Artifact Behaviour Within the Plow Zone - D Fink 1984 - Journal of Field Archaeology 11-356-63 | Archaeology | Statistical Hypothesis Testing

News and Short Contributions Author(s): Aron D. Mazel, Douglas S. Frink, Oscar White Muscarella, Martha S.

Joukowsky Source: Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 345-364 Published by: Boston University Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/529286 Accessed: 28/09/2010 03:13
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News and Short Contributions

Field Report
Archaeological Survey of the Natal Drakensberg,Natal, South Africa
ARON D. MAZEL

Natal Museum Pietermaritzburg SouthAfrica In March1981 the authorcompleteda three-year archaeologicalrecording project in the Natal Drakensberg.Conservation the archaeological of resourcesrankedas the primaryaim of the projectand ca. 400 sites and 20,000 paintingswere recorded. Thispaper outlinesthe aims and scope of the project, the.fieldsurveyand recordingmethodologies,and some of the morepertinentresults.

Introduction A tremendous wealth of parietalart covers the walls of rockshelters SouthAfrica. Researchof this arthas in a long andrichhistory.Thisresearch, however,hasbeen primarily an academicnatureandit is only in the last of decade or so that professionalarchaeologists and conservationists havebegunrealizingthe conservation needs of this fragile, non-renewable resource.It is difficultto comprehend reasonsfor the apparent of interest the lack in the conservation the art, but it is certainlynot exof plicable on the groundsthat the art has not been vandalized or that there is general ignorance of this destruction.Vandalismand degradation have a history almost as long as the studyof the art itself,' with little
1. For examples see P. Vinnicombe, People of the Eland (University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg 1976) and V. Ward, "A Survey of the Rock Art in the Natal Drakensberg: Preliminary Report,'' S.Afr.J.Sc. 75 ( 1979) 482-485 .

or no action to apprehend perpetrators. Even now with the recent awareness that urgent measures must be taken to conserve the art little has been achieved. One exception, which we hope represents the turning point in rockart conservation in South Africa, is a three-year project completed in March 1981; it is described in this report. This project had as its primary aim the conservation of rock paintings in the Natal Drakensberg. The reasons for initiating this project were clear: an advisory committee set up by the Directorate of Forestry2pointed out that the Directorate lacked the appropriatedata on which to base a long-term conservation program for the rock art of the Natal Drakensberg. This advisory committee suggested that to rectify this situation a comprehensive rock-art recording project be initiated. Funds for such a project were granted at the beginning of 1978. The Natal Museum accepted supervision of the project and agreed to provide the necessary facilities and working space.3 Papers have been published recently on the recommended conservation program and various aspects of the rock-painting research.4 This report deals with the aims
2. The Directorate Forestry an ann of the Department Enviof is of ronmentAffairsand is responsible the conservation the larger for of portionof the NatalDrakensberg. 3. The NatalMuseumis the only institution the provinceof Natal in which has an Archaeology Department. 4. A. D. Mazel, "Up and Down the Little Berg: Archaeological ResourceManagement the NatalDrakensberg," in unpublished M.A. thesis, Universityof Cape Town (1981); idem, "Principlesfor Conserving the ArchaeologicalResourcesof the Natal Drakensberg," S.Af.Arch.Bull.37 (1982) 7-15; idem, "Distributionof Painting Themesin the NatalDrakensberg," Ann.N.Mus.(1982) 67-82; idem, "Eland,Rhebuck Cranes: and Identifying Seasonality the Paintings in of the Natal Drakensberg,Natal, South Africa," S.Afr.Arch.Soc. GoodwinSeries 4 (1983) 34-37; idem, "Towardsthe Conservation of the Archaeological Resources the NatalDrakensberg," of Lantern 32 (1983) 3-9.

346 News and ShortContributions
Figure 1. Flow diagram outlining the aims of the project.
PHASE 1

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PHASE 2 REPORT Work summary Recommend conservation program Prescribe site monitoring system Suggestions for future research

and scope of the project, the field survey, and the siterecording methodology; it also details the more signiElcant results.

Area The survey area extended longitudinally along the high Natal Drakensberg from Royal Natal National Park to Bushmans Nek. It is a long narrow belt between the Lesotho/Natal border and the Administration Catchment Boundary (ACB). The ACB is the cadastral boundary at a slightly lower altitude than the Molteno Formation. Occasionally sites in lower areas were investigated, eiier because of their proximity to the ACB or because they were in major access areas regularly visited by the public.

Aims The overriding aim of the project was to obtain accurate and detailed information on archaeological sites, concentrating on rock-art sites. Although these data were primarily intended for conservation planning, it was also noted that they would be of significance for archaeological research and would form a permanently stored record. The project was divided into two phases,S and the aims of these two phases are detailed in Figure 1.
5. Phase 1 lasted from June 1978 to March 1979 and Phase 2 was fromJanuary 1979to March1981. Phase 1 was doneby ValerieWard and Phase2 by the author.

Figure 2 illustrates the position of the research area in southern Africa and the different areas in the Natal Drakensberg. The State forests are controlled by the Directorate of Forestry and the national park game reserve and nature reserves by the Natal Parks Board. The area between Royal Natal National Park and Cathedral Peak State Forest is known as the Upper Tugela Location and

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falls underthe authority the KwaZuluGovernment. of Smallareasof privately ownedlandabovethe ACB were also earmarked survey.6 for
6. Insteadof using the differenttitles that the landholding agencies have given to their areasthey will collectivelybe referred as reto serves

Field Survey By no means was this the first rock-art survey project undertaken in the Natal Drakensberg. It followed three major projects and a handful of smaller ones. The major projects were Vinnicombe's7 survey of the southern
7. Vinnicombe, op. cit. (in note 1).

348 News and ShortContributions
Drakensberg (south of the Giants Castle Game Reserve), Pager's8 survey of the Cathedral Peak State Forest, northernMonks Cowl State Forest and parts of the Upper Tugela Location, and, finally, Lewis-Williams's9 survey of the central and southern Giants Castle Game Reserve. These projects and the smaller surveys that had been conducted provided us with the knowledge that the research area contained an abundance of rock-art sites and that these sites were generally rich in paintings. At the same time, however, it was evident that there was insufficient information on the individual sites to integrate them into a long-term conservation program. Therefore, save for 17 rock-art sites recorded by Pagerl° in the Ndedema Valley, and which had been fully published, other sites located and recorded by previous researchers required reexamination. From the outset it was evident that it would be impossible to explore carefully and record in two years the rock art of this area, which comprises roughly a quarter of a million hectares. Consequently a system of priorities was established. This was done on two levels: first, identifying on which reserves work should be concentrated and, second, ranking the survey areas within the individual reserves. On the first level, priority was given to Directorate of Forestry land. These were followed by Natal Parks Board land, the Upper Tugela Location, and private land, in that order. Within these areas the survey prioritywas towardsthe High IntensityUse Areas (HIUA) and along current and proposed access routes in the Low Intensity Use Area (LIUA) where the greatest threat of vandalism exists. Prior to the initiation of research in a reserve I had extensive discussions with the resident management officials to ascertain the extent of the HIUA and further within which zones in the LIUA the paintings were most threatened. These areas were marked onto the survey maps. On the basis of this informationthe priority survey areas within the reserves were demarcated. In those areas that had already been investigated the survey priority was to relocate the known sites and to search for new ones. Some of these areas had not previously been exhaustively investigated and as a result the number of known sites in them was increased greatly. There were also extensive areas that had been searched on a very limited scale and had to be investigated from scratch. A total of 13 rock-art recording fieldtrips were undertaken between late January 1979 and early December 1980. These fieldtrips were generally three weeks in duration and were mostly done by the author alone, although on occasion I was accompanied by students and colleagues. Because of the relative inaccessibility of the majority of areas in the Natal Drakensberg the overall survey strategy employed was to establish a base camp in the area to be covered and to work out of it on a daily basis, returning to camp at night. Occasionally I stayed overnight away from the base camp, especially when it was inconvenient to walk back and forth over inhospitable terrain. The type of accommodation used as a base camp varied considerably, and included private homes, housing quarters provided for research and inspection officers by the conservation departments, caravans (housetrailers), and rockshelters far into the mountains to where provisions and equipment had to be transported on horseback. Painted sites occur both in rockshelters in the various sandstone bands and on large boulders that have become detached from the sandstone bands. Rockshelters are found in four sets of sandstone bands in the Drakensberg. These are the Clarens Sandstone Formation, Elliot Formation, Molteno Formation, and Upper TarkastadGroup (FIG. 3). The overwhelming majority of the painted rockshelters occur in the Clarens Sandstone and Molteno Formations with the occasional site in the Glen Elliot Formation and Upper TarkastadGroup. No painted rockshelters have been recorded in the Drakensberg Basalt Formation. The searching strategy for these sandstone bands and boulders varied according to the area, but, on the whole, two approaches were employed. The first was to proceed up one side of a valley investigating the more promising rockshelters and detached boulders and then to return to the departure point via the opposite side of the valley. When searching the first side of the valley a constant lookout was kept for potential sites on the opposite side and these were noted and became priority sites for the return trip. If no potential sites were spotted on the opposite side of the valley, and I was convinced that there were no sites in that area, I would move into another area or check smaller side valleys. Because rockshelters might exist at varying altitudes, I often had to search the sides of valleys in a zigzag fashion. The second searching strategy, usually employed in areas where several sandstone bands were exposed, was to search two or three bands and boulders in their proximity on the way out, and to investigate the outstanding bands and boulders on the same side of the valley on the returnjourney. As with the first method, this searching was done in a zigzag manner and promising shelters on the opposite

8. H. Pager, Ndedema: a Documentation of the Rock Paintings of the Ndedema Gorge (Akademische Druck Graz 1971). 9. J.D. Lewis-Williams, "Believing and Seeing," unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Natal (1977). 10. Pager, op. cit. (in note 8).

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A daily writtenjournalnotingthe routeswalkedand areas covered duringthe survey was kept. In the final project reportll detailed descriptions of the regions searchedduringthe projectand lists of those that still requireinvestigation were presented. Figure S shows the site locations and walk paths in the Royal Natal NationalPark, one of the smallerreserves in the Natal Drakensberg. This reservewas surveyed in a three-weekfieldtripin March 1979 and the known numberof archaeologicalsites was more than doubled.Note thatwhenlookingat FigureS all the sites, except for one open-air site, are rocksheltersand the sites' altitudesrangefrom4800 ft to 6550 ft.

Figure3. Schematicdiagramof the geology of the Natal Drakensberg.

side of the valley were noted and then checked when searching area.Figure4 shows a situation that wherethe Elrst methodwould have applied.

Site Recording The standardrecording document was the Site Report form which was then being used by the Archaeological Data Recording Centre (ADRC), South African Museum
11. Mazel, 1981 op. cit. (in note 4).

Figure4. PoachersValley in the GiantsCastleGameReserve.

350 News and ShortContributions
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and the Natal Museum.l2 This report form requires certain specific information, for example site category, map references, etc., but leaves blank spaces for the directions to the site, and the site and archaeological (including rock-art) descriptions. The written rock-artrecording system employed during the project essentially involved beginning on the left-hand side of the site and working right, describing each painting individually. Measurements of distances were taken when paintings were more than a few centimeters apart. Typed copies of these report forms have been distributed to the Natal Museum, the Directorate of Forestry, and the Natal Parks Board. A Management Data Questionnaire (MDQ), which contained pertinent management questions, was completed on site. 13 This MDQ was formulatedby the author and representatives of the Directorate of Forestry, Natal
12. E. Speed, The South African Archaeological Site Recording Manual (South African Museum: Cape Town n.d.). 13. Mazel, 1981 op. cit. (in note 4).

Parks Board, and Natal Museum. Each site also was plotted on the standard1:50 000 topo-cadastral map sheet produced by the Trigonometrical Survey Office, Republic of South Africa and, where possible, on overlays of the 1:20 000 color aerial photographs of the area. Extensive color slide and monochrome photography was done. As far as possible the photographic record followed the same pattern as the written descriptions. Both general panel shots and more detailed pictures were taken. Some 16,000 monochrome and color-slide photographs were taken during the project, and are now housed in the Natal Museum. Limited tracing of selected paintings was done. These were generally of paintings/scenes of particular importance which would not show up to full advantage through photography. Initially Ozatex was used but during Phase 2 we switched to ordinary polythene (which is lighter and cheaper) using permanent ink and a fine felt-tipped pen for tracing. Those tracings that have been redrawn were done either in color or monochrome, depending on the abilities and experience of the person doing them.

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Labelsbearingthe site numberwere placedin the recordedshelters.The reasonsfor this were twofold:first, it would assist in identifyingsites in the proposedconservationplan and, second, it would preventfurtherinadvertentsite duplicationby recordersin the field. duby Previousresearchwas characterized the frequent who gave the recorders plicationof sites by independent crelocations. This duplication same site contradictory ated problemsboth in the field of locatingthe sites, esdata site peciallywhenonly superficial androck-art were available, and then back in the Museumunscrambling mess. GrahamAvery, of the South the administrative AfricanMuseum, suggestedthe use of Dymo stainless steel strips with the site numberspunchedonto them. These strips, which are thin and no longer than 5 cm, with epoxy resinto and are inconspicuous were attached the bottom left-handcornerof the site. If no suitable spot could be foundfor them on the left-handside they were glued to the right of the site, and this was noted on the site report.By the completionof fieldwork341 site labels had been applied. ProjectResults
Survey

mation on the individual sites can be upgraded to parallel data on sites in the other reserves. To meet this goal a five-month survey of the central and southern areas of the reserve has been suggested to the Natal Parks Board. Site Recording When the project was begun in June 1978 there was no indication of the total number of known sites in the research area. By September 1978, and therefore four months after the beginning of the project, 396 sites were on record. This number was further increased to 473 by the completion of Phase l . lS This included 433 painted sites and 40 non-art sites.l6 At the completion of the project the total stood at 604 sites, with 516 rock-art sites and 88 non-art sites. The establishment of, and increase in, the number of sites during Phase 1 was primarily the result of careful scanning of the published and unpublished literatureand, to a lesser extent, of our being informed of sites by people who had previously searched for sites in the area, and through the location of new sites during fieldwork. Increase of site numbers during Phase 2 was accomplished principally through locating new sites in the field and our being informed of others by resident management officials. The increase in the number of sites was predictably more marked in areas in which no detailed surveys had been conducted. Thus in the Royal Natal National Park and Monks Cowl State Forest in the northernhalf of the research area which had not been subject to systematic investigations the number of known sites was more than doubled. On the other hand, only a handful of new sites were located in the Cathedral Peak State Forest which had been extensively surveyed by Pager and helpers.l7 Although the area south of Giants Castle Game Reserve had been surveyed by Vinnicombe, the coverage was not as thorough as she had originally planned (Vinnicombe pers. comm.). Thus the total number of sites in that region was increased by 46%, and in one area, the Cobham State Forest, it was more than doubled, from 49 to 106. Four hundred and twelve sites were recorded during the project; 24 during Phase 1 and 388 during Phase 2. All except for 19 of these sites were fully recorded. Therefore close on 70% of all known sites in the Natal Drakensberg were recorded during the project and 65%
15. V. Ward,op. cit. (in note 1). but with 16. Non-artsites wereusuallyrockshelters no paintings with on scattersof artifacts the surface,and occasionallyopen-airscatters of artifacts. 17. H. Pager,op. cit. (in note 8).

Ca. 2,000 km were walkedby the authorduringthe project, and Figure6 shows the areas surveyed.Three pointsof significanceemergefromthis figure. First,the duringthe areawas investigated of majority the research project;second, limited areas within the already surand, third,there investigation; veyed regionsstill require are two large areas, the UpperTugelaLocationand the centraland southernGiantsCastle Game Reserve, that were not surveyed. Concerningthe second point, as mentionedearlier, gaps in the regions surveyedwere 14 specifiedin the Final ProjectReport. It has been suggested that these areas, which are LIUAs, should be officialsas they are management by investigated resident not very extensive. This is not the case for the Upper Tugela Location and Giants Castle Game Reserve for which individualsurvey projectshave been proposed. Little is known aboutthe rock art of the UpperTugela zones and Locationbut it is bracedby two rich rock-art will be equallyrich. As a resulta two-year predictably projectto surveythis areaand anotherareasouthof the by and Natal Drakensberg, which is to be appropriated of the Directorate Forestry,has been suggestedto that Directorate.Althoughthe GiantsCastle Game Reserve to has been the focus of previoussurveysit still requires inforconservation be resurveyedso that the important
14. Ibid.

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352 News and ShortContributions
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of these sites were fully recorded.Figures7 and 8 show the accuracy mapplottings the statusof site records of and before the project, at the completionof Phase 1 and finally at the end of the project.The rock-artand nonart site data are shown separately.The two figures are self-explanatory the resultsclearlyindicated.Figure and 9 illustratesthe state of site recordingin each of the

landowningareas, and Figure 10 the accuracyof map plottingin these areas. A greaterproportion sites in of Directorate Forestry of areaswere fully recorded thanin any otherlandowningareas. This is understandable because fieldworkwas concentrated them. In terms of in map plotting,however, thereis a greaterpercentage of accuratelyplotted sites in the Natal Parks Board re-

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serves, mainlybecauseof the assistancegiven by Natal Parks Board officials and Dr. J.D. Lewis-Williamsin the plottingof sites in the GiantsCastleGameReserve.
Paintings

A total of 20,668 paintingswere recordedduringthe project;1,801 duringPhase 1, and 18,867 duringPhase 2. Of these, 3,748 paintings(18%) were from newly recordedsites with 2,529 (67%)of them from south of GiantsCastleGameReserveand 1,219 (23%)fromGiants

CastleGameReserveandnorth.Viewedfroma different perspectivethe total numberof paintingswas increased by 6% in the northand ca. 20% in the south. To get an idea of the totalnumber knownpaintings of in the NatalDrakensberg number paintings the of Pagerl8 countedin sites not recordedduringthe projectin the CathedralPeak and Monks Cowl State Forests and Hughes's counts from the GiantsCastleGame Reserve
18. Ibid.

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will be added to the projecttotal. Pagerl9recordedan extra 7,645 paintingsand Hughes an additional1,561. Added to those recordedduringthe projectthe total is 29,874. If one could add the numberof paintingsfrom Vinnicombe'sand Lewis-Williams'ssites, not recorded duringthe projectand for which we have no exact figures, the total would definitelyregisterover 30,000.

Discussion and Conclusion

19. Ibid.

The stimulusfor the projectcame fromthe realization by the Directorate Forestrythat they lacked the data of on which to formulatean archaeologicalconservation programfor the Natal Drakensberg.In this respect it shouldbe stressedthatit is not adequate merelyto know that a site exists and have a vague idea of its locality, but for it to be adequatelyprotectedit is necessaryto have detailed informationon the site's archaeological content, know its exact location and, finally, have the

356 News and ShortContributions appropriate management data.It is foolhardy indeed and irresponsible announcethat one is going to conserve to the archaeologicalresourcesof an area without informationof the above-stated nature a carefullydevised and program.In this regard,the pertinentinformation was recordedfrom ca. 450 sites during the project and a detailedarchaeological conservationprogrambased on that informationproposed. The managementranking scheme was formulated such a mannerthat sites will in be able to be rankedprovisionallyby residentmanagement officials and thus be includedin the conservation program priorto theirhavingbeen visited by an archaeologist. These sites shouldbe visitedby an archaeologist at the first possible opportunity,and be given a final management assessment.Thus, although projectwas the completedin March 1981, the basis has been laid for sites to be continuallyincludedin the management program.20

A questionoftenposedto me beforeI surveyedcertain areas was: "But surely this area has been investigated before is there a need to cover it again?". Here, the results speak for themselves. Besides the facts that the numberof known sites in the Natal Drakensberg was increasedby roughly25% andthatin some reservesthe numberof sites has morethandoubled,and the number of knownpaintingsincreased just under15%,Figures by 7 and 8 clearly indicatethe increasein the numberof fully recordedand accurately plottedsites. Thus, while the majorityof sites were known at the completionof Phase 1, the information essentialfor conservation planning was not available.Thereis a cogentmessagein this knowledgefor archaeologists conservation and planners bothin SouthAfricaandelsewhere.Beforethe planning of an archaeological conservation program, muchthought mustbe given to the questionof whetheror not thereare adequate dataon which to base it. I am doubtfulthat, at this point in time, thereis sufficientarchaeological and otherdatain areasof SouthAfrica, except for the Natal Drakensberg perhapslimited areasof the sw Cape, and on which to devise a conservationplan, especially in view of the fact thatthe Natal Drakensberg always was regardedas a well surveyedarea with its rock-artsites relativelywell known. Despite the conservation bias of the projectthe information recordedhas great researchpotential.Information on rock art, site distribution patterns, archaeological deposits, and surfacescattersof artifactsfrom over 600 sites in the Natal Drakensberg on recordat the Natal is Museum. Already some of this informationhas been
20. Fora description the archaeological of conservation program proposed for the Natal Drakensberg, Mazel, 1981 op. cit. (in note see 4).

used in rock-art research articles,2l in directing researchers to sites in the area, and as a guide to promising deposits and large scatters of surface artifacts. With regard to rock art, the two papers published not only shed new light on ffie rock art of ffie Natal Drakensbergwhich, as mentioned above, was thought to be well known, but have also highlighted avenues of future research in this area and elsewhere. What has emerged from these two papers and the research in general, is that in order to obtain a clear picture of an area's art content it is essential that extensive and detailed studies be undertaken. Of further note is that preliminary research on site distnbution patterns indicates how the grouping of sites may have been influenced by local nver drainage systems, and this is the subject of ongoing research. However, by no means has the study of the rock art and other data recorded during the project been exhausted; in fact, they have hardly been touched, and these data are available to bona fide researchers.
21. Mazel, 1982 and 1983 op. cit. (in note 4).

AronD. Mazel is a graduateof the University Cape of Townwherehe obtainedan M.A. degree in Archaeologyin 1981. At present he is a Senior ProfessionalOfficerin the Department Archaeology, of Natal Museum,Loop Street,Pietermaritzburg 3201, SouthAfrica. His currentresearchon the LaterStone Age of the TugelaBasin will serve as the basis of his Ph.D. thesis.

Special Study
Artifact Behavior within the Plow Zone
DOUGLAS S. FRINK

University Connecticut,Storrs of Surfacecollectionsat two sites in NE Connecticut were conducted three consecutiveyearsfollowing for plowing. Conclusionswere drawnconcerningthe representativeness surfacecollectionsand the kinds of of archaeologicalinferencesthat can be validly deduced.Estimatescan be made concerningsite size and artifactdensitywithinthe plow zone, but inferencesconcerningsite functionand cultural associationcannotbe adequatelydrawn from such a sample. Experimental laws governingthe physical behaviorof artifactswithinthe plow zone are

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laws cover vertical presented.These experimental and vertical horizontaldisplacement, displacement, of distribution artifactswithinthe plow zone.
Introduction Archaeologists have long recognized that agricultural activities such as plowing disturb the archaeological record of a site. Until recently, however, little empirical analysis has been brought to bear on the question of how plowing disturbs this record. Plog et al., recognizing this fact, declared that "until we more adequately understand the effect of this transformation process, the circumstances under which particularapproaches to working in plow-zone situations should be taken will remain unclear. s s1 This paper presents several hypotheses focusing on how plowing affects the archaeological record, and examines some of the limitations upon archaeological inferences that can be made from the data obtained from these plow-disturbed sites. Recent research in the field of "plow-zone" archaeology falls into four general areas of inquiry; 1) vertical displacement of artifacts, 2) horizontal displacement of artifacts, 3) plow breakage of artifacts, and 4) interpretation of surface collections obtained from plowed fields. By far the greatest emphasis of recent research has concentrated on horizontal displacement of artifacts and of interpretation surface collections obtained from plowed fields. Roper measured the horizontal displacement of artifacts at the Airport site, Springfield, Illinois, and found that artifact displacement was negligible within a 3-sqm area.2 Reynolds, at the Butser Ancient Farm Project, Petersfield, Hants, England, used marked, synthetic artifacts to measure horizontal artifact movement resulting from plowing.3 Movement was found to be random and step-like (stochastic) from the original positions. Through time, artifact movement was described as following a normal distribution with 68So of the population positioned within one standard deviation of the original position and only lSo moving beyond three standard deviations. Redman and Watson first evaluated the correspondence between cultural debris lying on the surface of a
1. S. Plog et al., "Decision Making in Modern Surveys," in M. B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 1 (Academic Press: New York 1978) 416. 2. D. C. Roper, "Lateral Displacement of Artifacts Due To Plowing," AmAnt 41 (1976) 372-375. 3. P. J. Reynolds, "The Ploughzone," Festschrift zum lOOjahrigen Bestehen der Abteilung fur Vorgeschichte (Naturhistorische Gesellschaft: Nurnberg 1982) 315-340.

site and what was found buned below the surface, at two mound sites in Diyarbakir Vilayet, Turkey.4 Binford, at the Hatchery West site, S Flannery at the Coapexco site,6 and others have duplicated this approach. All found reasonably high correspondence between surface artifact distribution and subsoil features in plow-disturbed sites. Two studies evaluating artifact damage resulting from plowing have recently appeared.Mallouf evaluated plowdamaged chert artifacts from the Brookeen Creek Cache site, Texas, and produced a typology of fracturepatterns attributable to plow actions.7 Reynolds evaluated plow damage to pottery sherds and found that much of the damage was the result of secondary causes, such as frost action, precipitated by plowing.8 Vertical dislocation of artifactsbecause of plowing has received very little attention. Again, from the experiment using the marked, synthetic artifacts, Reynolds was able to deduce that plowing distributes the artifacts so that 1/6 of the total number of artifacts contained within the plow zone appeared on the surface after plowing.9 In another experiment,l° this figure was tested using actual pottery sherds collected from the soil surface after plowing over a four-year period. A decrease in total number of artifacts collected from the surface of 16 2/3% per year demonstrated that this distribution is maintained through subsequent plowings. Lewarch and Obrien measured the frequency of artifacts according to size as they occurred on the plowed surface and found a higher percent of large objects than small objects were recovered after plowing,ll empirically validating the "size effect" phenomena referred to in other studies. 12
4. C. L. Redman and P. J. Watson, ''Systematic, Intensive Surface Collection," AmAnt 35 (1970) 279-291. 5. L. R. Binford et al., "Archaeology at Hatchery West, Carlyle, Illinois," SAAMemNo. 24 (1970) 7-15. 6. K. V. Flannery, "Sampling by Intensive Surface Collection," in K. V. Flannery, ed., The Early Mesoamerican Village (Academic Press: New York 1976) 51-62. 7. R. J. Mallouf, "An Analysis of Plow-damaged Chert Artifacts: The Brookeen Creek Cache (41HI86), Hill County, Texas," JFA 9 (1982) 79-98. 8. Reynolds, loc. cit. (in note 3) 316. 9. Ibid. 332. 10. Ibid. 332. 11. D. E. Lewarch and M. J. Obrien, "Effect of Short Term Tillage on Aggregate Provenience Surface Pattern," in J. O. Obrien and D. E. Lewarch, eds., Plowzone Archeology: Publications in Anthropology No . 2 7 (Vanderbilt University 1981) 7-49. 12. E. D. Stockton, "Shaw's Creek Shelter: Human Displacement of Artifacts and its Significance," Mankind 9 (1973) 112-117; C. M. Baker and M. B. Schiffer, "Archeological Evidence for the Size Effect," in C. M. Baker, ed., The Arkansas Eastman Archeological

358 News and ShortContributions
Description of the Experiment Archaeological survey work conducted by this author in NE Connecticut has provided an opportunityfor further investigation of the disturbanceprocesses of plowing and its effect on artifact distribution. Two sites, each having several cluster areas of artifacts, were collected from the surface after plowing for three consecutive years, 19811983. The Bluebird site (6-WM-63-001) is a multicomponent, Middle through Late Archaic period site, and the Flicker site (6-TO-78-20) is a multicomponent, Late Archaic through Early Woodland period site. The soils from both sites are sandy loams, characterized as being very friable, non-plastic, non-sticky, well drained soils, well suited to agricultural activities. The soil from the Bluebird site is a "Hinckley gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15% slope," developed over glacial outwash materials; the soil of the Flicker site is a "Paxton fine sandy loam, 3 to 8So slope, " developed over basal till. 13 During the three years of this study both sites were planted in silage corn. Agricultural field preparations consisted of contour plowing and disking before annual spring planting. Because of the well drained and friable nature of these two soils, the techniques of deep plowing and chisel plowing have never been used and agricultural disturbances of these soils, therefore, have been limited to the upper 10 inches. This study is designed to address two issues of "plowzone" archaeology. First, the validity of interpretations made from surface collections obtained from plowed fields is tested. Surface scatter of artifacts on open agricultural fields is often used to locate and identify sites during survey work. These surface scatters, however, are only a sampling of the artifactpopulation of the site. The representativeness, quality, and percent of this sample are herein investigated. Secondly, the results obtained by Reynold's studies on vertical displacement of artifacts are tested and expanded to examine artifact variability in order to discern which physical attribute(s) relate to this phenomenon. Bone, pottery, and other refuse were not evident at either site, and so lithic artifacts provided the sole basis for analysis. Thorough and intensive surface surveys of both sites were conducted of the entire plowed field to describe all evident artifact cluster areas, and to collect these artifacts. Multiple collections in clear, sunny weather as well as rainy weather were conducted to insure complete removal of all visually apparentartifacts. Artifacts were provenienced according to site, cluster area, and year of collection. Analysis was designed to ascertain both cultural attributes(choice of lithic material and tool typology), and physical attributes that might demonstrate response to plowing (length, width, thickness, and weight). The patternsof information discernible from the plowdisturbed archaeological record were then extended to formulate experimental laws (hypotheses) covering both the qualitative, archaeological inferences, and the quantitative, physical inferences that can be made from surface collections of plow-disturbed sites. Plog et al. argue that in defining a site two criteria must be met. 14 A site is a discrete and potentiallyinterpretable locus of culturalmaterials.By discrete,we mean spatiallybounded with those boundaries markedby at least relativechanges in artifact densities.By interpretable meanthatmaterials we of sufficientlygreatqualityand quantityare presentfor at least attempting usuallysustaining and inferencesaboutbehavioroccurring the locus. at The present study addressesthe interpretability these of two sites, and by extension other similar sites in New England, based on surface collections. The usefulness of qualitative archaeological inferences was tested by two correlation procedures. The PresenceAbsence correlationtest measured the predictabilityvalue in terms of population variability of the collected artifact inventory. The artifact inventory can be partitioned into culturally derived types. A quartz flake with dimensions equal to a quartz projectile point would be indistinguishable in a purely physical evaluation. The distinction is evident, however, and it is precisely from these culturally derived variables that archaeological inferences are deduced. An artifact population lacking in projectile points and scrapers, but containing choppers and pestles, would suggest to the archaeologist a plant-processing site as opposed to a hunting-butcheringsite. The Brainard-Robinson correlation test measured the predictability value of the population distribution of the collected artifacts. The relative number of examples from each variable class is another important factor in the deduction of archaeological inferences. An artifact inventory dominated by flint (a material exotic to this area of New England) would suggest a culture organized for
I4. Plog et al., op. cit. (in note 1) 389.

Project: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Report 6 (1975) No.

117-122; M. Baker, "The Size Effect: An Explanation of Variac. bility in Surface Artifact Assemblage Content," AmAnt43 (1978) 288-293; P. Gifford, "Ethnoarchaeological Observations of NatD. ural Processes Affecting Cultural Materials," in R. Gould, ed., Explorationsin Ethnoarchaeology (Schoolof American Research, University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque 1979) lol . 77Conservation Service

13. Soil Surveyof Windham TollandCounties(U.S.D.A., and 1981).

Soil

Journal of Field ArchaeologylVol. 11, 1984 trade. An artifact inventory dominated by quartz (abundant in this area) would suggest cultural isolation.ls These two procedures provide a statistical test of the representativeness of the sample collected from the surface, and, as such, a measure of the degree of confidence that can be placed in these kinds of archaeological inferences. The usefulness of quantitative,physical inferences was tested by linear regression. The numbers of artifacts per cluster, per year, were evaluated to test the predictability value of vertical distribution of artifacts within the plow zone. The physical attributesof length, width, thickness, and weight were employed to discern which of these factors affect this distribution. Results The coefficients of similarity for both the Bluebird and the Flicker sites are given in Table 1, for the PresenceAbsence correlation test, and Table 2, for the BrainardRobinson correlation test. In the Presence-Absence procedure, higher numbers indicate greater correlation with 100 signifying complete correlation. The same is true with the Brainard-Robinson procedure except that 200 signifies complete correlation. The types included in this study are quartz flakes, points, tools; quartzite flakes, points, tools; flint flakes, points, tools; oier lithic flakes, points, and tools. From the Presence-Absence test data, the Bluebird site yielded two cases out of 26 where the highest coefficient of similarity belonged to samples from the same cluster. These were BB- 1-82 and BB- 1-83 . The Flicker site yielded nine out of 30 cases where the highest coefficient of similarity belonged to samples from the same cluster. It should be noted, however, that cluster F1-2 which accounts for six of the nine cases has yielded a total of only five quartz flakes over the three year period, thus giving the appearanceof greatercorrelation. The average total number of artifacts from the other clusters is 32. From the Brainard-Robinson test data, the Bluebird site yielded two cases out of 18 and the Flicker site yielded seven cases out of 23 where the highest coefficient of similarity belonged to samples from the same cluster. Again, cluster F1-2 represents six of the seven cases in the Flicker site. It is evident from these two procedures that the constituent elements that compose the inventory of individual surface artifacts differ from year to year. Surface collections from sites like these do not represent an adequate statistical sample of culturally derived variables.

359

This inadequacy truebothfor the presenceandabsence is of thesevariables forthe relativeproportions these and of variables. Results from the physical evaluationof the artifacts from the Bluebirdand Flicker sites are given in Table 3, numberof artifacts clusterper year, and in Table per 4, averagephysicalattributes. Analysisof the number artifacts clusterperyear of per shows an averagesteadydecreaseof 15%from year to year. This uniformitysuggests a patterndescribingthe physicalbehaviorof artifacts the plow-disturbed in site. Artifactsare evenly distributed plowingregardless by of subsequent decreasesin the population. Analysisof the averagephysicalattributes shows great variability weight and surfaceareafrom year to year in withineachcluster.Lengthandthicknessshow less variability, and widthshows the least amountof variability. The uniformityof width suggests a patternexplaining the selective processbehindthe even distribution arof tifactsin the plow zone. Regardless weight, and with of some consideration lengthandthickness,artifacts for are sortedby plowingto producea homogeneity artifacts of suchthatthe averagewidthof those artifacts withineach horizontal level remainsconstant. Discussion In a similarstudy of a surfacesurvey conductedby Reynolds,l6resultsbasedon pottery-sherd recoveryafter plowing showed a similartrendto that obtainedin this study.Reynoldsdeduceda 16%rateof decreaseperyear as opposed to the 15% rate of decrease found in this study.It is, therefore,concludedthatartifacts withinthe plow zone have a probability appearing the surface of on of the field afterplowingonce every six to seven years. The averagewidth of the artifactsappearingon the surfaceafterplowing each year remainsrelativelyconstant,suggesting the actof plowingsortsthe artifacts that accordingto this attribute,homogenizingthe artifacts within the plow zone accordingto width. Length and thickness may be secondarilysorted by plowing, but weight appearsto be an independent randomvariand able. None of these attributes followedthe trendof 15% constant decrease suggested theartifact by frequency data. The two correlation procedures test failed to indicate any trendin predictability valuebasedon qualitative culturalinferences.DiscountingclusterareaF1-2,fromthe Flicker site, occurrenceof highest coefficient of similaritybetweenpopulations from the same clusteris explainableby chance. The proposed 15-16%sample of the plow zone appearing the surfaceof a plowedfield on
16. Reynolds,loc. cit. (in note 3).

15. D. F. Dincauze, "The Late ArchaicPeriod in SouthernNew England,"ArcAnth XII-2 (1975) 23-34.

360 News and ShortContributions
Table 1. Coefficientsof similarity: Presence-Absence.
Bluebird BB-1-81 BB-2-81 BB-3-81 BB-4-81 BB-5-81 BB-1-82 BB-2-82 BB-3-82 BB-4-82 BB-5-82 BB-1-83 BB-2-83 BB-3-83 BB-4-83 BB-5-83

75

33 17
50 50

25

33 40 40
50

25 33 33
50

40

so

67
100

75
50

33
50

67
100

40 75 33 33
50

75 33 60 25 25 40 1 8

33 25 25 0 100 33 1 8

40 20 17 20 17 33 14
o

67
50

67
50

40 40 33 33
50

1 8

1 8 4

25 17

67 50 67 50 75 40 33 33 50 2 8

67 100 67 50 50 50 50 67 2 8

67 100 40 75 33 33 50 2 8

67
50 50 50 50
40

67

75 33 33 50 2 8

33 25 25 40 3 8

25 25 75 3 8

0 33 3 8

33 3 8 3 8

1 8

2 8

l
1

l
2

l
3

l l
B B

l
5

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
5

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
5

l
B B Flicker Fl-1-81 F1-2-8 1 F1-3-8 1 F1-4-81 F1- 1-82 F1-2-82 F1-3-82 F1-4-82 F1- 1-83 F1-2-83 F1-3-83 F1-4-83

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

25

60
50

25
50 so

50 25 17 20 20 25 25 20 1 8

20 100 33 50 50 100 100 50 1 8

29 25 17 20 20 25 25 20

40 so

25 33 33
50 50

33

20 33 17 17 20 20 17

33
50 50 100 100 50
25

1 8

1 8

2 8

2 8

25 33 33 25 2 8

100 50 50 100 2 8

50 50 100 3 8

100 50 3 8

50 3 8

3 8

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

is therefore concludedto be inadequate certainkinds for of archaeologicalinferencesdeduced from one year's surface collection of these sites. The total numberof artifacts,however, likely to occurwithinthe plow zone circumscribed a clusterareacan be predicted calby by culationusing the 15-16%figure,thus site size andconcentration settlementactivitiescan be inferred. of

Conclusion In New England many archaeological sites are located in shallow soils, most of which have been subjected to plowing (in Connecticut, roughly 95So of all arable soils have been plowedl7). With current interests in settle17. H. D. Luce, personal communication.

Journal of Field ArchaeologylVol. 11, 1984
Table 2. CoefElcients of similarity: Brainard-Robinson. Bluebird BB-1-81 BB-2-81 BB-3-81 BB-4-81 BB-5-81 BB-1-82 BB-2-82 BB-3-82 BB-4-82 BB-5-82 BB-1-83 BB-2-83 BB-3-83 BB-4-83 BB-5-83

361

170 162 80 76 154 152 105 60 78 98 127 10 38 99 1 8

140 90 96 170 170 117 80 90 118 147 30 140 119 1 8

80 66 144 142 68 50 40 88 101 0 200 89 1 8

100 92 80 67 50 40 92 81 0 80 81 1 8

110 124 132 150 120 154 133 100 66 155 1 8

186 111 94 84 144 145 44 144 133 2 8

125 108 98 144 159 58 142 145 2 8

117 173 133 150 67 67 134 2 8

120 138 117 150 50 139 2 8

120 123 80 40 121 2 8

155 88 88 177 3 8

67 101 172 3 8

0 89 3 8

89 3 8 3 8

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
5

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
5

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
5

l
B B Flicker Fl-1-81 Fl-2-81 Fl-3-81 Fl-4-81 Fl-1-82 Fl-2-82 Fl-3-82 Fl-4-82 Fl- 1-83 Fl-2-83 Fl-3-83 Fl-4-83

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

l
B B

181 159 173 180 181 157 161 163 181 181 151 1 8

146 166 166 200 156 160 162 200 200 150 1 8

166 155 146 146 146 146 146 146 145 1 8

175 164 156 160 162 166 166 150 1 8

164 165 161 163 167 167 161 2 8

156 160 162 200 200 150 2 8

156 156 160 160 150 2 8

198 160 160 180 2 8

162 162 188 3 8

200 150 3 8

150 3 8

3 8

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
2

l
3

l
4

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

l
1

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

ment-procurement patternsof earlierpeoples, archaeologists involved in regionalsurvey work have begun to encounter describemoreof these shallow soil sites. and Thoughthe disturbed contextof thesesites is recognized, artifactsfound on the soil surfacehave been taken as representative samples of the archaeologicalsite, and variousinferenceshave been drawnfromthese samples.

The resultsobtainedfromthis studyhave led this author to questionthe validityof some of these archaeological inferencesand to questionthe representativeness the of surfacesampleobtainedfrom the plowed field. Archaeological inferencesdrawnfrom surfacecollections of plow-disturbed sites need first to establishthe representativeness the sample. In many cases, espeof

362 News and ShortContributions cially in largesites containing pottery,the sheernumber of artifactsobtainedfrom the surfacecollectionprovide a samplenormalto the entirepopulation.As suggested
Table 3. Numberof artifacts.
1981 Bluebird BB-1 BB-2 BB-3 BB-4 BB-5 Flicker Fl-l F1-2 F1-3 Fl-4 TOTAL 21 20 3 5 6 28 2 11 6 102 1982 18 17 3 4 5 24 2 9 5 87 1983 16 12 1 3 9 21 1 7 4 74 Total 55 49 7 12 20 73 5 27 15 263

by this paper,however,thereexists a lowerlimitof total availableartifacts,below which certainarchaeological inferencescannotbe validly drawn. The samplesize foundin this studyis not abnormally small for many of the preceramic uplandsites in New England.It is necessary,therefore, questionandreexto aminearchaeological inferences madeearlierconcerning otherpreceramic sites basedon only one surfacecollection sample. Experimental laws concerned with the behaviorof artifact movementwithin the plow zone have been suggested. These experimental concerned laws with physical behaviorof artifactsin plow-disturbed sites can be applied to futurearchaeological inquiry,settingepistemologicallimitson whatmayandmaynotbe validlyinferred fromthe sample.First,estimatesof artifact densitiesand totalpopulation withinthe plow-zonevolumecan be inferred by using the 15-16%sample represented.This experimental is concernedwith verticaldistribution law of artifactsand the probability any given artifactocof curringon the soil surfaceafter plowing. The second,

Table4. Averagephysicalattributes.
Bluebird BB-1-81 BB-2-81 BB-3-81 BB-4-81 BB-5-81 BB-1-82 BB-2-82 BB-3-82 BB-4-82 BB-5-82 BB-1-83 BB-2-83 BB-3-83 BB-4-83 BB-5-83
. * .

weight 10.50 9.25 13.58 7.93 2.50 5.16 8 64 2.33 3.60 2.94 14.25 9.63 161.50 11.97 11.83 27.27 11.50 44.39 2.62 29.02 6.55 22.16 14.04 13.16 6.50 4.59 7.00

length 2.81 2.71 2.56 2.87 2.63 2.39 2.76 2.50 2.81 2.50 3.52 3.25 8.50 3.00 3.33 3.76 3.75 3.45 1.83 3.83 2.50 4.06 3.35 2.99 2.50 2.39 2.63

width 1.89 2.30 1.78 1.91 1.79 1.57 1.88 1.83 1.75 1.70 2.47 2.31 6.00 2.33 2.17 2.59 2.25 2.50 1.58 2.48 1.25 2.31 2.10 1.89 2.25 1.68 1.94

thick .79 .69 1.03 .70 .46 .75 .87 .50 .69 .70 .89 .65 2.00 .75 .81 1.19 1.25 1.52 .67 1.23 1.13 1.06 1.30 .95 1.00 .64 1.00

surface area greatest least 5.32 1.49 5.50 1.49 4.56 1.83 5.48 1.33 4.99 .88 4.26 1.36 5.83 1.89 4.50 .88 4.91 1.22 4.36 1.21 10.16 2.46 9.39 1.60 51.00 12.00 7.92 1.92 7.82 1.84 12.66 8.50 11.46 3.08 12.03 3.38 11.94 7.40 6.97 5.63 4.30 5.19 4.33 2.75 5.69 1.21 4.38 1.50 2.92 3.20 2.05 2.25 1.14 1.98

FclcKer

R-1-81 R-2-81 R-3-81 R-4-81 R-1-82 R-2-82 R-3-82 R-4-82 R-1-83 R-2-83 R-3-83 R-4-83

Journal of Field ArchaeologylVol. 11, 1984 based on previous research mentioned above,18 provides for reasonable deductions from the horizontal relationship between artifacts and artifact clusters pertaining to site size and limits. Inferences about site function and cultural association, however, cannot be deduced from the surface sample because of the randomized vertical distribution of the artifacts within the plow zone. The physical orientation of the artifact, direction, and face, must also be considered void of meaningful information based on the experimental law that suggests that artifacts have been homogenized within the plow zone according to width. The attributesof length and thickness are also involved in ways not discernible by this study. Further experimentation designed to sort out these three variables is necessary for the clarification of this hypothesis. Such experiments would need to evaluate the specific variable affected by the individual vectors of force created by the plow; horizontal drag, and the angular turning caused by the moldboard. Since at the moment of plowing the soil is in a less viscous state, the effect of gravity must also be examined. This information would be necessary for the precise description of the experimental law concerned with the effect of plowing on the movement of artifacts according to physical attributes. Acknowledgments I extend thanks to Robert Bee, Douglas Jordan, and Nora Sabo for their support, helpful suggestions, and criticisms of this paper.
and 18. Redman Watson,loc. cit. (in note4); Binfordet al., loc. cit. (in note S); Flannery,loc. cit. (in note 6).

363

Douglas Frinkobtainedhis M.A. in Anthropologyl of Archaeologyin 1983from the University Storrs.Mailingaddress:Box 336a, Rt. Connecticut, 97, Hampton,CT 06247.

Announcements AFFA FellowshipCommitteeReport
Four applications were received by the Committee for review and deliberation; each represented a viable archaeological project. After consultation, however, the Fellowship Committee decided that the AFFA Fellowship should be awarded to a program involved with in-

novative field researchand/or techniquethat has the to promiseto be important overallfieldwork.We do not want to give the awardfor normaland typical archaeoand logical investigation activity(for traveland participationexpensesassociatedwith an on-goingexcavation, a fromwriting Ph.D. expensesresulting or for the general dissertation).Perhapsthis attitudecould have been arof ticulatedin the first announcement the awardin JFA, neededsome time and experiencein but the Committee vetting applicationsbefore it could clanfy its position and share it with AFFA membersand potentialapplicants. In this context, althoughevery applicationreceived projectthat as this year was important an archaeological believedthatnone was the meritedattention, Committee compellingin the strict sense expressedabove. It was decided, therefore,not to awardthe AFFA Fellowship for the 1984 year. The Committeewishes to thankthe 1984 applicants for their efforts. And it also wishes to take this opporfor tunityto servenoticethatapplications the 1985award are hereby solicited. The deadlinefor the 1985 applications will be December 15, 1984 (see also JFA 10 [1983] 385). To date the Committeereceived $1545.00 in contributions for the awardfrom a small group of generous supporters.To have met the $2500.00 needed for the wouldhave had award,the AFFAExecutiveCCommittee to subsidizethe Fellowshipas it hadto do last year. The collectedfundswill now be set asidefor the 1985 award. And please note that it is requestedwith some urgency as that AFFA membersand friendscontribute soon as possible to the Fellowshipfund. Indeed, for the award of AFFA needs an endowment $40,000 to $50,000, the creationof which will not only make the awardstrong and continuousover the years, but will allow AFFA to its contribute funds (alas, also meager)to other worthwhile causes. Please send donationsto the FellowshipFundand, if possible, to the Endowment,to the attentionof the 620 S. Martha Joukowsky, ParkAvenue,New Treasurer: York, NY 10021 (checks to be made out to AFFA and labelled). Applicationsare to be sent to: appropriately Art, The AncientNearEastern OscarWhiteMuscarella, Museumof Art, New York, NY 10028. Metropolitan
OSCAR WHITE MUSCARELLA

Chairman AFFA Fellowship Committee

364 News and ShortContributions

AFFA Contributors
The AFFA Fellowship Committee gratefully acknowledges the receipt of $2135.00 towards the Fellowship Award. The list of Donors to the AFFA Fellowship Fund (ending May 1, 1984) follows. Daphne Achilles John P. Albanese Ray B. and Jean M. Auel E.R.G. Capital Fund c/o E. Gebhard Elizabeth Gwyn Caskey Ethel W. De Croisset Robert C. Dunnell Elsbeth B. Dusenberg Wayne C. Fields Brian Hesse R. Ross and Nancy Holloway Hattula M. Hug Artemis A. A. W. and Martha S. Joukowsky Mary Elizabeth King Alfonz Lengyel Lynne G. Lewis William A. McDonald J. Wilson and Eleanor E. Myers Anne C. Ogilvy William C. and Elizabeth Overstreet Susan J. Patullo George Howard Railsback George and Jeanette Rapp Larry and Chris Roberts Schimmel Foundation, Inc. John M. Shonsey Fred W. Trembour Frances L. Tucker Paula Wapnish James R. and Lucy Wiseman
MARTHA S. JOUKOWSKY, Treasurer

provide a monthly stipend, housing, a private study, and the time, space, and quiet needed for creative research. Residency is usually for 11 months and begins in September, 1985. The application deadline is February 1, 1985. For further information write to: School of American Research, Resident Scholar Program, P.O. Box 2188, Santa Fe, NM 87504. The School of ArnencanResearchwas founded in 1907 and is a nonprofit advanced research institution in anthropology and related disciplines. In addition to its Resident Scholar program, it conducts advanced seminars and archaeological excavations, publishes scholarly books, and houses a major research collection of Southwest Indian arts.

Perspectives
Corrigendum Copper Drills on
In our recently published article, "An Ancient Repair on a Cycladic Statuette Analyzed Using Scanning Electron Microscopy," JFA 10 (1983) 378-384, we made an erroneous observation. While it does not affect our conclusions, for the sake of the record and accuracy we would like to state that subsequent research has shown that drilling into marble can be accomplished with an arrow-shaped copper drill.
A. JOHN GWINNETT LEONARD GORELICK

Association Field Archaeology for

Fellowships Available in Santa Fe
Four Resident Fellowships will be awarded by the School of American Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico, to scholars in anthropology and related disciplines for the 1985/86 academic year. The fellowships, which are supported by the Weatherhead Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, are open to holders of the Ph.D. and to doctoral candidates whose field work is complete. They

State University of New York, Stony Brook

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