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AP Biology Lab #1
Partners: Guneet Kaur, Kevin Ta
Fuller AP Biology ± Period 2 30 September 2010 AP Biology Lab #1 ± Diffusion and Osmosis I. What is the relationship between solute concentration. neutrally charged molecules. . with transpirational pull. and. and the water potential of a solution? y Pressure potential and osmotic potential assist water potential in reaching equilibrium. with different solute concentrations on either side of the membrane« In osmosis.´ The mechanisms are important to cells because they allow for many life functions of the cell. 2. 3.´ Osmosis and its impact on plant cells allows for. but the concentration gradient does. water. and glucose to pass freely. pressure potential. the water moves from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. such as oxygen. What are the effects of a selectively permeable membrane on diffusion and osmosis between two solutions separated by the membrane? y When you have a membrane that separates two solutions. it restricts certain materials from passing freely through the membrane. What are the effects of solute size and concentration gradients on diffusion and osmosis between two solutions separated by the membrane? y The solute size does not affect the diffusion of the membrane. 5. What are the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis and their importance to cells? y Diffusion is known as the movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. ³the absorption and early transport of water into the root system of plants. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion in which the action occurs. so the osmosis moves the solution from lower concentration to higher concentration. 4.´ y The selectively permeable membrane has different cellular concentrations on either side. Pre-lab Questions 1. What is water potential? y A solute¶s relative concentration. carbon dioxide. With diffusion and osmosis.Janice Chan Dr. Water always moves from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential. including the transportation of ³vitally important nutrients and compounds without expenditure of excess metabolic energy. helps transport water in the xylem. ³in water separated by a selectively permeable membrane. The higher the concentration. the membrane allows certain. ³small. the faster the water will flow through the membrane.
y . so does osmotic concentration. What is the relationship of molarity to osmotic concentration? y As molarity increases. 6. and when the pressure potential is equal to the osmotic potential. and equilibrium has been reached.Solute concentration equals water potential. water potential is 0.
The starch will diffuse. 19.4 M matched the osmotic molar concentration of the potato. 10. . Glucose starch solution. 9. Plastic wrap. 175 ml. The onion skin will dissolve the salt solution. b. Hypothesis a. 175 ml. Starch can¶t go through. 1 plastic cup. Diffusion and Osmosis Objective a. i. To investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues.6 M.8 M. Title a. 8.4 M. III. 12.6 will match the osmotic molar concentration of the potato the most. 1 graduated cylinder. . 15.] i. II. 11. Compound microscope. meaning that the starch did not diffuse and my hypothesis was incorrect. 175 ml. 13. IKI [potassium iodide] solution. . Cover slip. 17. . 6.0 M. d. 175 ml.Diffusion and Osmosis Lab I. 5. Scalpel. 2. . 6 plastic cups. 18. Sucrose solution. but glucose can. IV. i. 3. The mass did increase. . 4 glucose indicator strips. To investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model of a membrane system. Distilled water. 4. The glucose will remain in the bag. The mass will increase as the concentration increases. 16. Sucrose solution. b. i. Potato.2 M. Materials 1. 7 ft. Sucrose solution. 250 ml. . 250 ml dialysis tubing. Sucrose solution. Microscope slide. proving diffusion into the bag. 175 ml. 1. [The salt will dissolve into the onion. 15 ml. Paper towels. 14. 1ml. 175 ml. c. turning the solution purple. The onion¶s nuclei were more visible once the NaCl had absorbed into its skin. 7. Sucrose solution.
Leave enough space for expansion. Note color.0M.0M. Blot dry. leave enough space in bag for expansion. ix. blot dry. Onion epidermis. v.4. 21. .Diffusion i. and insert strip through the hole. . .Osmosis i.4M. x. Obtain six plastic cups. Wait 30 minutes. Pour 15 ml of prepared glucose/starch solution into graduated cylinder. tie TIGHT knot in one end of tubing. 1. compound microscope. c. Obtain piece of dialysis tubing. . xi. Determine glucose presence. Pour 15 ml of solution [glucose/starch] into tubing. 15%. vi.2M. Forceps. vi. Fill 250 ml beaker or plastic cup 2/3 full with distilled water. rub between fingers to open. dip another indicator strip.V. vii. xii. Remove bag from cups. Determine if glucose is present by dipping glucose indicator strip into solution.´ iv. Record initial mass in data table 2. to test solution. soaked in water.8. ii. record data. Determine glucose content. ix. Wait 30 minutes. b. viii. Part C ± Water Potential . Part B . iii. weigh each one. weigh each one again. Part A .2. Record final mass in table2. Graph both individual and class average on the graph paper in Analysis section. Tie tight knot in one end of tubing.] x. ii. Open tubing by rubbing between fingers. v. cork borer with plunger. iii. label them as follows: water.6M. viii. make small cut in bag with scissors. Fill the six plastic cups with approximately ¾ distilled water in each one. Immerse one bag in each cup. record color. Pour 25 ml distilled water into tubing. 1. Add 1 ml of potassium iodide [IKI] to beaker. . Note the color of solution in bag. Blot bags dry. .8M. Balance. Remove dialysis bag from beaker. be sure each bag is the properly labeled cup. record color. Completely immerse dialysis bag into solution in the beaker. 1. xiii. Record final color. NaCl solution. vii. Record data. 20. iv.6. Tie knot in open end to form a bag. Record presence / absence of glucose in Table. Repeat procedure with remaining pieces of dialysis tubing. Calculate percent change in mass for each bag. Formula: %Change= [Final Mass ± Intial Mass/Initial Mass x100. carefully tie knot in open end to form a bag. Procedure a. Open one piece of tubing. . add different sucrose solution to each bag: . and place in cup labeled ³water. Obtain six pieces of dialysis tubing from beaker of water.
re-examine the sample under the microscope. ix. Examine cell layer under 100X magnification and note characteristics of cells. [Our group. 1 cm apart on one of the scale leaves.4 x . v. iv. let beakers stand overnight. .4M] Cut each cylinder to a length of 3CM for greater accuracy. viii. vii. Record temp in Table 3. ii. Insert four potato cylinders and cover beaker or cup with plastic wrap.4M x . from top to bottom. Repeat procedure for other solutions. Note layers of the scale leaves in onion. vii.83904 Water potential e. Draw cells in Analysis section. ii. Draw in Analysis section. v. place percent change in mass on y-axis and sucrose molarity on x-axis. With cork borer.0831 x 296K ii. The epidermal layer. record initial mass in Table 3. Note appearance of cells. Using graph. viii. This is equivalent to sucrose molarity in which potato core mass is constant. Record data in Table 3. Remove cylinders from beaker. Allow the slide to sit for two to three minutes in salt solution. Osmotic potential calculated using: -1 [for sucrose] x . cut four cylinders from potato for each solution you will be using. blot carefully with paper towel and weigh them. only one cell thick. d. Pour 100 ml of solution you have been assigned into beaker/plastic cup. vi. Remove cell from microscope. Record final mass in Table 3. iv. Make several shallow cuts approx. remove any skin from the cylinders. vi. Carefully touch edge of paper towel to other side in order to draw NaCl across the sample. take another layer from other squares. measure final temp of liquid in beakers. Part D ± Water Potential Calculation i. Water.0831 x 296 = = -9. Using forceps. Graph both individual and class average results. -1 x . Place layer in two to three drops of distilled water on microscope slide. Results in 1x1cm squares. add two to three drops of 15% NaCl solution to one side of slip. and . ix. carefully remove epidermal layer from squares. Calculate percent change in mass for four potato cylinders using same formula as above. Weigh the four cylinders together. Take initial temps and record in Table 3. Place coverslip on top. place cylinders in a covered cup/beaker. If layer tears. between each scale is the layer used in the experiment. determine molar concentration of the potato cylinders. Part E ± Plant Cell Plasmolysis i. Cut an onion in half lengthwise. remove center. Make more cuts perpendicular to first set. iii.i. iii. Next day.
VI. Data .
naturally. as well as osmotic molarity. Because the glucose molecules were smaller and less dense than the starch ones. . which adds mass to the bag. 2.6. If the potato cores in Part C were allowed to dry out before use in this experiment.VII. In Part E. 5.4. filled with their either. the potential could be too varied for the experiment.2. Post-Lab Questions 1. or 1. its nuclei became more visible through the microscope.0M sucrose solution. we calculated the total Water Potential. we found the osmotic potential of the potato cylinders. the starch remained in the bag.4 M would increase in mass.8. including water potential. how would the results be affected? y They would gain more water if they were allowed to dry out before use. which we then graphed. 4. because everything below . More water would be absorbed when you placed the potato core into the water solution.4M matched the concentration the most. pressure potential. The heat or cold would change the data. In Part C. . After we had tied them off.4 M sucrose instead of distilled water. we put them into ¾ full cups of distilled water. Why is measuring the temperature an important part of the calculation of osmotic potential? y Without the temperature.4 M bag would not change at all. we found that .4 M would decrease in mass. adding weight. 3. In Part B of our experiment. we watched Osmosis by taking more dialysis bags and tying them off. because the water had a lower concentration compared to the bag. . In Part D. If the bags in Part B were placed in . filled with a given amount of sucrose solution. and the relationship between the concepts. In Part B. in which we took a dialysis tubing and tied off its ends. what would the results be? y The results would change. We waited to see if the weight in the bags would change due to osmosis. then placed it in a water solution. filled with starch and glucose. My experiment supported half of my hypotheses. The solution naturally moved from the water in the cup to the bag due to osmosis. molecules within the distilled water would transfer into the bag. in order to function and operate efficiently. because it is at equilibrium with the solution. . VIII. We first started with Diffusion. In Part A. Conclusion This lab was conducted in order to show us the process of diffusion and osmosis up close. what molecules could diffuse through the dialysis tubing and which stayed inside? Why? y The glucose was able to diffuse through the tubing because of its smaller molecular structure and its lower density. which came to -9. we found that once the onion cell had absorbed the NaCl. It has shown me through experiment how diffusion and osmosis works. while the glucose molecules diffused out of the bag. blending with the distilled water in the beaker and giving our indicator a positive reading on glucose presence. why did the mass of the bags change? y The mass of the bags changed because of the bag¶s higher concentration. The . . Through the graphs. In Part A. It has shown how crucial it is for a cell to possess these qualities. while the bags above .83904.
and within molecules. we would have gotten the point of the experiment across more clearly. while its multi-faceted procedure can help us understand many other processes about diffusion and osmosis. the concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than the inside¶s. I guessed wrongly and believed that .6M would be the amount of sucrose that matched the osmotic molar concentration of the potato. the onion looked smaller. I thought that nothing would occur. the concentration also would. Overall. However. I was quite puzzled at first. and the onion would merely absorb the salt solution. I think that if there had been time to measure the onion cell a couple times. while really. I was wrong. However. . before I reread the pre-reading and understood the process. the onion absorbed it and once put under a microscope. I found this out through my graphing.my hypothesis was incorrect. In Part E. it would diffuse out of the bag. In Part C. which makes the water molecules within the cell diffuse from the inside to the outside. it was . when the salt solution was placed.4M mark. because the water had a lower and lower concentration as the bags¶ sucrose solution increased. I corrected my hypotheses and learned more about the process of diffusion and osmosis both within a cell. the glucose diffused much more quickly and blended with the water in the beaker due to its smaller molecules and lower density. more shriveled. This lab was very thorough in its explaining of diffusion and osmosis. This is because the salt solution is a hypertonic one. the solution is meant to move to an area of higher concentration. I supposed that because the starch was a solution as well. This lab is a useful teaching tool. I believe my group was successful in this lab.4M. The higher concentration was within the dialysis bags. in osmosis. This means the concentration of water is smaller in the outside of the cell than the inside. which also demonstrated the law of diffusion. My hypothesis for Part B was correct. resulting in the cell¶s shrunken state. because the x-axis intersected at the . despite its higher density and molecular size. thus proving that as the mass increased.
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