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Reliable performance data for planning will be necessary to monitor and sustain the reforms under JNNURM over the 7-year period and beyond. The results presented in the Data Book tell us that we have to make changes in our management practices such as metering. However. coverage and access in partnership with our customers. Rajamani Joint Secretary (UD) and Mission Director (JNNURM) Ministry of Urban Development Government of India iii . The benchmarking project is showing the way for standardizing benchmarking for the 5 urban services under JNNURM. It is one of the five urban basic services being addressed by the Government of India under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The publication of the 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India is very timely as it is a first step in benchmarking of service levels for the urban water supply sector. all these benchmarking efforts should lead towards the vision of 24x7 water supplies for all. reducing our water losses. Recognizing the importance of benchmarking. members of project team and the 20 participating water utilities for preparing and publishing the Indian Water Utilities Data Book that should help us take the necessary first steps towards 24x7 water for all.Ministry of Urban Development Government of India PREFACE Water supply is crucial to addressing the challenge of urban development. stakeholders and donors. The Data Book supports all these especially in helping bring financial discipline in water utility operations through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) which is an important element of the JNNURM program. Fifty percent of our cities do not have piped water supplies and performance information on the 20 cities in the Data Book will help us plan for sustainable water supplies for them. applying appropriate user charges. M. Reforms that are mandated and incentivized under JNNURM are focused on service improvement which is aimed at bringing more accountability and transparency in utility operations. Reform in the urban water supply sector under the mission is about change to reach the ultimate objective of making water available on a 24x7 basis to everyone especially to the urban poor. We would like to thank ADB. Transparency and community participation in service delivery can go a long way in improving performance. increasing water availability. which is probably the single most important initiative in the history of our country in developing its urban areas. the Ministry is encouraging utilities to mainstream benchmarking activities in their operations and annual business planning.

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Benchmarking has long been proven to be an effective tool for improving an organization’s performance. Technical Expert. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the GOI have agreed that information on selected JNNURM cities would be useful for their work in identifying projects in support of the JNNURM program. with good information on their performance. The provision of adequate. public transportation. Much effort has gone into confirming the accuracy and consistency of information provided by the utilities. the Government of India (GOI) launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India is a comprehensive compilation of information on the performance of Indian water utilities. and staff of South Asia Department’s Urban Development Division and India Resident Mission. Part II consists of comparison charts and tables of a number of important performance parameters. Esteban. Yñiguez. which formally envisages central government investment of potentially up to US$11 billion on basic urban infrastructure and services (water supply. The Project was executed and managed in India through a Project Team headed by Mr. under the overall guidance of K. Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD). Krishnamurthy and Ms. Transport. Dr.FOREWORD In December 2005. Satyanarayana. and Water Division. Data collected from the project will feed into the JNNURM and support utilities to better access MoUD assistance. waste management. The 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India provides information from water utilities in 20 JNNURM cities and is based largely on 2005–2006 data. Part III gives the utility and city profiles. Funding for the preparation of the Data Book was provided by the Cooperation Fund for the Water Sector. RSDD. It builds on ADB’s experience from the two Water Utilities Data Books for the Asian and Pacific Region published in 1993 and 1997. We hope that this Data Book will contribute in understanding the challenge better. Benchmarking Coordinators. Benchmarking Adviser. Many clarifications were sought by the project team and much data is presented with footnotes which suggest explanations for apparent discrepancies. It comprises three parts. ICRA Management Consulting Services Ltd. The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) with support from ADB embarked on a Benchmarking and Water Utilities Data Book Project for 20 selected water utilities in India.) in 63 identified cities over the next 7 years. etc.N. financed by the Government of The Netherlands and Norway. WooChong Um Director Energy. Rajamani. and administered by ADB. Catherine Rose James. Principal Water Supply and Sanitation Specialist supported by Theresa Audrey O. and Mr. Seetharam. E. However. it may be noted that the views and analysis expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of ADB. Information for the Data Book was derived from questionnaires designed by ADB and agreed upon and completed by the participating utilities. Transport and Water. Joint Secretary. and in helping the stakeholders define the best ways of meeting it. Ministry of Urban Development. Part I is a summary of findings and brief comments thereon. M. IIT Madras. safe.. S. which were all well received by stakeholders and have served as useful reference documents. RSDD Asian Development Bank v . India with support from the following team members: Mr. and the more recent Water in Asian Cities in 2004. The Data Book was prepared in ADB’s Energy. K. and reliable water supplies on a 24x7 basis in the context of an increasing population and rapid urban development in India will be a major challenge to the Government of India and its development partners. Sector Officer. Cesar E.

Government of India wish to thank the following urban local bodies and their water utilities for their cooperation in providing the information that made the publication of this data book possible. Chandigarh Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Indore Municipal Corporation Jabalpur Municipal Corporation Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company Limited Kolkata Municipal Corporation Mathura Municipal Council Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Nagpur Municipal Corporation Nashik Municipal Corporation Rajkot Municipal Corporation Surat Municipal Corporation Varanasi Jal Sansthan Vijayawada Municipal Corporation Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation vi . Amritsar Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Bhopal Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Asian Development Bank and the Ministry of Urban Development. City Ahmedabad Amritsar Bangalore Bhopal Chandigarh Chennai Coimbatore Indore Jabalpur Jamshedpur Kolkata Mathura Mumbai Nagpur Nashik Rajkot Surat Varanasi Vijayawada Visakhapatnam Utility Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation.

ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations and Acronyms ADB AMC BMC BOT BPL BWSSB CCMC CMWSSB GOI GVMC HC HSC HUDCO IIT IMC JMC JNNURM JUSCO KMC MCA MCC MCGM MMC MoUD NMC NMC NRW O&M PPP PT RMC Rs SMC SP UFW ULB VJS VMC Asian Development Bank Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Bhopal Municipal Corporation build-operate-transfer below poverty line Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board Government of India Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation house connection house service connection Housing and Urban Development Corporation Indian Institute of Technology Indore Municipal Corporation Jabalpur Municipal Corporation Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company. Chandigarh Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Mathura Municipal Council Ministry of Urban Development Nagpur Municipal Corporation Nashik Municipal Corporation non revenue water operation and maintenance Public Private Partnerships public tap Rajkot Municipal Corporation Indian Rupee Surat Municipal Corporation stand post unaccounted for water Urban Local Body Varanasi Jal Sansthan Vijayawada Municipal Corporation vii . Limited Kolkata Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation. Amritsar Municipal Corporation.

a.Measurement Units and Symbols km km2 l/c/d or lpcd m m3 m3/d m3/d/c mm n. % '' kilometer square kilometer liters per capita per day meter cubic meter cubic meter per day cubic meter per day per capita millimeter not available or not applicable percent inch viii .

the reader is advised to verify the information from the utility whose contact details are provided in the utility profile. Water supply coverage (%) = [(population served by HC) + (population served by PT)] x 100 / [total population in the area of responsibility] 2. b) to select the most appropriate performance indicators to measure performance of water utilities. 1. a local autonomous body and a private operator. Performance indicators were derived using basic data provided by the utilities and following various computations using the formulas in the following sections below. Almost all the data used in comparing the indicators in the tables. The information presented in this book was either taken from the water utility questionnaire or was based on computations using data from the questionnaire. graphs. Many clarifications were sought on the data provided especially for consistency between the data and indicators. The water utilities that provided data included 15 municipal corporations. Per capita consumption (l/c/d) = [total annual domestic consumption (m3) x 1. Chennai on 17–18 January 2007 to a) to provide the participants an understanding of benchmarking as a tool for performance improvement. ADB is conscious that not all the data is 100 percent reliable. A suggested evaluation criteria on utility performance is provided in Appendix 2. a municipal council.. exact values can be extracted. Nevertheless.. For purposes of presentation and discussions. 2 city boards. so that the data finally presented is the best that could be obtained in the circumstances. This may be modified to suit the particular situation in India in measuring the overall utility performance in a particular given period. Production/population (m3/d/c) = [annual production volume (m3) /365] / [number of people served] ix . the name of the city or town served by the utility is used instead of the utility name. This makes unaccounted for water or daily per capita consumption data estimates at best. hence. and. charts and figures are found in each of the utility and area profiles. An Inception Workshop was held at the India Institute of Technology Madras. There were some instances where estimates were given in the absence of available measures like cases where there are no total metering of production and consumption. c) to plan the implementation of the benchmarking and water utilities data book project. like Jamshedpur instead of Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Co.METHODOLOGY The 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India examined the performance of water utilities in 20 cities in India with service areas ranging from one city to several towns and cities. or Varanasi instead of Varanasi Jal Sansthan. Data collected through a water utility questionnaire shown in Appendix 1 were for the year 2005–2006. The formulas used for the computations are shown below.000/365] / [number of people served] 3. Ltd. If there are doubts on the reliability of some of the data presented.

This may indicate that total collections for the period included payment of bills for the previous period.total annual consumption (m3)] x 100/[total annual production (m3)] 5.000] Some utilities may have collection efficiency higher than 100%. Normally.4. Staff/1. Accounts receivable (month’s equivalent) = [accounts receivable at end of the fiscal year] / [total annual billings/12] 10. Unit production cost (Rs/m3) = [annual O&M cost (Rs)] / [total annual production (m3)] 7. Unaccounted for water (%) = [total annual production (m3) . However. Operating ratio = [annual O&M cost (Rs)] / [annual revenue (Rs)] 8. Operating and maintenance costs used in the computations do not include depreciation and debt service. x . Average tariff (Rs/m3) = [total annual billing (Rs)] / [total annual consumption (m3)] 6. Revenue collection efficiency (%) = [total annual collections (Rs) / total annual billings (Rs)] x 100 9.000 connections ratio = [number of utility staff] / [number of utility connections/1. Population served by house connections and by public taps were estimates given by the utilities. in a number of instances the reliability of the average number of persons served became suspect when the resulting population served exceeded the total population in the area of responsibility. these two values are computed using the number of house connections and public taps multiplied by the corresponding average number of persons served by each type of connection.

xi .

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Preface Foreword Acknowledgements Abbreviations Methodology Map Table of Contents List of Tables and Figures PART I – SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Summary of Results Comment and Analysis by Utility Comment and Analysis by Indicator Achieving 24x7 Supply – Best Practices in Water Utilities General Conclusions iii iv v vi viii x xiii xiv 1 3 4 8 10 12 PART II – UTILITIES COMPARISONS (Figures and Tables) Institutions Names and Locations of Utilities Size of Utility Type of Water Utility Capital Expenditure per Connection 13 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 xiii Production Production Volume Storage Capacity Production Metering Service Water Coverage Water Availability Water Use Per Capita Consumption Household Monthly Consumption Household Monthly Bill Management Unaccounted For Water Consumer Metering Staff per 1.000 Connections Average Tariff Unit Production Cost Management Salaries .

Nashik) Domestic Tariff Structures . Vijayawada) Domestic Tariff Structures . Ahmedabad. Bhopal.Connection Fee for House Connection Priority Needs of Utility 24 25 Tariffs Domestic Tariff Structures . Jamshedpur. Indore.Group 1 (Bangalore.Group 4 (Coimbatore. Rajkot.Group 2 (Chennai. Amritsar.WATER UTILITY AND AREA PROFILES Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation 33 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 Amritsar Municipal Corporation.Group 3 (Chandigarh. Mumbai. Amritsar Bangalore Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Bhopal Bhopal Municipal Corporation Chandigarh Municipal Corporation. Visakhapatnam. Nagpur) Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Revenue Collection Efficiency 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 Operation and Maintenance Annual Operation and Maintenance Costs O&M Cost Components Leaks Repaired Meters Replaced Water Quality Sampling Complaints Received New Connections PART III . Chandigarh Chennai Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board Coimbatore Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation xiv . Varanasi) Domestic Tariff Structures .

Indore Indore Municipal Corporation 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 Jabalpur Jabalpur Municipal Corporation Jamshedpur Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company Limited Kolkata Kolkata Municipal Corporation Mathura Mathura Municipal Council Mumbai Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Nagpur Nagpur Municipal Corporation Nashik Nashik Municipal Corporation Rajkot Rajkot Municipal Corporation Surat Surat Municipal Corporation Varanasi Varanasi Jal Sansthan Vijayawada Vijayawada Municipal Corporation Visakhapatnam Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation APPENDICES Appendix 1: Water Utility Questionnaire Appendix 2: Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Utilities 75 77 84 TABLES Number 1 2 Title Summary of Results Names of Utilities Page 3 15 xv .

Group 4 (Coimbatore. Vijayawada) Domestic Tariff Structures . Amritsar.000 Connections Average Tariff Unit Production Cost Management Salaries Connection Fee for House Connection Domestic Tariff Structures .3 4 Size of Utility Priority Needs of Utility 15 25 FIGURES Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19a 19b 19c 19d 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 xvi Title Type of Water Utility Capital Expenditure Per Connection Production Volume Storage Capacity Production Metering Water Coverage Water Availability Water Use Per Capita Consumption Household Monthly Consumption Household Monthly Bill Unaccounted For Water Consumer Metering Staff per 1.Group 3 (Chandigarh. Nagpur) Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Revenue Collection Efficiency Annual Operation and Maintenance Costs O&M Cost Components Leaks Repaired Meters Replaced Water Quality Sampling Complaints Received New Connections Page 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 .Group 1 (Bangalore. Jamshedpur. Rajkot. Indore. Varanasi) Domestic Tariff Structures . Bhopal. Visakhapatnam.Group 2 (Chennai. Nashik) Domestic Tariff Structures . Ahmedabad. Mumbai.

PART I SUMMARY OF FINDINGS .

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0 158 0.222 14 0.375 112 5.1 112 20.188 nd 1.0 8.267 52 40.55 2.1 5.5 0.4 2.102 1.60 1.6 45 5.2 89 2.04 530 754 8.0 0.584 1.0 1.9 64 3.60 660 3.4 100 1.43 8 67 1.7 Varanasi 77.0 1.8 24.6 3.TABLE 1a: SUMMARY OF RESULTS Ahmeda bad Water Coverage (%) Water Availability (hours) Consumption/Capita (l/c/d) Production/Population (m3/d/c) Unaccounted for Water (%) Connections Metered (%) Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable (months) Revenue Collection Efficiency (%) Average Tariff (Rs/m3) New Connection Fee (Rs) Capital Expenditure/ Connection (Rs) Staff/1.8 24.248 60 80.2 TABLE 1b: SUMMARY OF RESULTS Kolkata Mathura Mumbai Nagpur Water Coverage (%) Water Availability (hours) Consumption/Capita (l/c/d) Production/Population (m3/d/c) Unaccounted for Water (%) Connections Metered (%) Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable (months) Revenue Collection Efficiency (%) Average Tariff (Rs/m3) New Connection Fee (Rs) Capital Expenditure/ Connection (Rs) Staff/1.000 2.591 7.18 0.0 1.3 101 0.5 1.220 24 6.5 100.168 nd 3.0 87 0.217 30 0.0 3.78 3.4 79.05 12.0 nd 0.3 0.73 2.79 2.244 31.0 147 0.1 3.0 1.50 1.3 0.68 3 75 1.584 1.5 2.4 74.850 817 1.01 3.61 6.82 3 75 3.4 Jamshed Average pur 74.5 3.39 100 427 2.286 41 100.246 13 75.0 1.6 80 6.7 11.0 171 0.500 353 18.76 9.5 93 0.8 189 4.3 123.740 787 5.500 nd 5.000 3.0 109 0.1 0.5 4.3 86 8.2 1.13 1.182 nd 0.4 1.17 2.7 Visakha Average patnam 49.44 1.0 2.0 4.0 100 0.4 Rajkot 98.9 0.63 4.6 69 9.62 500 712 6.891 5.6 81.5 74 0.332 39 79.2 91.500 39 20.55 1.146 23 0.2 Summary of Results of 20 Utilities 3 .03 92 4.000 954 4.0 2.3 0.0 147 0.49 11.213 57 4.3 130 0.080 13.3 0.91 1.63 4.07 1.80 7.5 0.3 123.32 1.4 81.0 203 0.0 1.247 14.9 99.36 nd 94 5.9 Vijaya wada 70.66 3.7 70.9 99.0 139 0.3 76.14 1.0 0.5 5.131 17 3.2 4.790 17.984 864 0.1 152 10.930 10.87 1.36 5.62 0.0 1.250 1.5 nd 0.75 87 0.7 7.591 7.246 35 0.000 Connections (ratio) Amrit sar 75.6 114 2.60 1.91 1.160 nd 0.3 100 4.1 100 1.675 719 3.1 4.0 86 0.4 6.9 1.82 3.0 191 0.51 300 971 5.0 124 0.244 31.34 950 331 4.8 Banga lore 92.3 106 0.000 Connections (ratio) Nashik 92.5 72 0.3 5.30 4.2 Bhopal 83.4 1.305 14 1.6 89.0 Indore Jabalpur 77.7 75.808 13 0.5 1.268 3.7 Chandi Coimba Chennai garh tore 100.33 5.1 Surat 77.0 0.9 4.66 345 1.2 4.5 4.185 45 95.18 5.108 nd 0.0 12.6 178 0.2 4.

96 shows billing can cover operations and maintenance costs.04/m3 is not enough to cover operating costs due to high UFW. BWSSB needs to reduce its NRW and improve on water availability. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 2.4% of the population in its area of responsibility. It could further improve metering of connections to better account for use. Operating ratio is good at 0. Municipal Corporation.60/m3 is the lowest and can not cover production costs.5% of total connections are metered making the UFW figure an estimate at best. MCA needs to reduce its NRW and improve on water availability and quantity.36 is the median and better than average. MMC is doing well in customer service but needs to reduce UFW to manageable levels. Average tariff of Rs0.7. Production is not metered and only 3% of total connections are metered but meters are being phased out.55/m3 is the highest but high UFW keeps the total revenues Chennai Metropolitan Sewerage Board Water Supply & Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWWSB) provides water at 87 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 5 hours per day to 89. the 4th lowest. Production is not metered and only 45% of commercial and industrial are metered making the UFW an estimate at best. Staff/1000 connections ratio is the highest at 20. It should take serious efforts in measuring its production and service connections to determine its losses and reduce them as well. while production is fully metered only 3. UFW is 38. Average tariff of Rs5.2.6 months.34/m3 should easily cover production cost but is prevented from doing it by its high non-revenue water (NRW).5% of total connections have functioning meters.1% among 14 utilities. AMC needs to improve water availability and collection of its receivables. It has the second highest UFW at 57.3% of the population in its service area. Average tariff of Rs20. Chandigarh Municipal Corporation Chandigarh (MMC) provides water at 147 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 12 hours per day to all of the population in its area of responsibility. No reliable estimate of unaccounted for water (UFW) can be obtained. It should consider charging the appropriate tariff to cover its expenses. It has the fifth lowest UFW at 17.1 months is fifth highest.0%. Average tariff of Rs1. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 4. It should consider metering of production and connections to better account for use.8. It also needs to improve on its collection efforts.2. While operating ratio at 0.9% which is sixth highest.6. Average tariff of Rs 9. Municipal Corporation.7% of the population in its area of responsibility. UFW can not be computed due to inconsistencies in the production and consumption estimates in the absence of metering for both. Bhopal has the fourth highest operating ratio at 2.COMMENT AND ANALYSIS BY UTILITY Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) provides water at 171 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 2 hours per day to 74. Water bills should also be based on actual consumption as a means to conserve water.5% of the population in its area of responsibility. It has the fourth highest UFW at 45. Amritsar Municipal Corporation Amritsar (MCA) provides water at 86 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 11 hours per day to 75.36 and accounts receivable of 5. Bhopal Municipal Corporation Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) provides water at an estimated 72 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 1-2 hours per day to 83. Financial management needs improvement with operating ratio of 1. Production is fully metered and 95. Bangalore Water Supply & Sewerage Board Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) provides water at only 74 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 4-5 hours per day to 92. Operating ratio of 1. The utility should meter production and further improve metering of connections to account for use. just enough to cover costs. No data was given for accounts receivable. It also needs to improve on its collection efforts. accounts receivable equivalent of 8.4% among the utilities.39/m3 is just about able to cover production cost of Rs1. BMC needs to improve on water availability and staff productivity. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .9% of the population in its area of responsibility. However.34/m3.0 months requires more efforts in collection. Staff/1000 connections ratio is also sixth highest at 8.8 but accounts receivable of 7.82 although accounts receivable of 3. The utility should also look into improving the productivity of its staff.6 months is better than average. Production is not metered while 79% of service connections are effectively metered. Staff/1000 connections ratio is just about the median at 5. Metering of production and connections are needed to better account for use.

2% of the population in its area of responsibility. Production and all connections need to be metered to allow billing based on use and to account for total use and losses. Accounts receivable is about average at 5. MMC Jabalpur Municipal Corporation Jabalpur Municipal Corporation (JMC) provides water at 139 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 4 hours per day to 75.0% of the population in its area of responsibility.7. Average tariff of Rs 2. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fourth highest at 14.68 and accounts receivable equivalent is 3.05 and accounts receivable of 12. Staff productivity needs to be enhanced. Operating ratio is highest at 5.62 and accounts receivable of 0. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 6. Average tariff of Rs4. It should also improve metering of service connections to account for use.50/m3 is fifth lowest and can not cover operating ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comment and Analysis by Utility 5 . CCMC needs to reduce its UFW.0 months. water availability and reduce its high UFW. its low tariff and operating ratio of more than 1.87/m3 can easily cover production cost.3 month.6. With both production and connections not metered. Operating ratio is 1.3% of the population in its area of responsibility. Staff/1000 connections ratio is high at 13. Estimates given show consumption equal to production giving unrealistic values for per capita consumption and UFW.0 months.3. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 4. expenses. Average tariff of Rs1.13/m3 is the third lowest which can not cover expenses at all.79/m3 is lower than the high production cost of Rs13. While production is metered less than 1% of service connections are metered. Staff/1000 connections ratio is lowest at 0. It also needs to improve collection.1 months.82 and accounts receivable at 3. It can further improve by full metering of all service connections. JUSCO is operating well except for water availability. UFW of 12. Average tariff of Rs10. CMWSSB needs to increase water availability and staff productivity. Average tariff of Rs3.51/m3 is about average but covers expenses well. Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation (CCMC) provides water at 109 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 3 hours per day to 76.4% of the population in its area of responsibility. Staff/1000 connections ratio is less than average at 5. Both production and all service connections are not metered.73 and accounts receivable of 2.0.33.3% with both production and consumption fully metered which gives an accurate measure of its losses. Average tariff of Rs0. Financial management needs improvement with the third highest operating ratio of 3. increase the available hours of its supply and its coverage as well.Financial management is good with the lowest operating ratio at 0. Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company Limited Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) provides water at 203 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 6 hours per day to 74. Kolkata Municipal Corporation Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) provides water at 130 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 8 hours per day to 79.2 months. Indore Municipal Corporation Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) provides water at 87 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 45 minutes per day to 77.3% is at best an estimate.4 months. UFW is estimated at a high 35% with production not metered and less than 1% of service connections metered. Financial management is good with an operating ratio of 0. JMC needs to address its water availability.5. Financial management needs improvement with the second highest operating ratio of 4. Financial management is very good with operating ratio of 0. production and consumption estimates given do not give a credible UFW value.66/m3 is enough to cover operating costs. Average tariff of Rs 1.8% is the lowest. Metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses.18/m3 due to high cost of power most probably for pumping. Mathura Municipal Council Mathura Municipal Council (MMC) provides water to its consumers at an average of 1-3 hours per day to 70% of the population in its area of responsibility. UFW is fifth highest at 41.7.62/m3 is the second lowest which can not cover expenses at all.4. Water availability of less than 1 hour a day is not acceptable and should be improved.0 which is about half of the average. the sixth lowest but can still be reduced. IMC will need a lot of improvement starting with reducing its operating expenses and improving collections. Staff/1000 connections ratio is second highest at 18.1% of the population in its area of responsibility. Staff productivity should also be enhanced.44 and accounts receivable equivalent of 1. With both production and service connections not metered. the fifth highest.3 months which is the highest. UFW of 14. KMC needs to cover its expenses through appropriate tariffs and by charging domestic users for their use. the third lowest. Production and all connections need to be metered to allow billing based on use and to account for total use and losses.

UFW is 23.6 months. Surat Municipal Corporation Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) provides water at an average of 2-3 hours per day to 77. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 1.07/m3 is not covering production cost. Financial management needs improvement with an operating ratio of 1. NMC needs to reduce its NRW. Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) provides water to its consumers at 191 lpcd at an average of 4 hours per day to all of the population in its area of responsibility.needs to cover its expenses through appropriate tariffs. high operating ratio and accounts receivable equivalent. However.5% with practically no metering for both production and service connections making the UFW an estimate. meter production and further improve metering of service connections to account for use. Financial management needs improvement with an operating ratio of 1.2. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW.01 and accounts receivable equivalent of 3.18 and accounts receivable equivalent of less than a week.0% which is just about average.49 but accounts receivable of 11. It has the highest UFW at 59. Full metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses if UFW is to be reduced.6% of the population in its area of responsibility. Rajkot Municipal Corporation Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC) provides water at 101 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 20 minutes per day to 98. Varanasi Jal Sansthan Varanasi Jal Sansthan (VJS) provides water at 147 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 7 hours per day to 77. Coverage which is lower than average also needs to be addressed.60/m3 covers expenses with low UFW. With practically no metering for both production and service connections no estimates of UFW and average per capita consumption were made. Full metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW.7 being the third lowest.1 months.7% of the population in its area of responsibility. Staff/1000 connections ratio is the third highest at 17. Metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 5.61 and accounts receivable equivalent of 6. Financial management is mixed with an operating ratio of 1. improve on water availability and its financial management especially operating ratio.76. SMC needs to address its very low water availability and accounts receivable equivalent.6 months is third highest. while production is fully metered only 80% of total connections are metered making the UFW still an estimate. Production is not metered and while 69% of service connections are metered. Average tariff of Rs1. Staff/1000 connections ratio is the fifth lowest at 3. accounts receivable of 9. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 3. Nashik Municipal Corporation Nashik Municipal Corporation (NMC) provides water at 93 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 3 to 4 hours per day to 92. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 1.1% of the population in its area of responsibility. It should ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . Operating ratio of 1. It also needs to improve collection and water availability.2. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW. UFW of 51. Average tariff of Rs4. UFW is 30.60/m3 is fifth highest and is covering expenses well. Production is metered and 75% of service connections have working meters.8 months which is second highest. Financial management is mixed with very good operating ratio of 0. Nagpur Municipal Corporation Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) provides water to its consumers at 100 lpcd at an average of 5 hours per day to 91.9% is third highest and should be reduced. UFW of 13. Production is metered and 40% of service connections have working meters. NMC needs to exert efforts to reduce its UFW and improve collection and water availability. MCGM needs to improve collection and water availability. Average tariff of Rs4. Average tariff of Rs5.32/m3 should be able to cover production cost but is prevented by its high NRW. VJS needs to address its low water availability and further improve on its accounts receivable equivalent and operating ratio.17/m3 seems not enough to cover production cost.1 being the second lowest. none of them are working.5% among the utilities. Average tariff of Rs3.9. RMC needs to address its very low water availability.30 and accounts receivable equivalent of 4.66/m3 could not cover production cost. It also needs to address staff productivity. While operating ratio is good at 0. Average tariff of Rs6.5% of the population in its area of responsibility.4 being the fifth lowest.4% of the population in its area of responsibility.6% is second lowest.9 months need improvement.

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) provides water at 158 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 2 to 4 hours per day to 70.5% but production is not metered and only 1. Financial management is mixed with an operating ratio of 1. Greater Visakhapatnam Corporation Municipal Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) provides water at 124 lpcd to its consumers at an average of only 1 hour per day to 49. Financial management is good with an operating ratio of 0. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comment and Analysis by Utility 7 . Average tariff of Rs8.3% of service connections have working meters.5% of the population in its area of responsibility. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 5.14 and accounts receivable equivalent of 1. UFW is 23.18/m3 is not enough to cover production cost.4 which is at the median.55/m3 is enough to cover production cost.75. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW.8% but production is not metered and only 6% of service connections have working meters. GVMC needs to address its low water availability and population coverage which is the lowest among the utilities.6 months which is fourth lowest.78 and accounts receivable equivalent of 3. UFW is 14.2% of the population in its area of responsibility. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW further.7 which is at the median. Average tariff of Rs 2. VMC needs to address its low water availability and reduce its operating ratio to less than about 0. Coverage which is lower than average also needs to be addressed.3 months. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 5.

2%) Two of the 20 utilities have 100% coverage (Chandigarh and Mumbai). It is noted that those with the highest coverage also have the highest tariffs indicating that people are willing to pay for piped water.2%) has the lowest followed by Mathura (70%).8%). Amritsar (57.0 hour) and Bhopal (1.6%). Visakhapatnam (14. Connections Metered (Average – 24. Bangalore (74 lpcd).3 hours supply per day. The urban poor are the most affected as they can not afford the cost of dual systems with individual storage and pumping systems in the home. It is high enough to provide for health and hygiene requirements and low enough to help conserve resources. Jabalpur. Kolkata (8. Chandigarh (0.5%).6%). Nagpur (51. and Coimbatore (0. Nashik (92. Consumption (Average – 123.131 m3/d/c).8%) The best performers in terms of low UFW are Jamshedpur (12. The worst performers requiring much improvement are Indore (5. Rajkot (98.5% and 75.75 hour). Consumption metering is also important for consumers to pay for what they are using that could help in promoting prudent use of water. and Jamshedpur (6 hours). Metering is a critical component for determining UFW.120 lpcd seems reasonable. The high figures are in Jamshedpur (0. Visakhapatnam (0. The low figures of Indore (0.4%). Visakhapatnam (0.63) A low operating ratio means revenues from tariffs cover the operation and maintenance costs comfortably. Nagpur (0. Only Coimbatore claims to have both production and service connections fully metered. Given low coverage and low water availability in some utilities. It is no surprise that Visakhapatnam also has the third lowest availability at one hour supply per day.78). Rajkot (0. Visakhapatnam (1.6%).3 hours/day) It is alarming that the longest available supply is only 12 hours a day (Chandigarh) followed by Amritsar (11 hours). Water Availability (Average – 4. Chennai (0. Mumbai (191 lpcd).3%).267 m3/d/c) and Nashik (0. this is perhaps the single most important area requiring improvement. Bangalore and Mumbai have fully production metering but consumption metering are 95. Vijayawada (70. it will show whether the utility also has the capacity to expand coverage through tariffs without the grants given by most ULBs. UFW figures should be interpreted with caution.3 hours). The average is 81.305 m3/d/c). Only 1/3 of the utilities are able to cover their costs including Chennai (0.5%).286 m3/d/c). Four others have more than 90%.168 m3/d/c) reflect a shortage of water resources. respectively. Indore and Chennai (87 lpcd). Mathura. Unaccounted for Water (Average – 31. The shortest supply duration per day belongs to Rajkot (0. Amritsar (86 lpcd). Mumbai (13.146 m3/d/c). Varanasi (7 hours). The worst performers are Nashik (59.33). there are a number of low consumption areas.5 hours). Operating Ratio (Average – 1.62). repair of visible leaks. Bangalore (95.1%).808 m3/d/c). The high consumption areas are Jamshedpur (203 lpcd). A ratio above one means they do not cover these costs.2% with 12 utilities falling below 80% coverage.5%) Metering is important to fully account for water production and consumption in reducing UFW.0%).248 m3/d/c). Coimbatore (0. Average for all utilities is only 4. Bangalore (92.4%) and Ahmedabad (74. Mumbai (0. Jamshedpur (0. 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India Production per Person (Average – 0. Visakhapatnam (49. Jamshedpur (74. Ahmedabad (171 lpcd) and Vijayawada (158 lpcd).0%. Nagpur (0.COMMENT AND ANALYSIS BY INDICATOR Water Supply Coverage (Average – 81. the rest have less than 10% metering with Bhopal.3 l/c/d) Consumption of around 100 . and Nagpur (91.5%) and Chennai (17. By contrast.1%). If we include debt service and depreciation.44). Four other utilities have fully metered production but virtually nil to only 40% consumption metering. Indore and Chennai have source constraints. Supplies of less than 24-hours pose not only a risk to health. Chandigarh (79%) and Mumbai (75%). Nashik (80%).9%) and Bangalore (45. but also affects metering and the ability to reduce UFW levels. Jamshedpur and Coimbatore have high demand 8 . Amritsar and Bangalore have high UFW.80).160 m3/d/c) and Ahmedabad (0.108 m3/d/c). more must be done to reduce UFW levels. Bangalore (0. and identification and repair of invisible leaks.244 m3/d/person) This indicator measures overall efficiency of water resource use. Mathura (0. such as Bhopal (72 lpcd).82).76). This includes 100% metering of production and consumption. Hence. Jabalpur (14.5%). For Indian water utilities.9%).332 m3/d/c).5). Except for Nagpur (40%). and Varanasi with no metering at all.49). for non domestic water while Nashik and Nagpur both have high UFW. Those with high levels of consumption metering are Coimbatore (100%). elimination of illegal connections. namely.33 hour) followed by Indore (0.

03 month).000) have connection fees above Rs2. Mathura (Rs0.39/m3) and Jabalpur (Rs1. allowing payments by installment can assist lower-income households to gain access to direct connection to their homes with significant benefits to their welfare.55/m ). Varanasi (Rs113).500.000 connection fee starting with the lowest.8 months). Vijayawada (114%). Nagpur (Rs6.080). can not cover their costs because of high UFW. For small utilities.6 months).60/m3). The utilities with the lowest ratio are Jabalpur (0. impacts on the financial health of a utility.1 months) and Rajkot (6.584) Apart from reasonable connection fee. and Vijayawada (1.9 months) This indicator is a good measure of the effectiveness of a utility in collecting its receivables or bills. Visakhapatnam (Rs3. The good performers include Nashik (0. Kolkata (Rs2. Kolkata (Rs1. only Nagpur and Jabalpur have no contacted out services.13/m3). and Chandigarh (Rs5. Ahmedabad (2. Bangalore (112) and Mathura (106%).60/m3). Rajkot (Rs5. Varanasi (64%).7).55/m3). Surat (Rs345).05) and Bhopal (2.62/m3).7). Jamshedpur (0. Ahmedabad (Rs1. Chennai (1.791). Nagpur (9. Chandigarh (Rs530).0 New Connection Fee (Average – Rs1.87/m3). Bangalore (7. Indore (Rs354). The worst performers with less than 80% collection efficiencies are Rajkot (45%). However. Nashik and Chennai are among those with the highest coverage while Visakhapatnam has the lowest coverage and is just catching up. and Amritsar (Rs950).34/m3). participants from the utilities agreed that Rs2.7).4) This indicator is generally used to measure the efficient use of human resources in a utility as manifested by low staff/1000 connection ratio. It is not surprising that Amritsar and Ahmedabad are among those with the lowest coverage with its low level of capital investment. Amritsar (Rs9.3 month).000 connections ratio are Bhopal (20. despite the high average tariffs.2). Mathura (3. During the workshop presenting the results of the study.5%) This indicator.50/m3). and accounts receivable. Mumbai (Rs3.591) Among the utilities with the highest average annual expenditure per connection for capital development are Chennai (Rs10. The water utilities with high average tariffs are Bangalore (Rs20.1 months). Mumbai.6 months). Only Jabalpur and Vijayawada allowed payment by installment over 12 months while the rest required payment prior to connection. Those who charge the lowest tariffs are Bhopal (Rs0. These utilities should improve their collection effort and encourage consumers to pay their bills on time. Kolkata (14. Indore (18. Chennai (Rs10.4). Ahmedabad (8. Rajkot and Ahmedabad also have high accounts receivable. Mumbai (11. Of this group. Mathura (Rs500).Kolkata (4. Amritsar (Rs332). Six utilities having accounts receivable of more than 6 months are Mathura (12. it has gone out of hand. the receivables are expressed in equivalent of the utility’s average monthly billing. Chennai (152%). along with average tariff. Coimbatore and Jabalpur (75%). ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comment and Analysis by Indicator 9 .4). Rajkot (1.73).6) with Kolkata and Chandigarh contracting out some services.3 months).2) and Nashik (3.248). Bhopal (178%). In this case. About 9 of the utilities have collection efficiencies of 95% or higher. Chennai (13. Five utilities have invested less than Rs500 per connection per year over the last 5 years and these are Bhopal (Rs39). Average Tariff (Average – Rs4. 2/3 of the utilities have contracted out some of its operations.892). Collection Efficiency (Average – 99.000 Connections Ratio (Average – 7. Kolkata is not charging its domestic users resulting in high operating ratio as with Bhopal and Mathura.0 months). Ahmedabad (Rs100).7).500 is a reasonable average connection fee.1). operating ratio. Mumbai (Rs660).3) and Chandigarh (8. Ahmedabad (67%). Accounts Receivable (Average – 4. Surat (1. Nashik (Rs1.91/m3) The average tariff is a good measure of the financial discipline of a utility and its ability to cover operational costs with revenues from tariffs. Mumbai (17. only Vijayawada (Rs5. Seven utilities have less than Rs1. Jamshedpur (Rs300). Those with high staff/1. and Ahmedabad (Rs427).500) and Coimbatore (Rs3. accounts receivable that represents less than 2 months of its average billing is manageable and could be 3 months for larger utilities. Amritsar (69%).6 months). Amritsar and Chandigarh. Staff/1. However.04/m3).2). About 6 utilities have collection efficiencies of more than 100% suggesting that past years’ arrears are being collected including Mumbai (189%).269) and Surat (Rs1.82) together with 9 others with operating ratios of more than 1. 3 Visakhapatnam (Rs8. But when it has risen to 6 months or more. Average Capital Expenditure/Connection (Average – Rs1. Nagpur (3.102).07/m3).

7 days a week to India’s growing urban population is possible with political will from government and support from the stakeholders particularly the consumers and civil society. public taps. water availability and average daily consumption. It will require solving chronic inefficiencies in the urban water supply and sanitation sector which include limited coverage and poor service quality. poor O&M practices. with less than 25% metering of service connections. the average number of persons served by each type of connection is not known. Coverage Many Indian water utilities provide water supply through house connections. the right incentives. Less than 24-hour supply exposes consumers to a high health risk from contamination entering distribution pipes during vacuum conditions created when water is absent. financial and human resources management. The costs to the utility and to consumers are less with 24-hour supply. and the necessary accountability to consumers. However. high non revenue water. There are costs to wastage and health risks with intermittent supply. water resources management. The poor suffers most as they can not afford the dual system of individual storage and pumping that provides 24-hour supply to the home of the richer segment of the population. It makes accurate measurement of consumption impossible. A significant and sustainable improvement in performance of water utilities is critical to improving services particularly in the areas of customer satisfaction. it is difficult to assess the actual amount consumed by users. Previous studies pointed to the underlying problems related to performance of water utilities such as poor and inadequate investments. The ideal should be provision through house connection which minimizes the risks of contamination from fetching and handling from point sources. Poor service delivery is ascribed to inefficient and financially weak utilities that continue to operate without sufficient autonomy. Timely redressal of complaints is important in keeping customers satisfied. The total cost borne by households to get 24-hour supply in the home from intermittent supply by the utility will be more than enough to have the necessary infrastructure for providing 24-hour supply delivered to the homes. There is evidence that more water is consumed with intermittent supply because people leave their taps open to fill storage. Consumption The average daily consumption of 123 lpcd is sufficient for health requirements and low enough so as not to be wasteful. uneconomic tariff structure and levels and poor financial management. The urban poor can be connected with 10 Water Resources Management Unaccounted for water (UFW) The single most important parameter to indicate performance under water resources management is unaccounted for water (UFW). This is further aggravated by the lack of information on actual number of people served by the utilities. Availability The number of hours of supply per day is the most important service indicator to consumers together with average pressure which together determines how much they ultimately get from the distribution network. Coverage can be increased through appropriate tariffs to finance expansion as well as through connection fees that can be paid in installments. Schemes used by small scale service providers in many parts of Asia for daily billing and collection and distribution for the urban poor should also be explored. This information is not difficult to obtain considering that bill collectors have regular contact with consumers. Introduction Providing 24-hour water supply. However. Hydraulics dictate that delivering 123 lpcd over 1 hour will require larger pipes compared to spreading this out over 24 hours. Once the levels of UFW at the different areas of the distribution system are 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . wells with handpumps and tankers. While the number of connections is known. 24-hour supply is possible regardless of the size of utilities. Many large utilities divide their areas into smaller business units for managers to operate at the lowest possible level and be held accountable for the efficiency of their operations. which can often then overflow to waste. it is equally important that this is obtained through accurate measurement of production and consumption with no less than 100% metering of all sources of production and all service connections. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction can be measured in terms of coverage.ACHIEVING 24/7 SUPPLY – BEST PRACTICES IN WATER UTILITIES lifeline rates and reduced connection fees.

0 months. Water utilities need to generate from tariffs a cash flow which will cover O&M costs. operating expenses. training on meter reading to minimize human error. Subsidies given by the government to the sector as well as so-called “cross-subsidies” within the sector need to be clearly outlined. A first step in getting the finances of a utility in order is to ring-fence the water utility operations. Such report should be published and made available within 6-12 months from the end of the fiscal year.000 connections. Tariffs In setting tariffs. For utilities with high energy cost component.0 which is the average ratio for developing countries. Mechanism for tariff adjustment must be defined. Computerization and management information systems are required for more efficient operations and effective day-to-day management decisions.9 months with 60% having it greater than 3. The 7. Reducing operating ratio will also require reducing operating expenses which mean increasing staff productivity. treatment plant operations. leak control and management. etc. proper supervision during construction. It will require increasing its revenue base. should be considered in the tariff structure. debt servicing (both capital repayment and interest) and provide a contribution to capital development. A healthy water utility should have an operating ratio of about 0. and providing more customer-friendly environment for receiving payments.4 staff ratio can still be improved to 5. revenues and payment arrears. reducing energy costs and other expenses. accounts receivable and collection efficiency where Indian water utilities are performing poorly. the necessary measures can then be taken to reduce losses from all sources to reasonable levels. collection reminders. it could postpone the development of new sources. incentives and penalty systems for early or late payments. Efficient utilities resort to measures such as strict disconnection policies against delinquent consumers. This is where they need technical assistance which is nowhere available in most cases. A simple annual report with audited financial statements and the performance indicators mentioned in this section that is made available to the general public will be useful to both utility and its consumers as well as other stakeholders. the average for the Indian water utilities is 4. Accountability Water utilities that are made to account for their performance will most likely perform better and seek ways to improve their operations. Financial Management The most important measures or indicators of financial management are operating ratio. billing and collection. The cost of reducing UFW and the resulting new revenues from water could be less than the cost of developing new sources to deliver the same amount of water. flushing out illegal connections. etc. While 2-3 months is reasonable. At least. an independent regulatory authority should be established to monitor and approve tariffs.determined.63 which requires huge subsidies from local governments or urban local bodies. Major factors include tariffs. Staff training is a dilemma for small utilities that are left on their own upon turnover of new facilities. Human Resources Management Staff Productivity The most common measure for human resources management is staff/1. energy audits show that using variable speed motors to suit supply to demand is a way of reducing electric bills. the first consideration must be a consistent transparent tariff policy endorsed by the government. It would be good if regular training programs and advisory services are made available to utility operators. Accounts Receivable Accounts receivable equivalent in months is a measure of collection period or the time it takes to collect water bills. The most important resources of a utility are its management and staff. Operating Ratio Operating ratio is defined by the operating expenses (excluding debt service and depreciation) and operating revenues. Problems normally start occurring once operations start and this is when most new utilities are vulnerable. These include leak detection and control. information campaigns. meter calibration and replacement. The average for Indian water utilities is 1. meaning more connections. meter protection. This can be done through training of staff in different aspects of operations from pumping. Timely leak interventions reduce costs and losses as well. Ideally.75. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Achieving 24/7 Supply – Best Practices in Water Utilities 11 . Tariff level is the most important component of revenues apart from the number of consumers. This will allow management of finances purely from the water utility’s operations. Demand management through higher rates for high consumption and a lifeline rate where there are urban poor.

Additional information will be required in the development of performance improvement plans. collecting them in time. the figures derived are not reliable in the absence of full metering of both production and service connections. The performance indicators were derived from information provided by the participating utilities. UFW. Performance improvement for each utility will have to be based on the indicators and their operating environment as described in the utility and area 12 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India profiles in this data book. setting the appropriate tariffs and reducing O&M costs. appropriate pricing and public awareness v) Phasing out of public taps providing free water vi) Improved billing and collection efficiency vii) Appropriate tariffs to cover O&M costs and costs of expansion viii) Investment in capacity building for staff and management ix) Regular monitoring of performance through appropriate management information systems x) Support for services to the urban poor through lifeline rates and installment payment of connection fees. Any performance improvement program will have to improve measurement and recording of operational information as a first step in getting a complete assessment of any water utility’s overall performance. . While average unaccounted for water is reasonable. Attention needs to be focused on the following: i) Advocacy for more investment in the sector and greater coverage ii) 24-hour water supply iii) 100% metering of both production and consumption iv) Management of water losses by keeping UFW in check. Overall. Staff productivity needs to be enhanced through capacity building programs including training in utility operations and management. service to consumers is mixed with good coverage and reasonable consumption but availability is dismal at with consumers getting water supply at an average of about 4 hours a day only. Financial management needs improvement in collecting bills. Benchmarking as a management tool to attain operational efficiency will work only with reliable and accurate information. It should be emphasized that the reliability of a number of important indicators such as per capita consumption. Utilities are encouraged to learn from those who are performing well by identifying them and communicating with them using the contact details in this book.General Conclusions The data presented in this book gives a comprehensive picture of the performance of 20 water utilities in India. and finance indicators related to consumption and billing are suspect in the absence of full metering and should be used with caution.

PART II UTILITIES COMPARISONS (Figures and Tables) .

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455 5.090 623.226 265. Amritsar Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Bhopal Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation.879 159.000 175.000 1.000 458.954.200.300 127.302.000 971.668 78.000 1.460 1.725 2.171 1.298 46.220 554.000.172 Number of Utility Connections Ahmedabad Bangalore Chennai Surat Mumbai Nagpur Kolkata Rajkot Indore Chandigarh Amritsar Nashik Varanasi Coimbatore Bhopal Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Jabalpur Jamshedpur Mathura 556.000 1.000 1.000 2.000 790.560 923.400 183.762 105.000 994.361.364.110 310.836 623.979 2.000 3.948.200 1.000 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 2005-06 Name of Utility Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation.231 262.000 2.716.998.000 238.418.700.990 1. Chandigarh Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Indore Municipal Corporation Jabalpur Municipal Corporation Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company Limited Kolkata Municipal Corporation Mathura Municipal Council Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Nagpur Municipal Corporation Nashik Municipal Corporation Rajkot Municipal Corporation Surat Municipal Corporation Varanasi Jal Sansthan Vijayawada Municipal Corporation Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation Table 3: SIZE OF UTILITIES Production Utility (m3/day) Mumbai Kolkata Bangalore Ahmedabad Chennai Nagpur Surat Chandigarh Jamshedpur Nashik Varanasi Bhopal Visakhapatnam Coimbatore Indore Jabalpur Amritsar Rajkot Vijayawada Mathura 3.800 24.000 488.850 344.320.000 238.000 804.000 980.000 600.260 38.150.000 920.330 3.643 Utility Mumbai Chennai Kolkata Indore Bangalore Bhopal Ahmedabad Chandigarh Nagpur Varanasi Amritsar Surat Visakhapatnam Coimbatore Vijayawada Nashik Jamshedpur Rajkot Mathura Jabalpur Number of Staff 8.196 856 676 617 532 466 452 445 440 298 211 160 17 Utility Mumbai Bangalore Kolkata Ahmedabad Surat Chennai Nagpur Indore Bhopal Nashik Varanasi Chandigarh Rajkot Amritsar Coimbatore Jabalpur Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Jamshedpur Mathura People Served 13.489.280 370.510 2.491.000 3.839 193.836 309.150.500 1.000 5.079 310.277.455 799.371 4.437.000 675.907 113.578 3.866 2.115 171.000 13.000 228.012 85.451 228.000 4.000 2.000 2.836 131.836 608.050.200.978.000 1.000 804.Institutions 15 .000 258.000 270.005 143.685 381.000 1.624 2.786 127.000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Utilities Comparison .954.250.000.562 114.243.350.104 139.000 983.734 486.000 750.833 38.Table 2: NAMES AND LOCATIONS OF UTILITIES City Ahmedabad Gujarat Amritsar Punjab Bangalore Karnataka Bhopal Madhya Pradesh Chandigarh UT Chandigarh Chennai Tamil Nadu Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Indore Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh Jamshedpur Jharkhand Kolkata West Bengal Mathura Uttar Pradesh Mumbai Maharashtra Nagpur Maharashtra Nashik Maharashtra Rajkot Gujarat Surat Gujarat Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Vijayawada Andra Pradesh Visakhapatnam Andra Pradesh State Area Population Year 4.990 1.

000 Capital Expenditure (Rs per connection) 16 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .Figure 1: TYPE OF WATER UTILITY No.000 4.000 5. of 10 8 (15) Bansalan Ahmedabad Amritsar Bhopal Chandigarh Coimbatore Indore Jabalpur Kolkata Mumbai Nagpur Nashik Rajkot Surat Vijayawada Viskhapatnam 6 Metro Carigara Guimba Muñoz San Francisco Santa Rosa Jagna Nueva Vizcaya Tagbilaran Jamshedpur Bangalore Chennai Calapan Silay Tandag Victorias Varanasi 4 2 Darasa Tibal-og 0 Mathura Municipal Council Municipal Corporation Private City Board Autonomous local body Figure 2: CAPITAL EXPENDITURE PER CONNECTION Utilities Bhopal Varanasi Amritsar Indore Ahmedabad Mathura Nagpur Chandigarh Bangalore Rajkot Jabalpur Coimbatore Jamshedpur Surat Nashik Kolkata Mumbai Visakhapatnam Chennai 10.08 0 1. of Utilities Utilities No.000 2.000 3.

000 0.600 0.800 1.Production 17 .000 Storage Capacity (1.000 Production (Million cubic meters per day) Figure 4: STORAGE CAPACITY Utilities Mathura Amritsar Surat Jamshedpur Vijayawada Jabalpur Bangalore Varanasi Visakhapatnam Bhopal Nashik Indore Coimbatore Nagpur Rajkot Chandigarh Chennai Kolkata Ahmedabad Mumbai 0 200 400 600 800 1.200 0.000 cubic meters) Utilities Comparison .400 0.2 0.Figure 3: PRODUCTION VOLUME Utilities Mathura Vijayawada Rajkot Amritsar Jabalpur Indore Coimbatore Visakhapatnam Bhopal Varanasi Nashik Jamshedpur Chandigarh Surat Nagpur Chennai Ahmedabad Bangalore Kolkata Mumbai 3.

Figure 5: PRODUCTION METERING No. Rosa Varanasi Vijayawada Silay Visakhapatnam Tandag 100% metered Percentage of production metered Percentage of production metered No metering Figure 6: WATER COVERAGE Utilities Utilities Visakhapatnam Mathura Vijayawada Jamshedpur Ahmedabad Jabalpur Amritsar Coimbatore Indore Surat Varanasi Kolkata Bhopal Chennai Nagpur Nashik Bangalore Rajkot Mumbai Chandigarh 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent of total population 18 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . of Utilities 14 12 Tibal-og Jagna Tagbilaran 10 8 Darasa 6 Nueva Vizcaya Bangalore Chennai Coimbatore San Pedro MPC Jamshedpur Mumbai San Pedro RACI Nagpur Surat Calapan Padada Bansalan Metro Carigara 4 2 0 Argao Ahmedabad Amritsar Buhi Bhopal Chandigarh Guimba Indore Jabalpur Muñoz Kolkata MathuraSan Francisco Nashik Rajkot Sta.

0 8.0 Average number of hours per day Figure 8: WATER USE Utilities Jamshedpur Nashik Nagpur Coimbatore Bhopal Amritsar Visakhapatnam Chandigarh Bangalore Kolkata Jabalpur Varanasi Chennai Rajkot Vijayawada Mumbai Indore* Surat* Ahmedabad* Mathura* Domestic Other UFW 0 20 40 60 80 100 * Indore.0 20.Figure 7: WATER AVAILABILITY Utilities Rajkot Indore Visakhapatnam Bhopal Mathura Ahmedabad Surat Vijayawada Coimbatore Nashik Mumbai Jabalpur Bangalore Nagpur Chennai Jamshedpur Varanasi Kolkata Amritsar Chandigarh 0. Surat.0 16. commercial and institutional.0 24.Service 19 . Ahmedabad & Mathura excludes UFW Percent Other use includes industrial.0 12.0 4. Utilities Comparison .

Figure 9: PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION Utilities Bhopal Bangalore Amritsar Indore Chennai Nashik Nagpur Rajkot Coimbatore Visakhapatnam Kolkata Jabalpur Varanasi Chandigarh Vijayawada Ahmedabad Mumbai Jamshedpur 0 50 100 150 200 203 Liters per capita per day Figure 10: HOUSEHOLD MONTHLY CONSUMPTION Utilities Rajkot Amritsar Bangalore Coimbatore Bhopal Vijayawada Indore Nashik Visakhapatnam Ahmedabad Nagpur Varanasi Chandigarh Chennai Mathura Surat Kolkata Jabalpur Jamshedpur Mumbai 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 156 Cubic meters per month 20 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .

Figure 11: HOUSEHOLD MONTHLY BILL Utilities Kolkata Mathura Bhopal Surat Ahmedabad Rajkot Visakhapatnam Indore Vijayawada Jabalpur Coimbatore Jamshedpur Chennai Nashik Varanasi Amritsar Bangalore Mumbai 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 708.46 Rupees per Month Figure 12: UNACCOUNTED FOR WATER Utilities Jamshedpur Mumbai Jabalpur Visakhapatnam Chennai Rajkot Vijayawada Varanasi Kolkata Chandigarh Coimbatore Bangalore Nagpur Amritsar Nashik 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage unaccounted for water Utilities Comparison .Service 21 .

000 connections 22 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .1% 99-40% 100% Percentage of connections metered Figure 14: STAFF PER 1.Figure 13: CONSUMER METERING No.000 CONNECTIONS Utilities Jabalpur Rajkot Surat Ahmedabad Nagpur Nashik Coimbatore Amritsar Bangalore Visakhapatnam Jamshedpur Vijayawada Varanasi Mathura Chandigarh Chennai Kolkata Mumbai Indore Bhopal 0 5 10 15 20 25 Staff per 1. of Utilities 10 8 6 4 2 Jamshedpur Rajkot Indore Kolkata Bhopal Jabalpur Mathura Varanasi Vijayawada Amritsar Chennai Ahmedabad Surat Visakhapatnam Bangalore Nashik Chandigarh Mumbai Nagpur Coimbatore 0 <1% 10 .

00 15.00 5.Management 23 .00 Average Tariff (Rupees per cubic meter) Figure 16: UNIT PRODUCTION COST Utilities Coimbatore Ahmedabad Jabalpur Surat Nashik Nagpur Mathura Varanasi Vijayawada Jamshedpur Rajkot Bhopal Kolkata Mumbai Amritsar Chandigarh Visakhapatnam Chennai Bangalore Indore 0.Figure 15: AVERAGE TARIFF Utilities Bhopal Mathura Kolkata Ahmedabad Jabalpur Surat Vijayawada Indore Varanasi Coimbatore Nashik Jamshedpur Mumbai Chandigarh Rajkot Nagpur Visakhapatnam Amritsar Chennai Bangalore 0.00 20.00 Production Cost (Rupees per cubic meter) Utilities Comparison .00 6.00 3.00 25.00 12.00 10.00 9.00 15.

000 per month) Figure 18: CONNECTION FEE FOR HOUSE CONNECTION Utilities Ahmedabad Jamshedpur Surat Mathura Chandigarh Mumbai Amritsar Kolkata Nashik Bhopal Nagpur Bangalore Rajkot Chennai Jabalpur Visakhapatnam Varanasi Indore Coimbatore Vijayawada 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5.Figure 17: MANAGEMENT SALARIES Utilities Jabalpur Mathura Varanasi Coimbatore Vijayawada Nashik Kolkata Indore Surat Jamshedpur Nagpur Rajkot Ahmedabad Visakhapatnam Mumbai Chennai Bangalore Amritsar Chandigarh 0 10 20 30 40 50 Average salaries of top three management (Rs1.500 Connection fee (Rupees) 24 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .

Leak minimization. Vijayawada Visakhapatnam Utilities Comparison – Management 25 . safe water supply to citizens. Ensure no flow of sewage in storm drains. Source augmentation. Reduce unaccounted for water. Priority Needs of Utility All water supplies must be surface water. Refurbish and extend the distribution system at uniform service levels. Water audit. 100% coverage with 24x7 supply. Revenue – billing and collection. Every house to be provided with a tap. Exploring alternate sources of water. Reuse of water for potable uses and industries. Reducing pollution of its present source of raw water. Upgrade. Accountability. Regular supply of potable water to citizens.Table 4: PRIORITY NEEDS OF UTILITY Utility Ahmedabad Amritsar Bangalore Bhopal Chandigarh Chennai Coimbatore Indore Jabalpur Jamshedpur Kolkata Mathura Mumbai Nagpur Nashik Rajkot Surat Varanasi Regular. Reuse of water for potable uses and industries. Leak detection to control UFW Sewage treatment plant Safe disposal of sewage. 100% cost recovery. Meeting the future needs of growing population Storm water drainage Source identification and development. Non revision of tariffs in nearly 10 years Augmentation of water supply system capacity Leakage control Increase service coverage Water supply network management Master plan for distribution system UFW reduction Reduce raw water losses Full coverage in terms of population and area. Rationalization of water tariff for sustainability. adequate. Water supply improvement in quantity and quality. extension and improved maintenance of existing water supply. Reduce unaccounted for water. Limited role of private sector Upgrade of existing distribution system Collection improvement – realization of cess Reduction of non revenue water 24x7 water supply with 100% metering Metering and computerization for billing and collection GIS-based network interlinked with SCADA Upgrade and improvement of existing distribution network Augmentation of water supply systems for year 2026 requirement. Shortage of staff with ban on fresh recruitments Increase in revenue to make system sustainable Zoning of water distribution system 24 x 7 supply with 100% metering Management of UFW reduction Rehabilitation in core of city and expansion Distribution management – reservoir to consumers Rehabilitation and upgrade of existing infrastructure Reduction in water losses. Decrease in NRW. Ensure no flow of sewage in storm drains. 24-hour w2ater supply to all Water supply Water conservation.

0 0.0 Chennai Jamshedpur Visakhapatnam Nashik 15.Figure 19a: DOMESTIC TARIFF STRUCTURES Tariff Rate in Rupee per Cubic Meter 35.0 Bangalore Indore Rajkot Vijayawada 20.0 0.0 10.0 5.0 15.0 10.0 20.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Monthly Household Consumption (Cubic Meters) 26 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Monthly Household Consumption (Cubic Meters) Figure 19b: DOMESTIC TARIFF STRUCTURES Tariff Rate in Rupee per Cubic Meter 30.0 30.0 5.0 25.0 Group 2 25.

5 6.0 2.5 3.0 Chandigarh Ahmedabad Bhopal Varanasi 4.5 0.0 3.5 3.0 4.Tariffs 27 .5 Coimbatore Mumbai Amritsar Nagpur 4.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Monthly Household Consumption (Cubic Meters) Utilities Comparison .0 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Monthly Household Consumption (Cubic Meters) Figure 19d: DOMESTIC TARIFF STRUCTURES Tariff Rate in Rupee per Cubic Meter 5.Figure 19c: DOMESTIC TARIFF STRUCTURES Tariff Rate in Rupee per Cubic Meter 7.

0 12.0 2.00 5.00 4.5 Accounts Receivable (Months equivalent) 28 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .00 1.5 10.5 5.00 5.Figure 20: OPERATING RATIO Utilities Chennai Mumbai Jamshedpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Bangalore Coimbatore Surat Vijayawada Nashik Varanasi Chandigarh Amritsar Ahmedabad Rajkot Jabalpur Bhopal Mathura Kolkata Indore 0.00 2.0 7.00 3.03 Operating Ratio (O&M Costs/Revenue) Figure 21: ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE Utilities Nashik Jamshedpur Chennai Vijayawada Kolkata Jabalpur Coimbatore Surat Visakhapatnam Bhopal Varanasi Indore Amritsar Rajkot Bangalore Ahmedabad Nagpur Mumbai Mathura 0.

Figure 22: REVENUE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY Utilities Rajkot Varanasi Ahmedabad Amritsar Jabalpur Coimbatore Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Nashik Chandigarh Surat Kolkata Jamshedpur Mathura Bangalore Vijayawada Chennai Bhopal Mumbai 152 178 189 0 30 60 90 120 150 Percentage Collection over Billings Figure 23: ANNUAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS Utilities Mathura Jabalpur Vijayawada Coimbatore Rajkot Varanasi Nashik Amritsar Bhopal Ahmedabad Jamshedpur Surat Visakhapatnam Nagpur Chandigarh Indore Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Mumbai 0 1.000 2.000 4.000 5.Tariffs 29 .000 3.000 Annual O&M Costs (Million Rupees) Utilities Comparison .

000 20.197 0 5.000 10. 24: O&M COST COMPONENTS Utilities Bhopal Surat Rajkot Nagpur Bangalore Visakhapatnam Indore Jamshedpur Vijayawada Chandigarh Jabalpur Nashik Kolkata Mumbai Varanasi Chennai Coimbatore Amritsar Mathura 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Personnel Power/Fuel Other Percent Figure 25: LEAKS REPAIRED ANNUALLY Utilities Jabalpur Mathura Amritsar Mumbai Jamshedpur Varanasi Chennai Chandigarh Visakhapatnam Coimbatore Indore Nashik Nagpur Surat Vijayawada Bhopal Ahmedabad Rajkot Bangalore Kolkata 25.000 25.000 15.000 Leaks repaired annually 30 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .500 77.Fig.

8 218/24 730/0.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Number of Samples Passed/Failed (1.000 4.Figure 26: METERS REPLACED ANNUALLY Utilities Varanasi Rajkot Mathura Kolkata Jabalpur Bhopal Ahmedabad Jamshedpur Indore Surat Visakhapatnam Amritsar Nagpur Coimbatore Chandigarh Bangalore 0 2. 27: WATER QUALITY SAMPLING Utilities Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Varanasi Surat Rajkot Nashik Nagpur Mumbai Mathura Kolkata Jamshedpur Jabalpur Indore Coimbatore Chennai Chandigarh Bhopal Bangalore Amritsar 108/0.000 samples) Utilities Comparison .000 6.Operation and Maintenance 31 .000 Meters replaced annually Fig.145 10.000 8.000 37.

Figure 28: COMPLAINTS RECEIVED ANNUALLY Utilities Nashik Indore Jabalpur Amritsar Bhopal Chandigarh Coimbatore Rajkot Surat Varanasi Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Jamshedpur Nagpur Bangalore Ahmedabad Mumbai Chennai 100.0 15.0 New connections per year (1.0 0.0 12.000 complaints) Figure 29: NEW CONNECTIONS ANNUALLY Utilities Mathura Jabalpur Kolkata Varanasi Ahmedabad Bhopal Visakhapatnam Indore Jamshedpur Chandigarh Coimbatore Vijayawada Amritsar Nagpur Rajkot Chennai Mumbai Surat Nashik Bangalore 28.0 6.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Complaints received annually (1.6 3.0 156.0 9.000 connections) 32 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .

PART III WATER UTILITY AND AREA PROFILES .

No reliable estimate of UFW can be obtained.000 : no data Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs427. Annual prorata charges are based on the connecting pipe size and the size of the water main to which it connects ranging from 3”” to 12”.40 per month per connection. M.600.000 consumers complaints recorded in 2005-06. 2nd Floor.958 Rs6.280 Rs7. Almost all consumers pay on flat rate annually with the property tax bill.000 people.000 : Rs 330. Applicants have to wait for about a week for a new connection to be made.000. Priority Needs of Utility 1.860 Rs16.330. the 4th lowest. distribution and source development and draws water from River Sabarmati and Mahi River as well as from 400 tubewells.com Head : Mr. Regular. Water is available on an average of 2 hours a day to most users at average pressure of 1.1 m3 per connection. Mission Statement No mission statement General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 556.840 Rs7.AHMEDABAD Water Utility Utility Profile AHMEDABAD MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Water Project Division. ¾”.500 ANNUAL PRORATA CHARGES (Rs/year) – 3’’ to 4” main ½” ¾” 1” Rs 879 Rs2.39/m3 is just about able to cover production cost of Rs1. Rs3/m3 Residential Non residential Commercial Rs8/m3 Aircon/Chantar Rs20/m3 FLAT RATE: Annual Water and Sewerage Charges Residential Chawls up to 25 m2 25 – 50 m2 50 – 100 m2 Above 100 m2 Above 200 m2 Non residential Buildings Industrial/Factories Buildings > 150 m2 Annual rates Free Rs100 Rs200 Rs300 Rs1. accounts receivable equivalent of 8. Special City Engineer Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is a municipal corporation established in 1950.000 : Rs 222. T. India Telephone : (91-79) 2539 1811 Fax : (91-79) 2538 1746 E-mail : tmlad@egovamc. Performance Highlights AMC provides water at 171 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 2 hours per day to 74.734 : 1.720 Rs40. 1” dia. Production is not metered and only 3% of total connections are metered but meters are being phased out.189. The private sector is involved in water production and operations and maintenance through a management contract. The utility is following a development plan covering 2005 to 2021. The utility claims that sampling for chlorine residual is done daily and most pass the test. safe water supply to citizens.500 Annual rates Rs400 Rs600 Rs1. Water bills should also be based on actual consumption as a means to conserve water. 2. All water supplies must be surface water.160 Rs33. Billing and pumping operations are computerized. Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 32.5 meters. Rs600 for ¾” and Rs1. There were 30.296 Rs5.0 months requires more efforts in collection. 34 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .110 persons/km2.344 Rs6. The water bill averages Rs 49. Prices of new domestic water connection are Rs100 for ½” diameter pipe. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 2. Sardar Patel Bhavan.5% of the population in its area of responsibility.200 : Rs 318.990.25 Tariff Structure METERED Pipe size ½”.34/m3. Danapith.96 shows billing can cover operations and maintenance costs.2. 3.424 Rs4.105 Rs2. It should take serious efforts in measuring its production and service connections to determine its losses and reduce them as well. Average tariff of Rs1. Water audit.464 Rs13. Lad. adequate.200 for 1” payable prior to connection. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the city of Ahmedabad which has a total population of 4. The utility is responsible for water production.065 Rs2.000 : Rs 1. The urban poor are provided with free water. The present service area of AMC has a population density of 26. 2.986 Rs2. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.888 Rs16. While operating ratio at 0. AMC needs to improve water availability and collection of its receivables. Ahmedabad – 380 001.240 ANNUAL PRORATA CHARGES (Rs/year) – 4’’ to 9” main ½” ¾” 1” Notes: Rs1.100 Rs19.700 1. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone or letter.919 new connections in 2005-06.086. There were 1.

39/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 330.000 m3 172 sq km 2. Ahmedabad 35 .734 Nil 10.96 8. No breakdown given 5 6 7 This is the breakdown of consumption only.000 to 25.747 km Annual Water Use7 237. Realistic UFW estimate can not be determined with figures given.persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.734 No breakdown given Domestic 98% 74. Production is not metered.0 months 2. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 AHMEDABAD Commercial Industrial 2% 623. Residual chlorine test samples are claimed to be taken daily and mostly all pass the test.000 consumer complaints were registered in 2005-06.34/m3 0.Area Profile AHMEDABAD WATER SUPPLY Population: 4. There were about 20. Annual O&M Costs Rs 318.2 The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 30.5% 2 hours/day 171 l/c/d Rs1. The urban poor comprise 35% of the population.086. Those not served by the utility use tube wells.000 m3 546.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (5 persons/HC) Public Tap (-.000.000 Data as of 2005-2006.491.836 m3 7% 93% Conventional 650. The total area of responsibility is 449 sq km.000 no data Rs1.000 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year.250. Only 3% of connections are metered but meters are being phased out.000 Nil Nil Nil Nil 556.

and at an average pressure of 2 meters. All consumers are billed every 3 months. Performance Highlights 36 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . Average monthly consumption is about 17. Institutional and commercial consumers pay on metered use. It has the second highest UFW at 57. MCA provides water at 86 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 11 hours per day to 75. The utility should meter production and further improve metering of connections to account for use. Notes: 1. The water bill averages Rs 136. e-mail and letter.AMRITSAR Water Utility Utility Profile MUNICIPAL CORPORATION. It draws water from groundwater sources through 260 tubewells. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 127. Dhaliwal. 3. AMRITSAR Address : Town Hall. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the city which has a total population of 1.com Head : Mr.786 : 617 : Rs 233. Amritsar.00 * Waived as of 11/07/2006. Mission Statement No mission statement.500 people.dhaliwal@rediffmail. There were 3. Applicants have to wait for about 2-3 days for a new connection to be made.666. There is no private sector involvement in the utility’s operations nor does it have a master development plan.980.000 : Rs 171. Domestic users pay a flat rate based on plot sizes with 5 marla domestic connections exempted from payments as of 11/07/2006.60 : Internally generated reserves and government loan from HUDCO Tariff Structure UNMETERED CONNECTIONS (Domestic) Plot Size Up to 5 marla* Above 5 marla & up to 10 marla Above 10 marla but less than 1 kanal METERED CONNECTIONS (Rs/m3) Domestic Commercial Rs3. Access survey and management.4 m3 per house connection. MCA has a computerized billing system and its house tax and pension cell. second longest to Chandigarh’s 12 hours.34/m3 should easily cover production cost but is prevented from doing it by its high NRW.058.7% of the population in its area of responsibility.06. 5 marla = 125 sq yards 1 kanal = 500 sq yards Domestic metered connections are residences with plots of 1 kanal and above. Connection fee has to be paid prior to connection.810 persons/km2. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.40 Rate (Rs/month) Rs60. Amardeep S. India Telephone : (91-183) 255 2528 Fax : (91-183) 254 5155 E-mail : amardeep. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 4. Amritsar (MCA) is a municipal corporation established in 1976.00 Rs90. Production is not metered and only 45% of commercial and industrial are metered making the UFW an estimate at best.000 : Rs 211.20 Rs6.86 per month per house connection. The utility is responsible for water production and distribution. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone. There were 1. Average tariff of Rs 9.36 and accounts receivable of 5. 2.00 Rs120.867. 3. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1. The present service area of MCA has a population density of 7.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs331. Institutional improvement.270. Superintending Engineer (O&M Cell) Municipal Corporation.6 months. Water quality is good with 92% of 125 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. It also needs to improve on its collection efforts.000 consumers complaints recorded and 550 leaks repaired during the year.4% among the utilities. Leak detection and control. MCA needs to reduce its NRW and improve on water availability and quantity.000 : Rs 248. The urban poor use public taps. Financial management needs improvement with operating ratio of 1. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs950 payable prior to connection. Water bills are paid at the water utility office.970 new connections in 2005 . 2.8. Water is available on an average of 11 hours a day to most users.

666.Area Profile AMRITSAR WATER SUPPLY Population: 804. Personnel 49% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 233.8 Power 42% Repair & mainten'ce 8% Other8 1% The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 550 leaks were repaired during the year.270.6 months 4. The total area of responsibility is 136 sq m.834 930 Nil Nil Nil 127. About 92% of 125 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.34/m3 Domestic 76% 5 Per Capita Consumption Annual Water Billings Rs 248. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.7% 11 hours/day 86 l/c/d Rs9. Those not served by the utility use tube wells and tankers. About 1. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.000 m3 103 sq km 952 km Annual Water Use 62. The urban poor comprise 36% of the population.000 consumer complaints were registered in 2005-06.455 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (6-7 persons/HC) Public Tap (100 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.36 5.000 57.005 m3 100% Nil Disinfection 24.786 Commercial Industrial7 24% UFW 57% 75. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.74/m3 1.685 m3 115.000 Data as of 2005-2006.4% Rs3. Production is not metered and only 45% of the total commercial and industrial connections are metered.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 AMRITSAR Domestic 40% Commercial 7 Industrial 3% 171.275 747 10. Amritsar 37 .416.

000. All consumers pay on metered use as 95. It has an annual report for 2005-06 that is available to the public. 3. Average tariff of Rs20. Water bills are paid at banks and automated teller machines (ATMs).00 * There is a minimum charge of Rs48.00 36. BWSSB follows a master development plan covering the period 2000 to 2025. The private sector is involved in the operation and maintenance of the water treatment plant and pumping stations and the wastewater treatment plant through service contracts. Staff/1000 connections ratio is just about the median at 5.407.510 : Rs 3. The utility is responsible for water production.00 36. K.00 60.00 OTHERS Category Industries BIDADI Industrial Area Lorry loads (per load) Swimming pool Public taps Rate (Rs/m3) 60. It provides water supply and sewerage services for Bangalore Mahanagara Palike and surrounding areas developed by the Bangalore Development Authority which has a total population of 5.500 consumers complaints recorded and the same number of leaks repaired during the year.635. BWSSB has a computerized billing system and accounting system as well as the operation of the sewage treatment plant. Operating ratio is good at 0.413. BWSSB provides water at only 74 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 4-5 hours per day to 92. BWSSB needs to reduce its NRW and improve on water availability.200 : Rs 3.2.9% of the population in its area of responsibility.00 51.254. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1.80) 2294 5100 Fax : (91.00 for domestic consumers.850 : 2.00 39.00 60.740 has to be paid prior to connection. Reuse of water for potable uses and industries. There were 25. Chairman of the Board Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is a city board established in 1964.00 15.1% among 14 utilities.500 people. Production is fully metered and 95.00 NON DOMESTIC Consumption (m3) 0 – 10 10 – 20 20 – 40 40 – 60 60 – 100 Above 100 Rate (Rs/m3) 36.523 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test.1 months is fifth highest.00 30.311 persons/km2.00 3.000.740 payable prior to connection. There were 28.5% of total connections have functioning meters. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 486. The present service area of BWSSB has a population density of 23.551. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.918. Road. Reduce unaccounted for water. G.00 57.570 new connections in 2005 .000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs787.00 44.800. The water bill averages Rs297. India Telephone : (91.361.0 m3 per house connection. Water quality can still be improved with only 85% of 19.92 : All from internally generated reserves Tariff Structure DOMESTIC Consumption (m3) 0 – 8* 8 – 25 25 – 50 50 – 75 75 – 100 Above 100 Rate (Rs/m3) 6. letter or via IVRS. It also needs to improve on its collection efforts.5 hours a day to most users which is just below the average and at an average pressure of 10 meters.org Head : Mr. Consumers are billed monthly. Average monthly consumption is about 20. Performance Highlights 38 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .55/m3 is the highest but high UFW keeps the total revenues just enough to cover costs.BANGALORE Water Utility Utility Profile BANGALORE WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE BOARD Address : Cauvery Bhavan. C.00 9.00/m3 for up to 8 m3 per month. distribution and source development. Ensure no flow of sewage in storm drains. 2. Applicants have to wait for about 3-7 days for a new connection to be made. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1. It draws water from surface water sources with 90% coming from the Cauvery River and the rest from Arkavathi River. Bangalore – 560 009. The urban poor pay only Rs500 for connection fee and Rs6.8 but accounts receivable of 7.80) 2294 5100 E-mail : chairman@bwssb. Mission Statement No mission statement.00 250.06. It has the fourth highest UFW at 45.5% of service connections have functioning meters. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by e-mail. Connection fee of Rs 1. 3.100 : Rs 4. 2. N.00 per month per house connection.300 : Rs 1. Notes: 1. Water is available on an average of 4 . Muniyappa. It could further improve metering of connections to better account for use.00 51.

413.551.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 923.361. Bangalore 39 .377 Nil 486.5% of total connections have operating meters.1 months 5.985 104 1. There were 25.090 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 75. The urban poor comprise 19% of the population.407.500 leaks were repaired during the year.523 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. About 85% of 19. Production is fully metered and 95.310 5.1% Rs10.850 Commercial Industrial7 39% Other 5% Commercial 7 Industrial 5% Domestic 45% Other 19% 92. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.500 consumer complaints were registered in 2005-06.500 1 UFW 45% BANGALORE Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (9.800.5 persons/HC) Public Tap (100 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.55/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 3.2 Repair & mainten'ce 8% Other 12% Personnel 15% The population is for the present area served by the utility.010 m3 448.928. The total area of responsibility is 245 sq m.134 23.873 km Annual Water Use 336.13/m3 0.9% 4-5 hours/day 74 l/c/d Rs20. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.300 Domestic 42% 45.100 Data as of 2005-2006.655 m3 230 sq km 4. Power 65% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 3.940 7. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.Area Profile BANGALORE WATER SUPPLY Population: 5. About 25.80 7. Those not served by piped supply are served by tube wells and tankers.

The utility is responsible for water production.437. Water bills are paid at the water utility office.755) 254 2070 Fax : (91.00 1. 3. None of the service connections are metered. The price of a new domestic Priority Needs of Utility 1. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.00 1. distribution and source development. 40 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . It draws water from the Upper Lake fed by Kolans River.00 1. There were 2.60/m3 is the lowest and can not cover production costs. Bhopal has the fourth highest operating ratio at 2.600. Average tariff of Rs 0. It provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Bhopal which has a total population of 1.500 has to be paid prior to connection. Bhopal – 462 001. Water quality looks good with 95% of water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test but from a limited sample size.0 m3 per house connection.BHOPAL Water Utility Utility Profile BHOPAL MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Sadar Manzil.500 payable prior to connection.4% of the population in its area of responsibility. from Kolar Dam fed by Kolar River as well as from 642 tube wells.000 people. Leak detection to control UFW 3. 2.900 : Rs 20. India Telephone : (91.012 : 2.024 persons/km2.00 Commercial* 500.273 new connections in 2005 .000 : Rs 56. The present service area of BMC has a population density of 5. BMC needs to improve on water availability and staff productivity. Water is available on an average of 1 . Monitoring of leaks and complaints started only in January 2006 only and 608 complaints and 93 leaks were recorded up to May 2006.in Head : Mr.82 although accounts receivable of 3.120.00 per month per house connection.00 Tariff for metered domestic connection is Rs3. Mission Statement No mission statement.299. restaurants. Connection charges for the urban poor is only 1/3 of the normal fee or Rs500. Tariffs are based on size of connection and category of user to be paid monthly. letter and telephone. BMC has an annual report for 2004-05 that is available to the public but it does not have a master development plan. The water bill averages Rs 42. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by e-mail. It has a computerized billing and accounting systems as well as its complaints handling system. Municipal Commissioner Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1952. Connection fee of Rs 1.000 : Rs 100. Meeting the future needs of growing population Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 22. Staff/1000 connections ratio is the highest at 20. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 105. There is no private sector involvement in the utility’s operations. connection is Rs 1.06.50/m * Commercial includes hotels.500.000.000. Metering of production and connections are needed to better account for use.000.00 400.500. beauty parlors. 24-hour w2ater supply to all 2.00 600. nursing homes and others. It should consider charging the appropriate tariff to cover its expenses.171 : Rs 282. Manish Singh.2 hours a day to most users which is the fourth lowest with an average pressure of 5 meters. UFW can not be computed due to inconsistencies in the production and consumption estimates in the absence of metering for both. Performance Highlights BMC provides water at an estimated 72 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 1-2 hours per day to 83.7.00 3 Industrial 600. Notes: 1.00 1.6 months is better than average.23 : Government loan from HUDCO Tariff Structure Size 1/2" 3/4" 1” FLAT RATES (Rs/month) Domestic 60.755) 253 9806 E-mail : bmcbpl@sancharnet.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs39. Applicants have to wait for a month for a new connection to be made.

00/m3 2.82 3.170. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport and chemicals. The urban poor comprise 23% of the population. 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 282.900 no data Rs3.Area Profile BHOPAL WATER SUPPLY Population: 1.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 BHOPAL Domestic 40% 258.000 Data as of 2005-2006.437. Power 63% 5 6 There were an estimated 1. UFW can not be computed reliably. Both production and connections are not metered.6 months 20.012 Domestic 86% Commercial Industrial7 14% 3 Other 1% Commercial Industrial 59% 7 286 sq km 83.618 1.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (10 persons/HC) Public Tap (100 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.460 consumer complaints were registered in 2005-06.000 m3 7% 93% Conventional 94.299. About 13% of the population are served by tube wells and tankers from the utility. An estimated 12.000 m 968 km Annual Water Use 94.120. This is also the total area of responsibility. Bhopal 41 .284 130 3.60/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 56.550 leaks were repaired during the year.7 Repair & mainten'ce 17% Other 11% Personnel 9% The population is for the present area served by the utility.000 m3 95. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.666 4.310 4 Nil 105. About 95% of 50 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.4% 1 to 2 hours/day 72 l/c/d Rs0.

Production is not metered while 79% of service connections are effectively metered.076 new connections in 2005–2006. The utility is responsible for water production. Storm water drainage Average monthly consumption is about 41. P.700 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. It draws water from both ground water and surface water sources. The utility has a well developed management information system. 42 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . MMC is doing well in customer service but needs to reduce UFW to manageable levels. Municipal Commissioner Municipal Corporation. Sewage treatment plant 3.00 11. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs530 for a half-inch connection payable prior to connection.196 : Rs 547.593. banks. India Telephone : (91-172) 502 1402 Fax : (91-172) 272 1234 E-mail : xenph1_mccl@chd.00 12.000 complaints were recorded and 1.150. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1. No data was given for accounts receivable. Water supply 2.000 people. Consumers are billed every two months. The present service area of MCC has a population density of 14.495 persons/km2. Chandigarh (MCC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1994 but the water system dates back to 1949. Mission Statement No mission statement.00 15 – 30 m3 30 – 60 m3 Above 60 m3 Notes: 1. About 79% of service connections are metered.000 : Rs 403. There were 3.500 pipe breaks and 5.2 m3 per connection. It has computerized billing and accounting systems.000 : no data Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs754. MCC just started implementing a 25year master development plan covering 2006 to 2031. Average tariff of Rs 5. Sampark and Collection Centers.00 6.6. Water is available on an average of 12 hours a day to most users which is the longest duration among the utilities and at an average pressure of 11 meters. Staff/1000 connections ratio is also sixth highest at 8. letter or telephone.50 5.853. MCC provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Chandigarh and Mani Majra town which has a total population of 1.660 : Rs 525. Water bills are paid at the water utility office.in Head : Mr. 3. The urban poor are provided with stand posts in slum areas.526.300 : 1.75 3. Connection fee of Rs 530 for a ½” connection has to be paid prior to connection.9% which is sixth highest. billing and collection and leak repair through service contracts. Those not metered pay a monthly flat rate. Operating ratio of 1. Chandigarh. It should consider metering of production and connections to better account for use.36 is the median and better than average.62 Tariff Structure Domestic Consumption (m ) 1-15 m 3 3 METERED CONNECTIONS Non domestic Rate (Rs/m ) 1. The utility should also look into improving the productivity of its staff. UFW is 38. Aujla. Applicants have to wait for only a day for a new connection to be made. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by e-mail.000 : Rs 428.nic. S. CHANDIGARH Address : Sector 17.CHANDIGARH Water Utility Utility Profile MUNICIPAL CORPORATION. About 2.04/m3 is not enough to cover operating costs due to high UFW. Water quality is good with all of 3.00 3 Category Lawn/irrigation Institutional Semi-commercial Commercial Rate (Rs/m3) 2. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 139.50 9.000 leaks were repaired in 2005-06. Performance Highlights MMC provides water at 147 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 12 hours per day to all of the population in its area of responsibility. 2. distribution and source development. The private sector is involved in distribution.942.

500 pipe breaks and 5.227 900 11. Production is not metered while 79% of service connections are metered.500 km Domestic 44% Annual Water Use 139.Area Profile CHANDIGARH WATER SUPPLY Population: 1.000 Data as of 2005-2006.04/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 428.080 m3 79. Chandigarh 43 .3 sq km 1.167.000 leaks repaired during the year. Other cost includes transport and chemicals. Commercial and industrial include institutional use.000 1 Commercial CHANDIGARH UFW 39% Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (10 persons/HC) Public Tap (150 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1. All 3. There were about 1.660 38. The utility claims all the population are connected to the water system.850 530 Nil Nil 139.0% 12 hours/day 147 l/c/d Rs5.793 1. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 Industrial 17% 7 381.942.700 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. There were about 2.200 m3 124.000 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.280 m3 26% 74% Conventional 236. This is also the total area of responsibility.300 No breakdown given 100. Power 60% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 547.526.36 no data 8.9% Rs3.150.93/m3 1.6 Repair & mainten'ce 6% Other8 1% Personnel 33% The population is for the present area served by the utility.

Water bills are paid at the water utility office.00 Partly Commercial 5.00 *Minimum charges/month including sewerage charges: Domestic – Rs 50/dwelling or flat.Rs20. Staff/1000 connections ratio is high at 13. However.623.600 : Rs 17.600 : Rs 2. Rs400 (private school) Notes: 1. Source identification and development. Billing and accounting are computerized as well as three water treatment plants and transmission system. Public TW Supply Rs40.00 Commercial Others .5% of total connections are metered making the UFW figure an estimate at best. Financial management is good with the lowest operating ratio at 0. Price of new domestic water connection is Rs1.342. There were 8. Commercial – Rs 400 (non water intensive).279 new connections in 2005-2006. CMWSSB has an annual report for 2005-2006 that is available to the public. Rs800 (water intensive).162.00 25. They pay minimal sewerage connection charge of Rs100. management. Mission Statement General Data About Water Utility “Our mission is to enhance the health and quality of life for the citizen in Chennai City by providing them adequate supply of clean and good quality of water and safe disposal of sewage/waste water at reasonable price. while production is fully metered only 3.395.053.net.3% of the population in its service area. Shiv Das Meena.1 months.00 Institutional (Rs/m3) Govt hospital . Water is available on an average of 4-6 hours a day to most users with an average pressure of 2 meters.387. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the city of Chennai which has a total population of 5. Water conservation. 2.00 15.00 3 UNMETERED (Rs/month) Domestic Rs50. Rs60 beyond 500 m3 Private hospital – Rs50 up to 500 m .00 Partly commercial Rs150. Institutional – Rs200 (gov’t hospital). The water bill averages Rs85. 2. The utility is following a development plan covering up to 2021.0%.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 10. Industrial and bulk consumers are metered and are billed monthly. Applicants have to wait for about a month for a new connection to be made.1. Rs80 beyond 500 m3 Private school – Rs40.Rs400. The present service area of CMWSSB has a population density of 29. Managing Director Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) is a city board established in 1978.320. Unmetered consumers are billed half yearly. It has the fifth lowest UFW at 17. Partly commercial – Rs150. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.15 16 .” Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 344.00 25. letter and e-mail.00 Private school . distribution and source development and draws water from Viranam Lake and Krishna River as well as from 11 tubewells.8 m3 per house connection. 3.Rs200. There were 156.930 payable prior to connection.200 : Rs 3.389.00 Institutional Gov’t hospital . Sewerage connection charge is Rs3. It should also improve metering of service connections to account for use. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone.25 Above 25 3 METERED* (Rs/m3) Domestic 2. the fifth highest.Rs400. banks and through bill collectors. Average tariff of Rs10. India Telephone : (91-44) 2845 1300 to 1322 Fax : (91-44) 2845 8181 E-mail : cmwssb@md2.00 25.CHENNAI Water Utility Utility Profile CHENNAI METROPOLITAN WATER SUPPLY & SEWERAGE BOARD Address : No.vsnl.984 consumers complaints recorded in 2005-06.44 and accounts receivable equivalent of 1.10 11 .500. Safe disposal of sewage. The utility is responsible for water production. The urban poor are provided with free water from sintex tanks and public fountains. the third lowest. Average monthly consumption is about 42.00 15.55 per month per house connection.50 10.000 people.87/m3 can easily cover production cost.3. CMWSSB needs to increase water availability and staff productivity.578 : Rs 1.086 water samples taken during the year passing the chlorine residual test.00 Pvt hospital-Rs800.00 Commercial (Rs/m3) Others – Rs35 up to 500 m3. Chennai – 2. and build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracts.079 : 4.00 w/ Sewerage charge Rs10. Water quality is good with 99% of 28.080.062 persons/km2. CMWWSB provides water at 87 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 5 hours per day to 89.53 : Government grants and loans Tariff Structure Consumption (m ) 0 . The private sector is involved in water production and distribution through service. Chintadripet. Performance Highlights 44 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .in Head : Mr. Priority Need of Utility Consumer Service 1.127. Pumping Station Road.

389. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.5% of total connections is metered.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 CHENNAI UFW 17% Other 4% 7 623.600 km Annual Water Use 227. Personnel 44% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 1.000 m3 284.200 Data as of 2005-2006.44 1. About 1% of the population are served by tankers.984 consumer complaints were registered in 2005-06.965 9. About 99% of 28.3 Power 33% Repair & mainten'ce 19% Other 4% 8 The population is for the present area served by the utility.700.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (13. The urban poor comprise 10% of the population.086 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. This is also the total area of responsibility.0% Rs6.399 48. Chennai 45 .87/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 2. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.3% 5 hours/day 87 l/c/d Rs10.09/m3 0. There were 494 pipe breaks and 3.8 persons/HC) Public Tap (87 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.387.Area Profile CHENNAI WATER SUPPLY Population: 5.079 Other 20% Domestic 14% Commercial Industrial 11% Domestic 68% 89.1 sq km 2.600 Commercial Industrial7 66% 17.958 56 693 8 Nil 344.480 m3 183. While production is fully metered only 3.623. About 156.320.836 m3 9% 91% Filtration 355.538 leaks were repaired during the year.053.1 months 13.

Financial management is good with an operating ratio of 0.422) 231 0261 to 63 Fax : (91.00 Non domestic 7. India Telephone : (91.650 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test.1% of the population in its area of responsibility. It draws water from Pattiyar River and several spring sources.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 113.50 80. through bill collectors and at CCMC collection centers.00 6. CCMC has computerized billing and accounting systems.50 350.000 : Rs 179. The water bill averages Rs70. There were 3.000 : Internally generated reserves Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs954.98 Tariff Structure Consumption (m3) 1 – 50 m3 50 – 100 m3 100 – 150 m3 Above 150 m3 Bi-monthly minimum METERED CONNECTIONS Domestic 3.06.000. UFW is fifth highest at 41. at banks.00 15. Water bills are paid at the water utility office.0 which is about half of the average. The utility is responsible for water production. Priority Need of Utility Consumer Service 1.422) 239 8702 E-mail : cbecorp@gmail. Water quality is good with 90% of 3. It has an annual report for 2006-07 that is available to the public. increase the available hours of its supply and its coverage as well. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. Applicants have to wait for a month for a new connection to be made. Mission Statement “To provide drinking water supply to all areas in the corporation’s limits.00 12.460 complaints were recorded and only 30 pipe breaks and 5.00 Bulk – non domestic 7. About 3.00 Bulk domestic 3. The utility sees to it that those below the poverty line are supplied with drinking water.50 4. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 4. The present service area of CCMC has a population density of 9. The utility also has a well developed management information system. Performance Highlights 46 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .66/m3 is enough to cover operating costs.000 : Rs 543.00 15. Municipal Commissioner Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation (CCMC) is a municipal corporation operating the city water system that dates back to 1931 as the Siruvani system. Average tariff of Rs3.95 per month per house connection.0 months.00 9. CCMC needs to reduce its UFW.0 m3 per house connection. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs3. Notes: 1. Non revision of tariffs in nearly 10 years 2.00 per tap connection per month.COIMBATORE Water Utility Utility Profile COIMBATORE CITY MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Big Bazaar Street.000. Connection fee of Rs3. by letter or telephone.00 Domestic users are allowed a free allowance of 100 liters per day. Shortage of staff with ban on fresh recruitments 3.202. Coimbatore – 641 001. The private sector is not involved in the utility’s operations.200 leaks were repaired in 2005-06. It just completed a 5-year master development plan covering 2001 to 2006.00 12.000 : Rs 135. CCMC provides water at 109 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 3 hours per day to 76.200.com Head : Mr.050.00 9. All connections are metered and consumers are billed every 2 months.00 600.413 persons/km2.3% with both production and consumption fully metered which gives an accurate measure of its losses.00 6. distribution and source development. Water is available on an average of 3 hours a day only to most users with an average pressure of 3 meters.000 people. Limited role of private sector Average monthly consumption is about 21.50 4. Muthu Veran.240 new connections in 2005 .82 and accounts receivable at 3.000 payable prior to connection. 2.00 5.000 has to be paid prior to connection.00 900. the sixth lowest but can still be reduced. 3. Supply on a per tap basis is allowed at Rs50.762 : 452 : Rs 111. CCMC provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Coimbatore which has a total population of 1.00 5.

33/m3 0. Power 21% Personnel 49% 5 6 There were about 3.762 Other 23% Commercial Industrial 14% 7 76.000 m3 105.000. 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 111.1% 3 hours/day 109 l/c/d Rs3.000 m3 107.000 Data as of 2005-2006.205 km Domestic 38% UFW 41% Annual Water Use 83.366.400 m3 1% 99% Conventional 125.6 sq km 1. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps. About 90% of 3.460 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06. The urban poor comprise 25% of the population.811 3.000 1 Commercial Industrial 12% 7 COIMBATORE Other7 9% Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (5 persons/HC) Public Tap (150 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.200 leaks repaired during the year. This is also the total area of responsibility. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.3% Rs1.000 41. Both production and service connections are fully metered.66/m3 Domestic 63% Annual Water Billings Rs 179.650 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. There were about 30 pipe breaks and 5. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 228.Area Profile COIMBATORE WATER SUPPLY Population: 994.82 3.200.000 2.0 months 4.0 Repair & mainten'ce 15% Other8 15% The population is for the present area served by the utility. Coimbatore 47 . About 19% of the population draw water from tankers provided by the utility.523 Nil Nil 428 Nil 113.

524 new connections in 2005 . Augmentation of water supply system capacity 2.038.731) 243 4489 E-mail : piuindore@hotmail. IMC will need a lot of improvement starting with reducing its operating expenses and improving collections.104 : 2. It provides water supply and sewerage services to the cities of Indore. production and consumption estimates given do not give a credible UFW value.979 : Rs 880. It does not have an annual report nor does it have a master development plan.000 Rs24. Indore – 452 004.500 payable prior to connection. Only a few 59 bulk connections are metered and not all are working.616.900 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test.000 Rs10. Increase in revenue to make system sustainable 3.590 : Rs 186.000 Rs2. Water availability of less than 1 hour a day is not acceptable and should be improved.00/m3 METERED CONNECTIONS – Bulk rates (Rs/m3) Bulk rates Notes: 1.400 Rs5. IMC has computerized billing and accounting systems.202.886 pipe breaks and leaks were repaired in 2005-06. 3.33.200. Municipal Commissioner Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) is a municipal corporation established in 1977. Accounts receivable is about average at 5.000 Rs14.4 m3 per house connection. Mhow and Dewas which have a total population of 2.400 Rs2.2 months. Average tariff of Rs 2.731) 243 1610.222 persons/km2.000 Rs4.400 : Rs 543. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and through bill collectors. The metered connections are billed monthly and the flat rate are billed quarterly 2. Vinod Sharma.3% of the population in its area of responsibility.000 Rs10. Production and all connections need to be metered to allow billing based on use and to account for total use and losses. e-mail or telephone.000 Rs14.000 Rs20.960 tube wells with pump sets. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 159.000 Rs11. and tankers IMC provides water at 87 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 45 minutes per day to 77. M.000 Rs8. Staff productivity needs to be enhanced.com Head : Mr. Staff/1000 connections ratio is second highest at 18. Mission Statement No mission statement. The utility is responsible for water production. With both production and connections not metered. 271 0695 Fax : (91.000 Rs35.080 : Rs 165. Performance Highlights 48 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . Road. India Telephone : (91.000 Rs38.500 has to be paid prior to connection. Water is available on an average of 45 minutes a day only to most users with an average pressure of 1 meter. by letter. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1.400 Rs5. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs 2.7. distribution and source development. Most connections are on flat rate. The private sector is not involved in the utility’s operations. It draws water from Narmada and Gambhir Rivers and from 2. 70% commercial loan (State Bank of Indore) Tariff Structure Size 1/2" 3/4" 1” 1-1/2” 2” 3” 4” 6” Domestic Rs150 Rs250 Rs500 Rs1.200 Rs2.INDORE Water Utility Utility Profile INDORE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : M.000 people. Operating ratio is highest at 5.36 per month per house connection.000 Rs76. P. The water bill averages Rs 60. The present service area of IMC has a population density of 12.00/m3 FLAT RATE (Rs/month) Commercial Rs300 Rs600 Rs1.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 353.264. Applicants have to wait for 2 – 4 weeks for a new connection to be made. Water quality is good with 98% of about 54.18/m3 due to high cost of power most probably for pumping. Upgrade of existing distribution system Average monthly consumption is about 28. Connection fee of Rs 2. There were 2.00/m3 Industrial Rs600 Rs1. The utility has a partly developed management information system. G. The urban poor are provided with free water through public taps.000 Rs20.95 : 30% internally generated reserves.06.. About 550 complaints were recorded and 5.79/m3 is lower than the high production cost of Rs 13. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. tube wells with pumps.

104 Other 35% Domestic 81% Other7 9% 77. This is also the total area of responsibility.000 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.760.040 km Annual Water Use 66. There were about 5. Repair & mainten'ce 18% 5 6 There were about 550 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.257 1. Power 57% 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 880. Indore 49 . Other cost includes transport and chemicals.400 no data Rs13.2 months 18. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.79/m3 Commercial Industrial 4% 7 Domestic 61% Annual Water Billings Rs 186. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.634 93 1.7 Other 7% Personnel 18% The population is for the present area served by the utility. Both production and all service connections except for 59 connections are not metered. About 9% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility.Area Profile INDORE WATER SUPPLY Population: 2.000 m3 7% 93% Conventional 99.200.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 INDORE Commercial Industrial 10% 183.080 Data as of 2005-2006.75 hours/day 87 l/c/d Rs2.000 m3 156. The urban poor comprise 10% of the population.897 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.3% 0. About 98% of 54.024 20 72 4 159.886 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year.038.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (7 persons/HC) Public Tap (2.616.33 5.000 m3 180 sq km 2.18/m3 5.

its low tariff and operating ratio of more than 1. The urban poor pay low monthly charges of Rs30 and connection charge of Rs300 only. The private sector is not involved in the utility’s operations.014.000. 64% government grant. Performance Highlights 50 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . The water bill averages Rs 62. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1.50/m3 is fifth lowest and can not cover operating expenses.2% of the population in its area of responsibility.984 payable prior to connection but may also be paid in installment over 12 months.in Head : Mr.761) 240 3020 to 22 Fax : (91.800 : Rs 82. Leakage control 2. About 700 complaints were recorded and 400 pipe breaks and leaks were repaired in 2005-06. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and through bill collectors.761) 241 0892 E-mail : commrjmc@yahoo.2 m3 per house connection. It draws water from Narmada. General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 46.923.753 persons/km2. 4% commercial loan and other sources Tariff Structure No tariff structure submitted.3% is at best an estimate.com.984 is paid prior to connection but can also be paid over a 12-month period.06. Average tariff of Rs 1. Its Water Works Department provides only water supply services to the city of Jabalpur which has a total population of 1. Operating ratio is 1. India Telephone : (91.260 : 17 : Rs 104. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1.000 people. The present service area of JMC has a population density of 8. Applicants have to wait for about 2 weeks for a new connection to be made. All consumers pay on flat rate and are billed annually 2. There were only 300 new connections in 2005 .74 per month per house connection.277. None of the service connections are metered. Zoning of water distribution system 3. Executive Engineer (Water Works) Jabalpur Municipal Corporation (JMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1956.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs864. by letter or telephone.0 months.000 : Rs 200.050. With both production and service connections not metered. Water quality is good with 96% of 650 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Mission Statement No mission statement.4. Khandari-Gour and Pariyat Rivers and from 175 tube wells with pump sets.JABALPUR Water Utility Utility Profile JABALPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Water Works Department.0. Water is available on an average of 4 hours a day only to most users.350 : Rs 61. Notes: 1. The utility is responsible for water production. Jabalpur Municipal Corporation. Staff/1000 connections ratio is lowest at 0. None of its operations is computerized nor does it have an annual report or a master development plan. distribution and source development. Collection improvement – realization of cess Average monthly consumption is about 69.. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. M. Jabalpur. Domestic connection fee of Rs1. P.68 and accounts receivable equivalent is 3. UFW of 14. 3. Adjay Sharma.68 : 32% internally generated reserves. Production and all connections need to be metered to allow billing based on use and to account for total use and losses. JMC needs to address its water availability. JMC provides water at 139 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 4 hours per day to 75. The utility neither has a management information system.

Area Profile
JABALPUR WATER SUPPLY
Population: 1,050,000 1
Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (5 persons/HC) Public Tap (100 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1,000 Connections
Notes:
1 2 3 4

JABALPUR
Commercial Industrial 23%
7

175,115 m3 9% 91% Conventional 70,000 m3 123 sq km 162 km

Domestic 63%

UFW 14%

Annual Water Use 63,917,000 m3 44,000 1,600 648 8 2 2 Nil 46,260
Commercial Industrial 60%
7

75.2% 4 hours/day 139 l/c/d Rs1.50/m3

Domestic 40%

5

Per Capita Consumption

Annual Water Billings Rs 82,277,000

14.3% Rs1.63/m3 1.68 3.0 months 0.4

Power 16%

Repair & mainten'ce 24%

The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 96% of 650 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. This is also the total area of responsibility. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps. About 25% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility. The urban poor comprise 35% of the population. Personnel 34% Other8 26%

5 6

There were about 700 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06. Production and service connections are not metered. UFW is at best an estimate. There were about 400 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.

7 8

Annual O&M Costs Rs 104,014,350

Data as of 2005-2006.

Jabalpur

51

JAMSHEDPUR
Water Utility

Utility Profile

JAMSHEDPUR UTILITIES & SERVICES COMPANY LIMITED
Address : Sakchi Boulevard Road, Northern Town, Bituspur, Jamshedpur – 831 001, India Telephone : (91- 657) 214 3507 Fax : (91- 657) 242 4219 E-mail : gsbasu@tatasteel.com Head : Mr. G. S. Basu, General Manager – Water Management Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Co., Ltd. (JUSCO) is a private company that was formerly the Towns Division of Tata Steel but was spinned off in 2003. The former entity built and has been operating the water supply system and other municipal services since 1919. JUSCO provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Jamshedpur which has a total population of 615,500 people. The present service area of JUSCO has a population density of 9,959 persons/km2. The utility is responsible for water production, distribution and source development. It draws water mainly from River Subernarekha and from Dimna Lake for contingency only. All of the utility’s operations are done by the private sector. Billing and accounting are computerized together with industrial water treatment, customer complaint management, network management and flow meter data handling and UFW analysis. JUSCO has a well developed management information system. Its annual report is available in its website and it follows a master development plan for 1986 to 2010.

Mission Statement

“Quality services for life. We will be the preferred provider of civic and allied services and a national leader in the water and sanitation business. Guided by Tata values, we will continuously strive to delight our customers through a team of happy and empowered employees.”

General Data About Water Utility

Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds

: 38,800 : 218 : Rs 328,300,000 : Rs 531,669,000 : Rs 531,669,000 : Rs 188,400,000

Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs971.13

: All from internally generated reserves

Tariff Structure Type of user Domestic Educational Commercial Industrial

METERED Rate (Rs/m ) Rs7.90 Rs4.40 Rs7.90 Rs9.90
3

UNMETERED (Monthly Flat Rate) Plot size Sq ft Up to 1600 Up to 2500 2500-4000 4000 & above Domestic Single storey Rs120 Rs240 Rs450 Rs540 Add’l floor Rs110 Rs180 Rs300 Rs360 Non domestic Single storey Rs450 Rs540 Rs600 Rs600 Add’l floor Rs350 Rs360 Rs400 Rs400

Notes: 1. Only 335 connections are metered with a mix of industrial, commercial, institutional, domestic and bulk connections. The rest pay on flat rate monthly based on plot size. 2. Water bills are paid at the water utility office. 3. There were 2,538 new connections in 2005 - 06. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs 300 to 500 within an existing network payable prior to connection. For new network, new connection costs Rs3,000 – Rs9,000. Priority Need of Utility 1. Increase service coverage 2. 24 x 7 supply with 100% metering 3. Reduction of non revenue water

Consumer Service

Average monthly consumption is about 71.9 m3 per house connection. The water bill averages Rs 81.08 per month per house connection. Water is available on an average of 6 hours a day only to most users with an average pressure of 5 meters. Applicants have to wait for about a month for a new connection to be made. Domestic connection fee of Rs300 – Rs500 is paid prior to connection but can also be paid over a 12-month period. Water quality is good with 96% of 840 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. About 15,516 complaints were recorded and 1,189 pipe breaks and 1,604 leaks were repaired in 2005-06. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office, by letter or telephone. The urban poor are provided with free water from 552 public stand posts and subsidized tariffs for those connected. Outside the network, bore wells with hand pumps provide free water. JUSCO provides water at 203 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 6 hours per day to 74.4% of the population in its area of responsibility. While production is metered less than 1% of service connections are metered. UFW of 12.8% is the lowest. Financial management is very good with operating ratio of 0.62 and accounts receivable of 0.3 month. Average tariff of Rs4.51/m3 is about average but covers expenses well. Staff/1000 connections ratio is less than average at 5.6. JUSCO is operating well except for water availability. It can further improve by full metering of all service connections.

Performance Highlights

52

2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India

Area Profile
JAMSHEDPUR WATER SUPPLY
Population: 488,000 1
Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (9.4 persons/HC) Public Tap (140 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk (total of 3,965 housing units) Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1,000 Connections
Notes:
1 2 3 4

JAMSHEDPUR
UFW 13% Domestic 25%

370,110 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 45,650 m3 49 sq km 513 km
Commercial Industrial 62%
7

Annual Water Use 135,090,000 m3 36,195 552 1,572 35 178 101 167 38,800
Domestic 8%
Commercial Industrial 92%
7

74.4% 6 hours/day 203 l/c/d Rs4.51/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 531,669,000

12.8% Rs2.43/m3 0.62 0.3 month 5.6

Repair & mainten'ce 12%

Other8 9% Personnel 22%

The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 96% of 840 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. The total area of responsibility is 64 sq m. This is the percentage of population served by house connections, public taps and apartment units with bulk connections. About 5% of the population draw water from utility tankers during emergencies. The urban poor comprise 20% of the population. Power 57%

5 6

There were about 15,516 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06. While production is metered only 335 service connections (less than 1%) are metered. There were about 1,189 pipe breaks and 1,604 leaks repaired during the year. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport, chemicals and payment for raw water.

7 8

Annual O&M Costs Rs 328,300,000

Data as of 2005-2006.

Jamshedpur

53

Staff/1000 connections ratio is fourth highest at 14.000 : Rs 260. Water quality is good with 90% of 7. N.000. Domestic connection fee of Rs1. Water bills are paid at the water utility office. Water is available on an average of 8 hours a day with an average pressure of 3 meters to most users. It has a 20-year master development plan covering 2006 – 2026. leak repair and potable water tanker service through service and management contracts. management.61 : Internally generated reserves and grant from the Government of West Bengal Tariff Structure Ferrule size 1/8” 3/16” 1/4" 3/8” 7/16” Notes: NON DOMESTIC CONNECTIONS Monthly rate (Rs) Rs200 Rs250 Rs300 Rs500 Rs600 Ferrule size 1/2" Above 1/2" 3/4" 1” -Monthly rate (Rs) Rs700 Rs1. Metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses. e-mail or telephone. Water supplied for domestic consumption is not charged at all and is supplied free of cost.000 pipe breaks and 77. Director General (Water Supply) Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1924.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 262.7. It draws water mainly from River Hooghly and from 260 tube wells.953. water availability and reduce its high UFW. Applicants have to wait for about 3-7 days for a new connection to be made. Management of UFW reduction 3.13/m3 is the third lowest which can not cover expenses at all. Water supply network management 2. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1. Mission Statement “Water for all.228.839 : 3.500.700 -- 1. 3.014 persons/km2. production. Performance Highlights 54 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . commercial and institutional connections 2. fund management. the effort continues.000 is paid prior to connection.000 : Rs 2.73 and accounts receivable of 2. record keeping and network mapping are computerized.100 Rs1.197 leaks were repaired in 2005-06.6 m3 per house connection.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs2. Staff productivity should also be enhanced.33) 2286 1293 Fax : (91.000 for a 10 mm ferrule connection payable prior to connection. Financial management needs improvement with the second highest operating ratio of 4.800. by letter.000 : Rs 260.866 : Rs 1. The utility has a partly developed management information system. Kolkata – 700 013. Only 175 bulk connections are metered of which 84 are for domestic purposes and 91 are industrial.com Head : Mr. No annual report is available.998. KMC provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Kolkata and 5 other cities and towns which have a total population of 4. KMC provides water at 130 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 8 hours per day to 79.33) 2286 1234 E-mail : dgws@rediffmail. Billing. Records of complaints are available at the ward level only. India Telephone : (91.000 people. Average tariff of Rs 1. About 8. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1.4 months. distribution and source development. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. Bannerjee Road.000. The private sector is involved in source development. 24/7 water supply with 100% metering Average monthly consumption is about 58. There were 1. Only bulk supply for domestic uses is charged. KMC needs to cover its expenses through appropriate tariffs and by charging domestic users for their use.KOLKATA Water Utility Utility Profile KOLKATA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : 5. UFW is estimated at a high 35% with production not metered and less than 1% of service connections metered.247.0% of the population in its area of responsibility. The urban poor are provided with free water from public stand posts. It also needs to improve collection. Bibhas Kumar Maity.800 Rs2. The present service area of KMC has a population density of 27. S.000 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Domestic consumption is not billed. The utility is responsible for water production.052 new connections in 2005-06. part of pumping. mostly domestic ferrule connection.

Area Profile
KOLKATA WATER SUPPLY
Population: 3,998,000
Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (9.4 persons/HC) Public Tap (140 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage4 Water Availability5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1,000 Connections
Notes:
1 2 3 4

KOLKATA
1 UFW 35%

971,560 m3 12% 88% Conventional 474,430 m3 148 sq km 5,800 km
Other 9%
Commercial Industrial 3%

Domestic 53%

Annual Water Use 354,619,400 m3 237,912 17,000 Nil 7,752 Nil 175 Nil 262,839
Commercial Industrial 14%

79.0% 8 hours/day 130 l/c/d Rs1.13/m3
Other 86%

Annual Water Billings7 Rs 260,000,000

35.0% Rs3.46/m3 4.73 2.4 months 14.7

Repair & mainten'ce 11%

Other8 11%

Personnel 35%

The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 90% of 7,000 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. The total area of responsibility is 185 sq m. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps. The rest of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers. The urban poor comprise 35% of the population. No record of consumer complaints are kept at the central level but are at the wards. Production is not metered and only 175 bulk connections (less than 1%) are metered. There were about 8,000 pipe breaks and 77,197 leaks repaired during the year. Domestic consumption are not billed. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.

Power 43%

5 6

7 8

Annual O&M Costs Rs 1,228,500,000

Data as of 2005-2006.

Kolkata

55

MATHURA
Water Utility

Utility Profile

MATHURA MUNICIPAL COUNCIL
Address : Water Works, near Fire Station, Bhuteshwar, Mathura, U. P., India Telephone : (91- 565) 290 0987 Fax : (91- 565) 250 5070 E-mail : npp_mtr@yahoo.com Head : Mr. Sumit Kumar, Chief Executive Officer Mathura Municipal Council (MMC) was established as a municipal council in 1916 although the water supply network was laid just before 1950. MMC provides water supply and sewerage services to the city of Mathura which has a total population of 340,000 people. The present service area of MMC has a population density of 12,124 persons/km2. The utility is responsible for water production, distribution and source development. It draws water from groundwater and surface water sources. The private sector is involved in leak repair and tube well operation through service contracts. Billing and accounting are computerized. The utility has no management information system nor does it have an annual report or a master development plan.

Mission Statement

No mission statement.

General Data About Water Utility

Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds

: 24,643 : 160 : Rs 28,123,000 : Rs 9,205,690 : Rs 8,662,000 : Rs 87,829,000

Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs712.81

: 15% internally generated reserves; 85% government grant

Tariff Structure

ALL CONNECTIONS ARE UNMETERED A uniform water tax is levied for all users which is 12.5% of annual rental value. This is collected as part of the property tax. Different types of consumers pay according to this tariff structure with industrial users paying more since their annual rental values are higher.

Notes: 1. Water tariff is paid annually with the property tax. 2. There were only 12 new connections reported for 2005 - 06. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs500 payable prior to connection.

Priority Needs of Utility

1. Master plan for distribution system

2. Rehabilitation in core of city and expansion

3. Metering and computerization for billing and collection

Consumer Service

Average monthly consumption is about 52.5 m3 per house connection. The water bill averages Rs32.66 per month per house connection. Water is available on an average of 1-3 hours a day at an average pressure of 5 meters to most users. Applicants have to wait for about 7 days for a new connection to be made. Domestic connection fee of Rs500 is paid prior to connection. Water quality is good with 97% of 308 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Complaints are not recorded. About 402 pipe breaks and leaks were repaired in 200506. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office, by letter or telephone. The urban poor are treated no differently from other consumers except that slum dwellers pay lower water tax as their annual rental value is low.

Performance Highlights

MMC provides water to its consumers at an average of 1-3 hours per day to 70% of the population in its area of responsibility. Both production and all service connections are not metered. Estimates given show consumption equal to production giving unrealistic values for per capita consumption and UFW. Financial management needs improvement with the third highest operating ratio of 3.05 and accounts receivable of 12.3 months which is the highest. Average tariff of Rs0.62/m3 is the second lowest which can not cover expenses at all. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 6.5. MMC needs to cover its expenses through appropriate tariffs. It also needs to improve collection and water availability. Metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses.

56

2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India

Area Profile
MATHURA WATER SUPPLY
Population: 238,000 1
Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (6 persons/HC) Public Tap (200 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption 6 Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 7 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1,000 Connections
Notes:
1 2 3 4

MATHURA

38,172 m3 69% 31% Conventional 4,500 m3 19.6 sq km 254 km Annual Water Use 13,932,780 m3 22,103 980 1,560 Nil Nil Nil Nil 24,643
No breakdown given
No consumption breakdown

70.0% 1 to 3 hours/day no data Rs0.62/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 8,662,000

no data Rs2.02/m3 3.05 12.3 months 6.5

Power 27%

Repair & mainten'ce 11% Other8 1%

The population is for the present area served by the utility. About 97% of 308 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. The total area of responsibility is 28.1 sq m. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps. About 10% of the population draw water from tube wells provided by the utility. The urban poor comprise 40% of the population. Personnel 61%

5 6 7

No record of consumer complaints were kept by the utility. Consumption data given was questionable, hence, per capita use and UFW could not be determined. Both production and all service connections are not metered. There were about 402 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. Other cost includes transport and chemicals.

Annual O&M Costs Rs 28,123,000

8

Data as of 2005-2006.

Mathura

57

Performance Highlights 58 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .in Head : Mr.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 400. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. Production is metered and 75% of service connections have working meters.8 months which is second highest.400 : Rs 8. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs660 plus Rs250/m beyond 1 meter service pipe length payable prior to connection. UFW of 13. Mission Statement “To provide all users in Mumbai City with continuous.50/m3 Rs10. uninterrupted. About 100. It publishes an annual report that is available to the public. Water quality is good with 90% of 64. 2.400.49 but accounts receivable of 11.000 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Mumbai – 400 001.00/m3 Rs25. Financial management is mixed with very good operating ratio of 0. MCGM needs to improve collection and water availability. Applicants have to wait for about a month for a new connection to be made. hebmc@mtnl. Hariname. The urban poor are provided with stand post connection in general washing place for groups of 5 families at subsidized rates.com. Rs2.060. Average tariff of Rs4.MUMBAI Water Utility Utility Profile MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OF GREATER MUMBAI Address : Municipal Head Office. halls Small hotels Commercial establishments Notes: 1.613 persons/km2. There is no private sector involvement in the utility’s operations.865 : Rs 4.100 : All from government grant Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs3. distribution and source development. environmentally sound. municipal swimming pools.000 : Rs 4. It also needs to address staff productivity. R. accounting. METERED CONNECTIONS Slums including chawls Non slum domestic users.6% is second lowest. reliable water treatment services to provide good quality supply of clean water in a safe. Domestic users are billed quarterly while all the others are billed monthly.000 consumer complaints were recorded during the year.2.000 people. part of pumping and treatment operations are computerized. MCGM provides water to its consumers at 191 lpcd at an average of 4 hours per day to all of the population in its area of responsibility.46 per month per house connection.60/m3 covers expenses with low UFW.R.5% of annual rental value of the property which is collected as part of property tax.300.000 : Rs 7. MCGM has no current master development plan.790.net.25/m3 Rs3. 3. Fort. Staff/1000 connections ratio is the third highest at 17. Water bills are paid at the water utility office. Water is available at an average of 4 hours a day with an average pressure of 7 meters to most users. India Telephone : (91. schools Dispensaries. and cost effective manner. UFW reduction 2. Distribution management from service reservoir to consumers 3. Tansa and Bhatsa Rivers and Lakes Vihar and Tulsi.000 : 6.581. MCGM has separate departments providing water supply and sewerage services to the city of Mumbai which has a total population of 13.50/m3 Rs18.22) 2263 4329 E-mail : bmcbalcum@rediffmail. Unmetered connections are charged at 12.06.173.3 m3 per house connection. by letter or telephone. Full metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses.640.22) 2262 0025 Fax : (91. Billing. About 75% of service connections have working meters. The utility is responsible for water production. The water bill averages Rs708. The utility has a partly developed management information system. Hydraulic Engineer Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) was established in 1888. There were 10.000.00/m3 Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1. GIS-based network interlinked with SCADA Average monthly consumption is about 156. About 680 pipe breaks and 650 leaks were repaired in 2005-06.59 Tariff Structure UNMETERED CONNECTIONS Unmetered connections are charged an annual amount equal to 12. It draws water mainly from the following surface water sources: Vaitarna.485 new connections in 2005 .284. Domestic connection fee is paid prior to connection.5% of annual rental value of the property.789. The present service area of MCGM has a population density of 29.

Production is metered and 75% of service connections have working meters.000 m3 255.000 13.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 100. Mumbai 59 .000 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 997.000 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. The urban poor comprise 35% of the population.774 400. This is also the total area of responsibility.168.000 km Annual Water Use 1.000 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.113 5.49 11. There were about 100.200.000.60/m3 Domestic 52% Annual Water Billings Rs 4.6% Rs3.000 Commercial Industrial 48% 7 Domestic 78% Distribution length Service Connections House (37 persons/HC) Public Tap Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other (unmetered) Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption 6 Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 7 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.640. Personnel 38% Other8 39% 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 4.000 1 Commercial MUMBAI UFW 13% Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Industrial 9% 7 3.284.67/m3 0.180 m3 439 sq km 4.300.216 Nil Nil 90.000. There were about 680 pipe breaks and 650 leaks repaired during the year. About 90% of 64.8 months 17.060. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. The city is totally covered by the utility.Area Profile MUMBAI WATER SUPPLY Population: 13.0% 4 hours/day 191 l/c/d Rs4.897 Nil 48. Other cost includes transport andchemicals expenses and purchase of raw water.400 Data as of 2005-2006.2 Power 19% Repair & mainten'ce 4% The population is for the present area served by the utility.

NMC has a 25-year master development plan covering 2005 to 2031.000 1st 10 m3 – Rs3.000 UNMETERED RESIDENTIAL (Rs/month) 15 mm* 20 mm 25 mm Rs75 Rs150 Rs350 UNMETERED NON RESIDENTIAL (Rs/month) 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm Rs300 Rs600 Rs2.00/m3. Performance Highlights 60 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .000 Rs2.000 Rs23. About 40% of service connections are metered. NMC provides water to its consumers at 100 lpcd at an average of 5 hours per day to 91.500 Rs4.00 above 30 m3 with minimum monthly charges below 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 mm Rs50 Rs200 Rs500 Rs1.50/m3 & Rs4. rate for 15” diameter connection is charged Rs25/month for houses whose roof has no slab and Rs50/month for those whose roof is with slab. Notes: 1. Rehabilitation and upgrade of existing infrastructure 3. Billing is done quarterly. UFW of 51. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and in banks.000 Rs15.454 persons/km2.300.675 payable prior to connection.00/m3 subject to minimum monthly charges below 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 mm Rs500 Rs800 Rs3. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1. The urban poor are provided with house and public stand post connections with flat rate monthly charges based on the type of house.000 Rs19. accounts receivable of 9. next 30 m3 – Rs3. Hastak. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. NMC needs to exert efforts to reduce its UFW and improve collection and water availability.com Head : Mr.000 : Rs 561.500 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Sitabuldi. S.000 Rs45.490. institutions & colonies) Rs12.000 Rs9.766 new connections in 2005 . Staff/1000 connections ratio is the fifth lowest at 3. About 100 pipe breaks and 10. The utility is responsible for water production. It draws water mainly from Pench and Kanhan Rivers.000 : Rs 953. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Marg.000 : Rs 704.000 Rs30.4 m3 per house connection.06 : All from internally generated reserves Tariff Structure Residential and small shops METERED CONNECTIONS Non residential (Hospitals.000 * In notified slums. S. Mission Statement “Water for all and 24/7 supply. It publishes an annual report but it is not available to the public. There were 4.900 consumer complaints were recorded during the year.712) 256 1584 E-mail : nmcnagpur@sify.9% is third highest and should be reduced.000 80 mm 100 mm 150 mm 200 mm 250 mm Rs11. 2.5% of the population in its area of responsibility.500 Rs9. Nagpur – 12.675 is paid prior to connection. Upgrade and improvement of existing distribution network Average monthly consumption is about 34. 3. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1.500 80 mm 100 mm 150 mm 200 mm 250 mm Rs8.NAGPUR Water Utility Utility Profile NAGPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Water Works Department.712) 256 7041 to 44 Fax : (91. It provides water supply services to the city of Nagpur which has a total population of 2.60/m3 is fifth highest and is covering expenses well.2.000 people.000 Rs70. Average tariff of Rs 6.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 719. Water quality is good with 92% of 36.500. Domestic connection fee of Rs1.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 265. About 15. Billing and collection is handled by the private sector through a management contract and billing is computerized. The utility has a partly developed management information system. distribution and source development.745 leaks were repaired in 2005-06.231 : 856 : Rs 424. India Telephone : (91. by letter or telephone. Public stand posts users pay on flat rate basis. Water is available at an average pressure of 15 meters to most users.76.000 Rs50.6 months is third highest. Full metering is necessary to account for water use and to determine the extent of losses if UFW is to be reduced. Reduce raw water losses 2. Applicants have to wait for 15 days for a new connection to be made. Executive Engineer (WWD) Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1952.06. While operating ratio is good at 0. The present service area of NMC has a population density of 12. Production is metered and 40% of service connections have working meters. 100% coverage in water supply and improved service levels.231.413.

051 3. Power 48% Personnel 14% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 424.76 9.000 51.231 No breakdown given 91.500 7.700 km Domestic 37% Annual Water Use 222.9% Rs1.2 Repair & mainten'ce 1% Other8 37% The population is for the present area served by the utility.91/m3 0. This is the percentage of the population served by house connections and public taps.6 months 3.745 leaks repaired during the year.596 265. Nagpur 61 .790 m3 184.990 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (10.500 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.6 sq km. Other cost includes transport.300.000 m3 201.5 persons/HC) Public Tap (75 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1. There were about 100 pipe breaks and 10.084 Nil Nil Nil 53.9 sq km 1.. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.60/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 704. The total area of responsibility is 217. Production is metered and 40% of service connections have working meters.000 Data as of 2005-2006.5% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility.302.220 m Nil 100% 3 UFW 52% Conventional 150.900 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.413.000. About 8. About 92% of 36.5% 5 hours/day 100 l/c/d Rs6.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 NAGPUR Other 8% Commercial Industrial 3% 7 608.Area Profile NAGPUR WATER SUPPLY Population: 2. chemicals and purchase of raw water. There were about 15.

32/m3 should be able to cover production cost but is prevented by its high NRW. Sharanpur Road. Its billing system is computerized. There is no private sector involvement in the utility’s operations. The water bill averages Rs 102.562 : 440 : Rs 214. Connection fee has to be paid prior to connection.043 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. The urban poor are provided with group connections in tenements.5% among the utilities.18 and accounts receivable equivalent of less than a week. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone and letter.50/m3 FLAT RATE (Based on total time of supply) Two time Rs 1.2 m3 per house connection.585. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 3. 2. India Telephone : (91-253) 258 1252.460 leaks repaired during the year.900 : Rs 809. There were 12.180.69 Tariff Structure Domestic Rs 3. Water bills are paid at the water utility office. The utility is following a development plan covering the years 1993 to 2013. Average tariff of Rs 4. Full coverage in terms of population and area. 2. Augmentation of water supply systems for year 2026 requirement.000 : Rs 182. while production is fully metered only 80% of total connections are metered making the UFW still an estimate. However.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 127. connection is Rs 1. 3.350. It should meter production and further improve metering of service connections to account for use. 3. It has the highest UFW at 59.748. distribution and source development and draws water from the Darna River and the Gangapur Dam fed by the Godavari River.com Head : Mr. Water quality is good with 98% of 9.6% of the population in its area of responsibility. commercial and domestic consumers are metered but some house connections pay on flat rate based on the duration of supply. Institutional.NASHIK Water Utility Utility Profile NASHIK MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan.610 persons/km2. V. Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 29. Superintending Engineer Nashik Municipal Corporation (NMC) is a municipal corporation established in 1982. The utility is responsible for water production.50/m3 METERED Non domestic Rs 13. Nashik – 422 002. NMC needs to reduce its NRW.268. improve on water availability and its financial management especially operating ratio. 62 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . The price of a new domestic One time Rs 810/year Rural water supply Rs 540/year Commercial Rs 18.000 : Internally generated reserves Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 1. Mission Statement “To provide basic services and adequate. Water is available on an average of 3 to 4 hours a day with an average pressure of 3 meters to most users. potable water to all.000 people. tankers and hand pumps are provided free of cost. House connections are billed every 3 months. Performance Highlights NMC provides water at 93 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 3 to 4 hours per day to 92.688 new connections in 2005-06. The present service area of NMC has a population density of 5. S.4 being the fifth lowest. Institutional and commercial connections are billed every 2 months. 257 3151 Fax : (91-253) 258 1252 E-mail : eeplanning@dataone. NMC has an annual report for 2005-2006 that is available to the public.091.080/year Notes: 1. Khune.250 payable prior to connection. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the municipality of Nashik which has a total population of 1. The utility has a partly-developed management information system. Applicants have to wait for about 15 days for a new connection to be made.00/m3 Priority Needs of Utility 1. Water supplied through public taps. Financial management is mixed with an operating ratio of 1. Reduction in water losses.000 : Rs 197.19 per month per house connection. There were 543 consumers complaints recorded and 7.

6% 3 to 4 hours/day 93 l/c/d Rs4.5% Rs1.000 m3 121.350. This is the percentage of the population served by house connections and public taps.25 persons/HC) Public Tap (185 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.072 700 2. chemicals and purchase of raw water. Personnel 35% Power 44% 5 6 There were about 543 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.500 m3 240. This is also the total area of responsibility.4 Repair & mainten'ce 1% Other8 20% The population is for the present area served by the utility.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 310.562 Commercial Industrial 25% 7 UFW 60% 92. Production is not metered and only 80% of service connections have working meters.03 months 3.32/m3 5 Domestic 75% Per Capita Consumption Annual Water Billings Rs 197.Area Profile NASHIK WATER SUPPLY Population: 1.135 pipe breaks and 7.440 km Annual Water Use 113. The urban poor comprise 15% of the population.460 leaks repaired during the year. About 98% of 9.18 0.6 sq km 1. Nashik 63 .993 Nil Nil 127.920 59.000 Data as of 2005-2006.585.797 Nil 2.000 1 Domestic 37% NASHIK Commercial Industrial 3% 7 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (9. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other cost includes transport. 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 214.043 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.748. About 2% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility. There were about 5.90/m3 1.150.000 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 98.

07/m3 is not covering production cost.RAJKOT Water Utility Utility Profile RAJKOT MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Dr. There were 4.00 : 192.390 : Rs 792.568 consumers complaints recorded and 23. Rajkot – 360 001. M.00 Any other bldg 2. at the city civic center or by telephone. commercial. The latest annual report is for 2003 and it is available to the public.850 has to be paid prior to connection.346 persons/km2. 2.00 : 14.000 : Rs 203. Applicants have to wait for about 3 days for a new connection to be made. 3. Dhebarbhai Road.500 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. Performance Highlights 64 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1. Nyari.00 4. 2% government grant.400 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Leak minimization. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the city of Rajkot which has a total population of 1. accounting and redressal systems are computerized. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and city civic centers.00 900. India Telephone : (91-281) 222 4133 Fax : (91-281) 222 4258 E-mail : mc_rmc@yahoo.00 540. Its billing.850 payable prior to connection. Kamaliya. Water is available on an average of merely 20 minutes a day with an average pressure of 10 meters to most users. 2.00 240. Only 715 institutional.002.00 360. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 1.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 193. Additional City Engineer Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC) is a municipal corporation established in 1973. mains and lines maintenance. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1. sluice valve operations and leak repair through service contracts.00 * Minimum charge is based on flat monthly rate according to category and size Notes: 1. Average tariff of Rs5.27 : 90% internally generated reserves. Water quality is fair with 88% of 58.800.000 new connections in 2005-06.00/m 3 METERED* Residential Rs12.00/m3 FLAT RATE Rs/month (Based connection size and category) Size 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm Residential 40.00 Size 20 mm 25 mm 30 mm : 300 mm Govt school & res’l 360. cultural and educational development. The utility is responsible for water production.61 and accounts receivable equivalent of 6.000 people. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW.000 : Rs 92. The private sector is involved in pump operations. The urban poor are provided with free water supplied through public stand posts and tankers.254. Ambedkar Bhavan. Mission Statement “By ensuring optimum use of resources and sustainability of urban environment to provide efficient and cost effective basic services to each and every citizen of Rajkot and facilitating economic. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. The present service area of RMC has a population density of 9. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.00/m 3 Any other use Rs24.6 months. 100% cost recovery.000.1% of the population in its area of responsibility.00 : 24. Source augmentation.1 m3 per house connection.00 600.co. social.00 7. UFW is 23. Connection fee of Rs1. industrial and high rise residential buildings are metered. distribution and source development. Residential house connections pay a monthly flat rate. RMC draws water mainly from the Bhadar. R. Aji and Narmada Rivers.in Head : Mr.5% with practically no metering for both production and service connections making the UFW an estimate.000.200.00 120.00 Non residential 80. The utility is following a development plan covering the years 2005 to 2011.00 50. RMC provides water at 101 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 20 minutes per day to 98.500.1 being the second lowest. 8% commercial loan Tariff Structure Government school Rs6. high operating ratio and accounts receivable equivalent. Financial management needs improvement with an operating ratio of 1.900. The water bill averages Rs50.833.400. RMC needs to address its very low water availability.879 : 211 : Rs 148. Average monthly consumption is about 15. There were 7.00 100.00 per month per house connection.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 817. 3.400.00 High rise res’l 216.

000 Data as of 2005-2006. Production is not metered and only 0.6 months 1.1 Personnel 13% Power 28% The population is for the present area served by the utility.1% 0.833. There were about 4. About 8% of 58. Those not served by the utility draw water from tube wells.9 sq km 1. There were about 23.33 hours/day 101 l/c/d Rs5. This is also the total area of responsibility.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 RAJKOT UFW 23% Commercial Industrial 8% 7 143. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.Area Profile RAJKOT WATER SUPPLY Population: 980.000 m3 192.500. Repair & mainten'ce 30% Other8 29% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 148.836 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 198.568 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.07/m3 5 Domestic 66% Per Capita Consumption Annual Water Billings Rs 203.5% Rs2. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (5 persons/HC) Public Tap (20 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.000 1. chemicals and purchase of raw water.150 300 180 85 150 14 193.390 23. Rajkot 65 .500 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year.4 % of service connections have working meters.83/m3 1. The urban poor comprise 2% of the population.850 km Annual Water Use 52. Other includes costs of transport.500.400 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.879 Commercial Industrial 34% 7 Domestic 69% 98.000 m3 104.61 6.

The water bill averages Rs50. accounting and redressal systems are computerized.346 persons/km2.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 193. 8% commercial loan Tariff Structure Government school Rs6. cultural and educational development. The urban poor are provided with free water supplied through public stand posts and tankers. Additional City Engineer Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC) is a municipal corporation established in 1973.00 7.00/m3 FLAT RATE Rs/month (Based connection size and category) Size 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm Residential 40. industrial and high rise residential buildings are metered. Average tariff of Rs5.500. There were 7. social. Leak minimization.00 Size 20 mm 25 mm 30 mm : 300 mm Govt school & res’l 360.000 : Rs 203. 2.1 being the second lowest. India Telephone : (91-281) 222 4133 Fax : (91-281) 222 4258 E-mail : mc_rmc@yahoo. Residential house connections pay a monthly flat rate.002.1% of the population in its area of responsibility. high operating ratio and accounts receivable equivalent.000 : Rs 92.390 : Rs 792.co.00 High rise res’l 216. The utility has a partly-developed management information system.00 100. The latest annual report is for 2003 and it is available to the public. R.00 * Minimum charge is based on flat monthly rate according to category and size Notes: 1. The utility is following a development plan covering the years 2005 to 2011. Ambedkar Bhavan. Financial management needs improvement with an operating ratio of 1. RMC draws water mainly from the Bhadar.833.850 payable prior to connection.6 months.850 has to be paid prior to connection.00 360. distribution and source development. Dhebarbhai Road. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW.900.400 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. Rajkot – 360 001. The utility is responsible for water production.RAJKOT Water Utility Utility Profile RAJKOT MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Dr. RMC provides water at 101 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 20 minutes per day to 98.00 900.00 : 14.00 120. Staff/1000 connections ratio is good at 1. sluice valve operations and leak repair through service contracts. Applicants have to wait for about 3 days for a new connection to be made.254.00 : 192.000.5% with practically no metering for both production and service connections making the UFW an estimate. M. Nyari. Water is available on an average of merely 20 minutes a day with an average pressure of 10 meters to most users.1 m3 per house connection.800.200. 2. Source augmentation. Kamaliya. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs1.00 540. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office. Average monthly consumption is about 15. commercial. Water quality is fair with 88% of 58.568 consumers complaints recorded and 23.00 : 24. 3.00 4. Priority Needs of Utility Consumer Service 1.000 new connections in 2005-06. RMC needs to address its very low water availability. Mission Statement “By ensuring optimum use of resources and sustainability of urban environment to provide efficient and cost effective basic services to each and every citizen of Rajkot and facilitating economic. Performance Highlights 64 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . Only 715 institutional. There were 4.00 Any other bldg 2.400. at the city civic center or by telephone.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 817. Aji and Narmada Rivers. The present service area of RMC has a population density of 9.00 Non residential 80.61 and accounts receivable equivalent of 6. Its billing.00 240. 2% government grant.in Head : Mr. The private sector is involved in pump operations.00/m 3 Any other use Rs24. UFW is 23. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and city civic centers.00 600.00 50.400. Connection fee of Rs1.00/m 3 METERED* Residential Rs12. 100% cost recovery.00 per month per house connection. It provides water supply and sewerage services for the city of Rajkot which has a total population of 1.000.000 people.879 : 211 : Rs 148.27 : 90% internally generated reserves.500 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. mains and lines maintenance.07/m3 is not covering production cost. 3.

180 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. About 99% of 109.7 Repair & mainten'ce 8% Other 3% Personnel 11% The population is for the present area served by the utility.685 m3 7% 93% Conventional 34.650 m3 303.500 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.01 3. The total area of responsibility is 334.314.550 km Annual Water Use7 220.000 no data Rs1. Power 78% 5 6 7 Annual O&M Costs Rs 368. hence. There were about 5. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing. Other includes costs of transport and chemicals.000 8 Data as of 2005-2006.583 2.930 916 3.954.Area Profile SURAT WATER SUPPLY Population: 2.414.000 1 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (10 persons/HC) Public Tap (125 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1. While production is metered only 2% of service connections have working meters.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 SURAT Commercial Industrial 8% 554.228.217 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.3 sq km 2. Data provided for consumption exceeded total production. Surat 67 .250 157 Nil Nil 310. UFW could not be computed.1 months 1.82/m3 1.620 m3 112.4% 2 to 3 hours/day no data Rs1.66/m3 Domestic 45% Annual Water Billings Rs 365. The urban poor comprise 4% of the population.836 Commercial Industrial 55% 7 Domestic 92% 77. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.3 sq km. Those not served by the utility draw water from tube wells. There were about 11.

Coverage which is lower than average also needs to be addressed.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs112. Water is available on an average of 7 hours a day with an average pressure of 3 meters to most users. VJS needs to address its low water availability and further improve on its accounts receivable equivalent and operating ratio. Bhelupura. 3. General Manager Varanasi Jal Sansthan (VJS) is an autonomous local body for water supply services formed in 1982. Water bills are paid at the water utility office and ward counters.000 : Rs 140.370 consumers complaints recorded and 3.042 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year. The private sector is involved in the operation and maintenance of the tube wells and vehicles. Upgrade. 68 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . extension and improved maintenance of existing water supply.741. Mission Statement “24 x 7 water supply” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 114. Regular supply of potable water to citizens.9 months need improvement. The utility has no master development plan nor does it have an annual report or a management information system.00 2.678. Performance Highlights VJS provides water at 147 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 7 hours per day to 77.907 : 676 : Rs 182.30 and accounts receivable equivalent of 4. 1. Institutional and commercial connections are billed every 2 months. Staff/1000 connections ratio is better than average at 5. distribution and source development.600. Institutional and commercial connections are metered but none are working.00 Minimum (Rs) Rs360/year Rs60/month Rs75/mont Rs100/month Rs300/month Rs400/month Notes: Above rates are for 15 mm connections and increases according to pipe size. 3. Applicants have to wait for about one week for a new connection to be made. Varanasi.000 people. Production is not metered and while 69% of service connections are metered.05 per month per house connection. and cleaning works of campus through service contracts. R.375 payable prior to connection. Water quality is good with 94% of 9.375 has to be paid prior to connection. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW. 2.700. 2.00 6. UFW is 30. Average tariff of Rs3. There were 1.856.00 4. There were 5.1 m3 per house connection.68 : 72% internally generated reserves.000 : Rs 218. The utility is responsible for water production.303 new connections in 2005-06.900 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test.9. Most unmetered house connections pay on flat rate based annual rental value starting at Rs480/annum. The present service area of VJS has a population density of 20.00 3. Its billing system is computerized.com Head : Mr.7% of the population in its area of responsibility. Priority Needs of Utility 1.VARANASI Water Utility Utility Profile VARANASI JAL SANSTHAN Address : Varanasi Jal Sansthan.00 10. Connection fee of Rs2. Operating ratio of 1. It supplies water to the city of Varanasi which has a total population of 1. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs2.000 : Rs 64. India Telephone : (91-542) 227 6339 Fax : (91-542) 227 5827 E-mail : gm@varanasijalsansthan. none of them are working. Revenue – billing and collection. It draws water from the Ganga River and from 167 tube wells. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone and letter. 22% from MP & DUDA Tariff Structure Category Domestic Municipal work Cantonment Board Government Commercial Industrial METERED Rate (Rs/m3) 2. Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 40. The utility has no specific policy for providing water supply to the urban poor communities.681 persons/km2. The water bill averages Rs 104. K.17/m3 seems not enough to cover production cost. House connections are billed annually. 6% government grant. Tripathi.0% which is just about average.

489. Power 48% 5 6 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 182.000 Data as of 2005-2006.907 Commercial Industrial 7 30% Domestic 68% 77. About 15% of the population draw water from tube wells with handpumps provided by the utility.9 months 5.550.344 1. Production is not metered and while 69% of service connections are metered.000 m3 110.700.161 Nil Nil Nil Nil 114.000 30.7% 7 hours/day 147 l/c/d Rs3. none are working.000 Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (10 persons/HC) Public Tap (100 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage4 Water Availability Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1.07/m3 1.17/m3 5 Domestic 70% Per Capita Consumption Annual Water Billings Rs 218.900 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 VARANASI 1 Commercial Industrial 2% 7 UFW 30% 270. About 94% of 9. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.30 4.042 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year.856. There were about 5. There were about 3. Other includes costs of transport and chemicals.9 Repair & mainten'ce 3% Other 8% Personnel 41% The population is for the present area served by the utility.800 m3 72 sq km 590 km Annual Water Use 98.370 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.Area Profile VARANASI WATER SUPPLY Population: 1.0% Rs2.000 m3 54% 46% Conventional 79. The total area of responsibility is 80 sq km. Varanasi 69 . This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.402 3.

Water bills are paid at E-Seva where residents pay their taxes.75/m3 3 Above 3 m3 3 m3 – 25 m3 25 m – 50 m Rs100 + Rs18.18/m3 is not enough to cover production cost.00/month Notes: HSC (NSDP & BPL Card Holders) Rs50. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 5. The utility is responsible for water production.6 months which is fourth lowest. To reduce NRW to 30% in 2010. The utility collects lower connection and monthly charges for the urban poor. VMC needs to address its low water availability and reduce its operating ratio to less than about 0.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 78. 3.190 : Rs 91.900 pipe breaks and 11.298 : 445 : Rs 104.VIJAYAWADA Water Utility Utility Profile VIJAYAWADA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Jawaharlal Nehru Buildings. Its billing and accounting systems are computerized.500 has to be paid prior to connection. access to the poor by 2020. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW. Coverage which is lower than average also needs to be addressed.076. Average tariff of Rs 2. It does not have an annual report nor a management information system.09 per month per house connection.875 persons/km2. The utility follows a 15-year master development plan from 2006 to 2020.283. 70 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . There were 3. There were 11.5% of the population in its area of responsibility. Priority Need of Utility 1. It draws water solely from the Krishna River. Water is available on an average of 2 to 4 hours a day with an average pressure of 1 to 6 meters to most users. distribution and source development.7 which is at the median.784. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone and letter.25/m3 Rs100 minimum Rs100 + Rs15. 20% in 2015 and 10% in 2020. The price of a new domestic connection is Rs 5.40/m3 Rs100 + Rs21. It supplies water and sewerage services to the city of Vijayawada which has a total population of 851. Every house to be provided with a tap. Connection fee of Rs5. Municipal Commissioner Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1983. Metered connections are billed monthly while unmetered connections paying flat rates are billed every 6 months 2.00/month 1. The poor pays Rs1.3 m3 per house connection. To achieve 24 hours supply for the city by 2015 and for the poor by 2020.500 leaks repaired during the year. 2.500 payable prior to connection.00/m3 50 m . The water bill averages Rs61.500 consumers complaints recorded and 8. Gulzar. N.75. The private sector is involved in billing and collection through a service contract.200 payable over 12 months. Vijayawada – 520 001.000 people. Accountability.600 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. India Telephone : (91-866) 242 2400 Fax : (91-866) 242 4338 E-mail : ourvmc@yahoo.020 : no data : no data Average capital expenditure/connection/year: no data Tariff Structure Domestic 1 3m st 3 METERED Non Domestic 1 3m 3 3 st 3 Rs100 minimum Rs100 + Rs8. Performance Highlights VMC provides water at 158 lpcd to its consumers at an average of 2 to 4 hours per day to 70.640 : Rs 79.14 and accounts receivable equivalent of 1. To achieve 80% cost recovery in 2010 and 100% in 2015. Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 26. UFW is 23. The present service area of VMC has a population density of 16.com Head : Mr. Water quality is good with 90% of 242.8% but production is not metered and only 6% of service connections have working meters. Applicants have to wait for about 7 days for a new connection to be made.769 new connections in 2005-06. Decrease in NRW. Mission Statement “To provide 100% coverage by 2015. Financial management is mixed with an operating ratio of 1.above FLAT RATE Residential HSC (Regular) Rs80. 3.

076.500 pipe breaks and leaks repaired during the year.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 Other 2% 131.190 Data as of 2005-2006. Other includes costs of transport and chemicals.600 samples taken passed the residual chlorine test. Power 63% 5 6 There were about 11.14 1.020 23. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.784.7 Repair & mainten'ce 4% Other8 6% Personnel 27% The population is for the present area served by the utility.500 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.700 2.774 961 78.119.833 m3 Nil 100% Conventional 58.6 months 5.16/m3 1.000 1 VIJAYAWADA Commercial Industrial 7 2% Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (8 persons/HC) Public Tap (55 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage4 Water Availability5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1. 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 104.437 43 60 2.Area Profile VIJAYAWADA WATER SUPPLY Population: 675.8% Rs2.18/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 79.298 Domestic 62% Domestic 72% UFW 24% Commercial Industrial 7 21% Other 17% 70. About 90% of 242. Vijayawada 71 . Production is not metered and only 6% of service connections have working meters.000 m3 67.560 m3 40 sq km 400 km Annual Water Use 48. This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps. About 9% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility.5% 2 to 4 hours/day 158 l/c/d Rs2. There were about 11.323 4. The urban poor comprise 30% of the population. The total area of responsibility is 60 sq km.

The rest are metered with bulk supplies billed monthly and commercial apartments every 3 months.000.com Head : Mr. Mission Statement “To provide wholesome round-the-clock water supply to every household at affordable cost even to the poor.600. The price of a new domestic 2.000 : Rs 525. The present service area of GVMC has a population density of 5. Water quality is good with practically all of 730. It provides water supply and sewerage services to the Greater Visakhapatnam area which has a total population of 1.053 tube wells.750 persons/km2. It has an annual report for 2005-06 that is available to the public and a partly developed management information system. Visakhapatnam – 02. The utility follows a 15-year master development plan covering 2006 to 2020.00/m3 for 5m3 – 20m3 Rs8.667. 2. 40% bonds Tariff Structure Category Residential Apartments Minimum Rs4.78 and accounts receivable equivalent of 3.000 people. connection is Rs 2.891. Mukhesh Kumar Meena.000 payable prior to connection. Sarada and Yeluru Rivers and 5.00 up to 5 m 3 3 METERED Rates (beyond minimum) Rs4. Staff/1000 connections ratio is fair at 5. Applicants have to wait for about one week for a new connection to be made. Its billing and accounting systems as well as the handling and monitoring of complaints and grievances are computerized. The water bill averages Rs 56.668 : 466 : Rs 411.5% but production is not metered and only 1.000.000 water samples taken during the year passing the residual chlorine test. GVMC needs to address its low water availability and population coverage which is the lowest among the utilities. There were 2. It draws water from the Gostani. e-mail. The utility allows the urban poor to pay only Rs 1. There were 6.523.3% of service connections have working meters.00 up to 5 m UNMETERED (Flat rate) Notes: 1. Water bills are paid at the bank and E-seva centers.200 for connection fee payable in 12 monthly installments. There is no private sector involvement in the utility’s operations.VISAKHAPATNAM Water Utility Utility Profile GREATER VISAKHAPATNAM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Address : Tenneti Bhavan.3 months.000 Average capital expenditure/connection/year: Rs 3. Connection fee of Rs2. Consumers can complain in person at the water utility office or by telephone.55/m3 is enough to cover production cost. Refurbish and extend the distribution system at uniform service levels. Performance Highlights GVMC provides water at 124 lpcd to its consumers at an average of only 1 hour per day to 49. 72 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .000 pipe breaks and 5. 3. The utility is responsible for water production.” General Data About Water Utility Connections Staff Annual O&M Costs Annual Revenue Annual Billings Total Capital Expenditure (Over the last 5 years) Source of Investment Funds : 85. Financial management is good with an operating ratio of 0. Priority Need of Utility 1.00/m3 beyond 20 m3 Bulk water Rs30/m up to agreed limit. Water supply improvement in quantity and quality. and letter.000 : Rs1.700. It should meter production and service connections to account for use and determine its losses to reduce UFW further.00/m3 beyond 5 m3 Rs4. India Telephone : (91-891) 274 6300 Fax : (91-891) 256 8545 E-mail : cemcv@rediffmail.000 : Rs 609. Consumer Service Average monthly consumption is about 30. 3. Asilmetta.12 per month per house connection.4 which is at the median. Water is available on an average of 1 hour a day with an average pressure of 4 meters to most users. SMS text messaging.000 has to be paid prior to connection.112 leaks repaired during the year. distribution and source development. House connections pay on flat rate and are billed every 3 months. Municipal Commissioner Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) was established as a municipal corporation in 1901. Average tariff of Rs 8. 100% coverage with 24/7 supply. UFW is 14.4 m3 per house connection. Rs60/m3 beyond limit Rs80/tap/month 3 Rs4.180 consumers complaints recorded and 5.77 : 60% internally generated reserves.500 new connections in 2005-06. Godavari.2% of the population in its area of responsibility.

There were about 5.94/m3 0.112 leaks repaired during the year.700. 7 8 Annual O&M Costs Rs 411.468 8. Production is not metered and only 1.5% Rs4. Other8 41% 5 6 There were about 6. Total area of responsibility is 533 sq km. chemicals and water cess payment.000 1 VISAKHAPATNAM Other 13% Commercial Production/Distribution Average Daily Production Groundwater Surface Water Treatment Type 2 Storage Service Area 3 Distribution length Service Connections House (5 persons/HC) Public Tap (50 persons/PT) Commercial Industrial Institutional Bulk Other Total Service Indicators Service Coverage 4 Water Availability 5 Per Capita Consumption Average Tariff Efficiency Indicators Unaccounted Water 6 Unit Production Cost Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Staff/1. Almost all of 730.000 14.035 km Annual Water Use 83.000 Connections Notes: 1 2 3 4 Industrial 32% 7 228.180 consumer complaints registered in 2005-06.4 Personnel 17% Power 23% Repair & mainten'ce 19% The population is for the present area served by the utility.55/m3 Annual Water Billings Rs 609.670 m3 76.Area Profile VISAKHAPATNAM WATER SUPPLY Population: 920. Commercial and industrial include institutional use and billing.451 m3 20% 80% Conventional 86.000 Data as of 2005-2006. The urban poor comprise 7% of the population.2% 1 hour/day 124 l/c/d Rs8.3 months 5. Other includes costs of transport. Visakhapatnam 73 . This is the percentage of population served by house connections and public taps.420 m3 160 sq km 1.668 Commercial Industrial7 90% UFW 14% Domestic 41% Other 2% Domestic 8% A 49.000 samples taken except for 83 samples passed the residual chlorine test.78 3.000 pipe breaks and 5.384.3% of service connections have working meters. About 13% of the population draw water from tube wells and tankers provided by the utility.600.122 134 63 62 818 1 85.

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APPENDICES .

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3 1.8 Name of Water Utility: Short Name/Acronym: Address: Telephone Number(s): E-mail address: Head of the Water Utility: Year utility was formed: Type of water utility: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1.10 Is there Private Sector Involvement in the Water Utility? If Yes.9 Municipal Corporation/Council State Board City Board Statewide agency Private water utility Municipal Corporation/Council (ring-fenced operations) Others (Please specify) _______________ Name : ____________________________ Title : ____________________________ 1.4 Fax Number(s): Type of services provided by utility: ___ Water supply services ___ Wastewater and sewerage services ___ Others (Please specify) _______________ 1.APPENDIX 1 Indian Water Utilities Data Book WATER UTILITY QUESTIONNAIRE Date: ______________________ GENERAL UTILITY INFORMATION 1. BOOT contract Latest annual report available ___ none 1.7 1.11 Type of private sector involvement: ___ Service contract ___ Lease contract ___ BOT. in what aspect(s)? ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Yes ___ No Source Development ___ Production Distribution ___ Management Billing & Collection ___ Leak Repair Other (Please specify) ___________________ ___ Mangement contract ___ Concession contract ___ Full private ownership 1.1 1.2 1.12 1.5 1.13 ______ (indicate year if available) ___ No 77 Is the annual report available to the general public? ___ Yes Appendix 1 .6 1.

Year _____ to Year ______ Does the utility have a mission statement? ___ Yes If Yes.4 2.2 2. Population of utility’s area of responsibility Population of utility’s present service area Population served with house connections Population served with public taps Population served by tankers Population served by hand pumps _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ 2. km.10 Where do households not connected to or served by your utility get their water supply? ___ Other piped water service providers ___ Tube wells ___ Dug wells ___ Ponds ___ Rain collectors ___ Others (please specify) _______________ 78 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .16 1.1. ___ No ___ No _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 1.15 What aspects of the water utility’s operation are computerized or automated? ___ None ___ Billing ___ Accounting ___ Others ________________________ ___ Pumping ___ Treatment 1.8 2. _________________________________________ 3.18 Top three (3) priority needs of the utility: 1.1 2.6 2.17 Does the utility have a Master Development Plan? ___ Yes If Yes. km.14 Management information system: ___ well developed ___ partly developed ___ non-existent 1.0 2. Size of utility’s present service area ________ sq.7 2. ________________________________________ (As seen by management) 2. _________________________________________ SERVICE AREA 2.9 Water Utility Responsibility: Number of cities/towns served by utility _______ Name of cities/towns served ________________________________________ Nature of service area ___ urban ___ rural ___ urban & rural Province/state where utility is located _____________________ Size of utility’s area of responsibility ________ sq.5 2.3 2. please provide the mission statement. indicate period covered.

12 4.17 4.13 4.0 3.4 Do you buy bulk water for distribution? Raw Water ___ Yes Treated Water ___ Yes ___ No ___ No Main methods of treatment used: ___ none ___ disinfection ___ filtration ___ sedimentation ___ aeration ___ desalination ___ other (please specify) ______________________ Total production capacity: Storage capacity in network: _________ cu m /day _________ cu m 3.15 4.1 Utility is responsible for ___ Production ___ Distribution ___ Source Development Sources of Water: Annual production volume (cu m/year) ___ Surface water ___________________ ___ Groundwater ___________________ ___ Other (please specify) _______________ ___________________ Total production: ___________________ Is total production all metered? (ex treatment plant) ___Yes ___ No 3.18 4.2 If No.PRODUCTION 3.11 4.19 4.16 4.10 4.14 4.6 DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION 4.3 3.5 3.20 Total Service Connections Number of House Connections (HC) Average number of people per HC Number of Public Taps (PT) Average number of people per PT Number of Commercial Connections Number of Industrial Connections Number of Institutional Connections Number of Bulk Connections (Apartments/condominiums) Number of Bulk Connections (Others) ___________ ___________ _______ ___________ _______ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Number of other Connections ___________ (accounts served by tankers or handpumps) Number of connections metered ___________ Proportion of metered connections with operating meters: ____ % Appendix 1 79 . what proportion is metered? _____ % How is unmetered volume estimated? ____________________________________________________________________________ 3.

0 Total length of distribution network: Average age of distribution pipes: ________ km ________ years Water Consumption (annual volume of water billed/sold in 2006) Metered Estimated* (cu.1 6..4 7.11 Number of new connections installed in 2006: __________ 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India 80 .30 4.m.1 5.2 6.8 5. etc) Water supply operations (O&M.6 5.2 7.7 5.5 6.5 7.31 5.5 5.) (cu.4 5.) Total for all HC ____________ ____________ Total for all PT/SP ____________ ____________ Total for all commercial use ____________ ____________ Total for all industrial use ____________ ____________ Total for all institutional use ____________ ____________ Total for all bulk use (apt) ____________ ____________ Total for all bulk use (others)____________ ____________ Total for all other use ____________ ____________ Grand Total ____________ ____________ Total (cu.7 6.3 7.6 Corporate services (management.4 6.4.2 5. sewerage.m. customer service.3 6.) ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 5.8 Number of connections with intermittent supply: Typical duration of supply: Average mains water pressure at consumer points: Number of pipe breaks in the distribution network Number of meters replaced/repaired Required number of samples for residual chlorine: Number of samples for residual chlorine test taken: Number of samples passing residual chlorine test: ______ connections ______ hours/day ______ meters ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ STAFF INFORMATION 7.3 5. drainage) Total number of staff: _____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Number of personnel in contracted out services: _____________ Number of staff attending training in 2006: Total number of training days (sum of staff x training days attended): __________ Proportion of operating budget spent for training and human resources development: _____ % Average annual salary of the three highest paid full-time management personnel: Rs ________________________ CUSTOMER SERVICE 8. technical. finance.1 Number of staff (in full-time equivalent – FTE) • • • 7.9 * Estimated consumption refer to unmetered consumption (normally flat rate connections) WATER SERVICE PERFORMANCE (annual values for 2006) 6. support services) Other non-water supply services (wastewater. admin.6 6.m.

11 Water billing/sales (annual for year 2006) • • • • • • • Total for all HC Total for all PT/SP Total for all commercial use Total for all industrial use Total for all institutional use Total for all bulk use (apartments) Total for all bulk use (others) (Rupees) Rs. _______________ Appendix 1 81 . _______________ Rs.22 Does the ULB carry out citizen satisfaction surveys? If yes.14 8.12 8.24 Does the ULB have community participation in its water supply services? _____ Yes _____ No If yes. briefly state the policy. what is the maximum time a grievance should be redressed? ____________________ 8.20 8. _______________ Rs.19 Does your water utility have a policy for providing water supply to the urban poor? ___Yes ___ No If Yes. what does the charter say about water supply services?__________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ What percentage of the population in the service comprise the urban poor? _______ Does the ULB have a citizen charter? _____ Yes _____ No 8.15 8. how often? ________________. _____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 8.25 Does the ULB have a RWA feedback mechanism in place? _____ Yes _____ No FINANCIAL DATA 9.23 _____ Yes _____ No When was the last survey done? ____________ _____ Yes _____ No Does the ULB have a time frame for grievance redressal? If yes. _______________ Rs. 8. describe how it is done. _______________ Rs. _______________ Rs.21 If yes.16 8.18 Average waiting time for a new connection Number of connections disconnected in 2006 __________ __________ ______/______ __________ Number of leaks reported/number of leaks repaired in 2006 Number of customer complaints recorded in 2006: Means of making complaints: ___Letter ___ E-mail ___ Telephone ___ In person ___ SMS (txt msg) ___ Other _________ How much are the typical connection charges for new customers? • Domestic Rs. _______________ Rs.17 8.8. ___________ How are new domestic connection charges paid? ___ all at the start ___ over 12 months or less ___ over more than 12 months 8.13 8.

18 9.19 9. construction.17 Year end accounts receivable (water billing & all other outstanding invoices): Rs.20 Total debt service (interest and principal) in 2006: Annual capital development expenses in 2006: Total Capital Expenditure in the last 5 years: Funded by: ___ internally generated reserves ___ government grant ___ government loan ___ commercial loan ___ other ____________________ Total: 9. ____________ The cost of contracted services (cost of services provided by private firms) may be placed under Other. _________________ Water supply O & M expenses in 2006: • • • • • • • • Purchase of Bulk Supply (raw water or treated water) Personnel Power/Fuel Chemicals and materials Repair and maintenance Transport Depreciation Other (Identify) _____________________________ Total O&M Cost Rs. connection. ____________ Rs. ______________________ Rs. ____________________ 82 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India . ____________ Rs. ______________________ ______ % ______ % ______ % ______ % ______ % 100 % Gross fixed asset value including works in progress: Rs. 9. _______________ Basis for Billing for Water Consumers Pay on: ___ Metered Use ___ Flat Rate 9. ____________ Rs. etc.16 9. _______________ Rs. ____________ Rs.21 Rs.15 Water supply revenue in 2006 • • • Water sales (consumption charges. ____________ Rs. ______________________ Subsidies/grants (government and other sources): Rs.14 Methods of Payment Water bills are paid through ___ Bill Collector ___ Bank ___ Post Office ___ Water Utility Office ___ Automated Teller Machine ___ Others ______________ 9. ______________________ Other revenues (materials sales. ____________ Rs. ______________________ 9.13 How frequent are consumers billed? ___ Monthly ___ Every 2 months ___ Others _____________ 9. ____________ Rs. ______________________ Rs. etc): Rs.• • 9. ____________ Rs.12 Total for all other use Grand Total Rs.): Rs.

0 Please submit a copy of the tariff structure/rates used in 2006.murthy@imacs. or b) as an attachment by e-mail to: sk. (You may request for electronic copies of the questionnaire and guide. What data/information on water supply services are reported or disclosed by the ULB to the general public? Please enumerate/indicate ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ PLEASE FORWARD COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE PLUS: 1) Copy of latest annual report 2) Copy of current Tariff Structure * * Give details of when it was approved or became effective BY COURIER SERVICE OR MAIL TO: Mr. Krishnamurthy Benchmarking Coordinator Mailing Address in India This questionnaire may also be sent: a) by fax to Fax No.0 11.com.in with copy to satyakn@iitm. xxx xxxx. S.in and cyniguez@info.ac.TARIFF STRUCTURE 10.ph.) This Questionnaire was completed by: Name Designation Address Telephone Fax Mobile phone E-mail : : : : : : : _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Appendix 1 83 .

APPENDIX 2 SUGGESTED EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR UTILITIES Consumer Satisfaction Coverage Water Availability Service Level New Connection Fee Water Resources Management Water Production/Population UFW/Metering Consumption Financial Resource Management Grant Financing Operating Ratio Accounts Receivable Human Resource Management Staff/1.000 Connections Management Salaries Accountability Annual Report Total 40% 10% 10% 10% 10% 5% 10% 5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 5% 10% 100% 20% 20% 10% 10% 100% Notes Coverage (House Connections) 100% >50% <50% Water Availability 24 hours >12 hours <12 hours Service Level (a) No public Taps Public Taps (b) 100-200 l/c/d <100 l/c/d or>200 l/c/d 10% 5% 0% 10% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 10% 10% 10% 84 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India .

000/month Appendix 2 85 . the participating utilities agreed on the following: 1 Reasonable connection fee : Rs2.New Connection Fee1 Reasonable Cost High Cost Installments to Pay Total Fee upfront Water Production/Population <0.5 m3/day/person >0.00 > 1.00 Accounts Receivable <3 months >3 months Staff/1.500 2 Government level salary : Rs30.75 .000 Connections <10 >10 Management Salaries2 Above Government Level Government Level Accountability Annual Report Available to Public Annual Report Unavailable Timely Report (within 12 months) Reporting after 12 months 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 10% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 5% 0% 10% 5% 10% 5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 5% 10% During the Results Dissemination Workshop.75 0.1.5 m3/day/person UFW/Metering Full Metering Partial Metering UFW < 25% UFW > 25% Consumption <200 l/c/d >200 l/c/d Grant Financing Nil Any Operating Ratio <0.

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