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Planet Math_ Limit of Sequence of Sets

Planet Math_ Limit of Sequence of Sets

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Published by: Thiti Suttaket on Oct 12, 2010
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PlanetMath: limit of sequence of sets
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limit of sequence of sets


Recall that lim sup and lim inf of a sequence of sets Ai denote the limit superior and the limit inferior of Ai , respectively. Please click here to see the definitions and here to see the specialized definitions when they are applied to the real numbers. Theorem. Let Then 1. for


be a sequence of sets with



= 12


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I ranging over all infinite subsets of
lim sup Ai =
I i I



2. for

I ranging over all subsets of
lim inf Ai =

with finite compliment,

I i I

3. lim inf Ai Proof.

lim sup Ai .

1. We need to show, for

I ranging over all infinite subsets of Ai =
I i I n=1 i=n



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Let x be an element of the LHS, the left hand side of Equation + (1). Then x . i I Ai for some infinite subset I Certainly,


i=1 Ai . Now, suppose

infinite, we can find an of I , we have that x

for all n This proves one side of the inclusion (

x i=k Ai . Since I is l I such that l k . Being a member Al i=k+1 Ai . By induction, we have x + . Thus x is an element of the RHS.
) in (1).

i=n Ai

An1 . Then the set I = n0 n1 fulfills the requirement x i I Ai , showing the other inclusion (
2. Here we have to show, for + − I finite,

that x

To show the other inclusion, let x be an element of the RHS. So x + for all n In i=1 Ai , pick the least element n0 such that x An0 . Next, in i=n0+1 Ai , pick the least n1 such ).

i=n Ai

I ranging over all subsets of


Ai =
I i I n=1 i=n

i I Ai

Suppose first that x is an element of the LHS so that x

− I finite. Let n0 be a upper bound of the for some I with + + − I such that for any n − I , n n0 . This finite set


org/?op=getobj&fr… 2/3 . equality. finite. if Ai Ai is an increasing sequence of sets. clearly finite. analy tic sets) 03E20 (Mathematical logic and foundations :: Set theory :: Other classical set theory ) http://planetmath. sequence This is version 5 of limit of sequence of sets. upper bound. QED. infinite subsets. Object id is 6715. Then the set I = n0 n0 + 1 is a subset of + with finite complement that does the job for the LHS. Having shown both the existence and equality of the limit superior and limit inferior of the Ai 's. (view current ratings) This object's parent. QED Corollary. Let A1 A2 be a descending chain of sets. We shall show that lim sup Ai = lim inf Ai = lim Ai = A First. complement. 3. least element. so we only need to show that the intersection of all Ai with subscripts i taking on all values of . lim inf Ai lim sup Ai = A . born on 2005-02-06. proof. theorem. If + Ai is a decreasing sequence of sets. Cross-references: limit. induction. by Assertion 3 of the above Theorem. x i=n0 Ai Next. But this is immediate from the definition of A . intersection. Classification: AMS MSC: 60A99 28A05 (Probability theory and stochastic processes :: Foundations of probability theory :: Miscellaneous) (Measure and integration :: Classical measure theory :: Classes of sets . side. we conclude that the limit of Ai 's exist as well and it is equal to A . real numbers. (view preamble | get metadata) View style: jsMath HTML reload See Also: limit superior Log in to rate this entry. measurable sets. Accessed 6227 times total. decreasing. canonical name is LimitOfSequenceOfSets. subscripts.26/8/2553 PlanetMath: limit of sequence of sets n0 . equation. we have m I . means that any m and x is an element of the RHS. Therefore. definitions. then lim inf Ai = lim sup Ai = lim Ai = Similarly. modified 2006-01-12. Suslin sets. finite set. increasing. The third assertion is now clear from the previous two propositions. Set A = i=1 Ai . then lim inf Ai = lim sup Ai = lim Ai = Ai Proof. inclusion. chain. since the other case is completely analogous. suppose x is an element of the RHS so that x k=n Ak for some n . The set of all subsets (of ) with finite complement is a subset of the set of all infinite subsets. empty set. by the definition of limit superior of a sequence of sets: lim sup Ai = n=1 i=n Ak = n=1 An = A Now. Its complement is the empty set. clear. QED A lim inf Ai . subsets. left hand side. being + "limit of sequence of sets" is owned by CWoo. propositions. We shall only show the case when we have a descending chain of sets.

Interact post | correct | update request | prove | add result | add corollary | add example | add (any) http://planetmath.org/?op=getobj&fr… 3/3 .26/8/2553 PlanetMath: limit of sequence of sets Pending Errata and Addenda None. Discussion Style: Threaded reload [ View all 2 ] Expand: 1 Order: Newest first forum policy No messages.

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