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Introduction of Animation

Introduction of Animation

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History of Animation

In the Beginning...
Edweard MuyBridge "Humans in Motion" stop motion photos - studied the dynamics of animal movement this way. Zoetrope

Zoetrope (series of sequential images in a revolving drum) when the drum is revolved the slits in the drum creates the illusion of motion and becomes first movie- similarly film creates this illusion by having one image then black then image then black again. Thaumatrope (disk with one image on each side) twirl it and the two images superimpose on each other. two frame animation.

French Brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere Technology for recording of sequential images on a flexible film base. (1895) - most of the first films were French and released in America... Norman McLaren - Canadian - organized the National Film Board of Canada. Cel and Paper Animation Technique By mid-1910s animation production in US already dominated by the techniques of cel and paper. cell animation was more popularized in America than in Europe because of assembly line Taylorism that had taken America by storm. Cell Animation was most appropriate to the assembly-line style of manufacturing because it took a whole line of persons working on very specific and simple repetitive duties. On the other hand, in Europe where the assembly-line style of work was not encouraged, clay animation and other forms of animation that required only a few individuals working on the set at a time was more popularized. Because the actual set could only afford a limited amount of individuals working at one time together and no more this style and other alternative forms of animation became more widely accepted. Disney - cell animation - draw each image one at a time using onion-skinning technique.

Early Disney where mechanical techniques still used. Arms literally extend not stretch...

.Cell Animation Process Traditional cell animation . onion skinning process used to make easier the reference drawing of each additional image.drawings created one by one animators create the keyframe and assistances create inbetweens.

1928 . . Instead Walt contracted with bootleg Powers Cinephone process and even with a disastrous first recording finally in a session recorded the soundtrack with a 15-piece band and his very own Mickey squeaks.released November 18.Disney Disney created the first cartoon synchronized with sound entitled 'Steamboat Willie' At first Disney tried to reach a deal with RCA or Western Electric to record the soundtrack but were turned down.Synched Sound: Steamboat Willie .

.. Disney and Pixar partnered up to create this film. feature length films of high polish can be created virtually in 3d. 1995 On entrance of computers and 3d driven software. Toy Story is considered to be a first animated feature ever generated completely on computers.The Future of Animation 3d Animation Toy Story .released November 22. From storyboard to final render .the many steps in creation of digital imagery .

released 1999 Even if Iron Giant looks as if it were completely drawn the traditional way cell by cell . The perfect line is what separated it from 2d techniques so the solution was to "simplifying the design somewhat and not having too many surface shading areas". The backgrounds were stretched a bit so that it appeared as if you were going around something. . says Brad Bird director of The Iron Giant. Brian Gardner created a program that caused line imperfections on the Giant randomly.the big giant robot is actually designed in 3d and output as a 2d image using Maya with the added help of proprietary software. They called it Wobble. One of the drawbacks of this method is the perfect and rigid quality of the line rendered out of a 3d package.Combination of 3d and 2d Iron Giant . Secondly. Most of the backgrounds although 2d in look were also 3d renderings.

he was getting lost. . Rather than having him just look up at the sky. In Dinosaur the creation and implementation of realistic digital hair on the lemurs is included. That touch better communicates what he's thinking.released 1999 -Pacific Data Images use of non-realistic photo realistic rendering in 3d .Fishing .released 2000 With each new step into the next generation of computer graphics comes new and more believable CGI characters such as those found in Dinosaur.David Gainey Dinosaur .water color effects "Character Animation is all about what the character is thinking.." . what he's feeling.At times. Is he happy or sad? So we punched it up. That's all I do all day long as a character animatormove 3d models to look like they're thinking.. we had him jump off the ground just a bit.


there are large numbers of graduates entering the industry. we can continue the journey of making animation more development in Malaysia. and TV series are flooding our TV channel. In this post. 3D animation also has grown larger these days and more importantly. and can be created and demonstrated in a number of ways. There also many of animation school and course are made through the Malaysia.. Action is urgently required to prevents Malaysian animation from stagnating. The delay of approving contracts by the government-owned TV station caused some producers to fold up or downsize. many foreign animation. we must support our local products first no matter animations. TV series and also musics. It is a puppet with articulating arms and manipulated by the Tok Dalang(storyteller). Some of the animation that has attracts Malaysian are Upin dan Ipin. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision. Kacang. The Beginning Wayang Kulit(shadowplay) are said to one of the earliest animation in Malaysia. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program. In the same time. However. How could this happen while our products still floating nowhere? As a Malaysian. Malaysian animation is still at the crossroads. brush. Saladin and Geng:Pengembaraan bermula. films. There are many Malaysian films today are using animation to make it more interesting such as Cicakman. films. Wayang Kulit give the inspiration to a German animator.. the Malaysian peoples with all ages have accept our animation. Susuk. pen The History of Malaysia Animation!! Abstract Malaysian animation field has grown so well from the past of few years.Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. I will give expose about our animation history in order to for us to more appreciate our animation industry and people before us who are fighting to make animation are accepted in this country. Animation Tool 3d Max Adobe photoshop Adobe illustrator Coral painting Draw pad Pensil. Lotte Reiniger to do her . I hope with this expose. Brainscan. Year by year. Antoo Fighter and many more. although several other forms of presenting animation also exist.

Mat Gelap ( first combination of live action and animation) . At this time. was made handled by Anandam Xavier. animation in Malaysia are formaly began in 1946 after the establishment of Malayan Film Unit(now Filem Negara). In less than 10 years. List of animation produced in less than 10 years: 1. Mahathir Mohamad. first 3D) SKYLAND (2001. feature films and telemovies. In 1963. This resulting in the producing of the long-form animation industry came in 1994 to promote locally-made animated TV series. SANG KANCIL DAN MONYET (1984) SANG KANCIL DAN BUAYA (1987) GAGAK YANG BIJAK (1985) ARNAB YANG SOMBONG (1986) SINGA YANG HALOBA(1986) The 2 commercial animation studios are then was established. he immediately initiated the push for the use of digital technology. LAT . came in 1981. 2. The animation was completed in 1978 but screened in 1983. 4. He planned. However. FilmArt(1984) and Lensamation(1987). the first short animation. A number Japanese animation were post-animated at Lensamation. 2. first feature film) PUTEH (2001. film) KARTINI (1997. SILAT LAGENDA (1998. 5. It is first was made only for government documentaries and advertisement.Kampung Boy (developed in US and animated in Philippines) 2. 50% of these animation were animated with the direct-to-system method(drawing directly into the computer). The first TV series animation was screened in 1995. The successful of this animation led to making other 5 short film that is: 1.film. 3. Goh Meng Huat. The Turning Point When Tun Dr. 21 episode 3D animation TV series) A number of Malaysian cartoonist had their characters tuned into animation: 1. that is Usop Sontorian. 3. all animation are done manually. telemovies) NIEN RESURRECTION (2000. Malaysia's fourth Prime Minister. the industry has produced numerous animation TV series. animated and did all the background with only one assistant. 5. HIKAYAT SANG KANCIL. The aim was to cut down on foreign imports as well as increase local contents. THE ADVENTURES OF PRINCE ACHMED. Live action features films began to include animated titles and animation sequences. IMUDA . 4. led to the training and creation of many animators. a set designer who was intrained in animation.

Even if the animation for adults could be done. Conclusions Animation in Malaysia have grown so big day by days. Lets together build up the world new empire of animation for Malaysia. KELIP-KELIP (2010) 7. as usuall. Malaysia still lacking an adult audience because. LAST BUT NOT LEAST (2007) 9. SIGNTIFIC (0) 12. like serious local live action films do not sell in Malaysia. there is no market locally.Din Teksi 4. As a Malaysia we must support our animation industry and not just to 'judge the book by its cover'. SIMPLY IRRESISTIBLE (2007) . SILAT LAGENDA (1998) (6JUTA) 14. MENTERA SEMERAH PADI (0) 10. We are the new generation who are responsible to make our animation better and well-known in other countries.6juta) 5. FILEM ANIMASI DI MALAYSIA 1. Malaysia people mindset is still regarded as local animation are catering only for children. SILANG PERTARUNGAN AKHIR (2010) 13. Local Animation films. GENG : PENGEMBARAAN BERMULA (2009) 6. ALAMAYA (2010) 3. PUTIH (2001) 11. BUDAK LAPOK (2007) (2. It is not wrong to watch and love foreign's animation but we must love our animation also. Both Silat Lagenda and Puteh lost money. BUAS (2010) 4. KERONCONG UNTUK ANA (2010) 8. NAN .Usop Sontorian (first TV Series) However. UJANG .3. A DAY IN A LIFE OF MR TEDDY (2010) 2.

com/ Learning Institution CATEGORY Animango Studio Official Website : http://www. CARTOON & MULTIMEDIA COMPANY IN MALAYSIA COMPANY Adcom Digital Hub Official Website : http://www.animango.my/ Comic & Cartoon Publication CMC ± MSC (Creative Multimedia Cluster ± Multimedia Super Coridor) Official Website : http://cmc.com. Caricature Animasia Studio Official Website : http://www.my/ Government .msc. Animation Aniotek Sdn Bhd Official Website : http://www.net/ Animation.Animation Company In Malaysia ANIMATION.animasia-studio.artsquare. Anime. COMIC.com/ Cartoon.my/ 2D & 3D Animation Art Square Official Website : http://www. Comic.com.animax-asia.aniotek.com.com/ Cartoon Animax Asia Official Website : http://www.adcomdh.

html Animation.Creative Enterprise Official Website : http://www. 3D Game Brains Official Website : http://www.net. Animation.com/ Learning Institution .edu.go-academy.dasein.my/ Comic & Cartoon Publication Dasein Academy of Art Official Website : http://www.enershia.com.com/ Cartoon.com/ Animation Flare Studios Official Website : http://www.my/ Learning Institution Elite Animation Sdn Bhd Official Website : http://eliteanime.gamebrains.com/main. Courseware Fat Lizard Official Website : http://fatlizard.my/ Animation Enershia Sdn Bhd Official Website : http://www.flarestudios.cesb.com/ Game Go Academy Official Website : http://www.

TV Production.inspidea.com.my/ Learning Institution .lescopaque.limkokwing.my/ Animation.mmu.com/ Cartoon Karangkraf Official Website : http://www.imagika. Animation. TV Production. Multimedia Imagika Sendirian Berhad Official Website : http://www.my/ Film. Events Inspidea Official Website : http://www.my/ Cartoon Publication KRU Official Website : http://www.Imagebox Official Website : http://www. Animation Lim Kok Wing University Official Website : http://www.karangkraf.kru.com/ Cartoon. Film Les¶ Copaque Production Official Website : http://www.edu. Multimedia.com.com.edu.my/ Learning Institution Multimedia University Official Website : http://www.com.imagebox.my/ Music.

silver-ant.com.com/ Animation The One Academy Official Website : http://www.toa. Games PTS Official Website : http://pts.tripod-ent.my/ Learning Institution Tripod Entertainment Official Website : http://www.edu.MOY Cartoon Publication Mygo Solutions Sdn Bhd Official Website : http://www.com.com/ Cartoon.quest-animation. Animation Rocket Fish Studios Official Website : http://rocketfishstudios.my/ Multimedia.com/ Animation .com/ Animation Silver Ant Official Website : http://www.mygo.my/ Comic & Cartoon Publication Quest Animations Official Website : http://www.

2.3.Transformer animated .Shrek 1.Alien Vs Monster .Bolt DreamWorks Animation .young-jump.Vision Animation Official Website : http://www.Alvin and the chipmunks .3 Bugs Life Monster Inc Ratataouille Finding Nemo y Universal Animation Studios .The Princes And The Frog .com/ Animation Famous Animation Company y Pixar - wall E Toys Story 1.Kungfu panda Cartoon Network Studios .Bee Movie .net/ Animation Young Jump Animation Official Website : http://www.2.Van Helsing: The London Assignment .4 .Madagascar .The Chronicles of Riddick: Dark Fury Walt Disney Animation Studios .Ben 10 .visionanimation.Sym-bionic Titan y y y .

Pixar Animation Studios is an American CGI animation film studio based in Emeryville. although their most significant successes in recent years have had more universal themes. Monsters vs. and Toy Story 3 (to date. It is one of the most (according toRotten Tomatoes. Inc. The studio has earned twenty-four Academy Awards. Although the studio had made traditionally animated films about serious subjects earlier. The Incredibles in 2004. and three Grammys.Cars in 2006. Originally formed under the banner of DreamWorks SKG. United States. all of which have met with critical and commercial success. six Golden Globes. Over the Hedge. Bee Movie. They are currently distributed only through Paramount Pictures who acquired the rest of DreamWorks SKG in February 2006. California and the PDI studio in Redwood City. It is best known for its CGI-animated feature filmswhich are created with PhotoRealistic RenderMan. beginning with Toy Story in 1995. Toy Story 2 in 1999. in 2001. Finding Nemo in 2003. California. among many other awards. it was spun off into a separate public company in 2004. The Walt Disney Company bought Pixar in 2006. As of 2006. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group. Shark Tale. most of their computer-generated films and television series have now gained the studio a reputation for being focused on popular culture and satire. Monsters. Pixar followed Toy Story with A Bug's Life in 1998. Pixar is a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. part of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm before it was acquired by Apple co-founder Steve Jobs in 1986. (NASDAQ: DWA) is an American animation studio which primarily produce a series of commercially successful computer-animated films. Up in 2009 (the first Pixar film presented in Disney Digital 3-D). Aliens. perhaps the single most) critically acclaimed film studios of all time. Inc.5 billion worldwide. Ratatouille in 2007. and How to Train Your Dragon.DreamWorks Animation SKG. acknowledgments and achievements and has made $5. its own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan imagerendering API used to generate high-quality images. California. DreamWorks Animation maintains two campuses: the original DreamWorks feature animation studio in Glendale. Madagascar. the . including Shrek. Kung Fu Panda. The studio was formed by the merger of the feature animation division of DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images (PDI). Pixar has produced eleven feature films. WALL-E in 2008.

Brad Bird. executives John Lasseter. Inc. is scheduled for release on June 24. WALL-E. in 2010.highest-grossing animated film of all-time. Pete Docter. The company's logo features the character Totoro (a large forest spirit) from Hayao Miyazaki's film My Neighbor Totoro. The award was presented by Lucasfilm founder George Lucas Studio Ghibli. All seven Pixar films released since the inauguration of the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2001 have been nominated for that award. in 1986. grossing over $1 billion worldwide). Tokyo. with Toy Story 3 making the top 5 at #5. Finding Nemo at #21. Up at #37. Inc. In 2002. in 1989. . 2011. Finding Nemo. 2009. Spirited Away won an Oscar for Best Animated Feature and it remains the only film made outside the English-speaking world to have done so. and The Incredibles at #49. Cars 2.. in 1988. Pixar's twelfth film. Up and Toy Story 3 manage to make the top 50 list of highest-grossing films of all time. including: Castle in the Sky. Several anime features created by Studio Ghibli have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award. Ratatouille. andUp. commencing with Monsters. Five of the seven have won the award: Finding Nemo. Andrew Stanton and Lee Unkrich were handed the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement by the Biennale Venice Film Festival. It has its headquarters in Koganei. and Kiki's Delivery Service. Up is also the first Pixar film and the second animated film in history (the only other being Beauty and the Beast) to be nominated for theAcademy Award for Best Picture. My Neighbor Totoro. The Incredibles. ( Kabushiki-kaisha Sutajio Jiburi?) is a Japanese animation film studio. The Incredibles. On September 6.

Being a conservative "civilized" American society.. or more commonly referred to as "cartoons". Animation developed throughout the early part of the century purely in the form of short 6-8 minute clips. in 1948. However. where animation has evolved into an industry aimed. feeling that "it provided a kind of realism that should be foreign to animation". My purpose in this paper will be to compare the two and attempt to reason why they have evolved they way they did. an entirely different result has occurred in the evolution of the Japanese animation industry. and many films had scenes cut." or "Sorry. more or less. In that year alone. to entertain the audience through comedy and slapstick antics where characters could be severed in half and then literally pull themselves together and be perfectly fine for the next animated short.. From here on. the 5. became an escape from realism. and then from World War II. it was expected that "goods bearing the faces of Disney characters will bring in a retail gross of $100 million". Most of us will remember the Disney era beginning with Steamboat Willie short.000.. what a shame. even going so far as to cut a kiss between Porky and Petunia Pig in a 1939 short (where kissing between live actors was acceptable in that era). but sell merchandise as well. as it would be considered "childish" for an adult to watch animated features & shorts. the cartoons main audience became children.. Reviewers from Time and The Saturday Review magazines were disappointed with the film as it "represented an unusually large number of human characters". American animation. Most of these shorts were designed to be comic. introducing the character of Mickey Mouse. While this may seem as a relatively new concept in the economic boom of the 1990s. This has become the main goal of cartoons in America. Nowadays. with the odd full-length feature like Snow White. where the main audience consists of anyone aged from one to one hundred. but also consists of classic 1980s cartoons like Transformers and G. Critics even went so far as to criticize the excessive humanism depicted in the 1950 movie Cinderella. However. The main goal of the industry became not only to sell theatre seats and commercial spots. In Japan. Mention these two cartoons to any other guy in their late teens or early twenties and their face will light up. I didn't watch any of those kiddie shows. These cartoons developed into short escapes for the audience from the harsh world of the depression. reminiscing on the great fun they had growing up with these action/adventure shows.000th Mickey Mouse watch was manufactured 50 years ago. censorship was strong in these periods. ask any adult in their forties or fifties about these shows and they'll answer with "All that violence on TV.I.. it is quite rare to be able to watch an entire episode of X-Men or Spiderman without seeing an advertisement for an action figure of some sort. at children." These are typical responses in America. and I admit to giving in. in 1948. being a victim of the . I personally had almost 30 Transformers by the age of 12. Joe. from both Warner Brothers and Disney studios.Japanese vs American Animation Memories of television programming from my youth consists mostly of great educational shows like Sesame Street and The Friendly Giant.

it is a form of mass media that has an audience of all ages. with one "right" answer in the end. And there is one thing prevalent in almost all American animation Ò it is episodic. to help sell it. promoting Judeo-Christian views that there is a "good" side and a "bad" side. most cartoons can be found either on Saturday mornings. one Truth. Japanese animation is somewhat different. American animation is mainly aimed at children. In short. Also prevalent in animation is the influence of religion. or in the after-school time-slots. and little Maggie has been sucking on her pacifier for almost a decade. from which we all want to protect our children. In fact. More adult-themed cartoons are emerging in the American media industry. some American studios have been producing adult-themed cartoons. It is designed to be an escape from the harsh world of reality. In effect. . or watch the episodes out of order. or feature. I look at it as being simply another vehicle to send the same messages and provide the same entertainment that live-action movies do. the main characters return unchanged and unaffected by the previous episode's events. in an attempt to entertain the audience to sell commercial space. where children are most likely to be watching television. Often referred to as anime (pronounced ah-knee-may). Duckman. it is almost impossible to sell action figures these days without having an animated television show. The line dividing the two is strong and never fades. but is still created using computer-simulated cardboard cut-outs). Lisa has been 8. and won't have to follow a complex storyline or character development usually present in series'. While seemingly starting out as a formula family sitcom that is animated. Bart has been 10 years old. It is episodic so that children will never have to worry about missing the odd episode. technically isn't animation. where we are mostly monotheistic. and find comfort in establishing a "good" and a "bad". On the other hand. It is always possible to miss an episode here and there. other than considering it one genre of the industry. The monotheistic theme is present in that there is one "right" answer to a problem. Lately. or having idols appear on a clown's comeback special. as Western civilization is primarily a Judeo-Christian culture. and that's the consistent age of the characters. as. and never be lost. and South Park (which. or as a family of ducks. cartoons have become 23 minute-long commercials for their action figures. This theme is present in almost all American animation series. Episode after episode. notablyKing of the Hill. All of these series poke fun at American life either as a kid in a small town. however. such as using a large parasol to block out the sun. with the exception of the children's and cartoon networks. and there is an "evil" villain/criminal. with the best example of these being The Simpsons.immense commercial enterprise that is the cartoon industry. Airtime is also important. where there is a "good" hero/team. The Simpsons retains its popularity in being as unpredictable as animation is. And there is always one thing we can take comfort in.

but more as a fantasy outlet for the audience. however. like Star Trek and their "phaser bait". While there were the weekly strips poking fun at typical family life. originate from the post-WWII era when American strips were imported to Japan. were mostly serial. This story element. Such stories. From this. and has therefore become a "taboo" subject in our media. provide some material for character development.Most anime is based on manga. where there is no single God. Authors create their stories in a set of still pictures that. Shinto can best be described as a disorganized religion. but the Japanese audience is never shocked to find their favorite main character killed off. Another thing that I find interesting is that the series premise is never plain. space adventures. The Western feeling in society. but used as a vehicle to fill stories. other strips also became popular that followed people on journeys. but many stories of extraordinary people and things that are worshipped as deities. where the reader had to read every strip in order to keep track of the goings-on in the story. Comic strips in Japan. and even soap operas. An example of this would be the kamikaze pilots of World War II. many series do portray human characters and their lives. and will almost always have some sort of odd detail to go along with a seemingly normal story. While there is always much imagination involved in creating such stories. was that death was to be avoided at all costs. not only are there many stories animated that have to do with Shinto legends. There are series based on wandering samurai. however. however. whose sacrifice was deemed honorable in that they were attempting to take out more of the enemy in such a maneuver. are then brought to life. slapstick comedy. Another theme coming from this religious difference is that death itself is often shown in anime. especially if there is a noble cause in one's death. One main driving force behind the popularity of Japanese animation is how widespread the material is. Japanese society is far more liberal in terms of censorship and social attitudes than American society. is not the main focus of the story. Another odd plot twist is . however. and soon Japanese authors began to create their own strips. Not just in odd characters added for the effect. The format was widely popular. but many stories that explore "taboo" (well. the only common moral code in Shinto is cleanliness. if the strip is popular enough. Where Judeo-Christian values strongly discourage (putting it lightly) homosexual relations and out-of-wedlock pregnancies. The odd thing about this story is that the teenage boy and his family have the power of ESP. This is because death is honorable in Shinto. many anime storylines find their roots in the common Japanese religion of Shinto. One such example. they would be taboo in American terms) social relations between people as a result of the society being rooted in Shinto. a comedyromance series called Kimagure Orange Road focuses on a love triangle that develops between a teenage boy and his two female friends. the Japanese version of comics. and even give some comic relief in times of tension. Although not entirely realistic in depicting life in Japan. as people had to keep buying the next newspaper or magazine to keep up with the stories. This format became successful in a commercial sense.

A character's motives may be "good". series. commonly employs simplistic facial design to distinguish characters immediately. some characters can be both. But it's the same as saying that American television consists only of soap operas and trashy talk shows if you limit your viewing to daytime television. I used to have this opinion as well. in which case a bigger mouth has greater effect). series that involved sex and/or violence. The storyline is continuous. As mentioned above. and some characters can be neither. and in my opinion. makes them more interesting to watch. and vice versa. This technique is used more to distinguish between characters than for personality traits. and a larger mouth (often used for maniacal laughter. with neither being "good" or "bad". small noses. Characters often switch from one side to the other. and American distributors fear losing money on long series feeling that fan support will eventually fade. but the more popular shows are those that grip the audience from beginning to end. days. Colors range from black to pink to blond to blue.present in the martial-arts adventure series Ranma á where the main character becomes cursed in the first episode as he becomes a she when doused in cold water. Over the last few years. and are quite entertaining. and may miss something if they failed to catch an episode or two. Japanese animation. The main reason why these titles are not (yet) licensed for distribution in America is that some of these series run over fifty episodes in length. There are select few series that are episodic. however. but their methods are "evil". The fansubber's generosity comes from spending hours. but a strong ethical . this is technically illegal. many anime series are just that. More emotional characters tend to have larger eyes. many series never clearly draw the line between "good" and "evil". Many characters are human in form. At least. The "bad guy" of the story is often drawn with smaller eyes. This guessing is another point of interest in Japanese animation. until I became exposed to an enormous "underground" community known as Fansubbing. They mainly import series that appeal to a general audience with a flowing storyline and character development. It is also possible to have two sides present in a battle. Yes. This opinion results from the fact that most of the companies who translate and distribute anime to Americans initially only imported series they thought would sell with the adult crowd. Also rooted in Shinto. with plot twists and character development. a small number of incredibly generous Americans have imported video tapes and laser discs of anime series not (yet) licensed for distribution in America. and small mouths. The viewer cannot simply sit back and expect the characters to all be the same as the previous episode. although very often characters with blonde hair are more "evil" in motives than the rest of the characters. Hair color is often wild in anime as well. "But I thought it was all sex and violence?" This is the opinion shared by most Americans on the subject of Japanese animation. Character design is very different in anime is very different from American cartoons. sometimes weeks translating and subtitling the material and providing it to fans at the cost of the tape plus shipping. I must admit. as opposed to animals or robots often present in cartoons.

only Sailor Moon and Dragon Ball are pretty much the only Japanese series on American television. Perhaps one day anime will be generally accepted as a form of entertainment in America. fitting in with Disney's ideology well. is Princess Mononoke. scheduled for early 1999. it will be released through Miramax Films. Companies are gaining faith in longer series. But the fact remains. all directed by the legendary (in Japan) Hayao Miyazaki. is Kiki's Delivery Service. but we have to put us in a more comparable to the United States and Japan. many Japanese producers see this underground community not as a bunch of bootleggers. the large American corporation known as Disney is buying in to Japanese culture. I have heard much about it. stationary. However. the latest company to jump onto the anime distribution bandwagon is Disney itself. As are many other Americans. also to produce an animated feature Malaysia as Upin and Ipin. through Buena Vista Home Video early September. Although I have not seen this title. and Tokyo could simply be the name of a fantasy land for children. and music CDs (Selling the show is more important that merchandise as every series is later released on laser disc and video cassette). a Disney subsidiary. The Japanese community also sees it as a way of promoting cultural exchange in the Western world. The first title to be released. But we. At present. and that IS TV penetration. Where the quality and level of technology that they have achieved and the techniques of painting or animation they produced was more than malaysia. a coming-of-age story about a witch who travels to a large city to discover her purpose in life. as seen in the exponential growth of the anime distribution industry in the last few years. racier American cartoons like The Simpsons have opened up American minds to the imaginative power and potential of animation. However. . As this movie would not fit well with the "Disney" name. We must not put ourselves under. however. their second release. a tale centered around the environment involving some violence. and will no longer be limited to college students and comic conventions. as I'm told. and carries a strong message. They recently acquired the license to distribute all feature-length titles produced by the legendary (in Japan) Studio Ghibli. much action. Interestingly enough. It is a light-hearted story. It is. and importing more recent titles. In fact. but more as a bunch of new and unexpected consumers for related merchandise such as toys. hoping they can remain in contact with Americans of Japanese heritage as well as reach out to the rest of us.code is present where no one will associate himself or herself with a series that has been acquired by an American company for distribution. Conclusion The conclusion is where the animation in Malaysia compared with the United States and Japan. producing more than one series at a time. There is still one major obstacle left. This is most probably due to the fact that their targeted audience is the same as the rest of the Saturday morning cartoons.

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