# HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS

Carina Lauren M. Lumacad, RN

HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITION 
Does not declare an unconditional affirmation or denial Expresses a relation of dependence such as an opposition or a likeness between two clauses.

Conditional Proposition 2.Kinds of Hypothetical Propositions 1. Disjunctive Proposition 3. Conjunctive Proposition .

CONDITIONAL PROPOSITION Expresses a condition or relation of dependence between two propositions The expressed relation points out that one proposition necessarily follows from the other .1.

in case . when. If the barometer falls. If animals can think. there will be a storm. unless. *** two parts are joined by if. suppose. they are rational. 2.Conditional Proposition Examples: 1. where.

then C is D Example: If dry weather continues. . the harvest will be poor.Conditional Proposition ´if-thenµ propositions Usual structure: If A is B.

Two Component Propositions of a Conditional Proposition 1. Antecedent (Implicans) 2. Consequent (Implicate) .

Contains the condition. .Antecedent (Implicans) Introduced by the word if or its equivalent.

e. . the statement that depends upon the presence of the condition The one that is conditioned.Consequent (Implicate) Expresses the statement that follows the acceptance of the condition i.

he needs eyeglasses. (Antecedent) (Consequent) .Antecedent & Consequent The antecedent precedes the consequent Example: If a man is farsighted.

.Antecedent & Consequent A conditional proposition enunciates the dependence of the consequent upon the antecedent.

we pass from the antecedent to the consequent in our thought or speech.e.Dependence The dependence is always logical i.e. when the consequent depends on the antecedent in reality. The dependence is real i. .

Dependence Logical dependence: ´If the ground is wet.µ . the ground would have been wet.µ Real dependence: ´If it have rained. it must have rained.

2. ´either-orµ statement Parts of a disjunction are called disjuncts (alternants) . DISJUNCTIVE PROPOSITION One whose subject or predicate consists of parts which exclude each other.

. 3.Disjunctive Proposition Examples: 1. 2. Either the sun or the earth moves in an orbit. Man is the result of either of creation or of evolution. A body is either in motion or at rest.

 Disjuncts can neither be true nor false together at the same time. complete. Examples: 1. An individual is either honest or dishonest. It is either raining or not raining. 2. . strict)  If and when the parts (disjuncts) are mutually exclusive.Proper Disjunction (perfect.

Improper Disjunction (imperfect. Example: 1. . incomplete)  One whose parts are not mutually exclusive. Jose is either sitting or writing.  One disjunct does not necessarily exclude the other.

but the other disjunct may also be true. . Example: 1. Either my sister or I will go.Broad Disjunction  If and when at least one disjunct is true.

2. . the enumeration of the possibilities must be complete. complete. strict & proper disjunctive requires: 1. A true. there must be an exclusive opposition between or among the enumerated possibilities. perfect.Strict or Broad Disjunction? Consider the content and context within which occurs.

3. . CONJUNCTIVE PROPOSITION One which denies that two contrary predicates together can be true of the same subject at the same time. Denies the simultaneous possibility of two alternatives.

You cannot stand and sit at the same time. . 2. You cannot be in Quiapo and in Makati at the same time.Conjunctive Proposition Examples: 1.

Conjunctive Proposition The truth of a conjunctive proposition depends solely upon a true exclusive opposition existing between their common parts. . The parts of a conjunctive are called conjuncts.

.Conjunctive Proposition Reducible to two connective hypothetical propositions or a combination of hypothetical and categorical propositions.

You cannot be in Quiapo and in Makati at the same time.b. 1. If you are in Makati. If you are in Quiapo. then you are not in Quiapo. then you are not in Makati.Example: 1.a. 1. Reducing Conjunctive Proposition .

References 1. Bittle. Logic Made Simple for Filipinos. . Timbreza.. 1992). 119-123. The Science of Correct Thinking. (Quezon City:Phoenix Publishing House inc.. 50-53. Revised ed. Celestine N. Florentino T. (Milwaukee:The Bruce Publishing Co. 2. 1950).