The Japanese Occupation Of Malaya | Empire Of Japan | Surrender Of Japan

DEFEAT OF BRITISH IN MALAYA

JAPAN
Rise of Japan as a world power Reasons for Japanese Invasion Japan’s entry into the War The importance of Malaya to the Japanese Reasons for Japanese Victory

RISE OF JAPAN AS A WORLD POWER Meiji Dynasty Russo-Japanese War 190405 Japan’s Relations with US and Britain Invasion of Manchuria 1931 Full-scale war against China 1937

REASONS FOR JAPANESE INVASION Ambitions of Leaders
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Control rich resources of SEA
Provide land for growing population

Need for raw materials
British and US embargo Need to get vital resources needed

REASONS FOR JAPANESE INVASION Good Opportunity
Britain engaged in war with Europe Lower priority for defence of the East Good time to launch an invasion

JAPAN’S ENTRY INTO THE WAR

ATTACK On Pearl Harbour

PEARL HARBOUR

PEARL HARBOUR

IMPORTANCE OF MALAYA
An important source of tin and rubber Malayan Chinese British Colony

JAPANESE CONQUEST OF MALAYA

Reasons for Japanese victory Reasons for British defeat

JAPANESE VICTORY
Japanese invasion was well planned Japanese military was well-prepared Good and experienced commander in Gen Yamashita Excellent tactics and co-ordination Japanese army was superior to the British forces Japanese propaganda Japanese promise to free India from British rule

JAPANESE ZERO FIGHTER

JAPANESE ZERO FIGHTER

REPULSE & PRINCE OF WALES

REPULSE & PRINCE OF WALES

BRITISH DEFEAT
• • • • • • • • Malaya was not prepared for war Inexperienced young soldiers Lack of military equipment Lack of naval and air defence for troops Engaged in war in Europe No tanks No jungle training British complacency

JAPANESE INVASION OF
8 Dec 1941
KOTA BAHRU JITRA

MALAYA

PENANG 15-16 Dec 41

IPOH

SLIM RIVER

KUANTAN

KL
GEMAS KLUANG JEMALUANG

MAJOR BATTLES

MUAR

JOHOR BAHRU / 31 Jan 42

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Military governments established “Syonan-to” and “New Malai” Malay Consultative Councils were set up. Sultans remained but held no powers.

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Military governments established
 Malay was renamed New Malai  8 provinces; a Malay consultative council in each province  Chairman : Japanese Governor  Vice Chairman : Sultan  Sultan and members of the council could only advised the Governor

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Military governments established
 SULTANS
 Allowed to keep their positions as head of state  Not given any power to rule  Only concerned with matters regarding Malay religion and customs

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Trengganu restored to Siamese rule
Reward for co-operating with the Japanese

Japanese Military Administration demanded absolute cooperation Kempeitai

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Nipponization of the People Decline in economy Shortage of food & other necessities The issue of paper money and the black market Poor public health services

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Nipponization of the People
Japanese System of Education Japanese Language “Nippon-go” - primary schools National anthem Japanese customs, traditions and culture Controlled people through propaganda Very effective; strong foundation over time

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
Decline in economy
tin and rubber industries declined import and export market cut off unemployment

Shortage of food & other necessities
Shortage of imported foodstuff Japanese food growing campaign Substitution

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
The issue of paper money and the black market
Greater supply of money than demand Became worthless “banana” notes Creation of a black market

Poor public health services
Hospitals looted for medical supplies by Japanese Preventive measures against diseases neglected

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Chinese The Europeans and the Eurasians The Indians The Malays

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Chinese
Supported China against Japanese since 1937 Malayan Chinese collected large sums of money to help China Japanese mistrust of Chinese in Malaya Fierce Chinese resistance against the Japanese in Singapore at Bukit Timah Massacred thousands in Singapore Kempeitai / Operation Sook Ching

Singapore Under Japanese Rule

Japanese soldiers using a prisoner as a live target to practise bayonet fighting

A Japanese soldier torturing a prisoner

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Chinese
Economic importance of Chinese Allowed to carry on trade and business Forced to make a gift of $50m to Japan in 1942 Traitors vs resistant fighters

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Europeans and the Eurasians
made POWs; great hardship Death Railway Eurasians detained, tortured or killed

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Indians
treated better; confidence and support needed Japanese promise to free India from British Indian Independence League and India National Army Unsuccessful invasion of India in 1943

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Indians
also suffered 250,000 forced to work at Death railway 100,000 died grew to hate and distrust the Japanese joined resistance groups

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
THE RACIAL POLICY OF THE JAPANESE The Malays
treated less harshly; cooperation and support needed directed propaganda at Malays as they were indigenous and the largest group in Malaya Told Malays they were rightful owners of Malaya and would eventually gain independence Malays grew to hate Japanese - starvation, fear and suffering

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SINGAPORE & MALAYA
RESISTANCE AGAINST THE JAPANESE MPAJA
Wataniah (Pahang Malays) Bintang Tiga Malayan Overseas Self-Defence Army Force 136

END OF WWII

END OF WWII
SURRENDER OF THE JAPANESE
Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) Battle of Midway (Jul 1942) May 1945 : Germany surrendered 6 and 9 Aug 1945 : Hiroshima and Nagasaki 15 Aug 1945 : Unconditional Japanese surrender onboard the Missouri

PRESIDENT HARRY S TRUMAN

LITTLE BOY & FAT MAN

THE A-BOMB

VICTIMS OF THE A-BOMB

VICTIMS OF THE A-BOMB

VICTIMS OF THE A-BOMB

VICTIMS OF THE A-BOMB

JAPANESE SURRENDER

INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER
We, acting by command of and in behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept the provisions set forth in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China, and Great Britain on 26 July 1945 at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers. We hereby proclaim the unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and of all Japanese armed forces and all armed forces under the Japanese control wherever situated.

END OF WWII
SURRENDER OF THE JAPANESE
12 Sep 1945 LG Itagaki surrendered to Lord Louis Mountbatten, Allied Supreme Commander at the Municipal Building in Singapore

END OF WWII
EFFECTS OF JAPANESE OCCUPATION
Lawlessness and Violence Thousands dead Racial Hostilities MCP Strengthened Social and Public Health Services in Disorder

END OF WWII
EFFECTS OF JAPANESE OCCUPATION
Economic Problems British Prestige Lowered Development of Malay Nationalism

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