row row just within downstream three trailing edge of blade uniform state
dimensional
Superscripts: t * absolute total state value
dimensionless
224
CHAPTER 8
Miscellaneous Losses
By Richard. Roelke J
In the process these these nitude of these design admission must pumping loss in the a loss that loss, which designpoint include losses last in the chapter, blade efficiency tipclearance represent however, as to influence losses of normally a very in other the boundarylayer were loss and small other part losses losses associated To determine loss. turbine losses that If, are and the of any the usually In some output can design must with the the flow
channel
discussed. diskfriction of the these losses there losses channels through
overall
of a turbine,
also be considered; instances, and may The be sum in the that mag
neglected;
instances, all the
be of such point.
the selection comprises
of the
turbine
are considered however, additional considered losses
a fulladmission turbine loss in the blade occurs is being The passages inactive
axialflow considered, blade
turbine.
a partialare the
be included.
partialadmission as they pass herein.
fillingandemptying arc. Finally, incidence is the
admission turbine
at offdesign
operation
will also be covered
TIPCLEARANCE Because of the the the the rotor thus tips, a turbine blades first of radial a given loss, causes since more causing must and the operate casing, with some nature by the some
LOSS clearance of the tip in the work between fluid leaks This that and the through tip the tips
fraction of the amount difference
across leakage is, by by tip affects (high the tip 225
a reduction of all, by the clearance, tip geometry, a large
in turbine recesses
output. geometry; casing, across
loss is affected, amount For leakage shrouds. reaction)
of blade
reaction
pressure
higherkineticenergy
flow to leak
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
gap
from
the work,
pressure this but
side to the leakage evaluation flow
suction not of the only
side of the causes
blade.
With
an unown in the caused flow
shrouded reduced tip region.
blade,
a loss due
to its
also causes
an unloading drop difficult
of the blade, in turbine because
primarily efficiency complex
Analytical leakage
by tipclearance problem. developed, they are satisfactory. A number to determine impulse these and tests
is inherently
of the
Several empirical expressions for and some of these are summarized rather complicated, have been of tip and the author
clearance loss have been in reference 1; however, states that Lewis geometry of some exit of the none is entirely Center axialflow results of
of tests the helps 81 reaction
made
at the NASA and tip
Research on of the
effect
clearance
turbines. the angle
An examination a better traces things space understanding
to obtain shows
tipclearance single
loss. Figure
at the blade
of a 5inch
stage turbine (ref. 2). Two that the flow in the clearance
to be noted from the angle traces are and near the tip was not fully turned,
60
Tip clearance, percent of passage height Axial ,,
4_
0
1 2 5.0
direction =
2'
2O
•
1:3
o
8.0
6
4P
2O
4C .5
lTr +,, I
.6
of exit flow angle with from radius ref. (Data
I
I
.9
Oo,+rw.,, I,
1.0
rotor tip clearances.
.7 .8 Ratioof hubradiusto tip radius
FIGURE
81.Variation
ratio
for four
2.)
226
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
Turbine 0 C] Z_ 1Stage,reaction Iref. 2) 2Stage,reaction (ref. 3) lStage, impulse (ref. 4)
Estimateref. 5) for ref. 2 turbine ( m m Estimateref. 5)for ref. 4 turbine ( 1.00
m
.96 _
\\
.80
.76' 0
I
I
I
I,
I
I
,12
.02 .04 .06 .08 .10 Tipclearance,fractionofpassage height
82.Effect of tip clearance on efficiency.
FIGURE
even way
at the down
smallest to the hub. and
clearance tip This results for this
tested, clearance, underturning in lower turbine, 82
and that and turbine as well test turbines were clearance about of the
underturning effect flow and unloads others, from The height, that
of the flow all the the blade The
increased
with
increasing
this
occurred efficiency.
aerodynamically decrease in figure The (ref. that the impulse figure. 82. solid 2) and the level For lines
output
in efficiency
as for two results
is shown
in figure (ref. 4). (ref.
represent
singlestage a singlestage importance evident the from in losses
twostage of reaction the same
3) reaction in the
and from loss is clearly
turbine
All turbines plays ratio
unshrouded. to blade double of the
of tip clearance were are
efficiency turbine. The the two published Extrapolation gives
for the reaction dashed lines
turbines 82
for the impulse losses for 83. 83
in figure turbines 5 (as
estimates 2 and
efficiency from here small that tip
singlestage in reference of the
(refs.
4) as obtained 82 shows for
the curves figure
fig. 1.6) data
and reproduced of figure loss
as figure
experimental
satisfactory
estimates
of tipleakage
clearances. 227
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
1.00
•99
.98
U O r
.97
8
• 95
.95¢
.o
• 94
_J r'
.1 .2 .3 .4
• 93
• 92
b
.91
.90 0
I
I
I
.03
.01 .OZ Tipclearance,fractionofpassage height correlation for unshrouded
FIGURE 83.Tipclearance
blades• (Data
from ref. 5.)
Reviewing loss large leakage creasing schemes stage the tip clearance in reference A clearer the ratios
the results
shown
in figures with to blade
82 height, casing
and 83, reaction, methods above
it is apparent
that the to tipin
in efficiency
increases to reducing include
increasing clearance, the adding
and for moderate for reducing the blade These at the several recessed configurations are shown affecting area, (2) in figure is possible turbine the
of tip clearance
the loss is appreciable• tip while lossreduction The ratios casing singleof tip and tested 85. if work
In addition losses the can impulse shroud•
the and
tip
recessing either
blade
height,
a tip shroud. tested with general results The factors loading flow with
be used turbine Figure
individually 4 was both shows without the
or in combination. and three
of reference 84
to blade
height,
4, and the turbineperformance understanding are bladeheight consist (3) mixing of the performance considered.
characteristics as compared
loss mechanisms
for the reduced configuration leakage 228 flow,
configuration blade of the leakage
to a zeroclearance clearancegap throughflow, channel
of (1) reduced
MISCELLANEOUS R_s_casi_
LOSSES
Flow _.
E
" Rotor blade
(a)
(b)
Tip shroud_
Flow_
_',Rotor blade
(c) (a) Reduced blade zeroclearance FmvaE height (relative to blade height). (c) Shrouded rotor. 84.Tipclearance configurations investigated (b) Recessed casing.
for impulse
turbine
(ref.
4).
and
(4) blade suction
unloading side). passage changed blade
(as a result With the outer loading radius area
of flow going and the leakage 85, was amount path. however,
from
the
pressure the height recess. leakage shroud
side blade as the Thereflow added
to the extended clearance fore, was the
recessedcasing
configuration, of constant of casing and With that the the
to the gap was reduced
by varying indirect figure
was eliminated,
reduced
because the blade Note
of the from
to the blade, further
unloading
was eliminated,
and the leakage
flow was
reduced.
at tipclearance 229
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
"O
R
38
36
i
I
I
I
1
.12
.04 .06 .08 .10 Rotor tipclearance,fractionofpassage height
FIGURE 85.Effect
of tipclearance
configurations ref. 4.)
on turbine
efficiency. (Data
from
fractions longer
below provides
some an
value, increase
about
0.035 shroud
in this This and
instance, can be as the for
the
shroud
no gap
in efficiency.
attributed clearance
to an
increasing friction is decreased. The to other the difference extend churning In influenced accuracy. diameter the 230 into summary, by The (larger comparative are turbines. flow but the also geometries leakage
loss between results This depends on the
casing 85 of the clearance used. that losses.
shown upon not that only
in figure particular true on the of seals be noted additional presents is not easily the
different and may span and respect will flow with as seen height
bladetip not apply since to just the not be blade,
dependent
design
is particularly number it should creating loss and required for larger ratio
shrouded With section
pressure should
recessedcasing stagnant
configuration, recess. fluid and tipclearance many factors gap clearance clearance as the
the blade
If it does,
overlapping
a complicated predicted depends and, to blade
problem consistent on
for a turbine diameter) gap
primarily previously, increases.
loss increases
of clearance
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
For
any
given huband
diameter, to small the
therefore, ratio. ratio height,
the It
tipclearance becomes gap
loss increases diffacult height a given and a problem to evaluate to blade For
with to as the radius in a the
increasing maintain turbine, ratio, for larger
tipradius blade
increasingly smaller.
a desired hence the
of clearance becomes severe
therefore, case, effects.
loss is more If tip
for small to carry
turbines to be out tests
less severe
turbines.
leakage
is considered
particular leakage
it might
be worthwhile
DISKFRICTION The addition, have the near tive rotor the nature diskfriction some disk. engine loss (or windage the rotating loss) disk
LOSS is due to the skin friction casing. and and In
circulation a small
of fluid between turbines This steady stream cooling flow
and the
stationary aircraft bathes The
for hot applications, of lowertemperature gas flows along base
for example gas that the rotordisk disks 86.
engines, cools from with for es
surface and
centerline
outward patterns gas losses No are
to the around shown
of the blades. without
qualita
of the
rotor in figure herein.
throughflow timating
of cooling the associated
Equations
are presented Throughflow
For
the case
with
no throughflow, surface
as in figure is thrown
86(a), by
the
thin
layer action
of
fluid close to the rotating
outward
centrifugal
7//A//////////_
(a_
(b)
(a)
Without FmuaE
throughflow. 86.Flow patterns
(t)) for
With rotating
throughflow. disks.
231
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
and
returns
via
the
stationary
wall effect.
to the Consider
inner an
radius, element
thereby of area
building on one
up a continuous side of the disk
circulatory
dA = 2,rr dr where A is the area, of the in m 2 or ft 2, of one side area element area dA. The radius at the of the fluid disk, and stress
(81) r is the radius, r, in N/m torque 2 or to
in m or ft,
shear
lb/ft _, acting over this the disk rotation of
r produces
a resisting
dMo 2 where in the Mo is the case resisting torque,  r2rr 2 dr in Nm The
C/
(82) for both can sides of a disk as
or lbft, stress
of no throughflow.
shear
be expressed
(83)
where
C!
fluid shearstress conversion density, tangential disk surface, kg/ma;
coefficient 1;32.17 _ of fluid absolute velocity velocity, is m/sec, ft/sec (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft
9
P
constant, component
v.
At the
the fluid tangential
V_ = too
where into w is the angular (83), the total velocity, torque in rad/sec. for both sides By substituting of the disk equation
(84)
(84) as
can be written
Mo = fo a 2__# Cip_2r 4 dr where a is the disk rim radius, in m or ft. Performing
w2a 5 
(85) the integration yields
Mo=CM,op
(8'6)
2g where friction velocity: Mow
Pd$  CM,o
CM,o is a torque loss expressed
coefficient as power
for the is then
ease of no throughflow. the torque times the
The
disk
angular
pwaa 5
(87)
J where 232 Pd/is the diskfriction power loss,
2gJ in W or Btu/sec, and J is a
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
conversion equation
constant (87) that
(equal is found
to
1,
or
778
(ft)(Ib)/Btu). is
The
form
of
in most
handbooks 5
Pdl = KdlpNaDr where
Kd!
(88)
diskfriction
powerloss
coefficient
N Dr
rotative speed disk rim diameter A number of investigators to be used to the changes have exponents of the from types One which thing blade that rotative published to better used values of the constant others data. Kds in have The
equation made wide doubt, existence rotor and or (88) a smaller mine clearer four casing the both the modes and flow
(88) small due
for different
circumstances, fit the
while available the
assortment
of semiempirical model
equations testapparatus equation can
to predict geometry,
this loss is, no somewhat and the the (87) between
to variations
oversimplified the is that
(87) be noted
is derived, from equation
of different casing.
of flow that speed,
can occur lower speed. conducted on disk of flow that
in the space loss is obtained (refs. friction may chamber regime. torque Boundary 6 and and exist. space
for a given and investigation of chamber of the rotating and the several disk,
by having 7) to deterto present In general, the and of are as on the in nature velocity both between a
diameter effect
a higher
An extensive picture the
has been proportions modes depending The
of flow, or flow regimes, Reynolds and number. associated Flow, are the radial
can exist in the axial on the in each for the torque coefficient
dimensions A description coefficient layers the
CM.o was
evaluated
theoretically
experimentally equations Small merged, gap and The is best
each regime follows: Regime rotor velocity at a given theoretically disk
I: Laminar and casing across in the exists radius and
Clearance. so that s. Figure tangential equation a
continuous indicates
variation of fluid coefficient,
axial
87(a)
of the variations
components for torque
in the gap. empirically,
211
CM.owhere the s is the Reynolds axial distance, defined
(s/a)i
_ disk and casing, and
(89) R is
in m or ft, between as
wa 2p
number
R = 
(810)
where
u is the
dynamic
viscosity,
in (N)
(sec)/m
2 or lb/(ft)
(see). 233
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Radial component ofvelocity
Tangential component of velocity
0 Disk
r_
"_}/////////////////////A_
(a)
Radial component ofvelocity
Tangential component ofvelocity
0
0
r(d I
(b)
FIGURE 87.Velocity
(a) Flow regimes I and Ill. (t)) Flow regimes II and IV. patterns around rotating (links without
throughflow.
Regime
II:
Laminar
Flow, layers
Large on the
Ch,arance. rotor and
The on the casing exists Figure
combined
thickthe
ness of the boundary
is less than
axial gap, and between ing fluid in which no the case. arc variations The best in the theoretical
these boundary layers there change ill veh)city occurs. radial and and tangential empirical velocity equations
a core of rotat87(i)) shows for this coefficient
components for torque
CII
CM.o1_ 112
(811)
where 234
CII is a function
of (s/a),
as shown
in figure
88(a),
and
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
3.3_
3.1
m
2.9 2.7
2.5
I
I
I
I
I
.09
.oz
0
I
.05
I
I
1
I
I
.30
.10 .15 .20 .25 Ratioofaxialgaptorim radius, s/a
(a) Flow regime II. (b) Flow regime IV. FIGURE 88.Evaluation of torque coefficients. (Data from ref. 6.)
CM.o 
3.70 (s/a) R 1/2
1/1o
(812)
respectively. Regime counterpart for torque III: Turbulent are 0.0622 CM,oand 0.080 CM,o (s/a)1/6R1/4 respectively. 235 (814) (s/a) V4RV4 (813) Flow, I. The best Small Clearance. and The empirical turbulent equations of Regime coefficient theoretical
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Regime counterpart tions
IV:
Turbulent II. coefficient
Flow, The are
Large best
Clearance. and
The empirical
turbulent equa
of Regime
theoretical
for torque
Civ
C_,ORI/5 where Civ is a function of (s/a), as shown O.102(s/a) C_,o RII5 in figure 1/l° 88(b), and
(815)
(816)
respectively. The equations several of figure the particular (89), values 89 flow regime torque (813), The (811), of s/a. indicate are that exists and from at any against (815), one regime (changes the Reynolds Reynolds as shown to another. slopes in slope) of the number number in figure 89 in the lines can be from for lines with determined by plotting coefficient
discontinuities
transition determined
In this figure,
flow regimes
by matching
Slope ofcurve '
Flow regime I II
Description Laminar flow; merged boundary layers Laminarflow; separate boundarylayers Turbulentflow;merged boundary layers
Turbulent flow; separate
_'_ •,
_10 2
III _
\ _ IV
\ \ \ _\
'_ \\
_'
_
boundarylayers Ratioofaxialgap
to disk rim radius,
_,\_,, I "\\
lOI
,L
"_ %_
 00,
 _ ,05
:_I I I I I 1o2 lo3 I@ lo lo ld 5 6
Reynolds number,
I [ ["1 I@ I@ lol° lon
R
FmuRE 89.Theoretical
variation of torque coefficient with Reynolds number for no throughflow. (Data from ref. 6.)
236
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
those water
shown and
in the
insert
in the with values
figure.
Torquecoefficient (20in.) theory. the
values
(ref.
6) in
determined
experimentally oil for several
a 50.8centimeter of s/a verify
disk rotated
Throughflow For the the friction case of the torque rotating disk with with throughflow, as in figure This problem 86(b), has been
increases
the throughflow.
analyzed for low values of throughflow it is assumed that the fluid enters the angular The core AM, velocity of gas over and leaves at the the ratio velocity throughflow through symbol Ko represents to the that of the angular without
with regimeIV flow. In this case, chamber near the centerline with no with some disk. rate angular velocity The velocity of the K_a. rotating
rim
of the angular of the is the
increase
in torque, of angular
of change
momentum
fluid flowing AM=2p
the system: Q K_a g rate, The 2 (817)
Q (gowa)a=2p g throughflow of the disk.
where
Q is the
volumetric
in m$/sec total torque
or fP/sec, for the
in the through
clearance space on one side flow case is then
M = Mo+AM
 CM'°pw2aS+2
p QKowa
2
(818)
2g The An friction value of Ko is approximately of the of the power torque case: M =It Mo 2pQK_a 1 _ C M,op_a 5 Substituting equation M (816) for CM,o yields Q ° we _ _ 1+ throughflow
g from by to 0.025 that to 0.12. the noof the
0.45 for s/a ratios loss can case be obtained compared
assessment
calculating
throughflow
4Ko
CM
Q
,o wa 3
(819)
KoR 1/5
_o= 1 + o.0255is/a)l/l where T is a dimensionless
= 1 +39.2
Ko (s/a)m defined o as
T
(820)
throughflow
number
V= _
wa
Rm
(821)
According that are
to the
data high;
of reference moreover,
7, equation the effect
(820) of s/a
predicts is not
values
somewhat
accurately 237
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Ratio of axial gap to disk rim radius, sla
f
/o.o,
1.

1.

.12
_
1.2
g
10 0 .01 .02 Throughflow .03 number. T .04 .05
FIGURE
810.Empirical
variation
of torque ref. 7.)
with
throughflow
number.
(Data
from
given
by
(s/a)
m°.
Empirically,
the
test
data
are
represented
to within
+ 5 percent
by the relation M  1 + 13.9Ko Mo (s/a) in figure 810 1/8 s/a values. T (822)
Equation
(822)
is plotted
for several
PARTIALADMISSION Fulladmission however, turbine so small heights, due unusual may that then axialflow conditions choice. turbines sometimes are arise design blades
LOSSES used for most applications; rate blade losses leakage short the the is
for which would may
a partialadmission massflow verysmall The the having allows Also, than
be a better a normal it may admission
If, for example,
the design give
fulladmission be advantageous with losses and long rotative higher
to use partial
admission. turbine admission speed ratios.
to partial
be less
and low Reynoldsnumber blades. freedom In addition, of larger diameter
of the fulladmission speed, partial way bladejet
for a given may
use of partial 238
admission
be a convenient
to reduce
power
output
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
of an existing passages). output are the emptying This loss. when latter
fulladmission
turbine (physically
turbines chapter, blade pass the rates. in this inactive
block have
some
of the stator
In general,
partialadmission
high specificwork losses sector. or sector or fully
and low volumetricflow previously loss in the pumping
As mentioned
partialadmission and the the active clearly
channels through
fillingand
loss encountered loss has been but
as the blades referred
to as expansion, losses with in output
scavenging, are not power
The mechanisms compared
of partialadmission in a decrease operating turbine
understood,
they do result to the same loss is that with,
and efficiency rotating in form loss. the equations investigations pumping(adjacent of the three in results in to, of for
full admission. blades similar
The pumping a fluidfilled and often expressions several estimating showed power blade open the on these that terms. of the
loss caused the expression back that are height
by the inactive for the
casing, combined all seem
and expressions to trace
for it are somewhat to reference resulted and
diskfriction 8, where The these
These
experimental the
investigations loss of blade the nature etc.) channel were
summarized. from diameter
pumpingpower effects uncertain, wall, blade
on the
loss are quite rows, sides casing loss
as evidenced or lack
by variations in the
in the exponents
Further,
and location of such accounted it used is
of obstructions vicinity that
for only by differences appears a generally
empirical The
coefficient. perhaps most
Therefore, often
applicable
expression
for pumpingpower
loss is yet to be found.
one equation
Pp = KpoU,,,al l'sD,,, ( 1  _) where Pp K_ pumpingpower pumpingpower blade blade blade active value units were by an meansection height, m; ft m; ft area in reference (lbf) rotors above losses enclosed, values. for in reference from 8 and (sec2)/(lbm) the More loss, W; speed, (ft) (lb)/sec 1/m_/_; ft/sec (lbf) (seO)/(Ibm)
(823)
loss coefficient, m/sec;
(ft 3n)
u.
l D,,
E
meansection diameter, fraction of statorexit coefficient herein rotor.
The for the
of the used
Kp as reported For and the same
converted (fts/2), coefficient recently, rotor
to the values enclosed friction losses equation (lbf)
is 3.63
l/m _/2, or 0.0105 of the
unenclosed
onequarter diskfriction the turbine 9 and the (ft3n).
to onehalf housing by equation if the This coefficient were
combined
pumping (87)
a singlestage the
reported
9. If a diskcombined form of to the the
loss estimated of reference (823), (sec _)/(Ibm)
is subtracted
remaining is significantly
loss is converted to be 5.92 higher than
Kp is found
]/m _/_, or 0.0171 coefficients 239
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
reported lack The Imagine filled the inlet less entire through of the of the with blade momentum channel
in reference other
8, and
the
difference loss shall
is attributed herein to enter must the the scavenging active nozzle Since decrease this sector be called the be pushed
to primarily the sector sector.
the loss. It is highuntil blade As the and the
of an adequate a blade fluid channel passes out blade channel
loss model. channel leaving of the channel fluid area through reported by These as it just fluid nozzle. sector, the into, the active is cut enters to flow losses cause starts that within off from This active
partialadmission relatively stagnant is completely
out by the will continue As arc, fluid the less has
sector. active this diffused
a second channel.
loss occurs.
to the blade
highmomentum the rotor. fluid passing fluid. It was be found
it is rapidly decreasing 10 that rotorexit
as it flows energy by a loss
an overall thus the
in the momentum the available decrease in momen
the rotor,
in reference
tum may coefficient
multiplying
momentum
where length, counts The follows.
p is the
rotorblade
pitch,
in m or ft, and K, is a rotor
f is the
nozzle
active that
arc acas
in m or ft. Effectively, for the sector loss. effect With of the sector loss the use of equations
velocity efficiency (214), we can
coefficient
on
turbine and
is determined from express volume the
(26)
1, and specific
the associated velocity diagram work of an axialflow turbine as
geometry,
Ah' = g_ where Ah' Wu W turbine tangential relative fluid relative subscripts 1 and turbine
( W_ a
Um ( Wl sin 01Wu ,2) = _
W2 sin 02)
(s25)
specific velocity,
work,
J/kg;
Btu/lb velocity, axial inlet m/sec; direction, and exit, ft/sec deg respectively. are), For where
component m/sec; angle
of relative ft/sec from rotor measured to the most
0
The
2 refer (which
an impulse
partialadmission
turbines
01= 02,
Um Ah' = __ W, sin Ox(1 +K,_) where turbine. 240 K_ is the For rotor the relativevelocity ratio turbine, W2/W_ for the (826) fulladmission the sector loss
partialadmission
applying
,
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
coefficient
yields W_ = KwK,WI (827)
So, for the partialadmission Ah'r_=_
turbine, Wt sin _I(1+K_K,) qJ
(828)
Since
efficiency
is hh'  Ah_a (829)
where
Abed is the
turbine
ideal
specific turbine
work, with
in J/kg respect
or Btu/lb, to that
the
effull
ficiency of the partialadmission admission turbine is
of the
nm
Ahrro Ah'
(830)
into equation (830) then
Substituting yields
equations
(826)
and
(828)
_=n The sector turbine however, increase. loss admission In the was total and efficiency efficiency loss only; further. rotor Also, design study should the as more known. penalty the expressed (824) closely are added of the be done 9, the the
I+K,,K, 1 IK_ by equation earlier that the blades rotor, of rotor indicates to the (831) accounts
(831)
for the
pumping Equation have effect
loss discussed spaced number analytically efficiency operation measured
will reduce the
the overall sector loss;
a partialadmission blade profile on the loss will pumping
to reduce blades
blades
is not
Therefore, cannot
complete
optimization at present. of a small from was taken and
of a partialaxialflow as the turbine The difference pumping subtracted
of reference over a range
determined loss due diskfriction
of admissions
12 to 100 percent. The blade were
to partialadmission losses were
between
the full and the partialadmission
efficiencies. separately
from the total partialadmission admission losses. These other due to leakage losses 811. from The arc the active admission in figure with stant over of reference combined fraction, of arcs (from
loss to give what losses include the sector pumping while the to the and other 9 are plotted against
was called other partialsector loss and any loss sector. admissionarc loss remained against The partialfraction increased conspeed 241 nearly
inactive
diskfriction losses
decreasing
the range
tested. ref. 10) are plotted bladejet
Predicted
cfficiencies
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
.6 i.5
T
I I I
   Estimatedumping p anddiskfriction losses C3 0 Pumping anddiskfrictionlosses Otherpartialadmission losses
K.4
I
I
"I"
'Is
C
I I t % .
0 .1 .2
gJ
l
I
I
.9
I
1.0
.3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 Active fraction of statorexitarea, •
Fmtmm
811.Variation
of partial+_cimission losses with active area. (l)ata from ref+ 9.)
fraction of stator
mission
o ,a U
qJ
$
.1
I
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 Bladejet peed s ratio, Urn/_ performance of partial(Data from ref. 10.) .7 .8 Ahtd .9 1.0
Fmuam 812.Designpoint
and fulladmission
turbines.
ratio
(see discussion with The
in vol.
1, ch. 2) in figure and with thing speed three in peak ratio
812
for a particular amounts with this arc speed reduced figure ratio
turbine of partial arc of is the of 0.5,
operating admission. admission reduction Aerodynamic 242
full admission expected The
different efficiency from
reduction important bladejet
is seen. in optimum
to note
as admission
is reduced.
efficiency
is a maximum
at a bladejet
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
irrespective Bladepumping blade speed, admission maximum and design factored speed
of admission and become arc net output power) the design
arc, a larger power
and part
decreases losses, as of the
with gross admission power
decreasing decrease arc minus speeds. with aerodynamic
blade
speed. as the for the must be
diskfriction
which
decreasing power
decreases.
Therefore, is obtained turbine, before
is reduced, bladepumping Thus, losses
(aerodynamic at lower
diskfriction into ratio
blade
of a partialadmission can be selected.
the partialadmission or nearoptimum
an optimum
bladejet
INCIDENCE The row angle. since, design shown incidence (either Flow stator incidence The 813. line and loss is that or rotor) would at least, The loss which at some normally all gas dashed the
LOSS occurs angle and when other the gas enters than the are optimum matched the blade a blade flow at the is profile angle (832)
only occur blade when inlet running used
at offdesign speaking through The
conditions,
theoretically condition. in figure
angles
nomenclature line defines
of incidence incidence
is the camber is defined as
blade
angle.
i
=
a

ab
where i ab The angle incidence blade inlet angle, angle must deg from from axial axial direction, direction, deg deg angle may for stators be positive and the relative as
fluid flow angle
fluid flow angle for rotors.
be the
absolute angle
The
incidence
or negative,
indicated because angle
in figure 813. The sign of the incidence cascade tests have shown that the variation for positive and negative angles.
angle is important of loss with incidence
is different
Axial direction
IB,
Vp / i a  ob
FIOuRE
813.Blade
incidence
nomenclature.
243
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Lowreaction _/_ blades_. o.
n •*,._/2___ _,_i_ U.j'_''_ b de
Incidence angle,
i
FIGUaE
814.Characteristics
of blade
incidence
loss.
FiauaE
815.L(ical
flow
separation
on blade
surface.
The results. but
general by The
nature figure loss curve
of the variation 814, which
of incidence represents about
loss with the
incidence of cascade
angle test angle,
is shown shows
a summary incidence 815,
is not symmetrical is larger for positive to some
zero incidence than and for the on the suction
a loss that This may
negative surface lack, or Also, (high
incidence. at large smaller blades reaction whereas range. Another does nation cidence the blade not incidence.
be due
local separation in figure
positive
incidence,
as indicated
area, of separation at the same in which the mean acceleration blades) have a wide blades range have from lowreaction thing occur This streamlines and the inlet
value of negative incidence. of the gas flow is large over for is that small are which the the amount 816. one with the at same losses 814 sketch
of incidence higher figure
loss is low, incidence loss staginto
to be noted at zero may other angle. for
minimum The respect
incidence, two Both inlet tests
but flow small and
at some angles negative theory
of negative zero
be explained at some
by the
of figure shown; that incidence show
stagnation
streamline curves upward and the true zero incidence 244
as the flow impacts occurs when there
on the blade leading edge, is some negative incidence
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
a<o
ab
F[aua_
816.Curvature
of stagnation
stre,_mline at blade inlet.
relative usually blades because The offdesign
to the
freestream
flow.
The
incidence some
angle
at minimum design others while
loss is their do not
4 ° to 8 °. Because with a small amount of the small difference magnitude of the performance incidence method Vp parallel that entry kinetic the any
of this,
turbine incidence,
designers
of negative involved. loss on test here into inlet the must
incidence of a turbine
takes be data with
on
importance
when
the for 11. The a
predicted. the aid
A method in reference 813. normal the to, and blade
determining An inlet analytical velocity
loss based is described to the parallel that is
is described V.
of figure
V_ can be resolved blade
a component direction passes
component without the
(camber through
line at inlet). row lost., is entirely
If it is assumed recovered
component normal
loss and energy
component
V_ 2 VI' 2gJ2gd and the kineticenergy loss due Li
(V,_ \_J
2
V_' =2_ is
c°s_ i
(833)
to incidence
V12 2_ (1cos differences equation
2i) in loss variation reaction, (834) and has been with
(834)
In order and negative
to account incidence,
for the
positive
the effect
of bladerow
the minimum generalized
loss not occurring to
at zero incidence,
V12
L,=_ zg,I where equation ion, is the has optimum
Ilcos"
(iio7,_)"1
(835)
(minimumloss) when
incidence used
angle.
This
type
of
proved
satisfactory
in offdesign
performance 245
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND APPLICATION
prediction loss data
methods are lacking,
such
as that
of reference
12. Where negative
specific and
incidencen = 3 for
values been
of n = 2 for used
incidence
positive
incidence
have
satisfactorily.
REFERENCES 1. HORLOCK, JOHN H.: Axial Flow Turbines. Butterworth Inc., 1966. 2. HOLESKI, DONALD E.; AND FUTRAL, SAMUEL M., JR.:Effect of Rotor Tip Clearance on the Performance of a 5Inch SingleStageAxialFlow Turbine. NASA TM X1757, 1969. 3. KOFSKEY, MILTON G.; AND NUSnAUM, WXLLIAM J.:Performance Evaluation of a TwoStage AxialFlow Turbine for Two Values of Tip Clearance. NASA TN I)4388, 1968. 4. KOFSKEY, MILTON G.: Experimental Investigationof Three TipClearance Configurations Over a Range of Tip Clearance Using a SingleStageTurbine of High Hub to TipRadius Ratio. NASA TM X472, 1961. 5. HONO, YONO S.; AND GROH, F. G.: Axial Turbine Loss Analysis and Efficiency Prediction Method. Rep. D43220, Boeing Co., Mar. 11, 1966. 6. DAILY, J. W.; AND NECE, R. E.: Chamber l)imension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks. J. Basic Eng., voi. 82, no. 1, Mar. 1960, pp. 217232. 7. DAXLY, J. W.; ERNST, W. I).; AND ASnEDIAN, V. V.: Enclosed Rotating Disks with Superposed Throughflow: Mean Study and Periodic Unsteady Characteristics of the Induced Flow. Rep. R_416, Massachusetts Inst. Tech. (ARO1)25002, AD443060), Apr. 1964. 8. STODOLA, A. (Louis C. LOEWENSTEIN, TRANS.): Steam and Gas Turbines. Vol. I. McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1927. Reprinted by Peter Smith, 1945, pp. 200201. 9. KLASSEN, HUOH A.: ColdAir Investigation of Effects of Partial Admission on Performance of 3.75Inch Meanl)iameter SingleStage AxialFlow Turbine. NASA TN D4700, 1968. 10. STENNING, ALAN H.: Design of Turbines for HighEnergyEuel LowPowerOutput Applications. Rep. 79, Dynamic Analysis and Control Lab., Massachusetts Inst. Tech., Sept. 30, 1953. ll. AINLEY, D. G.; ^ND M^THIESON, G. C. R.: An Examination of the Flow and Pressure Losses in Blade Rows of AxialFlow Turbines. R&M2891, Aeronautical Research Council, Gt. Britain, 1955. 12. FLAGO, E. E.: Analytical Procedure and Computer Program for Determining the OffDe._ign Performance of AxialFlow Turbines. NASA CR710, 1967.
246
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
SYMBOLS A
¢t
area
on one side used
of rotor m; ft to evaluate
disk,
m2; ft 2 in regime in regime I I by equation IV by equation (811) (815)
disk rim radius, coefficient coefficient used fluid shearstress
,o
CII Civ C/
CM
Ci.o Ci,o
to evaluate coefficient with
torque diameter, nozzle turbine turbine incidence
coefficient m; ft active specific ideal
no throughflow m; ft (Ibm) Btu/Ib based on ratio of inlettotal pressure Btu/lb (ft)/(lbf) (seC) J/kg; work
D
f
9 Ah' _h_d i J Kdl Ko Kp K. K,o Li l M N
n
arc length, constant, work, specific deg pressure,
conversion
1;32.17
to exitstatic angle, conversion diskfriction ratio
J/kg;
constant, powerloss
1; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu coefficient angular velocity 1/mY2; to disk angular velocity 'v2) (lbf)(seC)/(lbm)(ft impulse turbine
of rotatingcore
pumping power loss coefficient, sector loss coefficient rotor blade velocity height, coefficient m; ft torque for incidence frictional lbft rotative exponcnt diskfriction pumping rotorblade volumetric Reynolds radius, axial blade absolute relative blade loss, J/kg; resistance speed, tad/see; Btu/lb
for fulladmission
both
sides
of rotor
disk,
Nm;
rev/min (835)
in equation power power pitch, number m; ft between m/see;
h)ss, W ; Btu/sec Btu/sec rate, m_/sec; ft'_/scc m; ft
Pp P
loss, W;
Q
R
r
throughflow
8
distance speed,
rotor ft/sec
disk and
casing,
m; ft
U V W
velocity, velocity, inlet angle
m/see; from from axial
ft/sec direction, direction, deg deg axial direction, deg
m/sec/ft/sec axial
fluid flow angle
fluid relative angle measured from active fraction of stator exit area turbine dynamic
P
static kg/m'_;
efficiency (N) lb/ft 3 (sec)/m2; lb/(ft) (see)
viscosity,
density,
247
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
T
fluid shear throughflow angular
stress,
N/m_; rad/sec
lb/ft _ by equation (821)
T
number
defined
velocity,
Subscripts: m n o opt p pa r u 1 2 mean section normal to blade inlet direction
component optimum component
no throughflow parallel to blade inlet direction
partial admission disk rim tangential component
_rotor inlet ],bladerow inlet rotor exit
248
CHAPTER 9
Supersonic Turbines
ByLouis . Goldman J
A supersonic supersonic have having velocities) They have have been low relative molecular are used been studied turbines of the would of stages. Because operate in indicated used for potential turbine application and/or by use have high require It of stage is defined entering in systems weights where NASA in the and', high opencycle potential ratio. a small would, high at low static For chapters jet for For amount velocities, 2 and systems from design turbines be method and used. of 3 the where as one rotor. that operates fluids high ratios are with turbines (those expansion available. and systems work level, fluid and (often low primary minimum pressure may highest result because outthis and a relless of fluid ratio in a systems a
velocity
Supersonic
highenergy
consequently, pressure turbopump
in rocket
auxiliarypower large a given specific power
for space. Supersonic puts type small atively turbines than speed high criteria could To level, and under chapter, the 0.2). ratios are more keep proper rotors because of turbine number simple.
pressure
of driving be lightweight however, speed (vol. ratios 1), the with high and at Both the
therefore, bladejet efficiencies,
supersonic bladejet design
generally As
correspond a minimum the than turbine the are design ideal offset being efficiency designed
to low losses. number work the the lower
primarily
exitkineticenergy
where along the choice.
of stages available turbine
consumption, supersonic
efficiency
optimum must the design
of supersonic by
possible stators In this discussed (2) design 249
methods turbine headings:
supersonic are
characteristics.
supersonic following
performance of characteristics,
(1) method
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPI.,I_ATION
of supersonic (4) operating
stator
blades,
(3) design of supersonic OF
of supersonic turbines.
rotor
blades,
and
characteristics METHOD
CHARACTERISTICS is a general method equation. flow will for solving The equain this and (see (1) conphysical mathsimilar a
The certain tions gas chapter. certain ref.1). The by are
method type of motion of this Other nonsteady method The involved. derivation Both
of for type.
characteristics of partial the
(hyperbolic) Only flows)
differential supersonic of flow flow be (i.e., handled be developed (2) by dynamics one the
twodimensional this also type can can and on only based
of a perfect
be discussed symmetric this method by
types
of supersonic
axially
of characteristics methods will be the derivation It is useful developments Flow
in two stresses here. 1 and the
ways:
formal
mathematical
simple
dynamical The 2.
siderations. processes ematical equations.
presented method
in extending are given Along flow wave. weak
to other
in references Wall satisfies is the waves, shock zero. shown wave in is flow
a Single field that flow) These oblique are
The motion
simplest (other weak through and
supersonic than uniform standing to be very the wave
the called waves. figure produced
equations Mach The 91. waves, entropy
of
parallel
through
a single
vanishingly can change pansion be shown
be considered
is essentially waves an expansion
Examples
of weak As when
exwill the
compression
subsequently,
Mach
wa ye
Mach
wave
V
dV
V
" V__ctV
"// V//////
_UX/, :/;//_Wa II
X
..... 7"/////i
/
(a)
(b)
(a) FIGURE
Expansion. 91.Weak expansion and compression
(b)
Compression. waves.
250
SUPBRS_NIC
TURBINES
wall bends away from the flow, and a compression when the wall bends toward the flow. The bend (of the angular which wall. flow The fields magnitude produces bend to which when surface of Mach wave Mach wave dO) in the wave, in the sides wall one solution of it. it is realized can, therefore, The the wall which may also as a disturbance is to follow a boundary with may The the uniform solution flow flow Consider rection of mass
wave
is produced
can be considered if the flow as wave of this surface sections. as flow diof the _ to the conservation Mach curved be considered
is required
condition
is a standing The that any be
on both
importance of straight
can be appreciated to be made a curved a series expansion standing velocity that A= along through a weak the of initial requires
be considered
up of a finite waves.
number
approximated
dynamics at an angle 92. The
through
will now
be discussed.
included in figure
V as shown
p V,, = (p+dp)
( V. +dV.)
= constant
(91)
where w A p V. mass flow density, velocity flow area rate, along kg/m3; kg/sec; Mach lb/ft a normal terms to Mach (i.e., dp dV.) wave, gives m/sec; ft/sec lb/sec wave, m_; ft 2
component secondorder
Neglecting
V.+V dp=o
Conservation of momentum pV.V in the tangential direction gives
(92)
,= (p k do) ('[7. + dV.)
(V ,+ dV ,)
(93)
t
Ma¢,//
wave/ Z_Z_ n
p
p +dp + dV
dO
U//////////////////_
•. _ /////,
FIGURE 92.Flow
through
a weak
expansion
wave,
and associated
nomenclature.
251
TURBINE
_, I_E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
where m/sec
gives
Vt or
is the ft/sec.
velocity
component equation
tangent (91)
to
the into
Mach equation
wave,
in
Substituting
(93)
y,,V,=
or
pV,,(V,+dVt)
(94)
dV,=o
This stant dV means as the is equal Conservation that flow to dV, the and tangential the wave. is directed component normal in the of velocity the direction _ to tile Mach remains velocity wave. gives crosses Consequently, normal
(92)
conchange
of momentum gpb pV,,Z=g(p
+ dp) b (pb dp) (V,,b dV,)
(96)
where g p conversion absolute constant, pressure, equation 1 ; 32.17 N/m2; (9I) O=g Eliminating dV,_ by using (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)
lb/ft 2 into equation dVn (92) results in (96) and expanding yields (97)
Substituting
dp.}pVn
equation
V.g
Equation (157) of chapter 1 (vol. 1) states
(98)
a _/g where process (98) a is speed being into equation of sound, (99) in m/sec here shows that V,,:a Therefore, be equal the to the component speed of velocity of sound.
(_)s or ft/sec. Since the
(99) differential of equation
considered
is isentropic,
substitution
(910) normal from to the figure Mach 92 wave that (911) must
Noting
Vn=V gives V, sin _VV where and 252 has M is the meaning Mach only number. for M> The 1.
sin tt
a
1 M ft is called the Mach
(912) angle
angle
SUPF__SONrC Mach wa ve
TURBINE,S
V
_" _
" ....
du
713
/
FIGURE 93.Velocity diagram for
v+dv
flow through a weak expansion wave.
The dV can figure
relation be 93. found
between from limit
change the (dO*0),
in flow
angle
dO and shown
velocity geometrically
change in
velocity
relations
In the
du=dV dv=Vdo and tan where du dv Since, component component as can of dV of dV parallel normal from to initial to initial equation 1 tan/_=_/_1_ equation (915) becomes dV do 1 velocity velocity (912), V, m/sec; V, m/sec; du dV B= __= _
(913) (914)
(915)
ft/sec ft/sec
be determined
(916)
V  4_1 It is more ratio and 1). The convenient M*=V/VcT to can relation be if dV/V rather the speed M* evaluated between is expressed than from and Mach equation M is given of sound in terms number at the (163) by the of the M. critical of The
(917) critical critical 1
velocity velocity (M=I) (vol.
Vcr is equal
condition chapter
equation 253
TURBINE
l)E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
/ M= /
2 _+i 1 71
M,
_ (918) M, _
V
where heat 7 is the at constant ratio of specific Since volume. temperature is constant), dV V Substituting finally, dO: equations (918) and
heat Vc,
at constant is constant
pressure (because
to specific the total
dM* M* (919) into equation (917)
(919) gives,
1 M .21 M, 71 7+1 _ dM* M* in flow wave. weak (convex) The field relation wave values wave will, sign. angle A
(920)
This relation wave, Let shown
is the
differential through have that 94. each consider
relation been the producing
between weak for would along the a Mach through combined motion
a change expansion a single have a curved surface wave. each flow for
and similar
a
velocity
change could except us now in figure bends,
a single obtained (920) flow that
compression surface, of a number indicated provided be a of dO. flow. as
equation Assume
a minus is composed Mach
of small the This
by equation changes to type solution
(920) the of flow
will be satisfied The of
in 8 are small. equations is called
therefore,
infinitesimal flow, or simple
PrandtlMeyer
.._ _lach waves
// // I \ \
V1
,.
/
/
/""
, ve
; /
",
",
>'
'_
I/ /
, //
d83 FmURE 94.Representation of flow along a convex wall.
254
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
If the
number
of segments Integration
approaches of equation
infinity, (920) gives
the
flow
field
becomes
continuous.
• 0= _1 _I/4/_41 arc_
sin [(3, 1 )M*_
_¢] 1 arc sin _,__  3,) + constan + t/'_ 41 \ (921)
If angle and Meyer from
the it
constant by is tabulated angle is the 1 to
is chosen equation in angle the many
such (921) through
that
0=0
when the (e.g., ref. flow and
M*=I(M=I), 1). must The turn
the angle, Prandtlin going given the
given
is called references which Mach
PrandtlMeyer
the
Mach
required
number
is often
symbol 1
_ (or u). Therefore,
/,45
I_ _r arc sin [(_1 _A)M*__] "_ _ 1E2arc J
sin
(922) from V1 to V2 is That (923) is,
Note given
that by
the the
change change
in flow in the
direction
(50)
in going
respective
PrandtlMeyer _2 _I waves. flow angle 95. The
angles.
Oz 01: 50: The waves, the sion along derivation there wave. would decreases This means wall, has be been (M that shown for
expansion sign for Mach
For (917).
compression Therefore, a compresfor lines, flow there
a minus the
in equation
velocity
decreases) in figure
through _ increases Mach
a concave
hock
Mach ,4/, waves
_\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\
\" .... r
d61
_o 2
FIGURE
95.Representation
of
flow
along
a
concave
wall.
255
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
fore, the
converge entropy
and increase.
form
a shock
as shown
in the shock
figure. region
The
derived of
relations,
of course,
would
be invalid
in the
because
FIGURE
96.Hodograph
characteristic
curves.
256
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
The ratio curves The erate the in figure
relation M* (eq. 96. of this
between (921)) This plot convex type are can
the
flow
angle on of called
0 and a polar the
the
critical
velocity as shown plot. any The two
be plotted
diagram, around varied velocity
of diagram characteristic and are of equation curves (922). of the passing angle
is called
a hodograph flow has M*= critical
dimensional value these variation An normals Mach Consider a finite on the constructed the important to wave
surface The
hodograph been
characteristics. to genratio is that corresponding flow field to be into (line by that The This example. as the 1 at 00 represent
of the curves.
constant
(921) through with
of PrandtlMeyer by equation property the in the physical and along
expressed
hodograph are parallel This wall. 97(b))
characteristics to by the initial the the wall allows After the in the wall
characteristics plane.
graphically flow of segments
is best
explained
a simple point
a curved curve (fig.
is divided to V1
number
(fig. 97(a)), P_ is located to Ur2 (or characteristic
PI is located diagram
characteristic to V1). line
corresponding hodograph segment curve by drawing segment in the to use. that through S_). through
OP_ parallel drawing /)2 must Mach (shown direction plane. The the wave is
Point
OP2 the
parallel V1 and figure) to the process is,
Note
P1.
lie on
expansion
separating parallel preceding
V2 is found characteristic wave continued
the the
normal physical
as N1 in the
to the Mach is
P_P2.
direction
additional The the prodirec
segments. The graphical cedure may
procedure entirely
at best, numerical
cumbersome if it is recalled
be made
_
Math
waves
lo _,___.._/
/
/
15,J \
Cb_
\,
(a)
Phy,_ical
plane. FIGURE 97.Flow along
(b) convex
Hodograph wall.
plane.
257
TURBINE
I)E_SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
/
'_,]dC h waves
0 cai (hi
(a) FIaURE 98.Flow
General along
case. convex wall point. with Math
(b)
Limiting waves
case. at one
intersecting
tion
of
the that speed of
Mach in the the be
wave the waves the flow
is given solution lie at of the the
by
the
Math angle points.
angle problems, relative The
_. Since it is
finite usually to the average a wall
changes assumed average direction may now diagram,
occur
practical Mach two measured
corresponding to the flow The if the point, the of small or (921) flow design 98(b), past
between constructed
two points, completely useful along pass that has
between
numerically. wall wall by occurs approaches figure a number flow, to the
hodograph wall is so
though, case the that 0. The
is still of flow Mach Now large
for visualization. a single through the replaced cornertype is important throats. Equation a common as shown common it is bends. a where around of supervalid
A special shaped in figure point seen This corner, that type and
lines imagine case bend
98(a). a single of flow with
limiting
is represented called later,
is often sharpedged
as will be seen
sonic nozzles for this case.
is still
Flow The method of solution generalized to handle the uniform figure amount. As finite and before, number S'_, and by the parallel 99. The the flow flow $3 and the direction supersonic that will S'3. Suppose
Between
Two
Walls wall can be the initially as shown the walls in region The line V_. The channel. into a 1 is OP_ flow S'_, S_ in same
used for the flow along a single flow between two walls. Consider flow both be bounded are about the by parallel hodograph of the by two walls outward walls deflected centerline dividing here flow diagram. velocity
is symmetric
of the the field by S_ and
constructed initial magnitude
of straight point
line segments, The and P_ in the
denoted
represented represents 258
S_PF__
S_NIC
TURBINES
,F 2
V [
.... /!:
>_," "'/L_
u
s
.... s3__ i ,////' , si .,,,,_>;_L_
\
I C'I
,
15v...
]
/
c2
//
0 P7
_15/
J _ "" _///////_ k_V k V 2 6 _ 3 _///////'_ ,..,,/////.
(a)
(b)
(a)
Physical
plane. FIOUR_ 99.Flow between two
(b)
Hodograph
plane.
walls.
in regions The two arated lines initial by
2 and OP2 and
2' (points as before, OP'2 waves flow now
P2 and P'2 for the flow
in the through
hodograph a weak V'2,
diagram) expansion flow in
can wave.
be determined, The problem Mach
are parallel intersect. field, since
to V2 and what Flow V2 fields
4
respectively. to the after be the the sepsame 2' must not
is to determine
happens and V'2
2 and are
another
direction. Consider that continuation, in modified A jump of motion is, To C1 or satisfy Similarly, from only C'2 both region if the (since sets end
the flow field 3 is separated form, of the initial Mach any wave can eq. point point region lies on a characteristic represent lie on end the point waves end and 2' must
from waves satisfy (921)
2 and 2' by a M, and M'I. the equations P2; that C'L or C2. representplane that which
2 through these curves
through
graphically). jump
a iump
from
characteristic of the
of conditions, be either can expansion sense. because The M_
ing the The the end
flow field point
3 must P, of the
P3 or P1 in the hodograph out because are point this would mean compression being further of the P'2P3 the waves,
being
be ruled
extensions little makes
makes plane direction given in the
physical sense
P3 in the flow Mach P2P3,
hodograph The are waves
it represents M'2
expansion.
of the by the
extensions
initial and
normals
to the
segments of
respectively, of be used advancing is now the to
hodograph the velocity the the flow
plane.
Because
assumed procedures of the type
symmetry can waves
flow,
V3 is parallel field strikes
to V_. These until wall. one
construct across required.
piecemeal the
channel
A new
of solution
259
TURBINE
DES,IGN
AND
APPLICATION
Consider Sa. wall. P_ must require the because According that wave The The in the the lie on 5 cannot
the flow extend flow
flow in field the
in field wall, plane and
4, which parallel a new lie 6 are to those
is parallel to field to the on in the through used in the the 6 must wall the same
to the wall. and, separate
wall
segment field the point OP4, P_ Also, conditions where an
5 is not
Therefore, it from of line therefore,
in field
6 is parallel must 4 and similar P6
hodograph flows one of the
extension Ps, before, wave. that
in fields
direction. these In
characteristics as shown
is, C_ or C'3. diagram, general,
to arguments P8 be located between
hodograph
P5 and
is an expansion
expansion wave striking wave. The construction proceeds As which Mach across out fields. method," the of stream the Mach the method," seen the each as before. from velocity The wave since Another is often net. flow the the
a solid boundary reflects of the flow in the interior
as an expansion of the channel
foregoing is constant. equations
discussion, of small The are type of motion sides
the
flow
in the
channel are finite the regions,
may of the form "field or
be approximated waves. entire
by a number
quadrilateral of the are satisfied
regions quadrilaterals in satisfied is called in small as the In this
in each
and,
therefore, This
approximately of procedure are found known flow problems. most not intersections, for will 1. be
through
field. stream
properties procedure, found methods at the are,
calculation used Both are
"latticepoint procedure, points, further. situations,
in supersonic
properties
or lattice practical discussed
identical. The Both methods
"latticepoint are described
method" in reference
Summary The used shown (c) show intersection wave flected wave across flow for the solutions design in the figure the with
of Elementary previously discussed, stator each cases and
Flow
Solutions as well as others blade physical 910(a), expansion of an that are are is and the
of supersonic 910. For hodograph discussed waves,
and case,
rotor the Figures
sections, situation (b), wave,
summarized along
solution. the
previously of expansion
of a weak reflection
expansion the reincident the flow
from a solid boundary, wave is at a slightly because of the higher the reflected wave. 910(d) direction by the any wave. shows A bend and the at the
respectively. smaller Mach Mach number
In figure 910(c), angle than is the associated with
Figure solid in the produced fied 260 without same
cancellation proper same
of an location magnitude conditions waves.
expansion top as the are, flow
wave wall
at
a
boundary.
in the
is made deflection satis
of the
The
boundary (reflected)
therefore,
additional
SfUPE./_SONI_C
TURBINES
Figure section point istic
910(e)
shows region
the wave
solution and B and beyond D must
for the lie on the the
flow field wave. intersection
beyond The
the interhodograph each wave
of an expansion representing curves passing unchanged
a compression C, as shown.
of character
through in type
Therefore,
continues
intersection.
6
(al 6
OD
BA
/
b
?//'//_}i"///d
;:P; ;,, .¢;
; ;4,:,_/_
_c_
(a) (b) (c) Reflection FlovRs
Weak
expansion of expansion wave
wave. waves. a solid solutions. boundary.
Intersection of an expansion
from flow
910.Elementary
261
TURBINE,
DESIGN
AND
APPLI_ATrON
6
It//l.I//l/l_'//.ft/lllll_ A t
"V/I/i/////
L
0 B : 04  6
6_
(dt
Z////////21//7_
_B
/_1'Compression wave
O0 : 0A + 25 "////Z///I/I_ /
(e)
P : Constant
A
_on
wave
(fl
(d) (e) (f) Reflection
Cancellation Intersection of expansion
of expansion of expansion wave FIGURE from
wave and a
at
solid
boundary. waves. (constant pressure).
compression free boundary
910.Concluded.
A case sections, This free 262 is the
that but
is not may be
encountered of general of an boundary expansion
in
the wave
design is shown from requires
of supersonic in figure the a constantpressure that pressure
blade 910(f). be
interest, condition
reflection The
boundary.
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
constant velocity be equal. In general, pressure)
along
the outside field
streamline. fields C must wave wave.
Since lying from
the along
flow
is isentropic, hodograph
the must plane.
magnitude Therefore,
of all the flow
the boundary
be as shown
in the
an expansion as a compression
reflects
a free boundary
(constant
DESIGN One flow also design at has of the most
OF
SUPERSONIC uses This is of the wind flow type
STATOR the method to produce basis tunnels. stator entering will of
BLADES of characteristics uniform, design type rotor. parallel of since Only twoit is the here. of nozzle the This the
important speeds.
is its application supersonic dimensional desired
to the design
of a channel
nozzles application
for supersonic parallel on this
to supersonicturbine based
blades,
to have of a stator
uniform
of nozzle
be discussed Flow flow curve
Nozzles A supersonic in figure sonic, (DE), Point the 911. nozzle Since
Producing that first
Uniform
Parallel
produces that outward
uniform, the flow (AD)
parallel and then
is shown and superin again
it is required curve
be parallel
wall must
so that at the exit, D is the point where that Because may, only generates for the flow of the design ABCDA one half at
the wall is again parallel the wall has its maximum the throat symmetry, nozzle waves same need the which as was is uniform, the nozzle by be replaced nozzle of the
to the initial flow. slope. It is usually parallel, a solid zone. off the and sonic axis is a streamboundary. The in the curved section
assumed (M1). line and Therefore, The wall The
purposes, is called is the
be designed. expansion reflect centerline.
flow
region
AD
expansion procedure
calculation
discussed
[
B
¢
FIGURE
911.Supersonic
nozzle
producing
uniform,
parallel
flow.
263
TURBINE'
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
"Flow
Between and waves
Two the are
Walls." wall cancelled. "Summary
The
region section The
DCED is curved
is called so that Flow of cancelling
the the
straightenincoming waves final A be too form 912(a), It is a where edge was The Mach and D. long of
ing section, expansion seen flow number For for this A limiting points (corner parallel that and wall angle nozzles Only The output 3 does number the input and gives not one the _, A large type in the past
in this
method and
section CE on Mach turbine with of D a the
of Elementary expansion a nozzle In throat, in the flow that waves hodograph occurs of the design been these
Solutions." The
is uniform, how
parallel, much
supersonic. occurs of this type cases, shown previously
depends exit
between may a limiting in figure
numbers, applications. sharpedged flow The waves The nozzle is used. parallel
supersonic nozzle form and flow), flow half other which with at
of nozzle uniform,
produces
shortest expands are is again
possible (fig. around by used
length. 911), sharp the the
described
coincide. reflected exit.
producing of the the of the half region is half program sharpedged portion computer specificheat coordinates for any
reflected diagram
centerline. uniform shows flow, the _.
Cancellation
to obtain (fig. 912(b)) of the
expansion as a result 2 is set of the has
as a result reflected equal (ref.
corner
waves. to the
Therefore, PrandtlMeyer angle supersonic
bounding
at an angle exit written by the nozzle 7 of the nozzle. losses.
PrandtlMeyer method is designed the The working of
A computer
3) to design by desired fluid. program The the
throats of the program ratio flow of the
characteristics. program. exit Mach program
supersonic to the the the account
includes
of reference
A,D
_
[
_,_
I / _,5" ]
181 I1);
3
(a)
Physical FIGURE
plane. 912.Nozzle with sharpedged
(b) Hodograph throat.
plane.
264
SUPgRSONIC
TURBINES
Stator The for tional the sharpedgedthroat design considerations nozzle for a stator
Nozzles just discussed serves nozzle as stators. the basis Addi
of minimumlength
(chord) as compared
supersonic to the
previously
Ideal nozzle _
t
/ / Displacementth ickness,
\ \ \
/ / / /
Straight sectior_ angle /_ozzle / /
/ Diverging section'. / /
Tangential direction Converging section_
\
t_
Axial _Trection
FIow_
FIGURE
913.Design
of supersonic
stator
nozzle
with
sharpedged
throat.
265
TURBINE
D_IGN
AND
APPL_CATrON
discussed energy
are losses.
the
flow
turning
and
the
desire
to
include
flow
and
A supersonicturbine being as and section the flow. stream method on the determined A computer sonic lines stator in figure etc.) the local reference converging The Mach suction discussed herein The a stator (3) nozzle. (subsonic) a straight accelerates section diverging number surface the
stator is shown stator section, section flow on to 5 (vol.
blade nozzle (2) the sonic 2). to exit. the
and
channel 913 and
section will
of the be referred sections:
type to (1) a
in figure
consists a diverging suction speed In order all the This
of three surface. and can of the to The
converging
(supersonic) The be
section, converging designed losses, of by length desired by the the freethe is section
methods
of chapter
to minimize flow the
is designed section at the
produce
turning
accelerates
section profile,
is designed straight and its
of characteristics by the required
as previously completes nozzle the angle. design
discussed. nozzle
program nozzles,
for (no loss)
of sharpedgedthroat for losses, indicated method ideal to the thickness, profile is then ideal profile by the
superin dashed
including is first then
a correction nozzle profile, by for final the the
is presented
4. An ideal 913, are
designed computed 2). The
of characteristics. momentum by nozzle 7 (vol. methods by from 2). coordiobtained
Boundarylayer thickness, discussed adding nates the
parameters 6 (vol.
(displacement
in chapter
displacement in figure 913. parameters
thicknesses The nozzle as described
as indicated boundarylayer
efficiency in chapter
is obtained
DESIGN Two rotors tion methods are caused the that The by rotor the
OF
SUPERSONIC been Both proposed design of
ROTOR for the
BLADES design use any and of supersonic the method formaflow The parallel. of shock
have herein. channel
discussed
methods to prevent
characteristics. entering
is designed is assumed
convergence
compression to be uniform Method rotor I) the In blades
waves.
passage
CornerFlow One method (ref. entering compression, surface cancel zontal of the the flow of designing blade parallel from The supersonic of this flow flow upper type
is given
by Shapiro 914(a). The
1). A typical uniform,
is shown
in figure undergoes concave
(region along (suction) waves. This being
a comertype lower is curved 2, then by parallel undergoes the concave (pressure) so as to horia
resulting blade. incoming (0=0) expansion,
surface region flow cancelled
compression is obtained. with waves
parallel
cornertype 266
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
surface, at the to the For the tion since
until blade inlet
uniform exit. and outlet
parallel flow (as this kind
flow
of the
desired on the
Mach upper
number surface, only The easy The one profile.
occurs parallel half of
Straightline blade makes of one
segments directions, shown since type are present
complete in fig.
the blade
an impulse needs waves flow
914(a)), particularly
blade only
to be designed,
it is symmetrical. in any region.
specificato design, hodograph in figure which is desirable, Another number,
of comer
of blade
diagram 914(c) quite because drawback
for this blade is the theoretical unusual. the This loading type
is shown in bladesurface of velocity zero method
figure 914(b). Shown velocity distribution, distribution is not of the inlet very blade. Mach middle for a given
becomes
in the
of this design
is that
rParallel flow
I t t
Parall
,_
Parallel flow _ (a)
M*
Inlet Distance alon9 chord _b) (a) (b) Hodograph diagram. rotor design Blade and passage. (c) Blade by the loading diagram method. (c)
Outlet
FIGURE 914.Supersonic
cornerflow
267
TURBINE
I_ESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
the sonic For
amount (Mach reasonable
of flow turning 1) or higher. to the Mach sum number equal
is limited. The of the levels inlet
The and
velocity amount exit to 3.0),
in region of flow large
2 must turning
be is,
maximum (1.5
therefore, turning
PrandtlMeyer amounts
angles. of flow
(120 ° to 150 °) would
be impossible. Method supersonic the product passage rotor blades vortex (also, by this is a constant is described flow within therefore, throughmethod is
VortexFlow Another in reference the passage. critical out the shown The arcs, sition passage generated ated field sect. The parallel cular by field. in figure blades (2) circular arcs (lower into the upper by the inlet method 5. This ratio A typical 915(a). consist arcs, and lower essentially and upper) (3) flow transition arc of outlet by convert arc (see of designing method M*) field, blade and
is based
on establishing radius
In a vortexflow
of velocity designed
velocity
and streamline
three the means and fig.
parts: uniform of the the
(1) arcs.
inlet The
transition inlet flow tranat the waves generinterflow. the cir
transition
parallel
vortex transition
compression waves The
expansion
915(a)).
vortexflow
begins where The concentric outlet flow arcs. transition by and
the compression circular arcs arcs the
and expansion turn and maintain the vortex waves the upper the design are
waves first the vortex flow into by and profile. in with the the
reconvert remaining on
uniform
cancelling outlet flow
generated surface blade
Straightline
segments directions for the the by type degree the highly the to this
parallel
to the inlet
complete type of
A hodograph 915(b). letters The surfaces graph of flow provide bution blade The
diagram flows along
is shown shown, in arcs and the BF figure of on to the velocity
figure the blade hodocan This to the
blade locations along circular rotor,
surfaces indicated the circular arcs there IK
corresponding constantvelocity are diagram. turning any is seen is shown design represented In this
915(a).
flows
of design, in the of turning. loaded, 914.
is no limit The surface figure
amount arcs distri
obtainable necessary on to be quite shown
because diagram, especially
circular 915(c).
bladeloading in figure for designing is presented the the method inlet rotor of and and numbers,
as compared
cornerflow A computer method program outlet, gas. the arcs 268 The blade
program includes Mach includes An using the
rotor
blades flow
of this 6. The angles,
type the ratio
by
the
of characteristics input and output shape. surface
in reference outlet the
computer inlet, of the of in
specificheat coordinates the is
blade
and
a plot transition
approximate
method
for obtaining
without
characteristics
described
SUPERSONIC
TURBI_,ES
references 7 and 8. In this procedure, the vortex flow is established by making the curvature of the transition arcs onehalf the curvature of the circular arcs. For very small curvatures, this method is correct. In this blade design, the lower and uppersurface Mach numbers are specified. This permits blades of various shapes to be designed for
Region Vortex flow transition
AB and FG BC and EF HI and KL CDEand1JK
Straight lines Upper transition arcs Lower transition arcs Circular arcs
(a)
M*.. _H,B
C
E
A,H
L,G
X'x// )
Inlet
\
I
/
K Outlet Distance along chord
mh_7,F
Ib) (a) (b) Hodograph FIGURE diagram. 915.Supersonic rotor design Blade and passage. (c) by Blade the loading vortexflow diagram. method. (c)
269
TURBINE
I_E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATrON AA AB BD CC CD Circular arc Uppertransition arc Straight line Circular arc Lowertransition arc
k
ta) A B A B
\
D/ (b! A B B
D
D
A B
A B
(a)
Lowersurface
PrandtlMeyer
an
(b)
gle, 0° (M = 1) ; uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (c) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 18 ° (M 1.7) ; uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 ° . (e) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 21 ° (M 1.8) ; uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 59 ° (M 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 120 ° .
Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 12 ° (M=l.5); uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °.
(d)
Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 18 ° (M1.7) ; uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 104 ° (M10.7) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (f) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 21 ° (M 1.8); uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 140 ° . number of 2.5 ratio of 1.4. (inlet Prandtl
FIGURE 916.Turbine Meyer 270
blade shapes at inlet Mach angle of 39 °) and specificheat
SUPEJRSONIC
_URBINES
a given program figure number whereas (c)) and effects. both The procedure program including (no loss) first eters ing
inlet 916. the the
Mach From the
number. figure, and (cf.
A
number Mach has little number 916(e) of and
of that (cf.
blades the effect figs. (f)) design and
designed
by
the in
of reference (cf. figs. flow of will
6 for an inlet (d)) figs.
number
of 2.5 axe shown uppersurface on the have blade 916(a), (b),
it is seen
Mach shape, and by
916(c) turning in flow the
lowersurface
Mach selection
significant problems, design A computer sections, ideal is 917, paramby from 2). addthe
Guidance of which
a blade supersonic in this of
is obtained
consideration
separation
starting
be discussed discussed for the case
later "method
chapter. characteristics" flow. vortexflow in reference lines rotor in figure obtained profile 7 (vol.
previously is only
of ideal
(isentropie)
for the design a correction passage by profile,
of supersonicturbine for losses, indicated and the profile loss is presented by the final
9. The
dashed
designed are then the local 917.
the method
of characteristics. profile to the thicknesses as described
Boundarylayer is then ideal
computed, displacement Rotor parameters
as indicated
in figure
coefBcients
are determined
boundarylayer
in chapter
.... _
_ '__/'x "
._
Displacement thickness
/__/
_,.
_
,Lossfree
passage
i/ Z
\ \
\
FIOURE
917.Design
of supersonic
rotor
blade
section.
271
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
As
seen
from arcs are
figure HI and calculations
915, EF
adverse within give to cause criterion Mach
pressure the flow places rotor
gradients blade of whether
exist passages. the
along The
transition boundarylayer gradients results of the separation. upper
an indication it would numbers.
pressure
severe losses. and
enough
separation. limitations
Flow on
separation to prevent the choice
in large The
If it is possible,
be desirable
separation lowersurface
OPERATING
CHARACTERISTICS TURBINES Supersonic Starting
OF
SUPERSONIC
the
Problems diffuser
occur in the starting must be able to swallow
of supersonic the shock that
diffusers because forms at the inlet
Lowe rs u rface
140
PrandtIMeyer angle, o)/, de3 ,/_120 ll5 llO 105 9O 85 8O 75 7O 65 6O 55 5O 45 40 3O 75 2O 15 10
120
___
20
t
0 20
1
40 Uppersurface
1
60 Prandtl%_eyer
t
80 an(jl¢,
1
l O0 '%, deg
I
120
I
140
FIGURE
918.Maximum
PrandtlMeyer heat ratio,
angle 1.4.
for
supersonic
starting.
Specific
272
SUPE_
SONI_
TURBINES
during in shape, a normal ing. wave For the inlet flow this mum rotor angles. The condition,
startup. similar shock since
Since turbines. spans the flow angles
the As the passage Mach (often
rotor would
blade
passage
is convergentdivergent to occur at the passage in the instant is set the starting that by this shock of of startit is assumed
problems
be expected approximation, passage the blade of blade
of supersonic
a first rotor must numbers expressed
permissible through.
contraction
be large along in
enough the terms
to permit
to pass specified blade Mach can inlet blades In must
circulararc of the a maximum for which for 918,
segments corresponding value
surfaces number be value is plotted the from usual the then be
PrandtlMeyer
w_ and The is given
wz), there PrandtlMeyer calculation in reference of the
exists
of the
(or inlet
angle) procedure
supersonic determining the maxi
established.
maximum
6. In figure starting bladesurface inlet the to surface obtain
PrandtlMeyer design velocity
angle as a function
for supersonic the and order
of vortexflow PrandtlMeyer angle rotor blade PrandtlMeyer the
problem, diagram, in
PrandtlMeyer
is known angles
determined
8O Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle,

k
E
_
&
r_
_o
39
•_ g &
4o
I
,// ,
__e_,
,' , , ,/ ' ,
o,o, S9 i 0
7" ,'_7,_97._/'/77"7"//'77/'I
/,
F_,...'_,
c 5
E
r_
20
I
o
30
I
l_°l
i_oo
I lJ
1
50
_
l
70
L
I
90
,,
I
1
110
Uppersurface PrandtIMever angle, wu, deg FIGURE 919.Supersonic Mach number 2.5; starting criterion PrandtlMeyer applied to example angle, 39°; inlet flow turbine. Inlet angle, 65 °.
inlet
273
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
and
passage 918
profiles. the point must a severe numbers. a blade that at least
To
assure
satisfactory the the the
starting surface ordinate the permissible is best for the seen and to the on the
for the corresponding
given inlet
angles to the condivalues an example. conditions: °. vary flow fact angle _, can of
conditions, in figure inlet tion surface
representing lie on or above angle. This is _ to can sonic; be restriction on
PrandtlMeyer starting design from following that fact
PrandtlMeyer places Mach
In general, restriction designed from on the
supersonic
Suppose (1) _=1.4; It is first from must that Meyer For shown.
(2) M,,=Mex=2.5 noted vary 0 ° limit turning
(_,.=_,x=39°); _z is due 104 ° limit cannot 919, w_ and _,=39 for the _,
(3)0,.0,_=65 that to the the flow
0 ° to 39 °, and
39 ° to 104 °. The remain the inlet angle clarity, The transition
w, is due inlet
exceed
of 65 ° (39°+65°= only dashed would
104°). the
In figure of
maximum of _, discussed °, and design the for
inlet this region
Prandtlexample. are shown because
w_,. ,,_
is plotted bounds line not be
as a function
previously purposes
represents permissible
crosshatched of supersonic will, in general, than the limit
starting limit indicated
considerations. the maximum in the figure. Turbine data 14. The ratio speed to turbine 920, of at ratio
Flow separation value of w_ to much
consideration lower values
Supersonic Experimental ported efficiency velocity ratio) in with performance 10 to bladejet
Performance for supersonic in speed to presents 14. For turbines divided are by reideal
references
variation (blade
supersonicturbine
corresponding is illustrated turbine
inlettotalwhich
exitstaticpressure the any ratio data given and in ratio for the speed, falls maximum is similar turbine, fallen efficiency on at the the the off
in figure
partialadmission efficiency rapidly efficiency to that efficiencies envelope for as
reference design
is maximum pressure (circles
about is 920)
pressure The
decreased. with If
variation speed a subsonic have
in fig.
bladejet this ratios were
a subsonic at the The lower
turbine. pressure
would
curve.
decrease
in supersonicturbine
274
8UPF_R_)NIC Ratio of turbineinlet total pressure to turbineexit _ a o o static pressure 150 120 63 (design) _ "_ _
TURBII_S
I
.30
cCD
.2O
_3 t_
.10
.......
0
L__ ......... 2___
.04 .08
A_
.12 Bladejet speedratio
1
.16
J
.20
l
.24
F,GuR_.
920.Static
efficiency
of turbine as function for conseant speeds.
of bladejet
speed
ratio
lower pressure ratios is due expanded The stator nozzles.
to
the shocks occurring in the underthe stator nozzle of formation
variation in static pressure throughout in the underexpanded
the turbine of reference 14 is shown of the shock waves
in figure 921. The
nozzle is readily apparent. as expected, but the was beThis same
It can also be seen from this figure that at pressure ratios near design, the divergent section of the nozzle performed pressure did not remain constant in the straight section. There
some overexpansion followed by some compression. havior was found in the data of reference 10.
275
TURBINE • 10
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
__ •09 
Divergent section
["
Straight .... section
I
.0_
•07 a
c
•05 L_
9
V
o
•03 
A •02 [] Theoretical .01 Throat I Exhaust
Ii
i
.4 of of nozzle
It
.6 nozzle exit pressure static
L
.8 ratio pressure
_
1.0 with to axial inlet distance total in nozzle pressure.
.2
Fraction of axial distance FIGURE for 921.Variation constant ratios
276
SUPE_tSONIC
TURBINES
REFERENCES
1. 2.
3.
SHAPIRO,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
ASCHER H. : The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. vol. 1. Ronald Press Co., 1953. LIEPMANN, HANS WOLFGANG; AND PUCKETT, ALLEN E.: Introduction to Aerodynamics of a Compressible Fluid. John Wiley & Sons, 1947. VANCO, MICHAEL R. ; AND GOLDMAN, LOUIS J. ; Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional Supersonic Nozzle with SharpEdged Throat. NASA TM X1502, 1968. GOLDMAN, Louis J.; AND VANCO, MICHAEL R.; Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional SharpEdgedTh_roat Supersonic Nozzle with BoundaryLayer Correction. NASA TM X2343, 1971. BOXER, EMANUEL; STERRETT, JAMES R. ;AND WLODARSKI, JOHN; Application of Supersonic VortexFlow Theory to the Design of Supersonic Impulse Compressoror TurbineBlade Sections. NACA RM L52B06, 1952. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J. ; AND SCULLIN, VINCENT J. : Analytical Investigation of Supersonic Turbomachinery Blading. IComputer Program for Blading Design. NASA TN D4421, 1968. STRATFORD, B. S. ; AND SANSOME, G. E. : Theory and Tunnel Tests of Rotor Blades for Supersonic Turbines. R&M 3275, Aero. Res. Council, 1962. HORLOCK, J. H. : Axial Flow Turbines: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. Butterworths, 1966. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J.; AND SCULLIN, VINCENT J.: Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional Supersonic Turbine Rotor Blades with BoundaryLayer Correction. NASA TM X2434, 1971. MOFFITT, THOMAS P.: Design and Experimental Investigation of a SingleStage Turbine with a Rotor Entering Relative Mach Number of 2. NACA RM E58F20a, 1958. STABE, ROY G.; KLINE, JOHN F.; AND GIBBS, EDWARD H.; ColdAir Performance Evaluation of a ScaleModel Fuel Pump Turbine for the M1 HydrogenOxygen Rocket Engine. NASA TN D3819, 1967. MOFFITT, THOMAS P. ; AND KLAG, FREDERICK W., JR. : Experimental Investigation of Partialand FullAdmission Characteristics of a TwoStage VelocityCompounded Turbine. NASA TM X410, 1960. JOHNSON, I. H.; AND DRANSFIELD, D. C.: The Test Performance of Highly Loaded Turbine Stages Designed for High Pressure Ratio. R&M 3242, Aero. Res. Council, 1962. GOLDMAN, LOUIS J.: Experimental Investigation of a Low Reynolds Number PartialAdmission SingleStage Supersonic Turbine. NASA TM X2382, 1971.
12.
13.
14.
277
TURBINE
I)E_IGN
AND
APPLICATIO_
SYMBOLS A
a
flow speed Mach critical
area
along
Mach m/sec;
wave, ft/sec 1;32.17 (V/Vc,)
mS; ft _ (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec _)
of sound, number velocity pressure, of ft/sec m/sec; velocity of ft/sec rate, deg
g M M* P
conversion
constant, ratio velocity ft/sec (Mvelocity kg/sec;
absolute component m/sec;
N/m_;
lb/ft _ parallel to initial flow direction,
V
velocity, critical component m/sec; mass Mach flow
1), m/sec; normal lb/sec at constant direction, deg deg
ft/sec to initial flow direction,
V
Y)
angle,
ratio of specific heat constant volume small 0
p P
pressure deg
to specific
heat
at
change angle,
in flow deg angle, angle,
flow
PrandtlMeyer density, PrandtlMeyer
kg/m 3; lb/ft 3
Subscripts
e_
rotor rotor lower normal
exit inlet surface of blade with respect to Mach wave
in l
ITI4IZ
maximum direction relative isentropic tangential upper direction with respect to Mach wave surface of blade
7" 8
t
278
CHAPTER 10
Radiallnflow Turbines
ByHarold .Rohlik E
Radialinflow space power turbines systems, are suitable for many where applications compact in aircraft, power sources
and other
systems
are required. Turbines of this type have a number of desirable characteristics such as high efficiency, ease of manufacture, sturdy construction, and reliability. turbines and cover In this are design performance 101 enters of the and ratio 8. narrow. of blade have shows the flow In There in the most chapter, compared geometry is a substantial literature. of the those the with and areas design of amount References and an turbine blade of information on radialinflow in nature machines. its features addition, design Figure The turning long the as flow 1 to 6 are general performance axialflow of these and In offturbine. and is described, design,
radialinflow performance,
are discussed. a section stator takes height rotor ratios axial place through and the varies stator 0.1 to 0.5. plenum, usually pipe, inlet case or a volute surrounds while the (shown the volute in a typical leaves blade from blades, radialinflow the rotor which about on the turbine. This is is relatively which hand, 1 to as much
radially turbines, to chord, and from
axially. ratio,
in the rotor
passage,
aspect
Radial
turbine aspect
other
generally A torus, fig. 102), inlet. by The
which which torus
is a doughnutshaped is a spiral is fed inlet by pipe. flow In passage, the a radial
stator is fed (tan
a tangential
of a volute,
a prewhirl
gential component the stator blade camber. radialinflow
of velocity) is imparted to the gas before it enters row. This results in stator blades with little or no from figure 102 that the than overall the diameter rotor of a is considerably larger diameter. 279
It can be seen turbine
TURBINE
DE, SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Station :, Stator blade 0 1 2
Rotor blaue
FIGURE
101.Schematic
cross
section
of radialinflow
turbine.
At little usually
the or
rotor no straight
inlet, tangential and and with
where radial.
the
flow
velocity (W_=O),
relative the section
to the rotor of the
rotor blades
has are blade
component This tangential of the more loaded, square speed. to the turn whirl. blading to stators splitter, are used since
straight
rotor rV,
generally here where the velocity Figure shows solidity generally turbine blades 280
is rather
highly the blade curved or no
angular component
momentum of absolute W_=O, At the stator the
(where
r is the radius, varies blades has 103 that (ratio used shown in the U is the are
V_ is the
velocity) V,,=U_r, rotor exit,
radius. flow,
(Since rV,,a:r2.) so that The
Therefore,
exit
absolute shape the that seen. the low are The full
little prewhirl of in here rotor.
shows
clearly. inlet low and partial, radial
blade Also, ratio be
is developed chord the has They spacing)
in the of radial or in the
volute. aspect can of the blades part
turbines
between
flow passage
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINES
Stator
/ Rotor /
Volute
C72323
FIGURE
102.Radialinflow
turbine.
to reduce the the "BLADE The that The radius, associated turbine overall diagram T" tile fig. only is due and for line p_' 28 in expansion an
blade loading. Splitter DESIGN" section. process turbine in a radial because and is be in chapter This the can which Tile If the the this This 104, turbine. expansion. be only because For rotor removed losses 2), losses. the use
blades turbine
are
discussed
further
in from
differs decrease
appreciably in with eq. for level through total turbine line p[' (as and the pressure the (231) the for
axial total
of the pressure
radius
change 1 (see
rotor. and radial a given rotor p" are in
relative as was
temperature
decreasing
discussed it permits
2 of volume a distinct of a lower seen change in were below turbine, the the from the
discussion). because expansion. in figure the the
advantage velocity the
temperatureentropy the temperature (T['=T_'), shown p_" is due 104,
shows change
expansion in relative total axial the between p_'
of a radialinflow _hown
corresponding would
relative an
slightly radial from and
of ch.
difference
to rotor to both
as shown because
in figure
the p;' line is farther
p't' line change
difference Therefore, 281
in radius.
TURBINR
I)F__SIGN AND
APPLICATION
Rotor splitter blade
Stator blade.
Rotor full blade
/ / t
/
C?1863
. _gak
FIGURE 103.Turbine
stator
and rotor
assembly.
expansion exit the static rotor
from
the
same
rotor
inlet
total a higher than in
pressure relative a radial
p'_'
to
the
same W= at (larger fluid of
pressure exit in distance losses gas in
p_ would require an axial turbine between a rotor velocity, velocity increase the
velocity turbine Since the
vertical friction
p_" and p= for an axial approximately advantage diagram inlet 0.5. energy as high if
turbine.) with level figure
square of velocity 105 for
the relative is clear. A
of a lower is shown in
radialturbine
a
turbine with prewhirl in the (exitmean to inlet) of about speeds diagram, U_ and the Us is very relative three kinetic times
volute and a mean diameter The difference between the For a typical W] leaving zeroexitwhirl the UI, rotor
ratio blade be axial
evident.
velocity would
approximately turbine. 282
U2 equaled
as in an
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINES
i
T1
tl
TI
2gJCp
E
F
2gJcp
Entropy FIGURE 104.Temperatureentropy diagram for a radialinflow turbine rotor.
V 0
W]
W2 /
p2.
U2 FIGURE 105.Velocity diagram.
283
TURBINE
DE'SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
OVERALL
DESIGN Optimum
CHARACTERISTICS Incidence rotor inlet, the inlet flow angle incidence leading a radial the in the "slip" rotor unloading fll
Since shown angle edge. blade. factor of the passage. ferentially gradient the show point that
the
blades provides angle optimum near uniform.
are radial 105 has is an a value incidence optimum
at the incidence flow
in figure This This blade
angle.
There at the
is some rotorblade as 40 ° with to the flow with blades,
conditions condition and
sometimes
as high is associated by the rotor
is analogous of mass a large of this the
in a centrifugal the the the Before across that when the
compressor, tip flow Blade passage, and the is influenced loading
distribution then produces
it is circumstaticpressure shift toward flow condition stagnation is shown point tend analytiIt has to exces
so that pattern
there
is a streamline locates _1. This flow at the so, the flow edge, been and leading U1 has inlet pattern
suction
surface. there
Streamfunction is an radial. "optimum" Note this
flow analyses properly angle that were near the not the
streamline in figure the suction
schematically is approximately separate sive cally loss. and from The
106. If
stagnation would causing studied turbines.
surface in both
relation
between
V_._ and
experimentally
compressors
Pressure surface
;uction urface
/
FIGURE
106.Streamline
flow at rotor
inlet.
284
RADIAIrINFLOW
TURBINES
been number
determined ratio
that depends
there on expressed
is an optimum blade as V_"=12 loading
ratio and,
of V,. 1 to consequently,
U_. This blade
optimum
and is often
U,
n
(total of full blades plus
(101) splitter
where blades).
n is the
number
of
blades
Effect The vol.
of Specific speed by the
Speed
on Design
Geometry and
and
Performance in ch. 2 of
specific
parameter equation
N_ (derived
discussed
1) is given
NQ21/2
N_where N rotative volume ideal
H314
(102)
Q2
H
speed, rad/sec; rev/min flow rate at turbine exit, work, or head, based on inlet
m3/sec; and
ft3/sec exit total pressures, J/kg;
(ft) (lbf)/lbm In size its most and commonly truly be used form as a (with shape the stated speed parameter speed U.S. that customary of expresses may be
units), geometric
it is not may and by
dimensionless.
Specific similarity.
is independent
considered effect
velocitydiagram study.The substituting for N, N
Analytical examined
of specific Q2, and
on efficiency
H as follows: (103) (104) (105)
=
KUI
Q2=_D2h2V2 H=Vj2 where K D1 D2 h2 V2 dimensional rotor inlet rotorexit rotorexit rotorexit m/sec; ideal ratio, g conversion jet constant, (tip) passage fluid ft/sec speed, m/sec; based ft/sec 1 ; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) on inlettotal to exitstatic diameter, height, velocity meansection 2_ rad/rev; m; ft m; ft direction), diameter, m; ft (assumed to be in axial 60 sec/min (hh'_
v,
pressure
constant,
285
TURBINE,
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Ah_
ideal
work
based
on inlettotal
and
exittotal
pressures,
J/kg;
Btu/lb Ahid ideal work based on inlettotal and exitstatic pressures, J/kg;
Btu/lb These substitutions for specific and some manipulation result in the following
expression
speed:
y.
N,=(Constant)\_7]u The terms of equation (106) are \_j/ related \U], \D,] \D.]2 (106) characto velocitydiagram value ratio teristics by an number speed. The properties, were shroud kinetic exit flow those analysis caused The of reference by the number 7 related stator on and the losses variations. rotor back blades to the 12 that plus zero would splitter) Other exit whirl limit angle. a minimum avoid of the was to meandiameter The losses layers, rotor, varied equation (107) separation. in equa(V_,2:0), of 0.4 for assumptions and with flow bladetothe exit statorand overall geometry. Any specific speed infinite number of combinations of these of these combinations optimum were combinations examined over can be achieved terms. A large in reference of specific range
analytically a wide
7 to determine
neglecting clearance, energy. angle
hubtoshroud windage
considered
boundary
of rotor according
al (in degrees) n:0.03
(a_57)_T number (full incidence and
in order This tion was
to provide the total
the
minimum the reaction rotor
number
of blades
used
(101)
to establish a favorable limit
included a maximum (nh/D,)2. The examined number height diameter Vc,)_. For fell seen region are large values. 286 set geometric The the
(W_:2W_), Dt.2/D_,
of 0.7 for
effects by of
of geometry calculating combinations D,.2/D_ of values areas statorexit extreme For in static dashed any curve at
and the of
velocitydiagram previously mentioned flow and
characteristics losses a_, velocity against Statorexit which boundaries and speed, the falls by for angle rotorexit
were a large
statorexit ratio hdD_, then in figure angle. of input value rotortip study,
statorbladeto rotorinlet ratios (U/ speed. points angle a small region assumed can be a static for some is
to rotorinletdiameter ratio static shaded a prime each the limits. The range efficiency used shown
three was
critical plotted 107. The
specific calculated flow into the there computed of each
in the
all of the
in the to be for by
determinant flow values given is the
of efficiency, variables of specific
variation
efficiency,
as much envelope
as 45 to 50 points of all
RADIALINFLOW 1.0 Statorexit flow angle, aI , deg
TURBINE_
Total efficiency corresponding to curve of maximum static efficiency
.9 _
8
of maximum static efficiency
\
.7 8
\ \ \ \
.5
.4
.3
._
0 .2
[
.4
I
.6
[
.8
t
1.0
I
1.2
I
1.4
Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless
l
0
I
20
I
40
I
60
I
80
I
lO0
l
120
I
140
I
160
I
180
Specific speed, N (ft314)',lbm314)/(min)(secll2}(Ibf3t4) s, FIGURE
107.Effect
of
specific speed on computed (Data from ref. 7.)
designpoint
efficiency.
efficiencies, total represent associated primary mum the ure Most functions 108 specific specific height creases
and
the The the and
solid
curve
above values because used however, velocity presented
it represents of efficiency there in the was ratios are study
the many
corresponding necessarily assumptions 7. The the optialong ratios as Figat low
efficiencies. with concern geometry of the envelope shows speed speed. with
computed values, loss model study, ratios. and are
do not
achievable
of reference
of that velocity The speed the 109 decreases geometric
to determine vary continuously of 108 angle area) ratio specific these
curves. of specific that and Figure increasing
optimum optimum (opens shows
values statorexit to a larger that
of some in figures flow flow
to 1011. is large with speed
increasing and inat 287
the optimum at low until
of statorblade is reached
to rotorinlet
diameter specific
is small speed
a maximum
TURBINE
DESIGN 90XD
AND
APPLICATI.ON
_" 8O
¢D
_o 70
60
5O .2
I
.4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless
l
20
1
40
I
60
I
80
I
i00
I
120
t
la3
1
160
I
180
Specific speed, Ns, (ft3J41(Ibrn3/4)/IminJlseclJ2jIIbf3/4_ FIGUaE 108.Effect of specific speed on optimum (Data from ref. 7.) statorexit angle.
Blade critical velocity ratio at rotor inlet, • 20 (UtVcr)l 0.20
O
oA XZ L_"
_z
u_ C 0 0
.08
a:
.04
0 .2
I .4
I .6
1 .8
[ 1.0
l '1.2
I
l.a
Specific speed, Ns, dimensionless
I
20
I
40
I
60
I
80
I
l O0
I
120
J
140
I
160
I
180
Specific speed, Ns, (ft3/d_tlbm314t/Imin!lseclIZJ_lbf3i4_ FIGURE 109.Effect of specific speed blade height to rotorinlet and blade diameter. speed on optimum (Data from rcf. ratio 7.) of stator
288
RADIALINFLOW .l
E 7
TURBINES
.6
O
.4 ¢_

.o
ff
.2 0 .2 .4 Specific
I
.6
I
.8
I
1.0
I
1.2
I
1.4
speed, Ns, dimensionless
I,
0
I
20
I
40
I
60
1
80
I
100
I
!20
I
140
I
160
I
180
Specific speed, Ns, (ftJld}(Ibm3/41/(min_secll2)ilbf314_
FIGURE
1010.Effect diameter
of
specific
speed diameter.
on
optimum (Data from
ratio ref.
of 7.)
rotorexit
tip
to rotorinlet
14

L
0
I
20
FIGURE
10I
1.Effect
of specific (Data
speed from
on optimum ref. 7.)
bladejet
speed
ratio.
289
TURBINE.
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
some in the mum blade Figure
value
of specific The and higher to shows
speed only velocity velocity that
depending that levels diameter the optimum ratios
on the
overall
level has on
of velocity the optiwhere speed. tip diam109,
turbine. geometric that 1010 height
effect
compressibility is also result at shown any in smaller given ratio
in figure ratios
it is seen
of stator
rotorinlet
specific
of rotorexit
[]
qb_
(a)
Specific
speed,
0.23;
30
(ft
3/_)(lbm angle, angle,
3z_)/(min)(sec 81 °. 3/_)/(min)(sec 75 ° . 3/4)/(min)(sec 60 ° . of ref. 7.) maximum
_tZ)(lbf
3/_). Statorexit
flow (b) (c) Specific Specific speed, speed, 0.54; 1.16; 70 150 (ft flow
3/_)(lbm
l!Z)(lbf l/2)(lbf
air). 3/4).
Statorexit Statorexit
(ft 3/_)(lbm flow angle, turbines from
FmURE
1012.Sections
of
radial (Data
static
efficiency.
290
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINE_
eter creases
to
rotorinlet rapidly with
diameter increasing is reached. speed values ratio to the variation shown in figure that
is It
small specific is seen UI/Vj of static
at
low
specific until figure with the
speed imposed 1011
and that
inlimit the in a for
speed from varies 108
of D,2/DI_0.7 optimum manner The the design bladeiet similar optimum are
specific can with an the
speed be used
efficiency. to 1011 of turbines values is largely indicated static speed viscous optimum speed. of flow
in figures 1012
of radialinflow shown show study along 1013 speed,
turbines. specific
Sections for three speed 7 also
geometries These capacity. The different shown values
of specific index
sections design losses in figure of specific
of reference the for curve the the
variation efficiency. covered. losses
in the This For are is low very
of maximum range of specific and rotor
stator
.2
1.0

.9p
¢x3
to
¥
Loss
c <19
Stator Rotor
:>
Clearance Windage Exit velocity
c_
.4
I
.2 Specific
,
n
_
1 , 1,1,1
.4 .6 .8 1
I
2
speed, Ns, dimensionless
1
_0 Specific
J
50
I
80
1
100
J
200
speed. Ns, l[t3_'4Jllhm3/d_/fi:lin_secll2_ltbf3'4_
FIGURE
1013.Loss
distribution (Data
along from
curve ref. 7.)
of
maximum
static
efficiency.
291
TURBINE,
DESIGN
AND
APPI_CATION
large
because loss large depends at low
of
the
high
ratio of the the
of wall the passage diameter
area
to flow The rotative flow
area.
Also,
the is loss, a
clearance relatively which large
is large fraction on specific
because
bladetoshroud height. and low
clearance windage speed, rate. As
primarily speed
is also specific
because
of the
speed increases, loss all decrease kineticenergy speed.
the stator because loss becomes
and rotor losses, of the increased predominant
clearance loss, and windage flow and area. The exit at high values of specific
C/I159 {a) ib_
C69q816
C?03533 to)
(a)
Design
rotor. (c) Cutback used
(b) rotor. in
Rotor
with
exducer
extension.
FIGURE
1014.Rotor
configurations
specificspeed
study
of reference
8.
292
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINE_
Experimental effect (ref. of of specific 8) to accept blades and for area throat the the
study.In speed a series different reduced operation. area rotor from throat area on
order turbine of stator blade These area operation
to blade
determine rows The and was of the with
experimentally a turbine was fitted cut used This speed. extension, and for internal 13 back to different was also were design
the modified numbers with for vary area an inthe and the 1014 and cut velocity
efficiency,
angles.
rotor
extension creased stator to vary turbine shows back.
modifications from
20 to 144 percent over a large with range the test 8.
throat
53 to 137 percent. of specific reducedarea results,
allowed Figure
to be operated rotor are area Details of the
as designed, given was and rotor
geometry, in reference determined area. Figure
calculations Performance of stator
experimentally 1 015 shows
combinations of the
the
envelopes
1.00
• 9O
.8o
.2
/,_/'" . 7O
_
¢_
WithConfigu ration design rotor With rotor extension With cutback rotor
I,
.6O • 9C
[
1
[
[
L
L
.8_
t'oJ o
• 7{3
1
.2 .3
l
.4
l
.5
1
.6
1
.7
I
.g
I
.9
Specific speed, Ns, dirnensi_nless
t
20
t
30
I
40
I
.50
l
I
I
1
I
I
1lO
60 70 80 90 lO0 t3/4 )_lbm3/4)/trnin)[sec t/2 )(Ibf 3/4) Specific speed, Ns, _f variation of efficiency from ref. 8.) with
FIGURE
1015.Experimental
specific
speed.
(Data
293
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
designspeed efficiency as well as the overall androtor ratio at measured combination design for speed. specific
curves envelope was Note speeds
obtained curve. that from
with each rotor configuration, Specific speed for each statorby to varying 0.80 (48 overall over to pressure 0.90 103 were (ft 3/4) efficiencies
varied
simply total 0.37
(lbm314)/(min)(seO when the ratio design in the (min) The design speeds) considerably turbine stators. of nearly the parallel for leakage. might In this three, ratio. specific (seC/2)
a)(lbf3/4)). of stator throat static range speed
Maximum efficiencies area to rotor throat efficiencies 0.4 of about to 0.5 (51
were obtained area was near the were measured (ft 3/4) (lbm31_)/
Maximum (lbf3/4)). of used design,
0.90 to 65
of about
investigation could and, be off even
reference a variety the still yield the efficiency stator
8 showed distribution high volume blade
that of
a
particular (different velocities
basic specific is a radial variable
for though
of applications efficiency. flow row rate over
internal Further,
be used with
to advantage total
in applications remaining
requiring varied 0.90. by the
investigation, of the
a factor potential
In addition,
endwalls
minimize
Effect Clearance avoid contact to minimized between during avoid
of BladetoShroud the loss blade and of work and the due blade was to
Clearance shroud flow must bypassing The losses the be adequate but it must the blades, to be
speed
thermal
transients,
generation of turbulence, and due to bladetoshroud clearance previously figure 1013, as determined discussed the specificspeed
unloading. one of the analysis. For
efficiency loss included in the losses shown clearance rotorexit in
clearance loss was based on an average from constant values of rotorinlet and ratios. clearance turbine which of reference Increasing at 9. The shows the exit the rotor were effects clearance
clearancetodiameter The the are effects exit
of bladetoshroud on radialinflow study 1016, in the in figure
inlet
and studies
at
rotor presented
efficiency results
determined of both causes inlet a
experimentally clearance and
of these
exit
clearance.
significantly greater loss in turbine efficiency than increase in inlet clearance. It is the exit clearance the Since design clearance. of passage each 294 percent fraction it flow of the is the turning With height), increase flow can that stator is fully that turned produces even with to the the
does a comparable that determines exit rotor blade inlet large angle. whirl, inlet
turbine
be achieved inlet was and exit
a relatively (in loss terms
equal
clearances a 1percent
of percent for
there
about
in efficiency
in clearance.
RADIALINFLOW Exit clearance, percent of passageheight v 0.25 .92 o 3
\ __ A
TURBINE6
4
"_E
0
D
7
\ .E "4
1'
_"'b_.
\ /
"<
1 Equal percent, exit and inlet clearance
8
i 0
L.
_ I
]
4 8 12 16 20 24 Inlet clearance, percent of passageheight of inlet and exit clearances from ref. 9.) on total
] 28
FIGURE
1016.Effects
efficiency.
(Data
An inflow exit rotorexit absolute
axialflow turbine passage
turbine would have than of the (since be one
with would
the the
same relative
flow
conditions turbine. would is largely to have with the result
as a radialof rotorThe a function same lower advantage for the annulus kineticof a same larger of in a larger
a larger axialflow required
clearance
(percent
height) diameter
radialinflow turbine clearance (in order along
clearance and This may
diameter) area).
a smaller previously turbine
passage of the
height reasons,
energy level radialinflow application.
discussed, over a small
for the efficiency axialflow turbine
BLADE The velocity for bine part size curves ratios and (figs. turbine shape, design 108 to speed problem. as well problem the as the involves best
DESIGN relating useful They design the discussed and can turbine be used velocity examination rotor blade in chapter geometry design to determine diagram. The profiles. 5 (vol. of internal and studies turnext flow The 2) are
1011) are
to specific
in preliminary
a particular of any and
in order methods used
to determine computer
stator
programs
for this purpose. Internal Flow Analysis design relatively chord and is usually because is relatively little the specified small straightlong because number 295
Stator.Stator forward. chords, large blade Typically, and parallel profiles
blade the
aerodynamic blades have A long
camber,
endwalls. are easier
to machine
TURBINE,
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
of blades lower serve cost.
(long Also, with
chord long the
means chords added
large for the endwall
spacing shroud. area
for
a given
solidity) the stator of
means blades penalty
are desirable
because The (over that
as structural
supports
aerodynamic
associated
shortchord
Pressure
.9
.... Freestream velocity
Suction
Pressure su rface
I
{b_
t
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 Meridional distance,imensionless d
(a) (b) FIGURE l()17.Stator
Blades Surface
and
passage.
velocities. with surfacevelocity distributions.
blades
296
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINE6
blades)
is small
because conditions.
of the high
reaction
and
the resultant
favorable
boundarylayer
A twodimensional of the described solutions. rate, a and surface rate solidity, fluid complete parallel Input in reference properties specification of local blade
flow
analysis
may
be used The
for
the
stator and
because method transonic flow and blade
or nearparallel information and of
endwalls. for the
streamfunction subsonic program outlet The includes flow and
10 provides conditions, blade
satisfactory computer inlet geometry. trials of obtained and
angles, magnitude
calculated with pressure
velocities
are examined decelerations. number, and distributions
for smooth Successive distribution are
acceleration are made blade for the
varying until and
curvature
satisfactory velocity suction surfaces. Figure radialinflow prewhirl. shown both used turning. open angle if the more in The figure The the 1017(a) turbine
shows in
the which
stator the
blade flow for flow row surface value a near
and entering small the can for the can the flow
passage the
profiles stator velocities at continuously
for has are the
a no
calculated 1017(b). leading whether suction edge, turning before more cross than
suctionand Except edge, the the the the blade velocities pressure input than by the trailing the
pressuresurface accelerates
deceleration trailing accomplish edge the curves
pressuresurface surfaces. If at the specifies curves turning to determine trailing
on may remain be design flow
calculated and
velocity provide. blades angle.
freestream will
exit
blades edge, input
Conversely, provide
is specified of rotor blading computer various which along that in figure of blades,
Rotor.The than of the that of (decelerations) design. for number This turbines, suitable contour, curvature. inflow
design stator The screening approach, uses
blading because because combinations blade was
is appreciably of adverse of the
more pressure
difficult gradients
encountered
and
threedimensionality 11 is particularly contour, and hub blade
program
of reference thickness developed
of shroud distribution, specifically with method,
for radialintegration straight lines in the meridi
the
velocitygradient
of directional derivatives (called quasiorthogonals) onal plane. orthogonals of velocities then calculated based is shown and
fixed arbitrarily located intersect all streamlines section 1018. is obtained. in the These with several of A complete program flow bladesurface primarily severe on the decelerations.
A meridionalplane streamlines approximately on irrotational blades. between the various and
these velocities
quasisolution are an
meridional of reference and a linear velocities basis
Bladesurface
11 with velocity are
equation distribution to evaluate smooth
absolute
used
geometries avoiding
of obtaining
accelerations
297
TURBINE,
DE:SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
1.8_ 1.6 Shroud contour
Quasi orthogonal
oa
cfi
[:Z
,,,,_
ela CE
1
.2
I
1
I
1
l.O
.4 .6 .8 Axial distance, dimensionless section through radialinflow
FIGURE
1018.Meridional
turbine.
Bladesurface ionalplane sections of "In figure
velocity
distributions,
as calculated
from
the
meridshroud 1019. same
solution of reference 11, at a radialinflow turbine rotor 1020 are shown the velocity
the hub, mean, and are shown in figure distributions the for the
blading, but as calculated by 10. The surface velocities solution agree fairly well with over most of the blade. It can difference The linear does method between velocity not solutions variation reflect the
the streamfunction calculated from
method of reference meridionalplane solution appreciable edges. solution occurs in the blade meridional
those of the streamfunction be seen, however, that an at in the the leading that and used meridionalplane actually
occurs blade
trailing
unloading
these regions. surface velocities 298
The streamfunction in a more rigorous
method determines manner. However, the
RADIAIrINFLOW 1.0 .8 _ .6 .4 .2 O_ Suction surface
TURBINES
....
_ I F I
t
I
(al
I
....
1 t 1 I
Freestream velocity
I
,... 1.0 .8 o" .6 .4 '_ .2
w
h
•"_
.2
.4
1
I
fb)
I
].0
.6
.2_ 0
.2
....
____
.4 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 l.O Meridional distance, dimensionless (c) (a) Shroud section. (50percent streamline) (c) Hub section, surfacevelocity solution. 1.2
t 1.4
(b)
Mean
section. merEdionalplane
FIGURE 1019.Rotorblade
distributions.from
plane program (ref. 11) is easier and quicker to use than the streamfunction program (ref. 10) and, thus, provides a better means for rapid screening of the many design variables. A lesser difference occurs in the intermediate portion of the blade passage. In the meridional299
TURBINE
I_EISIGN
AND
APPD£CATION
1.0 I .8 .6 4 .2 0 1.0 d
3
Suction _Mean / _
surface _ ""_/ t teestream velocity
.... 1_1
t
1
_3b
J
__I__
I
.8 .6 .4
%
_2 C)
.2 0 q)J 1.0 .8 .6 .4 .2 0
1
__() .2 .4 Meridional .6 distance, _c_
1
._q
L
].0
I _1
1.2 1,4
dif]Te!_%lc,qle% r
(a) (b) Mean
Shroud
section. streamline) section. distributions from streamfunction section.
(50percent (c) Hub
FZGURE
1020.Rotorblade
surfacevelocity solution.
plane
analysis,
the
flow
is assumed
to be the
circumferentially
uniform,
and the mean stream mean blade surface. blade blades of blade Figures in the along than Also, surface the the elsewhere shroud considered variations that loading, 1019 flow path. deviates then, and
surface between The streamfunction and the defines mean somewhat illustrate the blade is more lower of high critical from
blades follows the prescribed solution considers bladetostream surface The between surface. distribution
in the flow
a mean blade
is also 1020 and blade of the the most
different. the loading, heavily flow. region hubtoshroud as well loaded and the and Therefore, as the along shorter the variations variations the shroud is flow path. shroud most
velocities The because
solidity
is a region
generally 300
is examined
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINE6
carefully loading siderably is nearly previously in that 50 next percent section.
for near axial. section. higher
favorable the rotor than The This The rear the high rapid high the part
bladesurface inlet, where at in near hub the near the loading loading change loading use of the from blade
velocity flow the inlet the surface the long rotor
distributions. radial, where primarily (rVu be reduced discussed a very path hub by about and section. low the In in exit, the _
The is conflow r _) by the blade great this to the
is nearly is due could are shows flow
discussed through This results
angular which
momentum inlet
of splitters, from inlet spacing Splitter
loading. decrease particular
principally the
in blade turbine,
spacing
to exit
at the
decreased Blades loading If this surface, blades
75 percent.
As inlet, and/or by the
indicated where large the by partial Such called loading area. blades
previously, flow negative blades partial splitter results However, to offset therefore, of splitter in the was built
the velocities on between blades blades. in there the
blade inward. the are
is highest loading it can in the 103 blades additional unit use for the
at
the
rotor surface
is radially
is excessive, be and are losses surface reduced part used, per area of the unit of will, are com
as indicated using rotor.
calculated suction the When is now full shown
pressure radial
decelerations
in figure splitter the the
monly reduced of surface the must on The splitter
decreased reduced
boundarylayer loss per
splitter balance, effect
area.
A judgment blades
be made,
as to whether blades study and on turbine
of splitter was blades
be beneficial. performance 12. A turbine The splitter examined with were half When on and splitter and the by the a then of reference tested. designed
experimentally blades
removed, thereby doubling the blade loading of the rotor. Channel velocities were calculated the from large splitters side the hub increase were of in the almost location. performance ratio and the when showed nosplitter the surface conditions favorable splitters area. data very (ref. little cases. were This near rotor margin the reaction of 12) The result indicate rotor in tolerance taken loss and over removed, blade to the calculated indicated meridional upstream of negative pressure
in the upstream for both cases. velocities eddy streamline, been the
a reverseflow 50percent what had
extending
loading
trailingedge Turbine pressure splitter increase effect to poor velocity vide an
a range due apparently previously edge.
of speed between to the offset
difference removed
in efficiency increase was the
loading discussed
l l_e reduced flow and
of bladeshroud
clearance
an insensitivity leading toward a radialinflow such
of efficiency The low inlet proturbine
appreciable
conditions. 301
TURBINE,
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
OFFDESIGN The performance characteristics different from those of axialflow all rotor speeds, ratio turbine, 1021. the rotor even inward. increases variation in this an section, axialflow the however, With must with with Therefore, speed for turbine. flow rate this be pressure inflow in within radially the ratio The later for figure (inlettotal
PERFORMANCE of radialinflow turbines turbines. In an axialflow becomes is only the true by is some of the zero only when is one. speed, force pressure This speed is very is slightly decrease are slightly turbine at the In on turbine a radialthe fluid across pressure force. to that speed rapid in in illustrated
to exitstaticpressure) at zero a pressure small increasing 1021). rotation, balanced there because with The a radialinflow efficiency point (see fig. centrifugal
as illustrated directed ratio
gradient zeroflow centrifugal ratio, similar more are be useful operating used may not from the to
turbine
no flow
of efficiency
bladejet turbine
as bladejet
ratio varies from the peakefficiency the case of the radialinflow turbine. Prediction many studies before design or in to offdesign design situations. to examine any study hardware the calculation studies. In use modifications techniques Estimated start where of methods the for offdesign performance transients They system variable
performance data various also be The different can can and
valuable in system conditions help be in that geometry
is built.
select these used is
components geometry.
matched
approach
is somewhat offdesign
calculations,
.8
Zero speeO
.6
e_
o
¥
N E Z
4
.2
0 1,O
/
[
1,2 Inlettotal
I
1.4
1
1,6
[
1.8 ralio characteristics.
I
2.0
to e×it_staticq)res,_Jre turbine flow
FIGURE
1021.Radialinflow
302
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINE6
fixed, rotor
the depend
workingfluid speed on loss
inlet coefficients
conditions ratio. Losses selected
are fixed, calculated to force
and
the
variables stator and between
are blade
and pressure
for the agreement
calculated and experimental or design values at point. Additional losses considered for subsonic incidence developed erence reference from calculated comparing mation perimental static in figure 13, Joss and at 14. a modified this in figure variation 1023. The efficiencies the the exit kineticenergy offdesign Lewis 1022 of over shows flow against and this a range Research computer 1023 computer of speed performance. an accurate rate with bladejet efficiencies loss. performance Center A radialinflow and turbine NASA the Figures version with
the design operating flows are the rotor calculation is described is presented obtained presenting ratio flow of the Total are within and estiexand shown 1 perby pressure mass ratio. ratio results method in refin
associated
program illustrate program and The
performance 1022 plotted
experimental of mass calculated
representation pressure speed
are generally
Percent of design speed
Experimental
Ii"
70 90 100 110 ."30 50 " 110 Design
120
¢
Calculated _"
110
B
100
90
8O 1.4
I
1.5 1,6
I
1.7
I
1,8
I
1.9
I
2,0
I
2.1
Ratio of inlet total pressure to exit static pressure FIGURE 1022.Comparison of calculated and design operation. experimental flow rates for off
303
TURBINE
DE'SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
cent lations testing
and
at most are
2 percent system
of
the to
experimental provide a prior
values. valuable
The tool
calcuin the and
sufficiently of overall various
accurate components.
examination of the
performance
to fabrication
1.00

• 90 
.__I__
110
•80 
90 _ _. vu,,
Percent of design speed 5O
c o_
.70 
¢1)
"5
•60 
Experimental
70 90 100 ,_ llO
• 50 
Calculated
Design ! •30
I
1
I
I
1
JJ
I
•90 
, 110
• 80 
100 _'
.70 o_
,60 
•50 
,40
_ 30 • 30 ,, .2
I
I
.4
I
.5
] ..... I
.6 .7
Desiqn
I
.8
J
.9
.3
Bladejet speed ratio, U]"V i FIGURE 1023.Comparison of calculated and design operation. experimental efficiencies for off
304
RAD_ALI"NF_A)W
TURBI_S
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
SAWYER,
JOHN W., ed.: Gas Publications, Inc., 1966.
Turbine
Engineering
Handbook.
Gas
Turbine
SHEPHERD, D. G.: Principles RODOERS, C. : Efficiency and Paper 660754, SAE, 1966.
LAGNEAU,
of Turbomachinery. Macmillan Co., 1956. Performance Characteristics of Radial Turbines. to the Study of Advanced Small Radial Mar. for Tur1970. Com
J. P.:
Contribution
bines. Int. Note 38, yon WOOD, HOMER J.: Current
Karman Institute of Fluid Technology of RadialInflow
Dynamics, Turbines
7.
8.
pressible Fluids. J. Eng. Power, vol. 85, no. 1, Jan. 1963, pp. 7283. HIETT, G. F. ; AND JOHNSON, I. H.: Experiments Concerning the Aerodynamic Performance of Inward Flow Radial Turbines. Paper 13 presented at the Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Convention, Inst. Mech. Eng., London, Apr. 1964. ROHLIK, HAROLD E.: Analytical Determination of Radial Inflow Turbine Design
KOFSKEY,
Geometry
MILTON
for
G.;
Maximum
AND NUSBAUM,
Efficiency.
WILLIAM
NASA
J.:
on Experimental D6605, 1972. 9.
FUTRAL,
Performance
of
HOLESKI,
a
RadialInflow
DONALD
TN D4384, 1968. Effects of Specific Speed Turbine. NASA TN
10.
SAMUEL M., JR.; AND of Varying the BladeShroud Turbine. NASA TN D5513, KATSANIS, THEODORE: Fortran
Clearance 1970. Program for Surface
in
a
E.: Experimental Results 6.02Inch RadialInflow Transonic NASA TN Velocities D5427,
Calculating
on a BladetoBlade 1969.
1 1. KATSANIS, THEODORE:
Stream
Use of
of a Turbomachine.
Flow Distribution TN D2546, 1964. 12.
FUTRAL,
in
the
Arbitrary Meridional
WASSERBAUER,
QuasiOrthogonals for Calculating Plane of a Turbomachine. NASA
CHARLES A.: Experimental Turbine With and
SAMUEL M., JR.; Performance Evaluation Without Splitter Blades.
AND
of a 4.59Inch RadialInflow NASA TN D7015, 1970.
CHARLES
13.
FUTRAL, SAMUEL M., JR.; AND WASSERBAUER, Performance Prediction with Experimental Inflow Turbine. NASA TN D2621, 1965.
TODD, CARROLL
Verification M.,
JR.:
A.: for
OffDesign a RadialIV Program Turbines.
14.
to Estimate NASA TN
A.; AND FUTRAL, the OffDesign D5059, 1969.
SAMUEL
Performance
of
A Fortran RadialInflow
305
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SYMBOLS
Cp
specific diameter, conversion ideal
heat
at constant
pressure, 1; 32.17 (lbm)
J/(kg)
(K) ; Btu/(lb) (see _) total
(°R)
D g H
m; ft constant, or head, (ft) (lbf)/lbm
(ft)/(lbf) and exit
work,
based
on inlet
pressures,
J/kg;
passage height, m; ft ideal work based on J/kg; Btu/lb ideal work based J K N J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, conversion rotative specific (lbP '4) total P number flow m; speed, jet ft of blades rate, constant, speed, speed, rad/sec; on
inlettotal inlettotal 1 ; 778 2r
and and
exitstatic exittotal
pressures, pressures,
(ft) (lb)/Btu 60 sec/min (ft a/4) (lbma/4)/(min) plus partial) (sec 1/_)
rad/rev; rev/min
N,
dimensionless; (full
absolute volume radius, absolute blade absolute ideal ratio, relative fluid
pressure,
N/m 2 ; lb/ft _ mS/see; K; ft/sec m/see; based ft/sec m/see; ft/sec measured measured from from meridional meridional plane, plane, ft/sec on inlettotalto exitstaticpressure ftS/sec °R
Q
r
T U V
temperature, m/see; velocity, speed, m/see; velocity,
Yj
W
Ot
absolute
flow flow
angle angle
0
deg fluid relative deg
Subscripts:
b'r
critical hub tip tangential at stator at stator at rotor
flow
condition
(sonic
velocity)
h t
U
0 1 2 Superscripts" ' " 306
component inlet exit exit or rotor inlet
absolute relative
total total
state state
CHAPTER 11
Turbine Cooling,
ByRaymond .Colladay S
The inlet necessity requirements. foil, bustor frequently integrity bled from for both airfoils discrete losses, efficiency. a minimum while the in the discharge of the cooling across trend towards higher to increase turbine chapter, "blade" enter of 1644 this gases excess turbine and around the compressor thrust blades, the refers the K and vanes, term first to the vane in this through or vane. in the the into overall cooling (2500 ° F). pressure cycle and rotor row In "vane" end refers airfoil. at peak order internal the This main cycle schemes to ratios walls and has turbineled to the life aircomthe air of the at in
temperatures of cooling In term
efficiency
to meet The hot
to a stator temperatures preserve
components is routed then the turbine very required. blade and is dumped
hostile
environment, passages gas stream results which
compressor
locations
inevitably
thermodynamic utilize
Consequently, of air are
effective
GENERAL ]n balance analysis prediction requires the flow, profile airfoil, the an any on can turbine the be which of the the heat location factor) cooling blade broken flux of of the (or meets up of the gas velocity design, vane,
DESCRIPTION one or end must wall) into from the metal make to a complete arrive at limit. parts: gas (1) stream. to energy a cooling The The This over turbulent heat 307
configuration
a given conceptually to the the blade
temperature three hot
understanding
boundarylayer from the distribution, leaving and
development laminar the
transition
potentialflow
temperature (or other
(pattern
combustor
TURBINE,
I_E,SIGN
AND
APPI._CATION
source). provide tions. balance, blade, to
(2) And, the
A steadystate map the (3) prediction heat through be
or of metal
transient of complex To blade
heatconduction for bladestress internal coolant closure convection from
analysis predicflow on the hot from
to paths
a detailed
temperatures maintain wall, the and
for convectioncooling entire conduction
calculations. transfer the treated
energy gas to blade
processconvection simultaneously. problem wall on blade
coolantmust
Let us for a moment oversimplify dimensional model of a turbineblade surface (see fig. 111). The heat flux product of a hotgasside difference between the pressed is the would let the as an effective adiabatic reach adiabatic if there heattransfer gas and the gas were wall
by considering a onethe suction or pressure can be expressed as a
to the
coefficient and the temperature wall. The gas temperature is exwhich (the For be the o) for convection temperature of this gas total the cooling surface
temperature, temperature no cooling).
or recovery
purposes
illustration, temperature. (111)
temperature q=he(Tg'Tw,
Therefore, where q hz heat flux, W/m_; Btu/(hr)(ft _) of hot gas, W/(m 2) (K); Btu/(hr)(ft _)
heattransfer (°R)
coefficient
Tg!
total temperature temperature
of hot gas, K; °R
T_.o
of wall outer surface,K; °R
TW,
0
Tw, i
FIOURE 111.Simplified
onedimensional
model.
308
TURBINE
CIOOLING
The
heat
removed
from
the
wall,
expressed
in the
same
manner, (112)
is
q=h_(T_._TJ) where
he
heattransfer (OR)
w, i
coefficient
of coolant,
W/(m
_) (K);
Btu/(hr)(ft
2)
temperature
of wall inner surface,K; °R of coolant, K; °R through k the wall is given by (113)
T' C The
total temperature temperature drop
q=where kw y 1 The As plate. number thermal coordinate wall second conductivity normal
dT k_ dy=[ (T_. ,T_.
,)
of wall, to wall
W/(m)(K); m; ft
Btu/(hr)(ft)(°R)
surface,
thickness, equality he be a
m; ft holds done only for constant by thermal design, the let for fiatplate conductivity. the flow heattransfer over a fiat Nusselt local
is frequently For Nu
in a firstorder boundary layer,
coefficient
approximated by
a correlation
turbulent is given
Nu,= where distance Re, Pr The Reynolds Prandtl Reynolds along number number number
__gx 0.0296Re_" __
8Prl/3
(114)
surface based
from
leading
edge z
of flat
plate,
m;
ft
on distance
is defined
as (115)
Re_ = pugx
la
where
P _tg _t
density, component viscosity, the Prandtl
kg/ma;
lb/ft 3 velocity lb/(ft) in x direction, (sec) as (116) m/sec; ft/sec
of hotgas (N) (sec)/mS; number
and
is defined
where 309
TURBINE,
])E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
K
C_,
dimensional specific an ideal to yield h =_ (0.0296)Pr heat gas,
constant, at
1; 3600
sec/hr J/(kg)(K); substituted Btu/(lb)(°R) into equation
constant (115)
pressure, can be
For (114)
equation
'/3 FPz'
/
_'g,
# I T1
Mx
2\(v+l)/2('_Dm
T s
" x
where
k
yW ,
j
(117)
p',
T
total pressure of hot ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion constant J/(kg) gas constant, Mach number
gas, N/m2; at constant 1 ; 32.17
lb/ft 2 pressure (ft)/(lbf) (°R)
to specific (sec 2)
heat
at
g R M On the general,
(lbm)
(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm)
coolant
side,
a number
of cooling
schemes
can
be used,
but
in
h_=CRe/,"Pr"=C( where C Re f
We
w'_"
"]"Pr"
(118)
constant Reynolds coolant characteristic
dependent number mass flow length flow
on based rate,
coolantpassage on characteristic lb/sec passage, ft 2 and kg/sec;
geometry length___ m; ft
J
For
for coolant area, m2;
coolantpassage turbulent Now, depicted the hot consider in figure gas convection internal the 112,
cooling, laminar
m0.8 flow profile
nl3. should the
Since blade
efficient wall, Tg' as of
cooling
is desired,
(m=0.5) through p_' and
be avoided.
temperature when and state heat the the
pressure wall outer
temperature
are increased from the and flux
temperature 112). gas From with
Tw.o is kept equations pressure to The wall the (i.e., same
constant (117) the and
(going (111),
1 to state flux to the with
2 in fig. blade increasing drop temperature
increases
0.8 power heat
it increases raises a fixed bleed so the the wall
temperature. the At
increased decreases time, sor for the pressure
temperature outer
through T,_.o).
T_._ for compressor ratio),
air temperature temperature
increases difference
(higher (Tw._Tc')
compresavailable q must Therefore, be
convection
cooling
is sharply wall
reduced. temperature
The
heat
flux
removed,
otherwise
the outer
will increase.
310
WPURBINE
i
COOLING
Tg
hg(T_  Tw,o)
_ kw / _ (Tw,o  Tw, i I
1
/ C
FIGURE 112.Gas
temperature
and
pressure the wall.
effect
on temperature
drop
through
h, must case, ture and and an
be increased from coolant infinite
by
increasing 112, flow is state
the
coolant the therefore, Of size
flow
we. The wall
limiting tempera
as seen
figure coolant
3, where
inside this
temperature
are equal; is required. passage
he must
be infinite, condition on a limit Figure cooling increase. is the to air 113
course, the
impossible Because quantity the from required The 1644 taining designs shows cooling convection aircooling examples (figs. gas l l4(f) Film the or K
to achieve. of limited of cooling internal air available convection the cooling hotspot To operating film film only. cooled components by and or savings highly and restriction pressure, in cooling and while Figure compared methods and on its supply cooling nonlinear
capabilities reference limit
of plain 1 shows in the
is apparent. increase convection temperature gas conditions temperatures, cooling. the cooling the to (e)), of these the use as basic and temperature
for convection (2500 ° F) pressure. reasonable must potential combined cooling turbine of blades to (i)). cooling incorporate
as pressure of advanced turbineinlet
application
is about about 20 maincooling 113 to for shows
atmospheres
exceed
these blademetal
transpiration air with illustrates l l4(a) or more to protect the The
in cooling Figure 114 (figs. one way the
of transpiration
convection
and it also cooling from
methods the hot
is an effective cooling along cool film
surface gas
stream
by directing
air into surface.
boundary effective
layer
to provide temperature 311
a protective,
TURBINE,
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
pressure, Pg, in, atm Turbineinlet 3 4O 20 lO
Convection cooling Film and convection cooling Transpiration cooling
I
1400 1600 1800 Turbine inlet temperature,
[
2O00 T_, in, K
I
22O0
I
2OOO
I
25OO Turbine inlet temperature,
I
I
3O0O Tg, in, oF
t
35OO
FIou]_.
l l3.Effect
of
turbineinlet flow
pressure requirements.
and
temperature
on
coolant
in equation (111) becomes flux to the blade is then
the
local
film
temperature,
and
the
heat
q=hg(T's_.,where T_,z_ is the total temperature
T,,,,.) of the gas film, in K or °R. in this
(119) It is
frequently is the same The dynamic higher transfer tion objectives 312
assumed that the heattransfer as in the nonfilmcooed case. of film which and must minimizes blade air into tend the boundary some The losses to reduce
coefficient layer of the
equation aeroof using and heatconfigura
injection pressures designs
causes
turbine
advantages
temperatures. be integrated metal the
aerodynamic an optimum consistent efficiency.
to achieve temperatures
which
ensures yet
with
longlife
loss in turbine
q_UR,BINE
COOLING
Transpiration cooling currently heatflux should and To because offset piration A typical coverage foreign scheme limit be small, of normal this cooling film
cooling available, its use
of a porous but it to advanced For leads efficient Also, the
blade has designs
wall
is the operating
most
efficient
airwhich
significant
drawbacks under due cooling, losses the can the
extreme pores
conditions. which contaminates.
transpiration of blockage air air into aerodynamic it must than is shown of discrete
to problems of cooling however,
to oxidation be severe layer. transFullin of schemes. that 114(i).
injection point, requires less
boundary cooling
latter
be recognized other holes, in figure
cooling blade
transpirationcooled cooling is an cooling from attempt without
an array
as illustrated
figure l l4(h), transpiration
to draw on some of the advantages paying the penalties mentioned.
Cooling air (aJ
Zn
_
Xn (bt
__
o
c:_
c>xE//Ej
(d)
J
JJ
(e)
(a) (c)
Convection cooling. (b) Impingement cooling. Film cooling. (d) Fullcoverage film cooling. (e) Transpiration cooling. FmuaE 114.Methods for turbine blade cooling.
313
TURBINE
I_E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Radial outward airflow into chamber1, Film cooled_ \ Convection \_ i_f// 1/// /.//// / fConvection .
L Impingement cooled
(fl
inlet airflow
/_\lmpingement
cooled
Convection cooled
(g)
(hl
_Transpiration i,
cooled /
/
Wireform porous sheet
(il
(f)
Convection, (g) Convection(h) (i)
impingement, and
and
filmcooled
blade blade
configuration.
impingementcooled filmcooled blade
configuration.
Fullcoverage
configuration. configuration.
Transpirationcooled blade FIGURE I I4.Concluded.
HEAT
TRANSFER
FROM
HOT
GAS
TO
BLADE
BoundaryLayer General the 314 equations.The region transfer very near
Equations of heat the to the surface, blade where is confined large velocity to
boundarylayer
'tURBINE
C(K)LING
and
temperature
gradients process, the 6 (vol.
are
present. following
Consequently, boundarylayer be solved:
to describe equations,
the
heattransfer introduced Conservation
in chapter of mass
2), must
o 0%(pu)
where timeaverage m/sec; ft/sec component quantity value
O (pv+
(1110)
of
velocity
component
in
y
direction,
()' ()
Conservation
fluctuating timeaveraged
of momentum Ou . pu 6_+(pv+p _7=7..,_ u O v ) _=g dp _+g 0 _ (1111)
rtgpB_
where
T
local
shear
stress, of body
N/m2; force
lb/ft 2 in the x direction, N/kg; lbf/lbm
B.
component
Conservation
of energy OH . _ OH 0 / 1 ur\ (1112)
where H J total enthalpy, J/kg; term, Btu/lb 1; 778 W/m3; (ft)(lb)/Btu Btu/(see) H are with the requires through laminar requires (ft z) values being (i.e., _,
conversion heatgeneration dependent v, and The the H, shear solution boundary of heat
constant,
Q
The u, for
variables as denoted of stress and the physical because of these and layers.
p, u, v, and in ch. heat The flow 6), equations flux
timeaverage overbar the appropriate contribution
understood. expressions and molecular our limited assumpto
hydrodynamic but of various such
thermal diffusivity
momentum turbulent of its heat as and the
is straightforward, the to the and use One counterpart. simplicity is Prandtl's momentum. sum of the
understanding tions which but for has eddy turbulent bears
of turbulent little transport diffusivity
in describing persisted
assumption, of turbulence in predicting hypothesis stress and
resemblance
structure success The laminar shear
processes,
mixinglength and
heat flux are contributions"
expressed
turbulent
315
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
p/
Ou
__..,\
(1113)
and { aL_jj0/_ _) (1114)
q=Ko[ where yr, aL ,4 The tional laminar ity), laminar static turbulent c()mponent m2/sec; enthalpy, shear ft2/sec component J/kg; stress
of momentum of heat Btu/lb u'v; and heat
diffusivity m2/see
(kinematic ft2/sec
viscos
diffusivity,
flux _ mean flow
are
assumed
proporthat is,
to tile respective
gradients
in tile
variable;
'tt'v' =  vr _ff and O,4 v'_g_=  O_r __ ' where and the subscript heat diffusivity. (1113) and (1114) p and q=Ko(aL+ar) The flow heat preceding and both reduces where boundarylayer compressible, ,r and and ar there 0_'. __ Koa O/ can 0u then p be written 0u as T denotes the turbulent (:omponent
(1115)
(1116) of momentum
Equations
(t117)
(lllS)
equations turbulent approach (642). properties equations are under arc is no intern,d
as_u me t e lnperaturevariable flows zero). heat assumed (inclusive variation generation, at the 'tssumed, of laminar If the in specitic the energy onset, and of the expericondiin the a later momen
properties
cp is neglected
equation analysis, However, mental tions. variable section. Integral tum equations 316
to equation
If temperaturevariable all boundarylayer constant data The are final results
must freq_)ently
be solved
simultaneously. isothermal
properties usually taken are These then
approximately to account will be
corrected
for temperature
properties. equations.As it an is
corrections we saw
considered 2) with the
in chapter to
6 (vol. solve
equation, from
often
convenient approach
boundarylayer parameters
integral
in term_
of integral
TURBINE
O0_LING
such
as momentum velocity derive enthalpy
and their
displacement Just meaning from
thicknesses displacement the The integral
rather and
than
in terms equaparamz_ is
of discrete thicknesses tion, so the
profiles. thickness energy
as the
momentum
momentum thickness
is a significant equation.
boundarylayer enthalpy
eter for the integral defined as follows:
/_= fo¢* pu( H H,)dY p,u,(H,,,.oH,) Note the that subscript the subscript e in chapter g refers 6. For to the freestream value
(1119) denoted by flow,
lowvelocity,
constantproperty
A=fo_*u(T'T',)dy u,(T_,.oT,') The ment The equation across and the enthalpy caused integral (113) the boundary thermal resulting boundary integral thickness by the energy or is a measure layer. can by (for be derived the containing see for ref. either by of the eonveeted energy
(1120) decre
boundary equation directly of a control layers energy properties
integrating of energy case, with
balancing volume details equation and mass
transport 2). at the
the hydrodynamic In either flow wall is
compressible
temperaturevariable
q
transfer
Kp,u,(H,.
F PgU,c
= dh ____t_A [ (l_Mg) Note zero flux with that at the if we make gradient, wall, and
_ __d__ q_ (H,_.°Ht)dx 1 du, 1 restrictive lowspeed constant assumptions flow temperature reduces
d (H'*' o11,)] of constant
(1121)
properties, no mass (T,,.oTz')
pressure
(incompressible), difference form,
_, then equation
(1121)
to its simplest dA dx as
Kpu, If a local heattransfer
q c_,(T_,, oT,')= h,,x
(1122)
coefficient
is defined
q h'.'=(T..,T,')
then,
(1123)
h,., da Stz Kpu, c_,=dx=
(1124)
317
TURBII_E
I_E@IGN
AND
APPLICATION
The group of variables on the left side is dimensionless the local Stanton number Sty, which is also equal to S Nu, t_R_p r and (675) that with in
and
is called
(1125) similar assump
Notice tions,
from the
equations
(672)
integral
momentum
equation CI'_dO 2 dx
resulted
(1126) of kinetic boundary temperature Tt.,, would viscous energy equation: (1127) °R. For laminar for wall (resuggest number vice versa. a the wall energy layer. near This the reach heating is related into is wall if it in to
For thermal as shown wall were the the
compressible energy by in figure and layer. factor by
flow, viscous an increase 115. T,_,o, The
there shear
is dissipation within static the
characterized temperature uncooled boundary recovery
in the effective
gas temperature of the
or adiabatic
is the
temperature a measure by the following
is, therefore, This r defined
dissipation
of kinetic
Tg,=T,o.=t,+r ' ' where flow, ing turbulent that temperature. sponsible allowing that should for heat lead tz is the the recovery boundary the Prandtl The for energy a given to hotgas factor layer, Prandtl from static can temperature, be
ug2 2gJcp in K or by on to equal an effect ratio layer). thermal energy, wall is the boundary
approximated
Pr 11_, while the adiabatic viscosity
r is assumed has number the
Pr z_. It is not surprisof the diffusivity This a high
number dissipation)
to the kinetic
(mechanism would
to escape a high
freestream
Prandtl and
adiabatic
temperature,
tg / _'_
u2 r 2g_j CpI
Ii Tg,e _
Thermal
_
//
Iq " 0
FZOUR_
l l5.Temperature
distribution
in
a
highvelocity
boundary
layer.
318
TURBINE
O00LING
The (either
heat
flux to the
blade gas
is proportional temperature)
to the at the
temperature wall:
gradient
effective
or static
q=]¢' As we terms ture The suitable wall never has on refined effective have of the difference. gas problem expression a cooling temperature. constant. the design The thermal stages. already The
Ot Nlv=0 =k_ seen, gas
OT, _ h _ v=0 g.:`(T,.eT,_.o) to express and the case wall flux coefficient which however, the actual can layer will yield the be surface surface accounted varying must the heat
(1128) flux temperabe the a in
it is convenient coefficient temperature or the the heattransfer h,., in this adiabatic heat
heattransfer temperature, for In the
gastowall always temperature. blade hg.:`. The a constant
in determining configuration reality, that boundary effect
to the
is to find objective outer
is to design
temperature temperature for in more
is
Solutions Firstorder is to assume pressure faired in plate gradient proximation. surprisingly because the gradient. For dynamic energy similarity With the laminar equation solution wall flow over layers can temperature be a side into crossflow expression flow, In the
to
BoundaryLayer
Equations to the solution the suction or correlation a cylinder the fiatapresults
approximation.The that the heattransfer of the for blade the pertains, results fact, often a heattransfer blade in are coefficient a the
simplest approach coefficient on by distribution region. sense, enough only for correlation
is approximated leadingedge strict fiatplate accurate
a fiatplate around Though to
zeropressureyields
a firstorder
close to those of more sophisticated Stanton number St is relatively a fiat both solved in plate with the at by 6 for
analyses, insensitive thermal the means the and leading of the
primarily to pressure the the result hydrothe Blasius profile. is (1129)
boundary
beginning directly chapter
edge,
discussed
velocity
assumed h_.,=0.332
to be constant, _ Re:,'12pr'z3
X
The
turbulent
counterpart
is given hz.,=0.0296_Re
by °" Spr'/a Reynolds he. ,, in the assumed: 319 number. leadingedge region, (1130)
The For the
local the following
velocity
u_. x is used
in the
heattransfer correlation
coefficient is frequently
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLI_CATION
h,,'_=a where
a
E1" ]14k" (p'u' _ _D'_'/_pro.,(l__)] _\
80°_¢_80
° (1131)
augmentation diameter velocity angular of gas distance term (see fig.
factor of leadingedge approaching from circle, m; ft edge, m/sec; ft/sec point, for deg of stagnation coefficient leading
D
leadingedge
The
bracketed D
is the 116)
heattransfer in
a cylinder free stream.
diameter
a crossflowing,
laminar
Ug,_ = =
x/
FIGURE
116.Blade
leadingedge
geometry.
The to from
term account or 1.2
a is an for blade to 1.8, associated the
augmentation highly been with leading have edge. large,
factor turbulent Various This used.
used
to adjust flow of
the the
coefficient factor a,
mainstream magnitudes amplification
approaching flux 'is flows. vortex thereby boundary but as turbulence when the in gradiin the on freehum
a vane uniquely
of heat stretches of flow, the with occur in detail,
favorablepressuregradient stagnation region in the direction velocities this phenomenon heat transfer will allow zero will 000, within
The highly accelerated flow at the filaments oriented with their axes increasing layer. yet, Kestin no general the turbulent (ref. 3) has correlation fluctuating studied
of stagnation turbulent
scale and intensity Transition from Reynolds the ent, stream 320 boundary it can number layer generally number turbulence
is available. laminar to becomes to grow. range and
flow high plate to with
sufficiently For a fiat that 000 roughness.
instabilities pressure take place
be assumed of 200 surface
transition to 500
Reynolds
depending a Reynolds
However,
TURBINE
O00LIN_
ber
based
on It
the
distance,
x, from transition
the to use
leading the
edge because momentum number
(boundarylayer it is not for a local 0, is thickness, determining point given that to the is, it is a given
origin) parameter. as the transition, then state. comes the use number for pipe turbulence, An tion the layer immaterial
is not
a practical is more the of the the length
criterion, Reynolds of the
convenient in the history critical
characteristic because how independent
Reynolds layer
number boundary
at
layer; in getting
boundary
developed
For a strongly turbulent. This of x. A value corresponding flow. For flow
accelerated flow, fact is consistent of Reoccur=360 to Rex=300 over a turbine value for by be derived (676)) local the from velocity
the boundary with the use plate very can
layer never beof 0 but not with critical and high Reynolds ReD= 2000 freestream variation equaas to laminar velocity boundary
is a "universal" 000 for a flat blade with of Ree.cr_t=200 momentum the integral suitable profile equation of a variable
a conservative expression can 6 (eq. 2). Upon blade chapter form ref. thickness
be assumed. momentum assumptions the the
approximate from (see
thickness
on a turbine functional
making
of the
through (676),
integrating
momentum is given by
as a function
freestream
OL__O.67vO. Ug 3
5 /
tJo
Fx
U,Sdx)
\o. 5
+0,,_. the an stagnation the stagnation approach
(1132) point, velocity (1133) in
where meters
x is the or feet.
surface The
distance momentum
measured thickness
from with
8,t_s at
point
of a cylinder
of diameter
D in a crossflow 0.1D
ug_ is
°.'.. ?..o,5
¥ Turbulent such
as
2_ exists when this the value of 0 is
or
transitional
flow, The
then,
that
(ouz0/u)_200. momentum
value thickness
of x where is obtained
occurs
is denoted manner
T,cr_ t.
The by the
turbulent equation
in a similar
0T
4.
I1
L
_/,g
,,,..
_g
_xrt,L._ti,_e from of the flux laminar integral to a blade
] to turbulent equations is a more the
(1134) flow. of momenrefined previously increased sophisticated 321 and
This
assumes
an abrupt The than
transition solution the the heat
Integral tum and accurate discussed. complexity
method.energy approach The penalty of the
to obtain
"fiatplate accuracy In many
approximation" is, of course, cases, the more
for more
computation.
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLLCATION
methods method and the
are not accounts effect the
warranted
in the
early velocity surface
stages
of design. more on still
The
integral also
for freestream of a nonconstant some equations. energy transfer
variation temperature must
realistically, h=._ can in order
be included. to solve Consider specific heat
However, integral the and
assumptions
be made
integral no mass
equation across
(eq. the
(1121)) wall
with
constant
boundary.
_p,u,cp
ax
_ _
u,
dx
_ (T_.oT,')
dx (T=.oT,') (1135)
Ordinarily, solved (1i20). equation equation Stanton proposed local istic length, in
the order Ambrok (1135) by that and
integral to (ref. could use Stanton this
momentum the however, solved fact weak 4), be
equation enthalpy proposed independently that can
would thickness an of
first approach the
have
to whereby
be
evaluate
5 in
equation
momentum show the He of a gradient. charactergradient. ( 1136 )
making the
of the
experimental of pressure thickness be written
data
number Reynolds
to be a very number that based
function
number function
as a function as the of pressure
on enthalpy
is independent
Stxf(Re_) If ] is independent should For and give us the turbulent yields St_=0.0296 Recalling from equation (1124) Re_ °2 Pr  2/3 that Stx=_ the local Stanton by number can equations be expressed (1137) and in terms (11 38) of the for a flat, plate dA of pressure functional flow over gradient, form. a flat plate, combining equations then the flatplate
solution (114)
(1125)
(1137)
(1138) enthalpy
thickness
combining
so as to obtain (1139) by any equation arbitrary for laminar (1135) and
St_ = (0.0296 Hence, (1139) freesteam flows.) integrating the for function turbulent velocity Substituting yields StyrT hg'_
l"kpe'_=C p
Pr2/3) 1"25(0.8 Rea)  0.2_ equation and_ (The by (1139) (1136) assumption, same argument into equation is given for holds
f
from flow
variation. equation
0.0296
Pr2/3(
T '
T
_o.z_/o._
(1140)
322
TURBINE
COOLING
where I =: .f .... p?I_(T_'T.,o)' ]_* u 25 • . ['0.SRe_(T/T_ o)71"25
J,=,... .
(1141) the critical the 2.
The
integration
is performed Reynolds equation. solution.The to a turbine
numerically mnnber For most blade by a is to further
for being
hg._, details,
with
enthalpythickness laminarboundarylayer IGnitedifference the are was heat several flux good and (eq. equations
ewduated
from
see reference of calculating boundarylayer approach. this. One
accurate solve all
metho(1 the
simultaneously numerical by of W. M. (eq.
a fourth
finite(lifference available uses addition the In to do to the equation, ix given by
There of these of the and others. for
programs l(ays (ref. 5). an<l
developed
numerical (eq. that with
procedure (1111)), the
Spalding censervation energy kinetic
P'ttankar mass .._is of turbulent
equations
(1110)), conservation solved kinetic
momentum simultaneously energy
(1112)),
of turbulent
energy
also
Conservation
°z/+lo,.,+¢,.'t
0z
_.v=p_
(o,y+ o
\0v/
Ov
P(_+_)
az" 9
0.v
(1142)
wheref/r The
is a turbulent kinetic
dissipation energy
.j//_ 1
term, as
in
W/m s or
Btu/(ft
a) (sec).
turbulent
is defined
2gd where in the w' is the fluctuating perpendicular equation, layer. for. evaluated
(u'2+v'2+w'2) of velocity, the the the xy plane. mixing effects in m/sec By length ix
(1 143) or ft/sec, the turbucalculated
component to Also,
direction
including
turbulentkineticenergy locally in the boundqry lence can be accounted All with lion wall properties no restrictive of surface (transpir'ttion are
of fi'eestream
locally m' velocity an(I local
through
assumptions
the
boundary on transfer are also the at
layer variathe
or approximating temperature cooling) manner. example mmwrical turbine l l7(a). ll7(b)), results
made
l)rotile..Mass film cooling
handled
in a slraightforwar(I I;igtll'e the protile bound'n'v integration temperature, is given l,Jyer started 11 7 presents of in must the
from wine.
computer for The the
plots case of
showing a highthe can be 323 velocity
tlcxihilitv
apI)roa<:h The but,
highpressure figure (fig.
freestream profiles condition on,
initial from then
through profiles
be supplied
as a boundary
to get, the
TURBINE
IYE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
2500700 6O0
150(]
.
m
E
200 500 10C_ 0 (a)
_
0
I
I
.Ol
I
.02
I
I
I
[
.06
I
.07
.03 .04 .05 Surfacedistance, , m x
I
O
I
.04
I
I
[
I
.20
I
.24
.08 .12 .16 Surfacedistance, .It x
Total enthalpy (b)
I
.1
I
I
I
I
.9
}
1.O
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .l .8 Dimensionless boundarylayer variable
(a) (b) Initial Freestream reference FIGURE profiles for
Surface
velocity
profile. boundarylayer or 249.7 over vane. a 101.28 ft/sec; program. freestream
finitedifference velocity, 30.87 J/(kg)(K)
numerical m/see or
reference enthalpy,
1.0447)<
106
Btu/(lb)(°R). hight_mperature, high
l l7.Boundarylayer
development pressure turbine
324
TURBINE
O00LIN(_
calculated through the boundary layer at discrete x locations. The boundarylayer thickness, momentum thickness, momentumthickness Reynolds number, and heattransfer coefficient are shown in figures 117(c) to 117(f), respectively. Notice that just upstream of the
• 16 
.OO4
(c) ] 0
I
I
1
3.2_E
_, 2.4¢
o8° I
E
60
(.3
E = E 1.6
i°
b20 I
20 4O 60 Percentsurface distance boundarylayer momentum thickness. thickness. 80 100
*
>"
r
.8
[)
(c) (d)
Pressureside
Pressureside
boundarybayer FIGUaE 117.Continued.
325
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLI.CATION
20percent thickness increase before
surface (fig. rapidly continuing
distance and then and to
location the decrease This
on
the
vane, over
the
boundarylayer (fig. a short by ll7(d)) distance the rapid
117(c))
momentum slightly "blip"
thickness is caused
increase.
2400
le)
I
1600
1
I
I
I
%
tm
v _
8.6_ 7.0
_
ii '°
1000 8OO "T" 7600 4OO (e)
._
5.4
3.8
2.2
0 20 40 60 Perceni surface distance 80 momentumthickness Pressureside FIGURE heattransfer 117.Concluded. Reynolds coefficient. number.
I
1_
Pressureside (f)
326
_URBINE
O0_LIN_
48
4[
24
• 8 I
.6
E E >:.
16E >_
I .2b
fl
(lx=
g
c
(al
0l
g,
o m
48  E 8
r_
E o
E
e_ c21
32
.8i
24
.6i
16
8
.2i(b) "Total enthalpy
0
I
_
I
I
I
1.0
.2 .4 .6 .8 Dimensionlessboundarylayer variable
(a)
Initial ft/sec; Btu/(lb)
profiles freestream (°R). slotwidths or 2004 Btu/(lb)
at
slot.
Freestream enthalpy,
reference
velocity,
609.6 J/(kg)(K)
m/sec or
or
2000
reference
4.8189X108
1151.75
(b)
Three m/sec 1151.75
downstream freestream
of
slot.
Freestream enthalpy,
reference 4.8189X
velocity, 106 J/(kg)(K)
610.8 or
ft/sec; (°R).
reference
FIGURE
118.Boundarylayer
profiles
along
adiabatic
wall
with
film
cooling.
327
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPL]:CATION
deceleration the about pressure the side.
and
acceleration from location. as can enthalpy in figure changed
of the region Very be seen
mainstream aft little from of the of the figure illustrating About shapes Fluid boundary
flow leading
resulting edge layer on occurs
from the at is
adversepressuregradient Transition state, and given have 10percent
a laminar
boundary 117(f). an
layer
in a transitional Initial film stream, velocity are profiles the
profiles 118(a). to the
example down
of
cooling
3 slot shown
widths
in figure
118 (b).
TemperatureDependent The and these perature compared temperature temperature property or the are the ture In common relations all vary profiles to results variations are analytical experimental use for the the involving in earlier with properties (and, obtained occur properties solutions data for method obtained property (for the
Properties parameters gas properties Re, Pr, Nu, of temlarge what
dimensionless contain The a change in the the be with of constant gases) in the small variation. and
St, discussed transport
sections, causes therefore, across to (except
p, k, u, and dependence and Since at
c_, which
temperature.
temperature in were the heattransfer constant. boundary
velocity
coefficient) layer,
if properties
evaluated?
Usually, temperature Two the
constantmethod) differences are namely, in
finitedifference schemes results;
corrected
to account
correction
property
temperatureratio method. the latter method, :
referencetempera
all transport
properties
are evaluated
at
the
reference
temperature
Tre.,':O.5 The temperatureratio
Tw.o+0.28 method
tg+0.22
Tg,_
(1144)
assumes (T_e'_"{ t_ "_" _] \T_.J properties laminar and m:=0.6, evaluated flow, a n=0.08 much
Nu St N_ceZ_c_=\ The subscript For than CP static refers to flow, flow.
(1145) at the and greater
constant For n=0.4
freestream m=0.12. influence
temperature.
turbulent in laminar
CONDUCTION Once coolant up 328 into the side local are heattransfer known, problem of finite
WITHIN
THE
BLADE on the
WALL hotgas conditions or vane example, side for and the
coefficients heatflux available. The
the are
boundary blade for as shown,
heatconduction a number
is broken in figure
elements,
TURBINE
COOLING
FIGURE
1 l9.Typical
node
breakdown
for
a turbineblade
conduction
analysis.
oj+4
_ _ I \ I \
f
iI _

_
I
I
\
\\
I II
ii
J+
_
i II
I
il il ......
_11
oj+$ FIGURE l l10.Typical boundary element for heatconduction analysis.
119,
and
an energy of algebraic equal solved Once
balance total
is written number by
for each equations, of elements. means analysis the of blade from
element. with All a
The the equations
result must digital a detailed for use
is of
a system equations then be computer. temperature thermalstress Consider
finitedifference
number
to the such
simultaneously a conduction throughout
highspeed,
is completed, is available 1110.
distribution calculations. a typical
in
boundary
element
figure
Accounting 329
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
for and
all the those
energy adjacent leads
transfer to it to the )m+ k_Aj
between (elements
the jl1
given
element
(the including
jth element) the fluid
to j+5), equation
boundary,
following T
algebraic _ k_42 +_
(see fig. 1110).
dc Ac 1 (TjTc'
(Tj
j+l)
(TjTj+2)"
+ where
A_
• " • +_s
5 (TjT_+5)"
pc_,Vj A(time)
(T']+ITT')
(1146)
surface noted distance by volume
area
between
jth
element and
and
element
or boundary
de
by subscript between
i, m s ; ft _ element or boundary denoted
44
jth element i, m; ft m 3 ; ft s time step scheme
subscript
ofj th element, ra denotes
The
superscript
n or n+ is used. element
l, depending
on whether
an explicit A similar calculation the equations infinitesimal
or implicit equation may are size,
transient for every
volume If the
must
be written. depending to reduce the
The on how to an
be either structured. the equation 0T
transient
or steadystate, element at a point
is allowed
energy
balance
yields
familiar
heatconduction
(1147)
Pcp0(time) where x, y, and z are the coordinate direction_.
COOLANTSIDE There transfer impossible the local problem coolant can by to be many convection discuss temperature, internal to the each flow coolant, the
CONVECTION geometries and used to promote it would Essentially, he, and equation (112) The coolant flow path the heat be
for that
reason, scheme•
convectioncooling heattransfer previously T'c) T_, in the qhc(T,_._
is to determine
coefficient, shown
This
is not,
however,
as simple and the
as it sounds.
can be very complex, must be known before An internal equations 330 flow network that describe
the internal heattransfer is established, internal
flow and coefficient and pressure
pressure distribution can be determined. of momentum are solved
conservation distribution
the
_URBINE
COOLIN_
to determine there the discussed surface, the between mined, considered Various transfer. lators" They most 114(b)), wall correlation
the
flow
split between from
between each hot from gas must for
various of to the
parts three
of the conduction
blade.
Since steps through cycle of deterscheme
is interaction (convection and three for must methods Fins to keep also help effective where from can the by
heattransfer an iterative the has percentage been
surface, to coolant),
convection calculations cooling be used are be
surface region the he.
be made. of the particular
After blade
air available
a given
empirical
correlations
convection
to determine used to enhance to the
coolantside passages the
convection to act
heat
added flow
cooling and
as "turbulayers One thin. of the (fig. inside
highly the
mixed
boundary area.
increasing
convection is
surface impingement
convection small jets
methods of cooling in figures
cooling toward gives the
air are directed 114(b) and cooling
/,._ \0.091
of the blade,
as seen reference
(g). One
representative
6 for impingement
NUD,
irap__lq_2ReDraprl/S
(k_)
(1148)
impingementcooling as characteristic
Zn
Nusselt dimension hole m; ft and
number wall, m; ft
based
on hole
diameter
distance hole power functions number. m
between
D The both
diameter, on of the the
Reynolds
number
and array
the
coefficient geometry data
_1 and
are the 6
impingementhole
Reynolds gives
A leastsquarescurve
Xn 2
fit of the
Xn
in reference
ma_(_) and =expEa2 where holes x, is the centertocenter of flow, and xn
+b,(,)+c,
(1149)
2
x. in meters or feet,
(1150) between
distance, the The
in the 11I to
direction
coefficients coefficient by It the can
a, b, and _o2 is an accumulation be expressed
c are given attenuation of fluid as
in table factor from
as functions for
of ReD.
account rows
crossflow
caused jets. 1 _o2
multiple
of impingement
1 +a3_b_3 11I, and _b for the
(1151) i th row of 331
where
aa and
ba are
given
in
table
TURBINE
I_E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
TABLE
llI.IMPINGEMENTCooLING
Coefficient
Reynolds number range, 300 to 3 000
Reynolds number range, 3 000 to 30 000
al
bl
¢1
 0.0015 .0428 •5165 0. 0126 .5106 .2057 0.4215 .580
O. 0025 • 0685 .5070 0.0260 . 8259 • 3985 0.4696 •965
a2
b2 c2
a3
b3
impingement
holes
is defined
as
Go! Zn
(1152)
where Gcr Gh crossflow mass flux, kg/(sec) mass flux, (m 2) ; lb/(hr) kg/(sec) (ft 2) (ft 2)
impingementhole
(m 2) ; lb/(hr)
FILM As parent reduce in fig. cooling and and Except cooling film or turbineinlet that blade 113). metal The are
AND
TRANSPIRATION and must and pressure conserve
COOLING increase, by cooling film Here, film the coolant hole, than the as for higher will the for it becomes film air and cooling (as convection surface only, hotgas rate. either wall because be disfilm combined does average cooling same flow apto shown
temperature cooling temperatures importance design given and conditions is shown
convection
be augmented both 1111. only, all percent temperature also the arc of holes that same
of combining in figure cooling, the same wall Notice is about gradients cooling
in a given fihn
blade
temperatures combined coolingair in the yields
for convection convection and region
immediate
of the film injection lower
a significantly cooling film wall cooling for
convection but the
alone. only
temperature coo]ing,
convection
temperature
much
of the rapid decay First, localized cussed, 332 then
of the protective film. film cooling from rows cooling and
or slots
transpiration
fullcoverage
discretehole
TURBINE
COOLING
1800 L2600v /
_ _3_1_"
Hot9as Film coolingonly
_6
2200
:
I
J f__'
_Convection _ Hotgas
coolingonly
_ ,A,'_
1200 .. ombinedfilm and convection cooling C
_
_
1000
:_
_ooI
0
I
i
l
I
I
.2 .4 .6 .8 l.O Dimensionless distancedownstreamof slot of combining coolant film and flow rate. convection cooling. Constant
FIGURE
l lll.Effect
cooling. filmcooled" filmcooling ing
To
successfully heattransfer analysis for becomes builds the the
analyze on the flux film
and
model must
film be surface, T),_m:
cooling, known. the
the Hence,
"nonthe followgas
coefficient heat to
preceding the
discussion.
In the effective
expression
temperature
temperature
q=_hg._(T'.,,_=Tw.o) where h,.x is the heattransfer coefficient (he, x)I,,,_ hg, x the damped with under gas (see form wall film having fig. by the heattransfer out rapidly, coefficient to account without film cooling,
(1153) and (1154) is altered for this. called (i.e., layer the
e Very near the by the to be wall point the effect unity. data the hot of injection, injection The itself, film is usually
somewhat However, assumed adiabatic from between correlated temperature
and _ is included temperature cooling, wall a buffer The film adiabatic
so _ is frequently it is obtained it is the a'r is of cool nl, z_: (1155)
is sometimes because conditions film film
temperature
experimental it and
of an uncooled in dimensionless
1112)).
temperature
effectiveness
_'"'"= where outer T_, o is the wall). The injected film film
T.,.T_.,,, Tg.. T', o temperature decays (coolant from temperature
at the 333
effectiveness
a value
of 1, at
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPIAI;C_TION Boundary I r_ layer 7
/
Y I
T,
//
/
_'mm /
J ....
_.,,_"_
_
I
'(
Coolant film
I Coolingair
FIGURE ll12.Experimental determination of film temperature.
1_ .8 _"_
Injection angle,
+
¥
•+1: __ _
deg
o++
90 _'__
+:_:
08 
.1 
._
%
I
1000 2000
.oz
10
I
20
_ I ,1,1,1
40 60 100 Dimensionless
I
200
, 1,1,1,!
400 (x 600 xs#gs
, I
4000
distance,
FIGURE
ll13.Filmcooling
effectiveness
for
slots.
slot,
to zero, of the is with
far
downstream. for by air and As angle. expressions well: film the the The
Figure injection
1113 from
gives slots
experimental as determined from massflux indicated to the
values by the ratio injection slot F and with slot a
of film number (xx_) between angle
effectiveness is normalized film respect
investigators.
distance slot hotgas width
downstream s and the The stream.
to the
surface seen, the
(0 ° is parallel film ref. effectiveness
surface,
90 ° is perpendicular). increasing The film 334 cooling injection following reasonably
decreases turbineblade
(from
7) correlate
TURBINE
OOOLIN(_ O.
_I'z'_=exp
I k
0. 2
_s
2.9
k,p_2]
\p_u_s/
for small
values
of (zz,),
and
(1157)
for large edge Values
values slot,
of (zx,), in meters angle, as
where or feet, C and and the G=
z8 is the measured exponent 1.95
location from
of the
downstream point. and n0.21
of the
the stagnation
for the coefficient
n are C2.7
for a 30 ° injection angle. Film distances ref. small effectiveness from the
and n0.155 of the
for a 15 ° injection and 1114 of holes. case, lateral (from For film
a function hole a single
downstream in figure a row
injection from with
is presented hole 1 hole
8) for film lateral
cooling distances,
and from diameter distance,
up to about downstream
in this as previously
effectiveness
decreases
shown
• 50 
Dimensionless lateral distance from injection hole, hole diameters
.40
o °
A
o
.50
1.00
"_ E
30i_ xji_ ' "_.,'="_ " _ ."__
Plain s,,ymbols denote single hole at 35v injection angle Tailed symbolsdenote single row
u:.
20
,
_
of holes
I
O
l
I
I
I
i
I
I
]
9O
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole, hole diameters l l14.Filmcooling effectiveness as function of dimensionless ratio, m/sec
FIGURE
down
stream and lateral distances from injection holes. Massflux hole diameter, 1.18 cm or 0.464 in.; gas velocity, 30.5 Reynolds number, 0.22X 10 s.
0.5; injectionor 100 ft]sec;
335
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPI.,ICJ_TION
for slots,
and
the
same
values
are
obtained
for single
holes
as for a row
of holes. For larger lateral with downstream distance flow, hole that and because gases Very the values of the unity limited for the interaction at the
distances, as a result row of flows injection film jet are available the
effectiveness initially increases of the spreading of the injected are larger adjacent This the for jet than holes. separates row for the Notice from single also the with holes from angle than angle persist effective wall into convection is 2 hole of as a in from hole. as
of holes
_mm is not
is due
to entrainment of film
of hot surface.
underneath data
a staggered
cooling holes. Frequently, the slot data are used for this case, an effective slot width s defined such that the total area of the equals Figure single the hole direction the area 1115 of the (from slot. ref. main very lateral 8) shows gas local stream, film coverage, the spreading For the but wall mass of a film layer a 35 ° injection less does not most the A the film compound angles of injection.
at various of the giving more
film spreads
diameters,
coverage.
injection gives far downstream. Transpiration methods the boundary
cooling layer,
of a porous With film as the serves into to the
is one transfer with
of the from
of cooling
available. it combines
cooling
efficient
cooling. The porous wall where the heat conducted continuously through the this method extremely tion or standpoint, stream In cooling from surface. order transferred small pores. of cooling
a very effective heat exchanger, wall from the hot gas stream in counter flow as it passes
coolant
However, to turbine are air. since
there are problems blades. The pores subject Also, the film yet cooling, spectrum
in applying tend to be
small and, contaminants a penalty essentially to alleviate advantages In number type
therefore, in the is paid, these to the
to blockage due to oxidafrom an aerodynamicloss air is injected still cooling, the obtain cooling into some air holes pure the of gas the film issues in the trans
normal
boundary. fullcoverage
problems film lies in the
characteristic is used. a large This
of transpiration of small, closelyspaced,
fullcoverage of cooling
discrete between
piration cooling on flux over the surface, amount through of heat the wall
the one end, and localized by on the
with essentially film cooling on to tile of the tortuosity
a continuous mass the other end. The cooling internal air flowing pasflow
transferred depends
convection
sages. The wall may with a low resultant maze of interconnected effectiveness. Convection exchanger 336 theory and
be constructed of simple, convection effectiveness, flow passages, v_o,v is with a
straightthrough holes, or it may consist of a high convection from wall heat
a relatively term ability borrowed of the
effectiveness
is a measure
of the
(or blade
TURBINE
O00LING
Fi Imcooling effectiveness, "r/film 2 _
E
tO. 10
/
0@
\ \
2

.25
_. 20
_. 15
o r
I
6
1
'
I
(a)
1
I
I
d
r
.g 2 .E
E
0 /
r.
lO
•30I g
X13
L. 25
4 6
L.20
L. 15

I
I
I
tb)
I
I
I
u_
_
"_,
2 
r.
25
E
2 4 6
_
\ '.30
, .20
I
0 5
1
10
I
15
I
20
I
25
I
30
Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole, hole diameters (c} (a) Injection (b) Injection (c) Injection FIGURE ll15.Lines angle, angle, angle, 35°; lateral 90°; lateral 90°; lateral injection, injection, injection, 90 °. 35% 15 °. for singlehole
of constant filmcooling injection. Massflux ratio,
effectiveness 0.5.
acting as a heat exchanger) convection.
to transfer
f !
heat to the cooling
air by
T c.oT c.,.
(1158)
Since an optimum design utilizes as much of the heat sink available in the cooling air as possible for convection cooling, ,7_o,, values approaching the limit of 1 are desirable. However, the convection
337
TURBINE I)E,SIGN AND
effectiveness available. Consider turbine on (see wall, the ref. blade solid 9). a is usually
APPLICATION
limited
by model
the the of
coolingair drop porous balance flow for the
supply through or can through local
pressure the wall. perforated be written the metal wall temin the
As Vco,v increases, onedimensional wall metal The in figure matrix resulting the wall,
so does
pressure
1116. and on the and differential Tw,
An
energy equations
coolingair local coolant
perature
through T'c, are
temperature
d3Tw hv d2T,_ dy 3 _ Go% dy _ and T'_=Tw
' hv dTw kw.e dy
0
(1159)
kw'ed_T'_ hr. dy 2
(1160)
where effective thermal conductivity heattransfer of the porous wall, W/(m W/(m)(K) 3) (K) ; Btu/ ;
hv
Btu/(hr) (ft) (°R) internal volumetric (hr) (ft 3) (°R)
coefficient,
The
boundary
conditions
are e dTw @_=o (1161)
h_(Tw.,T'e,_.)=kw,
and
G_cp(T_ In this case, as seen of surface area. An the overall flux energy to the q=Gccp(T' Typical 1,116. wall They and are coolant both from
'
,T"
'
_,)=kw 1116,
e dTw " dy _=o G_ is the mass flux
(1162) per unit
figure
ba]ance wall,
gives,
as a third
boundary
condition
for
heat
o T_,_.)=Gc%_co._,(Tw,otemperature with profiles opposite of the
T:,_.) are signs shown in of the the in
(1163) figure second coolant
nonlinear
derivative, and matrix The side heat
which is a consequence heat transfer. flux to the wall can
interaction in terms
also be written
of a hotgas
heattransfer
coefficient: q=h,,_( Tz,ethe Tw.o) heat flux expression (1164) with local
This 338
is somewhat
different
from
TUR,BINE
OODLIN(_
Tw,o
1 "1
C,O ]w,J
Gc
q
T__J
c, in
Tc, i
\
'\.,
_
ay_t
hvA .,Xy(T  Tc) '_ w
\
\ \ '_
dlw d ClTw_A kw,eA dy + dy (k w, eA _y) y Typical element FmuRE 1116.Porouswall temperature profile model.
film duced" than
hg,Z"
cooling the
in
that
the
acual and local gives
recovery ht._ the due
gas
temperature are heattransfer model if the pressure of
and used
a "rerather
heattransfer film temperature with incidentally we can
coefficient
to blowing
solidblade
coefficient the blade is
Consistent wall, not which too large,
the
onedimensional good results
gradient
write F ht_ Stt_ _:;_=eF/__ Str_ 1J of convection Fis mass the ratio flux: (1166) . (1165) effectiveness of the coolant
where mass
the flux
correction in figure (surface
factor] 1117 (from averaged)
is a function ref. to the 10), and hotzas
as shown
F (pu)_
(pu)
339
TURBINE
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
Convection effectiveness, 1. E 11cony 0.9
J
o
f J
J
• 7j
f
J
J
o
k_
.7
.6 0 1 Blowing 2 parameter, FtStcj ' 3 4
FIGURE
l l17.Correction
to
equation
(1165)
for
wall
convection
effectiveness.
SIMILARITY It actual size than at is often engine prototype the the actual test of of economic turbine environment. heattransfer hardware application. blade this will a cooled conditions To answer and at necessity components Generally, aerodynamic lower This behave gas practice to at evaluate conditions initial tests performance temperatures raises meeting similarly the various a under similarity design valid the heattransfer than conducted with and actualpressures question specifications actual to engine turbine engine perblade parameters as the are
performance to evaluate
other
to whether co_lditions. which are formance are discussed. The number engine 340 Mach and
configuration question,
important in relating test performance of an actualsize filmconvectioncooled number test distribution around conditions. the and vane Similarity momentumthickness must in be these the two
Reynolds same between is parameters
distribution
TUITBINE
O00LIN_]
essential coefficient transition Let tion flow to engine does must
to
ensure and
the
same wall to
relative turbulent that the two cases. the
distributions and and the boundary local Mach the
of layer.
heattransfer point of
adiabatic laminar (t) refer To same
temperature conditions
same
from superscript
to test ensure
superscript number equivalent
(e) refer distribumass
conditions. not change be the
between in both
conditions, Therefore,
w(.,,
wy'p'_ where for the F is an approximate variation of specific
p;,.
/(RT')_,r(.
ry'
,,
(1167) (2128) given and by (2129))
'e' _(R_)g(" (from
correction heat
/
eqs.
with
_
temperature
\(_+t)/2(_t)
F _f_ __) Since remain the local momentumthickness between (t) and (e) Reynolds conditions, number
(1168) must also
unchanged
#
/z
o;,,.:.,
film effectiveness the to and the is to
/(,r.);.,r,,,
s
__
(p_),',o;., .;') _" ,".;',p';"
\_/z
_,.,1
unchanged massflux ratio cases.
(1169)
between ratio
If engine
the
local and , test the ratio
remain to
conditions, coolant 0Jo_),
coolant
hotgas
(ou)J(Cu)z (or density holediameter size
hotgas be the then
momentum same in both
(pu_)¢/(pu_)= Since actual
momentumthickness
to filmejection
ratio
OJD must
hardware
is presumed,
(_)(,, and equation (1169) becomes o;,,
1
(1170)
_':' _","___,,"''"'e_ I(_T_)',', r;"
#g(t) w_" Equation with pressure number Parametric for air. the (1171) viscosity and and Mach curves shows and number of ,(,,p,(,, that gives _/(R_)z(,, the the gas will (1171) flow Fg(,,1 rate must relation the and shown engine in vary same (1171) directly gas Reynolds conditions. figure 1118
functional provide for test are
between
temperature
which distributions equation
341
TURBINE
I_E_IGN
AND
APPIAC_TION
4O
E
30
_ leD
20
a_
i0
0 250
J
500 150 1000 1250 1500
i
1750
2000
2250
25OO
Temperature, K Tq,
I
0
I
500
I
1000
I
1500
I
2000
1
I
3000
I
3500
I
2500 , oF Temperature, lg,
FIGURE thickness
ll18.Similarity Reynolds number
curves of distributions
constant around
Mach number a turbine vane
and momentumfor air properties.
The
coolingair
flow massflux
rate ratio
and and
temperature momentum
are ratio.
then
set
by
the
coolanttogas
Requiring (1172)
(7 ,J  L(#u),j
implies
(1173)
Wg/
and
it is necessary
that
to ensure Neglecting in the
equality direction
of test normal
and to
engine plane wall, the
momentum of the the film temperature
ratios, wall ejection by
since
pc.o=p_. to that
conduction to the
in the supply
compared
temperature
T_,o is related
coolant
(He, oHe, (Hc.oH_, where (1171)). hotgasside 342 the viscosity Satisfying heattransfer ratio here
,,)(t>_q(,) _,(_) ,n) (_) q(C) u_" the to mass (1175) flow around ratio the
(1175) (see that vane eq. the will
represents (1171)
equations
ensures
coefficient
distribution
TURBINE
C_OLING
have the same shape for both test transfer coefficient in dimensionless St(,'):St(, Since similarity number equation On Nusselt the the Prandtl conditions ratio from (1176). coolant number side, form the is given number discussed unity cannot are depends
and engine conditions. Stanton number form *) {'Pr(')Y/a be met, on set the the independently departure Prandtl coefficient number in
The is
heat
(1176) if all of the other in
Stanton ratio
heattransfer by (*'
dimensionless
Nuc (') =Nuc
where m is the power on the tion. The viscosity coolant Reynolds factor cannot be set factor number
/ _'* _'*' °_ number (1177) with the although its for coolantside is the Prandtl departure
(1177) convec
Reynolds in equation ratio. As
testtoengine number, this from range unity tg to (')
independently,
is small. In fact, if the viscosity t ct)¢.oould be approximated c by
over the full temperature a power law cc t_
(1178) coolant and Reynolds to ensure for outer engine coolant Tf._. during Reynolds the the the ejection for same two a test wall includes supply Hence, the number number temactual
then, ratio and drop If in the which most
by equation (based simulated through the cooled remains convenient engine, on would the there
(1174), the be 1. The
the
testtoengine bole diameter coolant
filmcooling same cooling be some between
perature)
conditions internal must blade invariant which are
is important the test namely
pressure conditions. as it does The those dimen
air passages same and the normalized temperature
is to perform
temperature only
conditions.
dimensionless known,
wall
temperatures
tempera
ture T_, _, and the effective gas temperature sionless wall temperature _, defined as T_.,T_.o or some used actual scaled and because Strict similar equality hardware, properly pressure. the It grouping of the since because is easier greater driving of these cooling and lower the for at high the three engine heat blade convection temperature
(1179) temperatures, of a given is, however, drop flux through at reduced reduced and cooling is commonly blade the wall design. with is not impossible
as a measure
performance
in _ for test of the potential than
temperature to cool
temperature conditions, (T_._T/) pressure. How343 is
at the
proportionately
TURBINE
I)E,SIGN
AND
APPI.JCATION
ever, and cases. An (1171)
for
properly
scaled within of
test the
conditions, range states
the
difference
between
_(t)
_(e) is well example to
of experimental generated is given by in table a given air, what of the air. Since the
accuracy solving 11II fuelair it would total heat environment.
in most equations for a highAir ratio be in gas. wall the to a is be
similarity simultaneously rather using 1 percent
(1177) were used
pressure, properties For a test temperature
hightemperature condition _(_) is
gasturbineengine than ambient higher those for than cooling
dimensionless
actual engine. Radiation can blade not under directly
be a significant
component and with
flux and cannot
hightemperature affected simulated it must (1175).
highpressure
conditions radiation and heatflux
by film cooling
conveniently test conditions, in equation
at the lowtemperature be accounted for in the
lowpressure ratio q(')/q(e)
TABLE
llII.SIMILARITY (a) Takeoff condition
STATES
Gas total
temperature
Gas total pressure, atm.
Coolant
temperature
K
oF
_2200 367 478 589 700 758 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144
_3500 200 400 600 800 905 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400
' 33. 7 4.3 6.0 7.7 9.4 10. 3 11.1 12. 9 14.6 16.4 18. 2 19. 9 21.7 23. 5 25. 3 27. 1 28. 9 30. 9 32. 8
145
188 23O 273 294 315 357 399 442 485 528 571 613 656 699 743 786 828
199 122 45 31 70 107 182 259 335 413 490 568 644 721 799 878 955 1030
1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 I. 00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
' Reference
condition.
344
TURBINE TABLE 11II.Concluded condition
(X_LING
(b) Cruise
Gas K
total
temperature oF
Gas total pressure, arm.
Coolant
temperature ! _( t)/ _o(e) °F
K
12200 367 478 589 700 799 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144
' 3500 2O0 4OO 6OO 8OO 978 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 28OO 3000 3200 3400
'13.8 1.7 2.5 3.2 3.9 4.5 4.6 5.3 6.0 6.7 7.4 8.2 8.9 9.6 10.4 11.1 11.8 12.7 13.4
1801 139 180 220 259 294 299 338 378 417 458 498 539 579 619 660 702 743 782 !
1983 209  136 64 7 70 78 148 220 291 364 437 510 582 655 729 804 878 948 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1. O0 1. O0
! ,
!
I Reference
condition.
REFERENCES
1. EsQAB, JACK B.:
COLLADAY, RAYMOND S.;
KAUFMAN,
ALBERT:
An Analysis
2. 3.
4.
5. 6.
of the Capabilities and Limitations of Turbine Air Cooling Methods. NASA TN D5992, 1970. KAYS, W. M.: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1966. KESTIN, J.: The Effect of FreeStream Turbulence on Heat Transfer Rates. Advances in Heat Transfer. Vol. 3. T. F. Irvine, Jr.; and J.P. Hartnett, cds., Academic Press, 1966, pp. 132. AMBRpK, G. S. : Approximate Solution of Equations for the Thermal Boundary Layer With Variations in Boundary Layer Structure. Soviet Phys.Tech. Phys., vol. 2, no. 9, 1957, pp. 19791986. SPALDING, D. B.; AND PATANKAR, S. V.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers. Chemical Rubber Co., 1968. KERCHFR, D. M.; AND TABAKOFF, W. : Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Effect Air Jets of Spent Impinging Perpendicular Air. J. Eng. Power, vol. to a Flat Surface Including the 92, no. 1, Jan. 1970, pp. 7382. 345
TURBINE 7.
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
ARTT, D. W.; BROWN, A.; AND MILLER, P. P.: An Experimental Investigation Into Film Cooling With Particular Application to Cooled Turbine Blades. Heat Transfer 1970. Vol. 2. Ulrich Grigull and Erich Hahne, eds.,
Elsevier Publ. Co., 1970, pp. FC1. 7.1FC1. 7.10. 8. GOLDSTEIN, R. J.; ECKERT, E. R. G.; ERIKSEN, V. L.; AND RAMSEY, J. W.: Film Cooling Following Injection Through Inclined Circular Tubes. Rep. HTLTR91, Minnesota Univ. (NASA CR72612), Nov. 1969. 9. COLLADAY, RAYMOND S. ; AND STEPKA, FRANCIS S. : Examination of Boundary Conditions for Heat Transfer Through a Porous Wall. NASA TN D6405, 1971. 10. L'ECUYER, MEL R.; AND COLLADAY, RAYMOND S. : Influence of PorousWall Thermal Effectiveness on TurbulentBoundaryLayer Heat Transfer. NASA TN D6837, 1972.
346
TURBINE
CODLING
SYMBOLS A surface area of one flow factor, in eqs. component in eqs. in eqs. coefficient., heat in eqs. hole, (118) eq. side eq. (1149) (1149) and (1126) pressure, and circle, J/(kg)(K) (1150) impingement hole, or film; Btu/(lb)(°R) of volume m2; ft z (1131) to (1151) N/kg; lbf/lbm to (1151) (1157) element, m2; ft 2
coolantpassage
g al, cto, aa
area,
augmentation coefficients bodyforce coefficients constants friction specific
C2
B_ bl, b2, b3 C
in x direction,
Cp el,
at constant (1149)
coefficients diameter injection
D
of leadingedge m ; ft
d F
dissipation term distance between ratio mass total internal Btu/(hr) static term of coolant factor kg/(see) flux, correction conversion heattransfer
in eq. (1142), W/m3 ; Btu/(ft 3) (see) volume elements (see fig. 1110), m ; ft mass used flux to hotgas (ft 2) (lbm) (ft)/lbf) (see 2) (ft 2) (°R) W/(m3)(K); mass flux in eq. (1165) 1 ; 32.17 Btu/lb W/(m heattransfer ; Btu/lb 1 ; 778 energy, characteristic m; ft in eqs. in eqs. lb/ft" term, W/ma; Btu/(sec)(ft a) Btu/(hr)(fC) (K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) (118), (llS), (1145), (1145), and (ll4S) and (1157) (ft) (lb)/Btu sec/hr Btu/lb (K) ; Btu/(hr) length, m; ft (ft) (°R) J/kg; 2) (K) ; Btu/(hr) coefficien't,
.[
G g H h hv /; I J K
(m _) ; lb/(hr)
constant, J/kg;
enthalpy,
coefficient, volumetric fit s) (°R) J/kg by eq. (1141) constant, constant, kinetic (:onductivity,
enthalpy, defined
conversion dimensional turbulent thermal
1 ; 3600 W/(m)
,W
k I M
eo()l'mtpassage wall thickness, Xlach number exponents Nusselt exponents Prandtl P pressure, heat gas flux, constant, used number used number N/me; W/m_;
(1156),
(2
q 1l Re
r
heatgeneration
J/(kg) number
Reynolds recovery Stanton
factor, number
eq.
(1127)
St
347
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
8
slot gas
width, static
m;
ft K; °R K; velocity ft/sec m3; ft 3 velocity ft/see to the in direction normal to surface °R in direction along surface (zgas
T t
%
temperature, component direction), volume of
temperature, m/sec; of gas
of jth element, m/sec;
V
component (ydirection),
'tO
component mass flow boundary distance the
of gas velocity in direction perpendicular rate, kg/sec; lb/sec layer plane (xy plane), m/sec; ft/sec along surface of flow, from m; ft to surface, holes m; ft and blade inner leading between edge, m; ft distance distance between normal impingement m2/sec; ratio ft2/sec factor, eq. pressure (1168) to specific impingement
X Xn
centertocenter direction coordinate distance m; ft heat diffusivity, heat
holes
in
Y
Zn
wall,
F
specific
correction
ratio of specific heat constant volume ,h enthalpy ratio cooling viscosity, momentum transfer
7/
at constant m; ft coefficient without m ; ft lb/(ft) (sec) (kinematic lb/ft _ leadingedge
heat
at
thickness, of heat transfer coefficient effectiveness thickness,
with
film
cooling
to heat
film cooling
0
tt
l,t
momentum
(N) (see)/m2; diffusivity
viscosity),
m2/sec;
ft2/,_ec
P
T
density, kg/m3; lb/ft 3 local shear stress, N/mS; angular coefficients term defined exponent distance in eq. from wall by eq. dimensionless
stagnation
point,
deg
temperature (1148) (1152)
in eq. (1178)
Subscripts:
a
adiabatic constant coolant
CFOSSflOW
CP
C
property
COlbY
convection critical, referring to transition from laminar to turbulent flow
crit 348
TURBINE
C'(YOLING
])
e
with fihn
hole
(li'uneter
as characteristic
dimension
effective hot gas hole inner impingement inlet jth clement laminar with_._, leading outer reference downstream stagnation turbulent transpiration wall local with with with value charttcteristic x as A as characteristic 0 as characteristic leading edge edge of slot a,s characteristic edge length at freestream condition
film
g
h i
imp in
J
L
J
le
0
re]
8
stag T t
W X
length length length
A 8
oO
apl)roaching ril)ts" engine test, ] total
Sul)ersc, (e) (t) ,
condition ('mid ition stale (referring component to T anti (referring p) to p, v,/, u, and w)
/ flu(:tuating
349
CHAPTER 12
Experimental Determination of Aerodynamic Performance
ByEdward M.SzancandHarold. Schum a J
The theoretical deal aerodynamically, the etc.) entire turbine on built, goals preceding aspects chapters relating has the blading have to been been turbines directed is the (rotor concerned and toward turbine. disks, turbine turbine Associated shafting, criteria. whether by testing with primarily design. blading, hai'dware the
A great since, for
of consideration
assembly the basis
bearings, Once the
casings turbine the aerocan
is designed and design
of mechanical be determined met. Only
is designed dynamic this In of the The ments, obtained indirectly measurements. In
it must have
or not the
been
turbine
be determined. addition separate stator as loss to the overall performance to the readily 7 (vol. of a turbine, overall from 2). loss a breakdown is often desired. measurecannot obtained be
losses can
contributing be in obtained chapter
experimental Rotor losses usually
discussed easily from from the
direct stator
measurements; loss and
they the
are
overall
performance
developing which nature the desired
a
test
facility
and parameters
program,
the
researcher
must
determine ing. obtain the The
performance of the stator test
he is interested instrumentation performance vary with
in evaluatnecessary to and
facility,
the
and/or these
overall
parameters, turbine
manner
in which are the
parameters of this chapter.
operating
conditions
subject
351
PAGE __'_
INTENTIONALLY 8LAtIK
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
TEST The herein. These and bine. sures, measured calculated manner The
FACILITY stator in chapter
AND
MEASUREMENTS is expressed 2) and to specific for the to will define work, performance inlet Specific and work ranges not and be and turbine of rotative of the exit efficiency) computed discussed overall efficiency. speed turpresare is then
in which in detail parameters are mass ratio
performance 7 (vol. used torque, define rotative (needed test
is discussed performance pressure The and
generally flow rate,
parameters mass inlet directly from
are usually in order rate, in the the temperature flow
determined to fully
torque, turbine
speed,
determine
facility.
equation Ah'_K rN dw (121)
where ,_h' K F N J w turbine conversion torque, rotative conversion mass flow Nm; speed, rate, specific work, lbft rad/sec; kg/sec; rev/min 1; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu lb/sec by the ideal temperature by equation is always ideal work, all is all efficiency where efficiency where on a pressure of outlet the axial as constant, J/kg; 1; _/30 Btu/lb (rad)(min)/(rev)(sec)
constant,
Efficiency work. Ideal and (248b) the total however, is based of the based of the on outlet the or
is obtained by dividing the actual work hh' work is a function of the turbine inlet total ratio The on the is total static across outlet particular pressure useful pressure is lost. recovery or and the 2 (vol. pressure and turbine, 1). The used is most is most efficiency the axial efficiency recoverable. as inlet to desired. Static meaningful is based shown pressure define (249b) pressure. of chapter
pressure
depends on outlet outlet outlet
Total
meaningful
velocity velocity to the
Rating of only
corresponding velocity component commonly discussed In the will this types and,
component where only
accordingly, outlet as are
is most velocity the total 1).
meaningful is useful. and static Rating
of the used
efficiency
is not which
efficiencies,
were
in chapter section, of devices
2 (vol.
a representative generally Data chapter. gages data with used
test
facility the
will
be described, measurements will not reading
and
to make and can
required systems
be discussed. in this and electroaic
acquisition These
reduction vary from
be of
discussed manometers automatic 352
visual to computer
sliderule
computations with online
completely process
acquisition
EXPERI1VIENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
ing. A general discussion of data measurement, acquisition, mission, and recording systems can be found in texts such erence 1. Description of Test Facility
transas ref
A turbine test facility consists of the research turbine, a gas supply, an exhaust system, associated piping with control valves, a power absorber, and the instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. A schematic diagram of a turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center is shown in figure 121. This facility, a photograph of which is shown in figure 122, is used to test singlestage or multistage turbines of about 76 centimeters (30 in.) in diameter. It is generally representative of most turbine test facilities and is used here as an example for this discussion. In such a facility, removal of the turbine rotor gives the room necessary to place survey instrumentation behind the stator and, thereby, transforms the rotating rig into a stator annular cascade. Most turbine component testing is conducted with temperature or slightly heated. This is commonly air at ambient called coldair
Burstdisc Laboratory air system Venturi safety valve . Sonic valve •
Vent to roof ", ,_i_
acilit valve
isolation
Isolation,' valves • _ /kl
I
Gas supply .fExpansion Main exhaust control valve , joint _ "_
/
L
LBurner_j_,,,
....
I
Bypass control valve , = Main control."@
valve
valve @ _, Facility f isolation Laboratory system exhaust
FIGURE
121.Flow
schematic
of a turbine
test
facility.
353
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
ductim
:FIGURE
122.Turbine
test
facility.
testing. values N/cm was flow cation diagrams of the number smaller turbine number.
Performance based 2 or on 14.696 and power thereby are actual on similar turbine. however, turbine where pressure psia)
parameters standard and
are
reported conditions (288.2 standard Yet, the
in terms of
of equivalent (10.133 This conditions in lower applivelocity as those present For a
sealevel temperature 2 (vol. near would the the
pressure test results actual same can turbine the effect in an
K or 518.7 ° R). values model are this to then, be
discussed and and
in chapter temperature levels
1). Using the
turbineinlet
of pressure
than to and Only for
be encountered Mach numbers number, turbines, was number found effects obtain
facilitates
testing. Reynolds larger
dissimilarity;
of Reynolds
performance Reynolds can be
negligible. important,
turbines, inlet
are more the proper
varied
to
Reynolds
Referring N/cm2gage venturi (16in.) 354 meter
to figure (40psig)
121, air
air for the system in a straight of
turbine the
is supplied laboratory. of the the A
by the
27.6
ca}ibrated
is located line for
section
40.6centimeter air flow. This
airsupply
the
purpose
of metering
EX_PERIME,NTAL
DF_TERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
piping exceed device upstream required
is sized 61 meters in the for
(as was per and highpressure
all piping) second may of (200 supply minimize flows.
such ft/sec). line
that
the
air
velocities of the
will
not
Location affords number
airmetering constant devices airmetering controllable valve pro
a relatively of metering of valve sonic and
pressure
the
a range
A further
discussion
devices is presented in a subsequent Downstream of the venturi meter by vides the turbine a high operator. drop
section. is an isolation (12in.)
A 30.5centimeter to facilitate burner
pressure
operation
automatic line provide is the 50.8the desired 76.2 air lines to cm then entry can the control
inletpressure protection centimeter turbineinlet (30 valve diverts of lower be seen After altitude (48in.) control pressure in.)
control. A burstdisc from excessive pressure. (20in.) pressure main control (for the The of the
safety valve and vent Further downstream valve example used to establish this (6in.) pressure. lines to provide (These plenum. air through turbine the is turbine,
was bypass The
of Hg into two
absolute). fine control air
15.2centimeter turbineinlet (20in.) turbine turbine, laboratory and a the while entry the
permits velocity passing exhaust main valve. ratio
50.8centimeter to the the of the valve valves
dual
in fig. 122.) through system control These acrossthe discharged (16in.) operator turbineinlet a 121.9centimeter bypass the is to vary pressure
40.6centimeter
permit turbine
maintained constant by automatic control. This type of pressureratio control has been most successful with small turbines. With large large its use inlet In this turbines, pipe however, between The a single with to the air. The the has per burners simple products performance are and generally complexity and both burner (300 ° F). general, using are gasoline, to the where jet means air, fuel, and flow or natural the must are these rates gas provide inexpensive added used calculations. only of large of heating air. However, be accounted provide low, because clean of natural burner desired amount the second purpose there the is shown avoid gas, and is a slower and fig. 121) burner jetengine Some air air from heated inlet (in of the icing response the inlet because control the can, mixed fuel of the volume installation turbine valve. because turbineexit. air is with flow. air the by This of to flow modified
A burner
in phantom, at burner the turbine
is optional. temperature facility
is to elevate
so as to
problems of the
commercial is used. the
for operation bypassed remaining controlling particular 23.6 422 In K
highpressure is maintained the
is then and ambient
turbine capability (52
temperature
of bypassed lb/sec)
to heat
a maximum
kilograms
temperature
a relatively combustion for heat, the in cost the but
Electrical installations.
heaters
355
TURBINE
DEISIGN
AND
A.PPLICATION
All turbines The following be guarded (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Low Low High High Low High High High High
and are against supply pressures
test some by
facilities of the constant
must potentially
be designed unsafe
with
safety
features. that must
conditions
monitoring: and dynamometer and dynamometer outlet water inlet gas gas rotor and casing gas exit gas of turbine inlet exit supply lubricating ]ubricating water oil oil
of turbine of turbine
temperature temperature pressure temperature (or low) pressure pressure
in bearings of dynamometer of dynamometer of turbine temperature of turbine of turbine rotor
Overspeed Reduced Excessive Excessive on Some Others line air
of turbine
clearance between rig vibration shaft some monitors provide orbit of the provide a signal heater
Interlocks starting. operation. inlet rotor rotation
monitoring for only gas to rapidly damage Turbine of the
systems an system. to the audible shut
prevent alarm valves quickly and the This turbine
turbine during in the stops facility.
as well in order
as in the to prevent
Research A schematic diagram of one
research
turbines view also sides;
used
in
this test As
test facility is presented in figure 123. section with instrumentation stations stated was velocity upstream circumferential has an of 2 dynamic A short, inlet inlet blade low, entering section measuring chords the the insertion blading. annular to 123). fig. flow measure passage the is also are turbineinlet previously, designed and of with the air enters volume section distribution pressure a plenum distortion. to as much
An enlarged indicated is from two to provide A screen ensure giving turbine area,
of the shown. the
plenum located screen drop
as feasible further
for minimum a symmetrical This a pressure
minimum a converging pressure heads.
is shown blades.
to the effective
approximate
50 percent
straight, and pressure
annular the station first and
passage row (station
is provided for
between the purpose
the
converging of installing The 1/_ is flow
of blades 0 of fig. stator does
temperature blades. not
measurement 123) Since is located the
devices. about velocity the inlet disturb
upstream
of the
of probes
significantly
A straight, turbine station 356 blades 2,
provided air made
downstream state about
of the
turbineoutlet
(measuring 2 bladechord
Measurements
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC f Station 0
PERFORMANCE
I
I
1
2 ]
1
I
Stator bladetPlenum
'LJ :" Rotor blade
]'0 dynamometer
i
\
i
i! \
_
i_\ ¸,
\
[ 
CD1168311 FIGURe: 123.Schematic diagram of turbine test section.
]engths bilize(1 Both idealized The tail axial before tremely flow
downstream and uniform the as has vary. aml passages after inlet and compared a burner Also, the aml in the
of the outlet to
rotor, sections an
where
the
exit test
air turbine
is relatively are
sta
of the preceding
somewhat inlet,, and a
actual the sake blading reason
jetengine the weight last row
turbine turbine s_,ving, the area use state of blades.
installation. Flowpassage minimum conditiolls is exannular
latter cone
immediately following for the
immediately is required.
diameters length
of engine
Accurately this is the turbine.
measuring in varying for the
turbine test
passages
diflicult,
of straight,
FlowProperty The positions flowproperty indicated in measuring figure 123.
Measurements stations There are are loe,_ted numerous in the types uxia! and
357
TURBINE
DE_TGN
AND
APPLICATION x o • E_ Temperature rake ]otalpressure probe Staticpressure tap Angle probe
Measuring stations
0 diagram
1 of turbine
2 instrumentation.
FIGURE 124.Schematic
variations of probes will discuss primarily turbine and outlet, In turbine size mentation probes In small ated and, usually Static 124, 90 ° apart, with blockage therefore, limits there the are on flow to obtain angle. as well general, size of the the The all turbine can turbines, could on respect the
available to make the instruments desired stator instrumentation exit, experimental of stages, For flow an values and each the inner require large of the effect size on being measuring whether passages
the desired measurements. We used in the example research of pressure, at the in figure the same the probes turbine 124. irrespective overall of research relative with This as This size their data. instruof the associprocess, negligible. of The temperature, inlet and located turbine
measurements is shown
as at the turbine
investigations, duplication turbines, can the various
or number
determines to the have the
be afforded.
be considered expansion
presence
measured. station, taps, walls.
consideration in figure and proIn order multiple individual the obindividual to desurface. is are used installed to
number four
of probes. shown diametrically opposed multiplicity
pressure.At both on the
staticpressure and
outer
vides a check to minimize taps served are often pressure pressures differ,
the circumferential pressure amount of instrumentation to provide some may not flow be the a single true test, this however, circulation
distribution. and data, reading. average it is often If the of the occurs and
manifolded reading stator a
pressures. As part termine As calculate 358 the explained
of the in blade
performance distribution section, velocities.
desired blade taps
staticpressure subsequent surface
along
the
information
the
Staticpressure
EXPERIMENTAL
D_TERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
along tubes the are major 0.0254 long apart, are probe that The used adjacent
the that blade, hollow
hub, can then blades. and
mean, the For fairly The
and desired the
tip
sections one can taps thus, in
of the blade be
blade.
If among
the by
number the two the size blades
of of
be installed
in any research
is limited discussed, the used small small A taps is
divided being size too
or more no
turbine installing hole diameter. however, shielded
large; in.) flow;
presented approximately is desirable results probes, fig. 124) One is about for also some
problem. centimeter
pressuretap the
(0.010
hole a hole
so as not Inlet
to disturb time. total
in a 90 ° and such 0.48 40 ° .
response
pressure.Four at the to in.) probe 20 ° . the in figure readings inlet area 125(a).
totalpressure station the twice flow that shielding, (see which to yaw is has of passage.
are located is shown (0.19 pressure unshielded for for about
measuring center The and in figure This
all immersed
centimeter
in diameter are relatively shown measurement.
in length,
is such commonly
insensitive 125(b) probe
totalpressure
an insensitivity
to yaw
Flow I
I
Flow
ia_ (a) Shielded probe. FZ(_URE 125.Totalpressure (b)
tb_ Unshielded probe.
probes.
The testing sure. used value
turbineinlet to establish However, to define based on the pressure
totalpressure pressure and distribution maintain ratio when
readings and a constant totalpressure reporting
serve are
as a check used value during total that flow rate, is
on
the presoften is a
circumferential
turbine
turbineinlet turbine of mass
turbineinlet
performance
experimental
measurements
static 359
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
pressure, tion, with
and the
total flow
temperature angle
and
obtained
by
the at the
following turbine
equainlet:
a assumed
to be zero
[i,
where p' P
5'
V &s%jT'""
lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 at constant l)ressure to specific 2)
(122)
total static
pressure, pressure,
N/m2;
N/mg;
ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion annulus gas total flow constant, angle constant, area, temperature, measured value m2; ft 2 J/(kg)
heat
at
g Aan R T'
1; 32.17
(lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec (°R) (teg pressure than
(K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K; °R from axial direction, total value
This more value. are
calculated rel)resentative
of turbineinlet of the true aver'_ge
is thought is the
to be
experimental
Inlet temperature.Two located at the turbine rakes, which a number annular and the are readings. where regulation due large to heat research in
thermoeouple rakes, spaced 180 ° apart, inlet measuring station (see fig. 124). siinilar to that situated rake at duct readings facilita.tes inlet burner temI)erature is I)rovided Reynolds This as an turbines effects. being some used small of shown ,_1 the shown the center, in figure area the in figure 126(a), radii 126(a) areamean turbine. the average in Autopresent not exist but in refburner center
These contain
are of a type of thermocouples areas. wall of The The the the latter
of equal was radius, Provisions of all the fuel operation, matic used
particular temperatures outlet
to determine made
a radialinflow a.s well as for with for this the
for individual
testing
a constant to the of temperature
is maintained. tmrl)ose. can did number problem example
Measurement a problem for was the
at low
conduction turbine testing
herein,
encountered
as discussed
erence 2. A large amount to the flow in order to conventional exposed good shown 170. wire accuracy in figure This modified thermocouple length at low 126(b) probe
of bare thermocouple make the conduction shown in figure The results. of about number. a wire excellent
wire must be exposed error negligible. The 126(a) modified has a ratio of for is inadequate thermocouple ratio of about
to diameter Reynolds has gives
12, whictl
lengthtodiameter
360
EXPERIMENTAL
DIhTERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
! / / / / / / /
I / / /
Thermocoul)le junction
Therrnocouplejunction
(a) (a) Conventional FIGURE type. 126.Thermocouple
(b) (b) Modified configurations. type.
rake
Stator at the stator survey outlet probe associated
outlet.During stator probe outlet performance testing,
turbine is the the Although
testing, rotor
the
only
measurement static and also pressure.
made For statorproblems effect of
previously
mentioned is removed, it is desirable
a totalpressure to obtain the the
is installed. and with
radial blockage
circumferential conventional value being
staticpressure wedge probes, measured,
surveys, especially make such
on the
measurements
361
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
FIGURE
127.Totalpressure
survey
probe
installed
in
test
facility.
unreliable. from pressure probe flow The actuator driven probe as the facility. 362 required the
The values probe
required measured used at an that
static at test probe
pressures the hub facility has two
are obtained and tip wall is shown determined sensing the is shown of the circumferential the that same wa_ of stem used
by interpolation taps. to be elements; The 127. the outer 128. the these totalThis are walls. The The example sensing motoraverage
in the angle the survey for radial
in figure
is fixed angle. Note
previously
to obtain totalpressure provides outerwall shown previously in this
measurements
at both equipment
inner probe,
and and
in figure
movement for not the does have
saddle figure shown
provides probe regarding
movement. stem configuration in the
(fig. 127)
Considerations
effects
blockage,
• EXPERIMENTAL
DI_TERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
r Outer wall saddleassembly
r Actuator
t /
cm 0
LLLLU
5
C062250 FIGURE 128.Totalpressure survey equipment.
element diameter, edge are discussed Although example use for Doppler velocity probes. Turbine shown and flow not herein, directly velocimeter, measurements
and measurement in reference 3. used in the particular velocity as to be made optical measuring such laser
distance facility magnitude in without with total exit.
behind serving have and reference the the use
the
blade
trailing
as the direction. 4,
discussion come allows into the A laser
techniques described
recently
of flowdisturbing of sensing 124 shows head that at radius
outlet.Combination 129, capable angle are located at the probes probe
probes, of measuring turbine
type
in figure
pressure, Figure
temperature,
five of these combination measuring station 2. Each of one the tional design, side and of five equal of probes annular number Measurement selfbalancing with tubes the center
are distributed circumferentially is located at the area center In general, turbine by total respect between means size
areas.
influences
permissible. angle tube is accomplished The with ranges probe used that to measure of a convenis of the a 3tube The center two tube probe system. located shown to the
of flow
pressure. total
are symmetrically to a pressure
are exposed
pressure
and the making connected
static pressure. The openings in the side tubes are in planes an angle of 45 ° with the center tube. These side tubes are to the two sides of a diaphragm in a balance capsule. A 363
TURBINE
I)E,SIGN
AND
KPPLIGATI,0N
FIGURE
129.Combinationprobe
sensing
head.
differential so that tubes the Exit generally but of than true they equation does if the discrepancies. error an of the
transformer error probe by signal are
in the unequal.
capsule
is actuated when into the the
by
the
diaphragm, in the to side reduce are for and gross use work
is generated the and primary found of exit probe probe
pressures operates flow.
A servosystem totalpressure determirtation values that more total in order values measurement reliable temperature. position wouhl the the
to zero not are used
pointing for the been
totaltemperature used It has (121) measurement temperature occur over probe, integrated pressure, of equation does direct which from (122)
measuremertts of turbine to check of This and have large to be work conditions. specific calculation When the exit of torque specific
efficiency,
to determine provides
is especially variations Even to be of ideal exit flow of exit flow with deterwork, angle total is surveyed
is in a fixed range exit in order is used equation yields passage for for
in flow and mined Exit is usually is small, pressure 364 the
angle results
the the
of operating
a selfbalancing accurately. total use than
determined
(122). more
reliable When the
values
measurement.
angle
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
large, become ment
the
radial In total
variations this case, (122), pressure
in pressure unless the choice is not
and between
angle values
in the can
exit be and
passage obtained measure
large. of exit
integrated clearcut. Measurement
for use in equation
calculation
MassFlow Flows pend pipe. orifice secondary pressure and on the All the on The are the placed usually pressure in the may device. and and measured differential element pipe through Each the
with
variablehead by such the
meters, as a venturi, fluid has
which in the nozzle,
defluid or The
caused
a constriction
primary element recording
is a restriction which Utube
is flowing.
be a simple selection
manometer particular particular the same
or an intricate certain advantages depends meter
of these
meters
disadvantages, requirements of these variable
of any of the have
constraints meters of flow:
application. basic equation for
head rate
computation
of the W=
AtMCEY_/2gp.,(p.,pt)
(123)
where A, M C E Y p_n p_. Pt The flow area of meter velocity coefficient expansion at meter pressure pressure factor factor inlet, at meter at meter factor M:1 D, 4 kg/m3; inlet, throat, is 1 (124) lb/ft 3 N/m2; N/mS; lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 throat, factor m2; ft _
approach discharge thermal density static static approach
compressibility
velocity
where The actual ferent
D is diameter, discharge flow for rate each
in m or ft. C accounts theoretical meter. flow Although for the difference and good between the diffor caliThe meter at of the
coefficient and type the of
rate
is significantly approximations a direct results. the obtained
dis<.harge coefficients bration of the meter thermal throat expansion area is usually
can be made from published data, should be made to assure accurate factor E accounts from is not for equal the fact that determined measurements to the
room temperature, which usually fluid flowing through the meter.
temperature
365
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
The
compressibility
factor
for nozzles
and
venturi
meters
is
(125) The derivation of pJpt_ orifices from the of equation and D#D,, having following (125), along with the equation curves value from showing 5. For of Y can 5: reference Y as a most be
function concentric determined
is presented (Ap/p_,)<0.3, empirical
in reference
y _ l  [ O.41q O.3 5 ( ___/. ] ! P2__ )' / Ventur4, venturi verging tubes fuser the tube.Figure tube, section, are object usually section which cast a cylindrical and is made usually 1210 consists throat have with shows the important entrance and
') features section, section. surfaces. of about of kinetic
(126) of a conThe difThe a
of a cylindrical section, machined an included
a diffuser angle
internal recovery
7 ° with energy venturipressure
of accomplishing
a maximum
while minimizing friction loss. The total pressure loss from the tube inlet to exit is from 10 to 20 percent of the differential between in that a long, the inlet and more run the throat. The than venturi other tube head has meters, it is bulky, straight difficult of piping. to construct (particularly
disadvantages so as to provide and requires
reproducibility),
expensive
F low
"v_"
Pressure
taps
FIGURE
1210.Venturi
tube.
Flow flow tube with 366
nozzle.Figure The the flow diffuser is thus
1211 nozzle lost, section.
shows approaches, The the
the high
shape to some pressure has
of a commonly extent, recovery a pressure the
used venturi obtained of 30
nozzle. without the
venturi
and
nozzle
loss
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION Staticpressure
OF laps ,
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
Flow Din Dl
I
i
J
/// :: ii\\
FIGURE 1211.Flow nozzle.
\,\
percent between approach 0.98.
or more, the inlet factor
depending and and the M
on
area
ratio, The
of the flow
differential a nozzle
pressure (product of is about
throat.
coefficient (7) for
discharge
coefficient
Orifice.The sharpedged widely used of the various the streamlines on the
orifice (fig. 1212) head meters. Because side the and of the plate,
is probably the most of the inward flow of the minimum stream
upstream
area occurs downstream from known as the vena contracta, pressure is obtained. than that for a flow 0.65. vena
orifice edge. This minimum area is it is at this area that the minimum loss somewhat for an orifice area an orifice is carefully sharp, and being with of flow the of the greater is about at the which acconaxial in367
The orifice nozzle. The
has a pressure flow coefficient
This low value is due contracta rather than to make, coefficients to specifications, is possible. of the The cylindrical may
to the effective minimum at the orifice itself. in most be a high machine If the edge must must not degree shops, hole be used.
It is possible published cording ditions length
made
of reproducibility exceed 5 percent
upstream portion
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPL]:CATION
L
f low Din Dt
 Static pressure FIGURE 1212.Sharpedged
taps orifice.
side diameter more orifices the orifice
of the pipe. Because which will have the used. Torque
it is possible to construct two or same coefficients when calibrated,
is extensively
Measurement an accurate consideration used by measurement in evaluating to determine Simply, the the where turbine of torque turbine turbine absorption into for heat. the it generally
In
turbinecomponent by are heat, no the The cradled in turn, useful and turbine devices
tests, mos_ the
produced performance. torque This serves turbine, (1) dynamometer
is of prime
commonly dynamometers. supplied
absorption is dissipated purpose. The as the
converts
energy
to the turbine to be brakes; as brakes;
surroundings, provides controller. in speed discussed (2) and force
dynamometer
a load section In
this is used or
Absorption hydraulic, (3) electric methods other brakes, is shown generally 368 than Hydraulic since used
dynamometers fluidfriction, used generators
this
include brakes; addition, meters water brake coupled
electromagnetic (4) airbrakes. types frequently A typical the The cradle shaft of torque called water is
for measuring absorption the in fluid
dynamometer dynamometers is almost which
and are
are discussed. units always shows water. clearly
dynamometer.These in figure 1213,
mounting
dynamometer
installations.
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AE:RODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
Disk
Water in let _ Shaft bearing\ Packing gland ,, \
/ Water in let ,/ / Packing gland Shaft / / bearing
Shaft
Pedestal bearing
Pedestal bearing
FIGVRE
1213.Hydraulic
dynamometer.
(Courtesy
of Murray
Iron
Works
Co.)
directly housing friction so that housing housing absorbed Water to the valves depth the cient pacity disk to
to the through on the tends permits may periphery are and of the
test disk.
turbine the to shaft The rotate,
and housing
transmits the limits. A scale is supported
the
developed in the
torque and rotates, arm the
to the fluid the on the power force ring casuch 369 bearings
bearings, _thin it. of the compartment
packing As attached the moment, by
glands, pedestal shaft to an and
it is free
to rotate be computed. the or disk the
with
determination
turning
fed into closed the
is thrown it forms opened
centrifugal As the the water
of the this housing, The the
disk, inlet results and formation
where valves
a ring. further, increased circulated at any
discharge between be suffisince
is increased; brake.
in greater a consequently of water of steam
frictional
resistance should point,
absorption
amount
prevent
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
action level, the increase cube
would the of the
cause speed.
momentary capacity This vice
unloading. of this (i.e.,
With brake
a
constant varies of torque
water almost a_ with and
powerabsorbing of speed, and
characteristic versa) and makes with
increase of
is typical them
all fluidfriction particularly in the the
electricaltype for testing Some the can Care outer increase must water
dynamometers nongoverned brakes power in the are This absorption however, vicinity capability periphery. be exercised, engines.
desirable disk near and occur, than is is trans
provided tends by
throughholes increase erosion that as an order of the is, by Another
to further as much because staging; holes.
friction, of magnitude. disk can to more
particularly
of these is by
way using
increase
power absorption one disk. Eddy.current shown supported mitted rotor bearings. current, ends ing face in the on two the
dynamometer.The views pedestal of figure bearings
eddycurrent 1214. so that In this any
dynamometer device, torque by the may stator be
by means is mounted The magnetizes of the the being ends tested,
of the torque on the shaft, carries the stator. of the the stator The lines
arm and measured which is supported which, rotor. air gap of force so that are when On the between enter caused as the and
the scale. The in the starer in with are and teeth the direct with opposby the the
starer
a coil, a small lines
energized rotor them the rotor
machined
to produce
rotor
principally through
through device
teeth,
is moved
of force
to sweep
/ Stator I I c_:Q(__I
/_ /'//
Water passages,,
.... 'K ' It
itator Scale
Shaft bearing_
___ _k_7_:_i''_;
OCilile /Shaft / o
',
L ],
:_:
i
,lorquearmI
FIGURE
1214.Eddycurrent mometer
dynamometer. and Engineering
(Courtesy Co.)
of
MidWest
Dyna
370
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AE.RODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
iron stator force
of the
stator.
The
magnetic
attraction
between with the currents
the rotor. therein;
rotor
and
the
causes sweeping
the stator through to cooling
to try to turn the stator induce water flowing in figure does and rotor. any not the commonly water
The lines of this energy in the stator. type, eddyhas in the can capability. frame It can a pump mover unit acts or be be a
is dissipated The because current cylindrical stator connected dc stator used or
tluough 1214 used.
passages is called
dynamometer the coolant ironcore directly onto in series dynamometer
shown water rotor, the to give dc the power is also
a drygap A wetgap type
contact
the flows power
rotor. The from
wetgap
passages
Eddycurrent required
dynamometers absorption with (testing of a prime the acts
dynaraometer.A cradled, to measure provides the as well
electric most required as to engine). the removing torque turbine
motorgenerator, versatile to drive the When the the measured torque. an researcher dynamometer. a device output unit turbine during For the it is driving,
a compressor) when windage measuring
absorb energy,
(a turbine as a motor; The seal, shaft, torque in order the total losses and driving and and
or a reciprocating capability losses the the may permits by
it is absorbing
as a generator. bearing, driving This the smaller turbine of the tests the frictional turbines, these output,
to determine rotor, of speed.
torque
as a function
is then friction
added losses
to the true
to obtain
represent
appreciable
percentage turbines, torque
turbine power. For are generally small hence, they can often
the larger jetengine type when compared to the total be neglected. airbrake developed for 1215. at testing The a rotor dynamometer the view airbrake with the NASA small of the consists either
Airbrake power Center. about mometer valve, an It
dynamometer.hThe that (25 hp)). was is used is shown inlet extensively in figure
is a Lewis
type Research
of than
absorber 19 kW
turbines
(less
A crosssectional a stator,
airbrake a paddle
dynawheel entry of the stator, to the
of a throttle
collector,
or airfoil type and discharge airbrake which direction momentum power output. straighteners Therefore, The and ment casing axial the in gives of an it
blading, and flow straighteners of the air. After the air enters axial diiection, of air the and, it rotor. thereby, the from iotor rotor, the is accelerated in The the tangential the momentum
to ensure axial inlet collector through removes the research through passes the opposite
a direction rotor air absorbs airbrake to the are the
rotation from and After
tangential turbine flow direction. casing. radial
leaving
is discharged on the in air arm
in an axial torque
torque
is equal
on the for for
is cradled loads.
bearings, is attached
which to
designed casing
A torque
measure
of torque. 371
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPL£CATION
Thrust Journal Flow tubes_,,I\ air bearings bearingsr...
air I '
il
_
t_
1,',I Y_::_._:.._.__"?i
straighteners
....
i_:_
1
x
i
Throttle
valve J
_z.X.Jl Inlet collector / /_
,
[ \
stator _ _t_tteor r
i I _.J
. J
CD1016709 FIGURE 1215.Airbrake dynamometer.
It for
can each
be noted an outer row. blade small
from and turbine an This
figure inner stator outputs can be in the blade
1215 blade system at used same row
that row, low where direction inlet
the with is well one
stator adapted blade of rotation
consists
of
two
sections, extremely a stator tangential while case, can the driving the the be a direction
independent For row can
valving to measure example, impart rotor in this This permits force scale. the power indicate remain involved. is not used),
pressures.
configuration momentum other rotor used to capability, of can can torque acting horizontal, remotely be arm vertically, stator is of the absorb opposite
as the momentum rotor. the turbine. For
imparts type or the for
tangential of the Thus, the design. to drive losses.
to the
direction power case seal
of rotation
paddlewheel turbine the and
aiIbrake
as was of bearing be obtained used are
(It dynamometer, dynamometer by a springbalance of scales does force reading been and of the that force the have range. these
measurement Measurement
frictional simply the
dynamometer most because very the
force.The
measurement Such absorber forces relatively The readily and 372 a scale
displacements Because should are
small. torque of the
arm scale the proper
regardless observable
magnitude telescopes
disadvantages available scales
of a springbalance (lowpower not have may
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
Hydrostatic (e.g., with the air) the fluid, it. current load output direct as the fluid the can of operation
devices fluid the held is that being greater be
with have force becomes in test
either been
a liquid used
(e.g.,
mercury) force. greater the fluid. or force with devices The the
or on the This required
a gas fluid, on to fluid
to measure space. pressure of the are The on load
principle force
to be measured the terms facilities with on digital the The than use the that be used. the that applied. and is that and indicated. include interfere torquemeter fiat the on twist reflecting twist of a slit, the
is impressed
in a confined
pressure produce Most straingage electrical provide particularly
calibrated turbine cells signal torque
equipped These
calibrated provide an can signal is
to measure which, readings for automatic to cradle
torque. a digital
appropriate voltmeter. data
electronics, This
suitable it is
recording. component as may capability required arise of the for abbox. wherein gear torquemeter, shaft strain power is very are electronic brush the basically surfaces shaft. onto thereupon Photocell of the close tends as a laser for two by successive unbalanced life and consists at each The optical reflection photocells illumrepositions position optical to the to cloud beam, the of both surface gage absorber. nearly equipthe of end. a transmitted encountered measurements. is
Straingage testing, conventional the To strain mounted The unique through ment, with this fine turbine which operates are on wire function circumvent sorber, which
torquemeter.Sometimes, impractical torque rotative would this on the speed necessitate problem, the principle can between property strain brushes, torque voltages parallel unit illuminated gap. the measurement. is higher
in turbomachinery equipment situation the
of an intermediate straingage torque and resistance Readings Problems short with the and wire
a highspeed, shaft turbine its
proportional, shaft, the of the type of onto shaft has
A bonded
slip rings, where
to appropriate
torquemeter optical measures surfaces Shaft
occurrence Optical a shaft system from ination separated A stationary with
of induced torquemeter.An polished optical the of the by on the
of the shaft,
projects each
image
reflecting
a hairline to restore of shaft has must
produces condition.
two photocells.
A servomechanism
the photocells is a measure Experience torquemeter This turbine these may optical torsional may be
tile nullbalance twist. that the these
indicated be and/or kept because
reflecting polished surfaces and source, readings. must have
surfaces to are maintain usually
highly
accuracy.
difficult, A higher facilitate the under
bearings surfaces. possibly and twist
gearbox intensity accurate load. Both
bearings light torque
oil mist such The been
design operated
straingage
torquemeters systems
provide
adequate in con373
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPL]_CATION
junction types could of be
with used
dynamometers, that turbine for
with are testing.
good
correlation.
There available
are that
other also
torquemeters
commercially
RotativeSpeed One testing to give manent shaft the usually speed. For and called because 1 minute). The the larly sprocket An given currently suited with time and speed proportional the turbine system. greater result control provide electronic for most accepted greater disengaging they yield accuracy should in speed be used. are average the voltage of the is that magnetic speed remote output simplest of rotative field of which of the indicator and indication and most
Measurement accurate The electric Adc Since graduated of speed. measurements tachometer generator, is the in can with driven turbine be used a perby the The
speed.
a continuous
a rotating
armature,
is to be measured. generator is a voltmeter
field is constant, to its to speed. read rotative
is proportional
measurements, A means with These speed a timer. units
a positively is provided are Commercial time
driven units, (usually is through
revolution
counter
for engaging advantageous
it simultaneously an rotative
chronotachometers,
available.
for a given
method or electronic of teeth counts count
of measuring pulse is secured the teeth machines. For
speed this
use of an electromagnetic a given pickup number accurately the
counter. to the
It is particumethod, shaft. for a a turbine speed. when pressure for this, accuracy air supply the air are tends and of
highrotativespeed
(or impulses)
displays varies varies.
directly during flow rate an increase
as rotative turbine and, tests therefore,
Rotative supply directly to drive there the to
somewhat Since mass
pressure
power
to pressure, faster. It The and
in supply to correct within the
absorber decelerations ideal taking
tends
accelerations accuracy
is, therefore, when
to have data.
a steady
TURBINE The by one performance the characteristics maps. flow The turbine and
PERFORMANCE of turbines Such work ratio. work, the and discussed map are usually map of the on the used and 1). are shown presented shows, operating map for are any in terms nature on
means figure,
of performance of speed of efficiency. conditions conditions
a performance as functions Also and can shown speed The
and flow,
conditions contours inlet of equivalent
pressure so that are
be readily concept 2 (vol.
conditions
of temperature
pressure.
of equivalent 374
in chapter
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
In
brief
review,
the
equivalent
conditions
are
w.q=w
_ e _h'
(127)
ah;q=
and
0
(128)
N
Ne,=
where rection the subscript eq refers factors are defined as to the equivalent condition. The
(129)
cor
o=(
V_,,o ) _ \Vc_. ,,a/ _=p,'0 Ps,a
(1210) (1211)
and ( e%'a 2 "_%,_/(,.ta_) (1212)
\__t_+ 1/
( 2 y,(,,,
where the square of the critical V_r= velocity 2Z_ gRT' 3,t1 standard psia), and sealevel temperature specific heat ratio 1216. equivalent discussion flow rate on ratio (total the air Vc, is (1213)
The
subscript (10.133
std molecular
refers N/cm
to _ or
the
conditions (288.2 (1.4). EquivaK
of or
pressure 518.7 ° R), An lent flow spreads follow, variations pressure map. Also,
14.696 (29.0), map against
weight
example specific and the out there ratio
performance work the may is plotted data equivalent be little speed. case)
is presented the speed. as will variation constant are be product This
in figure of the product
mass to With
rotative because, or no and
conveniently
shown in the speed
in the mass pressure are
in rotative in this contours a great
Lines
of constant included can
presented
of efficiency deal a better if some of
for completeness. be obtained turbine a range from performance are sections plotted The are not 375 of speed. the
Although performance can curves be independently of this
information performance ratio in the
map,
understanding of the presented of pressure
of the for
obtained
parameters following
as functions type to be
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Percent of design equivalent speed, N/%/B Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure, pb/@ Efficiency
t
90xlO3 39 37 35 85 80
Design equivalent speedand work output
IO0
105 084.4
_ Y 3.6 / _; 1 4.0 _:__ 3.4 i/3. 2
31 70i 29 33
_ q701:?_'_S:_ 5<t7h937 _5_ _V

3. o z.8
7.6
O
25 _' 23 21
6oh
55[
.SO
li
f/
i

i
I
_._;c.;t'.i'l
l,'J5" ._'_7..I.. k Ob / 4 / / ,_..'T
" / ?1 F;..;]¢..4:I_' ,. /"7>. _ i"
z_ . d Yd tA=
2.4
4
85
2
42.o
/
2.z
"E 19
"_
I..i.I
_'.. 70;_.80U7 1/40 P x...t[../,c,(/_2_._'1.. /'IV" /I/1/7

i 1.8
17 15 13 11
u C,q'_/ e, , 7 "i"l
30 2=. 3 ;j1 I
LI '>
9 4 5 6 7 8 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed, _wN/6, (kg)iradl/sec 2 7
_8 I 9 I 10 I 11 _ 12 I 13 l 14 _L.... I 15 16 I 17 I 18 i 19 I 20
lOxlO3
___L
211xl 04
Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed, ¢wN/8, (Ibl(rpm)/sec
FIGURE
1216.Turbine
performance
map.
for
the
same
turbine
whose certain
map points. Mass
is shown
in figure
1216.
but
were
selected
to illustrate
Flow turbine for (small pressure a singlestage 1217 having was statorthroat a small ratio obtained stagger and speed operwith area), and angle a
Variations are ated stator figure 376 shown with 1218
in mass in figures two was a large different
flow 1217
rate and stators.
with 1218
turbine
Figure angle a stator
having
stagger with
obtained
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
(large identical, In rate
statorthroat and the as both figures
area). same it can the rotor be pressure
For was seen
both used. that ratio
cases, for
the
stator speed,
blades the mass
were flow
a given
increases
increases
until
some
maximum
value is reached. increase in mass that either the In figure mum this mass that value indicates flow the rate rotor 1217,
A further increase flow. The reason for stator or the rotor the has small which flow the stator For is for rate by the
in pressure ratio produces no this maximum in mass flow is choked. statorthroat by the speed, choked In figure of the 1218, area, rotational the which rotor, the maxispeed; maximum indicates the maxiThis relathe
of mass that
is unaffected is choked. the case rotational
is influenced is choked.
mum mass is the usual tive mum The turbine. 1217 total flow In would occurrence
flow rate behavior pressure of very with
increases with decreasing and is due to an increase decreasing incidence speed. has turbine, a firststage been the for flow the choke. speed. losses ]arge causes
rotational speed. in the rotor inlet cases, however, a decrease case of a
with decreasing
In some
in maxisinglestage in figure of variation
foregoing
discussion
a multistage indicate
variation
shown A flow
stator
32
14.5_
30 31
_
13.5_ 14. 0_
f_
.%_
.... ___
3
i
_:
_
_spee_
12.o} /F
E ! _ II. 5
o
o
4o
60
• 24 _ 23!
._ I0. 5 I, __ t 1.4 i 1.6 I _ i 2.2 o I _ 2.4 II0 I l_i 2.6 2.8 I 3.0 1 3.2 I 3.4 _ 3.6 3.8
l 22 t
21
i0.0!
9.5 ' 1.0 1.2
1.8 2.0
Ratio o1'inlettotal to exittotal pressure, pb/p_ FIGURE 1217.Variation of for turbine equivalent with small mass flow statorthroat with area. totalpressure ratio
377
TURBINE
I_EISIGN
AND
&PPLZCATION
49 48 47
45
=
44
"E 43 "5 42 41
4O
39
17.5L
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
I
1.6
I
1.7
I
1.8
t
1.9
i
2.0
I
2.1
I
2.2
I
2.3
I
Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure, p_/p_ FIGURE 1218.Variation turbine of equivalent with large mass flow statorthroat with totalpressure area. ratio for
the
type
shown blade
in
figure row,
1218 either a
would rotor
indicate or a stator.
choking To
in
some
downstream exactly between illustrated with blade pressure downstream case stator ratio pressure tablishes 378 illustrated at continues turbine row
determine are
where this the blade in figure pressure exit choking upstream static in a turbine
choking occurred, rows would have 1219, ratio any that where (at given blade 1219, ratio the the turbine. blade row
staticpressure to be obtained. variation speed) As row the in hub is turbine
measurements Such data static shown by the in turbine at choke pressure the while particular the
pressure for each ratio static the
constunt
of a twostage in of
increases,
is indicated constant For first As first chokes
remaining to decrease. occurs 3.2. then
pressure figure pressure 3.7. flow
continues of
choking about rotor second
second pressure
to increase,
a turbine that es
ratio of about the maximum
It is, of course, the rate for the turbine.
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMA.__TCE
First stator exit
First rotor exit Second stator chokes Second rotor chokes I Second stator exit
I I I I I
Second rotor exit
.i
1.5 2.0 2.5
I
3.0
I
3.5
i
l
4.0
l
4.5
Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure, pb/p_ FIGURE 1219.Effect of turbine totalpressure ratio twostage tu_rbine. on hub static pressure in a
Torque As should tangential and figure creases of with tuining as speed AVu (absolute) exit for 1220. the resulting in the in the experimentally indicated vary by directly component any For torque constant with due from rotor. speed. rotor and At (exit a given the This equation with the (29) mass of chapter rate 2 (vol. and with between speed pressure and the in flow higher increased torque the more rate. 379 1), the the rotor torque is shown ratio values turning decreases amount positive of torque in inlet varies in in
flow velocity The
change
of absolute radius. speed, high is due turbine
(hV_) and tbe rate and ratio,
manner ratio
in which
pressure mass
increasing flow velocities pressure to flow decrease
to a higher a given absolute
increasing increases)
a decrease angle in mass
becomes
a possible
TURBINE
I_E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATI,0N
4000 
5500 50O0 4500 / Design point
32OO , ,.o" 2400 2800 E z _o 3500 C _" 3000 _ __ g 1500 1290 800 4OO E o •_ _ 2500 4OOO
Percent of design equivalent speed 0 [] 20 40
g _
0
1500' 1000' 500'

A _7 I_. ,4 17 I>
6o
70 80 90
100 110 120 130
o
o
1.4 1.8 2.2
I
2.6
I
3.0
I
3.4
I
3.8
I
4.2
I
4.6
I
5.0 p_IP2
I
5.4
I
5.8
Ratio of inlettotal FIGURE 1220.Variation of equivalent
to exitstatic pressure, torque with
turbine
pressure
ratio
and
speed.
Figure speed, the
1220 torque
shows
that
as the to level
pressure off and
ratio reach
increases
for
a given value.
tends
a maximum
Above this limit, additional torque. and is indicated ratio work
any further increase This phenomenon on a performance to yield In figure reached. exit
in pressure is termed map by the
ratio results in no "limiting loading" lines of loading occurs the is, when of constant
pressure specific the axial The measured performance map ratio
converging for each but area has speed. not
a maximuin 1216, Limiting is choked;
value limiting that
equivalent is being when exit
approached annulus Mach mass
been turbine
loading
at the
number flow data. map. the various and These
is unity. torque curves usual flow curves just discussed used can be plotted the from turbine are then procedure and torque to construct
The mass
in constructing at even work, increments
a performance of pressure work, and
is to select for the
speeds.
Specific and the
ideal
specific map can
efficiency
are then
calculated,
performance
be drawn.
Efficiency Another 380 convenient and widely used method of presenting turbine
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
performance _, which
is to plot is given by the
efficiency equation
as a function
of bladejet
speed
ratio
U (1214) _/2gJ,_h_ where U Ah_ blade ideal meansection specific work J/kg; speed, based Btu/lb 2 (vol. with static 1221 1), where For a correlation that speed case, ratio. against turbine bladeover a was efficiency shown was m/sec; on ratio ft/sec of inlettotal to exitstatic
pressure, This shown jet speed was discussed
in chapter for an
mathematically to vary ratio Experimentally
idealized
case. bladejet
parabolically obtained in figure
efficiencies
are plotted axialflow
for a twostage
___
_q
<_
50
_
30
/ / /
/
/
.1 Design value
I
.1
1
.2
I
.3 Bladejet
I
.4 speed ratio,
I
.5 v
I
.6
I
.7
I
.8
FIGURE
1221.V_riation
of efficiency
with
bladejet
speed
ratio.
381
TURBINE
I)E,SIGN
AND
A.PPLI.CATION
wide turbine, only and jet
range very are, speed
of speed slightly
and
pressure two stages
ratio. and Figure to the this higher
The very
total low than the
efficiencies exit velocities, static that an ideal always tend the
for
this were
because therefore, ratio manner be noted, turbine
of the not serves for
(1 or 2 percent) presented. very a real well that by lower Flow
efficiencies bladein as good a turbine.
1221 as well
shows turbine as for is not
correlate correlation figure. the
efficiency
generalized It should as for where the
turbine
however, represented
For speed
operating lines ratios.
conditions to separate
limiting
loading
is approached, at the
speed
somewhat,
especially
bladejet Angles considered how
Although parameters,
flow we
angles should
are
not
as they
turbine over
performance the turbine
understand
vary
3O
Percent of design equ ivalent speed
2O 
80
10
100
0
"0
120
_'_ 10 g
2 2o
30
40
50
6O
1
1.4
I
1.6
I
1.8
I
2.0
I
2.2
I
2.4
Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure, P_P_t FIOURE 1222.Variation of rotor incidence and speed. angle with turbine pressure ratio
382
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
operating row to
conditions. the losses, which angle
The incidence as
direction loss,
of the which in
flow
entering
each
blade
determines offdesign
is an important 8 (vol. 2).
contributor The the rotor rotor
discussed is defined and and
chapter
incidence inlet over
angle, flow
as the
difference inlet for
between angle, a typical in figure the was
relative a range and are
the rotor pressure values
blade ratio
calculated singlestage
of speed the resultant defined
turbine, angles ponent velocity. this
are presented positive when same
1222.
Flow comblade from the po
herein
as being vector
tangential as be the made over
of the The
velocity following
is in the
direction can occurs
generalized variation
observations angle change
figure:
(1) a large range
in incidence (2) the
tential
operating
of a turbine,
in incidence
angle
4
m
16_" A _3 © [] ©
Percent of design equivalent speed 4O 5O 6O 7O 8O 90 100
8
0
16 
o Q_ L.
2_
32 
40 
48 
56 2
1
1.3
I
1.4
I
1.5
I
1.6
I
1.7
I
1.8
t
1.9
I
2.0
]
2.1
Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure, p_/p_, FIGURE 1223.Variation of outlet flow speed. angle with turbine pressure ratio and
383
TURBINE
I)E,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
with rotor
pressure incidence
ratio speed outlet
becomes becomes
greater more
as speed positive
increases, as with the respect
and pressure to the
(3)
the ratio
angle
increases and The turbine
decreases. flow angle
is important
design
of whatever component amount of thrust that flow 1223 graph. angle the direction angle for The also change is plotted the apply opposite same trends in outlet over
may be downstream of the turbine or to the can be obtained from the outlet flow. Outlet a range and angle of speed turbine flow angle, generalizations the with pressure incidence Loss in and at one 1224. region. majority where layers. ratio loss losses stator. The over the contours The terms of total pressure such the seen of many were were pressure the loss full data by and referred only ratio angle. pressure made for and ratio in figure last being parathat
singlestage observed outlet
to in the difference speed
the incidence is in the
to the
flow to that
for rotor Stator
Stator means previously totalpressure trailing of such trated affected with the
loss
is
directly in figures survey in the
measurable probe 127 taken wake and
of a totalpressure shown loss occurs edge loss as shown near by the the
survey 128. radius It of can A
equipment A typical just composite stator of the The traces be plainly behind
as that stator that all such ratio concengreatly loss can endwall
circumferential
is shown traces in figure hub and endwall critical buildup
in figure yields 1225.
circumferential
totalpressure
tip regions, boundary velocity can of the
measurements increased flow) and (and
increasing
boundarylayer be converted 7 (vol. gives 2). the total
be noted.
totalpressure as described area of one and the
to kineticenergy Integration loss for the
coefficients
in chapter passage perform
Once
turbine
stator
2.0

it)
_=_
1.5

Suction
/
.1.0r, (=_ ca. "_c_
,'
surface
o 0
su rfac/
__ressure
One blade pitch
FIGURE
1224.Typical
totalpressure
loss
survey
data
at
blade
exit.
384
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
Totalpress ure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet_ >0.98 0 90 to 098 >0.80 to 0.90
v,
Totalpressure ratio (bladeex_t 1o Nade inlet) Pressure surface side E::3 >0 98 090 Io 098 0.80 to 0.90 >070 to 0.80
Suction surface ,, side 
(b) Totalpressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet} rI >098 _zza 0,90 to 0.98 i_ 0.80 to 090 I_ 0.70 to 080 _lm >0.60 to 070 r_> Totalpressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet) 0.98 0 90 0.80 0.70 >060 to to to to 0.98 0,90 0.80 070
I I 4
L_j
(c) (a) ity (c) ity FIGURE Ideal ratio, Ideal ratio, aftermix 0.512. aftermix 0.823. of totalpressure ratio critical veloc(d) ity critical veloc(b) ity Ideal ratio, Ideal ratio, from (d_ aftermix 0.671. aftermix 0.859. stator annular surveys. critical veloccritical veloc
1225.Contours
ance have been can be made.
obtained
experimentally,
a
turbine
loss
breakdown
Surface An important surface profiles part that of the yield blading favorable
Velocity design is the selection velocity of the blade
surface
distributions. 385
TURBINE
DE'SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Analytical chapter mine achieved. staticpressure manner ments. known,
methods 5 (vol. 2). the obtain
for calculating During "designed the velocity in the the test for"
surface program, surface distribution
velocities velocities along the
were
discussed to deteractually surface,
in
it is of interest were a blade surfaces blade the
whether To
measurements previously static distribution the velocity pressure
are made
along
blade the
in the surfaces relation
discussed With the
section
on staticpressure along from
measure
distribution can
be determined
Vc,
vf_'+i[1
L_1L\p_/
( P']'""'"7"lr"
jj
determined surface similar conditions.
(1215)
velocity The disone. is are
Figure 1226 shows the experimentally distributions for two stators tested under tribution Acceleration smooth, no large (force and flow shown on the in figure the maximum is well 1226(a) velocity (diffusions) distributed along other hand, Flow on
is considered to the is maintained on either the
to be a desirable maximum subsonic. surface. The velocity There
suction
surface
decelerations
loading
on blade)
blade. distribution accelerates
Figure considered
1226(b), on the to be undesirable.
shows a velocity the suction surface
1.4
B
1.2
._
r Suction surface
>_1.0
_ Suction surface _
¢''_\
_.
i,/.....E,/
' / .Z/
I
•2 _ 0 f_). "0 i .2 .4 0.. 3_. _ . surface __Pressure I_ surface '_ Pressure
I
.6 (a)
I
I
I
I
.4 (b)
I
.6
I
.8
I
1.0
.8 1.0 0 .2 Fraction of blade surface length
(a)
Desirable FIGURE
distribution. 1226.Experimental surface
(b)
Undesirable velocity
distribution.
distributions.
386
EXPERIMENTAL
DETERMINATION
OF
AERODYNAIVIIC
PERFORMANCE
to
a supersonic back of the possibly
velocity boundary lead because sharp designed. is also of
(V/Vcr=l.2) velocity. layer to separation observed it is followed any separated and valleys peaks with on
and Such an of the the by an
then associated flow pressure flow. In
undergoes increase
a rapid causes suction but that surthis would velocity when the a in loss
deceleration thickening and face. is not result blades could
to a subsonic
a deceleration off the
A deceleration as critical, with in reattachment are being
surface, general,
acceleration be avoided
distributions
should
REFERENCES
ERNEST 0.: Measurement Systems: Application and Design. McGrawHiU Book Co., 1966. 2. PUTRAL, SAMUEL M.; KOFSKEY, MILTON; AND ROHLIK, HAROLD E.: Instrumentation Used to Define Performance of Small Size, Low Power Gas Turbines. Paper 69GT104, ASME, Mar. 1969. 3. MOFFITT, THOMAS P.; PRUST, HERMAN W.; AND SCHUM, HAROLD J.: Some Measurement Problems Encountered When Determining the Performance of Certain Turbine Stator Blades from Total Pressure Surveys. Paper 69GT103, ASME, Mar. 1969. 4. WISLER, D. C.j AND MOSSEY, P. W.: Gas Velocity Measurements Within a
DOEBELIN,
1.
5.
Compressor Rotor Passage Using 72WA]GT2, ASME, Nov. 1972. ASME RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON Theory and Application, 5th ed., Engineers, 1959.
the
Laser
Doppler
Velocimeter.
Paper
FLUXD METERS: The American
Fluid Society
Meters, Their of Mechanical
387
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SYMBOLS A C D E g hh_d hh' J K M N P R T U V AVu
W
area,
m2; ft 2 coefficient m; ft factor 1;32.17 based Btuflb work, J/kg; 1 ; 9/30 factor, Btuflb (rad) (min)/(rev) by eq. (124) (sec) 1; 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu defined rev/min (o R) (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec of inlettotal 2) to exitstatic on ratio expansion constant, work J/kg; specific specific
discharge diameter, thermal conversion ideal turbine conversion conversion approach rotative absolute absolute blade absolute change tween mass pressure,
constant, constant, velocity speed, pressure, J/(kg) temperature, rad/sec;
N/m S; lb/ft 2 (K) ; (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K; °R speed, m/sec; ft/sec of absolute velocity bem/sec; ft/sec component and exit, lb/sec defined by eq. (125) from axial pressure to or (126) deg heat sealevel at measured at constant total direction, to specific standard m/sec;
gas constant,
meansection gas velocity, in tangential rotor inlet
ft/sec
flow rate, flow Nm;
kg/sec; factor, angle, lbft
Y F
5'
compressibility absolute torque,
ratio of specific heat constant volume ratio of turbineinlet
pressure defined velocity velocity
pressure function of specificheatratio, squared sealevel bladejet density, Subscripts" an
cr
by eq. (1212) based based (1210) (1214) on turbineinlet on and standard (1213)
ratio
of to
critical critical defined 3
temperature speed kg/m
temperature, ratio, 8; lb/ft
defined by
by eqs. eq.
annulus critical condition (at Mach 1)
eq in std t 0 388
equivalent meter inlet standard meter sealevel throat station at turbine inlet condition
measuring
EXPERIMENTALDETERMINATION OF
1 2 Superscript: ' absolute total state measuring measuring station station at stator at turbine
AERODYNAMIC
PERFORMANCE
outlet outlet
389
REPORT
r_,_t?,.¢,r_ , oll_ct4_f_ i;,,l_,_ t_l_;l_._, _r_ ,t ,_._r,t,_,r_+,_ i T_,, r. !2C,t ] _TI "_e'_. ,_,,_; _,
DOCUMENTATION
,in_ _,'_tq,_r,_ , :, :c, rmpl_llnq _,.,r r_ducln] _ncl _6 _t,,_ '_... _r._, r_.._,,._n,: ;,,_t_,_n :_f,,.,, _f _'_ _h_ 2; _h,rTrOn J'_h_n_on
PAGE
Of ,nl,_rmat_on qr% Ser_ S_'nd cP._. comment_ Directorate Reducteon regarding _ot Prolect the% Information (0104018B), burden
oMs _o. o7o4o188 Form Approved
eslrmate ODeratlon% Wa%hington. or and .Jny _epott_, DC 2050]. other asDect 1215 Ot ]._fferson thi%
_r_f,_r_r,,_,,'_,r_. ,. _,j*_,_
_,,c,r_'._ ,,v!,r_ ;_c,
_teadquar ind Budeet
22202.,1_02,
_.t_n_,_ment
` Paperwork
3. REPORT
TYPE
AND
DATES
COVERED
I" AGENCY USEONLY(Leaveb/ank) 12" REPORT ATEjune 1994 D
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
I
SDecial
Publication
5. FUNDING NUMBERS
Turbine
Design
and
Application
6. AUTHOR(S)
A.
J. Glassman
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Lewis Research OH Center 44135
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER
Cleveland,
R5666
9. SPONSORING/MONITORINGAGENCYNAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Washington, DC 20546 Space Administration
10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER
NASASP290
11. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES N Responsible 4335890.
12a. DISTRIBUTION
person,
Kestutis
C.
Civinskas,
organization
code
2760,
(216)
/ AVAILABILITY
STATEMENT
12b.
Ol S T"iB U TI'0_0
D E'
Unclassified Subject
 Unlimited  7
Category
13, ABqTRACT
(Maxmnum
200 words)
NASA turbine driven engines electric trucks,
has an interest in turbines relatedprJrnarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellantturbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for space craft. Closedcycle turbine using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied forproviding longduration power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include landvehicle (cars, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and groundbased electrical power.
In view of the turbines_stem interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled "Turbine Design and Application was presented during ]96869 as part of the ]nhouse Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat rewsed and again presented in 1_7273. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluiddynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such apublicaLion can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for selfstudy, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used cons!stent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the ST units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defimn 8 as unity tho_o not required for the ST units.
14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PA_GES
engine design, turbine engines, cooling
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT lB.
engines,
aircraft
engines,
automobile
400
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A17
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