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AP Biology Lab #1
Partners: Guneet Kaur, Kevin Ta
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion in which the action occurs. water. the membrane allows certain. What is the relationship between solute concentration. so the osmosis moves the solution from lower concentration to higher concentration. and the water potential of a solution? y Pressure potential and osmotic potential assist water potential in reaching equilibrium. What is water potential? y A solute¶s relative concentration. Water always moves from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential. it restricts certain materials from passing freely through the membrane. and glucose to pass freely. What are the effects of a selectively permeable membrane on diffusion and osmosis between two solutions separated by the membrane? y When you have a membrane that separates two solutions. What are the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis and their importance to cells? y Diffusion is known as the movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. and. ³the absorption and early transport of water into the root system of plants. with transpirational pull.´ y The selectively permeable membrane has different cellular concentrations on either side. . ³small. carbon dioxide. Fuller AP Biology ± Period 2 30 September 2010 AP Biology Lab #1 ± Diffusion and Osmosis I. 5. including the transportation of ³vitally important nutrients and compounds without expenditure of excess metabolic energy. the water moves from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. helps transport water in the xylem. with different solute concentrations on either side of the membrane« In osmosis.Janice Chan Dr. 3. such as oxygen.´ Osmosis and its impact on plant cells allows for. Pre-lab Questions 1. ³in water separated by a selectively permeable membrane. What are the effects of solute size and concentration gradients on diffusion and osmosis between two solutions separated by the membrane? y The solute size does not affect the diffusion of the membrane. 2. The higher the concentration. With diffusion and osmosis. neutrally charged molecules. 4. but the concentration gradient does.´ The mechanisms are important to cells because they allow for many life functions of the cell. the faster the water will flow through the membrane. pressure potential.
water potential is 0. and equilibrium has been reached. and when the pressure potential is equal to the osmotic potential. What is the relationship of molarity to osmotic concentration? y As molarity increases. 6. so does osmotic concentration. y .Solute concentration equals water potential.
. but glucose can. 175 ml. Diffusion and Osmosis Objective a. The glucose will remain in the bag. b. 18. 10.6 M. 11. .Diffusion and Osmosis Lab I. . 5. 2. 8. IV. II. To investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model of a membrane system.4 M matched the osmotic molar concentration of the potato. The mass did increase.6 will match the osmotic molar concentration of the potato the most. 12. c. The onion skin will dissolve the salt solution. 6 plastic cups. 6. Hypothesis a. 9. 4.2 M. Compound microscope.4 M. Sucrose solution. 175 ml. . Plastic wrap. Sucrose solution. i. Sucrose solution. 175 ml. Potato. 15. Materials 1. The onion¶s nuclei were more visible once the NaCl had absorbed into its skin. 1 graduated cylinder. 250 ml. 250 ml dialysis tubing. Glucose starch solution. meaning that the starch did not diffuse and my hypothesis was incorrect. 7 ft. . [The salt will dissolve into the onion.8 M. b. 175 ml. IKI [potassium iodide] solution. . 1 plastic cup. 3. 1. Distilled water. Sucrose solution. Scalpel. Starch can¶t go through. 16. Cover slip. The starch will diffuse.] i. 13. proving diffusion into the bag. 1ml. 175 ml. 15 ml. Sucrose solution. III. The mass will increase as the concentration increases. Microscope slide. 17. 4 glucose indicator strips. 7. turning the solution purple. 175 ml. Paper towels. To investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues. . 14.0 M. d. 19. i. i. Title a.
. compound microscope.6M. Forceps. Remove bag from cups. Record initial mass in data table 2. make small cut in bag with scissors. Calculate percent change in mass for each bag.Diffusion i. vi. ix. cork borer with plunger. Formula: %Change= [Final Mass ± Intial Mass/Initial Mass x100. rub between fingers to open.V. add different sucrose solution to each bag: . . Record final mass in table2. 1. Determine glucose content. record color. v. Completely immerse dialysis bag into solution in the beaker. leave enough space in bag for expansion.0M. and place in cup labeled ³water. ii.6. record data. b. xii. and insert strip through the hole. soaked in water. Procedure a. Repeat procedure with remaining pieces of dialysis tubing. Obtain six pieces of dialysis tubing from beaker of water. Open tubing by rubbing between fingers. . Wait 30 minutes. 21. . Fill the six plastic cups with approximately ¾ distilled water in each one. carefully tie knot in open end to form a bag.4M. to test solution. Pour 15 ml of solution [glucose/starch] into tubing. 1. vii. . Record presence / absence of glucose in Table. viii.´ iv.8. Pour 15 ml of prepared glucose/starch solution into graduated cylinder. 20. 1. ii. weigh each one. . dip another indicator strip. Determine if glucose is present by dipping glucose indicator strip into solution. Record data. . iv. iii. viii. Record final color. Open one piece of tubing. Part B . Leave enough space for expansion. Note color. Onion epidermis. 15%. vi. Part C ± Water Potential . weigh each one again. Remove dialysis bag from beaker. Tie knot in open end to form a bag. vii. xi. Part A . Blot bags dry. c. iii.4. xiii. Add 1 ml of potassium iodide [IKI] to beaker. Tie tight knot in one end of tubing. Pour 25 ml distilled water into tubing. Immerse one bag in each cup. Balance. Obtain six plastic cups.Osmosis i. Note the color of solution in bag. v. blot dry.] x.0M.2. Blot dry. record color.8M. Obtain piece of dialysis tubing. Determine glucose presence. Graph both individual and class average on the graph paper in Analysis section.2M. tie TIGHT knot in one end of tubing. Fill 250 ml beaker or plastic cup 2/3 full with distilled water. be sure each bag is the properly labeled cup. Wait 30 minutes. NaCl solution. label them as follows: water. x. ix.
4 x . vi. Insert four potato cylinders and cover beaker or cup with plastic wrap. Osmotic potential calculated using: -1 [for sucrose] x . If layer tears. Examine cell layer under 100X magnification and note characteristics of cells. Calculate percent change in mass for four potato cylinders using same formula as above. take another layer from other squares. Place coverslip on top. Weigh the four cylinders together. place percent change in mass on y-axis and sucrose molarity on x-axis. Using forceps. remove center. vii. Next day. Record final mass in Table 3. Note layers of the scale leaves in onion. re-examine the sample under the microscope. . 1 cm apart on one of the scale leaves. Make more cuts perpendicular to first set. iii. Part E ± Plant Cell Plasmolysis i. Place layer in two to three drops of distilled water on microscope slide. d. only one cell thick. Allow the slide to sit for two to three minutes in salt solution.4M x . blot carefully with paper towel and weigh them. Water. between each scale is the layer used in the experiment.0831 x 296K ii. Record temp in Table 3.i. remove any skin from the cylinders. from top to bottom. ii. Part D ± Water Potential Calculation i. carefully remove epidermal layer from squares. ix. Results in 1x1cm squares. vi. Repeat procedure for other solutions. ii. Make several shallow cuts approx. ix. Remove cylinders from beaker. Draw in Analysis section. let beakers stand overnight. viii. Record data in Table 3. Using graph.0831 x 296 = = -9. and . place cylinders in a covered cup/beaker. This is equivalent to sucrose molarity in which potato core mass is constant. cut four cylinders from potato for each solution you will be using. viii. Graph both individual and class average results. add two to three drops of 15% NaCl solution to one side of slip. Pour 100 ml of solution you have been assigned into beaker/plastic cup. Cut an onion in half lengthwise.4M] Cut each cylinder to a length of 3CM for greater accuracy.83904 Water potential e. Take initial temps and record in Table 3. v. Remove cell from microscope. v. Carefully touch edge of paper towel to other side in order to draw NaCl across the sample. iv. Note appearance of cells. iii. Draw cells in Analysis section. -1 x . The epidermal layer. [Our group. iv. vii. determine molar concentration of the potato cylinders. With cork borer. measure final temp of liquid in beakers. record initial mass in Table 3.
while the bags above . we found that . In Part E. its nuclei became more visible through the microscope. naturally. we put them into ¾ full cups of distilled water. . In Part B of our experiment. . After we had tied them off. We waited to see if the weight in the bags would change due to osmosis. in which we took a dialysis tubing and tied off its ends. 5. as well as osmotic molarity. the potential could be too varied for the experiment. we watched Osmosis by taking more dialysis bags and tying them off. filled with a given amount of sucrose solution. Conclusion This lab was conducted in order to show us the process of diffusion and osmosis up close. pressure potential. filled with starch and glucose.VII. In Part B. The heat or cold would change the data. . If the bags in Part B were placed in . because the water had a lower concentration compared to the bag.6. My experiment supported half of my hypotheses. what molecules could diffuse through the dialysis tubing and which stayed inside? Why? y The glucose was able to diffuse through the tubing because of its smaller molecular structure and its lower density. It has shown me through experiment how diffusion and osmosis works.4 M would increase in mass. 3. In Part C. Post-Lab Questions 1. In Part A.4M matched the concentration the most. VIII. Because the glucose molecules were smaller and less dense than the starch ones. More water would be absorbed when you placed the potato core into the water solution. how would the results be affected? y They would gain more water if they were allowed to dry out before use. which we then graphed. because it is at equilibrium with the solution.2.83904. The . molecules within the distilled water would transfer into the bag. and the relationship between the concepts. we calculated the total Water Potential. the starch remained in the bag. adding weight.4. If the potato cores in Part C were allowed to dry out before use in this experiment. or 1.4 M bag would not change at all. blending with the distilled water in the beaker and giving our indicator a positive reading on glucose presence. filled with their either. Through the graphs.4 M would decrease in mass. including water potential. in order to function and operate efficiently. Why is measuring the temperature an important part of the calculation of osmotic potential? y Without the temperature. It has shown how crucial it is for a cell to possess these qualities. . which adds mass to the bag.8.0M sucrose solution. In Part A. why did the mass of the bags change? y The mass of the bags changed because of the bag¶s higher concentration. we found that once the onion cell had absorbed the NaCl. We first started with Diffusion. 4. which came to -9.4 M sucrose instead of distilled water. while the glucose molecules diffused out of the bag. what would the results be? y The results would change. 2. In Part D. because everything below . we found the osmotic potential of the potato cylinders. The solution naturally moved from the water in the cup to the bag due to osmosis. . then placed it in a water solution.
This means the concentration of water is smaller in the outside of the cell than the inside. more shriveled. despite its higher density and molecular size. it was . we would have gotten the point of the experiment across more clearly.4M mark. This lab is a useful teaching tool. because the x-axis intersected at the . the glucose diffused much more quickly and blended with the water in the beaker due to its smaller molecules and lower density. I corrected my hypotheses and learned more about the process of diffusion and osmosis both within a cell. while really. However. I believe my group was successful in this lab. I think that if there had been time to measure the onion cell a couple times. it would diffuse out of the bag. resulting in the cell¶s shrunken state. the solution is meant to move to an area of higher concentration. while its multi-faceted procedure can help us understand many other processes about diffusion and osmosis. the concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than the inside¶s. I was quite puzzled at first. However. The higher concentration was within the dialysis bags. when the salt solution was placed. because the water had a lower and lower concentration as the bags¶ sucrose solution increased. I found this out through my graphing. I supposed that because the starch was a solution as well. I thought that nothing would occur. the concentration also would.4M. which also demonstrated the law of diffusion. before I reread the pre-reading and understood the process. the onion looked smaller. This lab was very thorough in its explaining of diffusion and osmosis. I was wrong. This is because the salt solution is a hypertonic one. in osmosis. which makes the water molecules within the cell diffuse from the inside to the outside. My hypothesis for Part B was correct.6M would be the amount of sucrose that matched the osmotic molar concentration of the potato. In Part E. Overall. .my hypothesis was incorrect. I guessed wrongly and believed that . and the onion would merely absorb the salt solution. In Part C. the onion absorbed it and once put under a microscope. and within molecules. thus proving that as the mass increased.
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