Chapter 1

BRUNEI 1906 - 1941

“Allah increases the provision for whom He wills, and straitens (it for whom He wills)…” Surah Ar-Ra’d, Verse 26
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1.1

THE REIGN OF SULTAN MUHAMMAD JAMALUL ALAM II (1906 – 1924)
• He became Sultan in 1918 • Had an interest in the progress of the country, encouraging advancement in agriculture, medicine and education • Encouraged the teaching and learning of Islam 1912: Islamic Law was officially introduced 1913: Marriage and Divorce Act introduced

Because of the Residential System, all executive power (except in religious matters) was in British hands.
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1.2

THE REIGN OF SULTAN AHMAD TAJUDDIN (1924 - 1950)
• Became Sultan in 1931, at the age of 18 • He was concerned with the expansion and improvement of formal education • He encouraged religious education • He was also a writer 1949: At the Silver Jubilee ceremony, he was awarded the Officer of the Order of the British Empire by King George VI.
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1.3

THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (1906 - 1959)
• Introduced in Brunei in 1906 • Result of the Supplementary Protectorate Agreement signed on 31 December 1905 and on 3 January 1906 • British Resident appointed to advise Sultan on all matters of administration except those touching on Islam.

Resident as advisers

Resident acted as ruler and the Sultan was obliged to accept his advice
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1.3

THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (1906 - 1959)
Advantages Better Administration Social Welfare
Resident did not make effort to understand locals

Disadvantages
Power of Sultan weakened Traditional responsibilities disrupted

Economics Political
Resident did not work for Brunei’s interest Locals could not head departments

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1.3

THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (1906 - 1959)
Before Residential System After Residential System Land Enactment Act of 1907

Land governed according to traditional land rights Holders of Tulin and Kuripan territories rarely paid taxes to the Sultan

All personal income earned through payments on territories became state revenue
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1.3

THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (1906 - 1959)
Before Residential System Monopolies mainly controlled by Chinese businessmen After Residential System Monopoly rights abolished (except for the Muara Concession)

Before Residential System Sultan and chiefs as lawmakers After Residential System Police force began in Brunei
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1.4

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Discovery of Oil • F.F. Marriott and T.G. Cochrane • April 1929 – oil struck at Padang Berawa (now Seria) • 1930s – oil production increased • 1940s – oil export at 7.5 million dollars (51% of state revenue) • British Malayan Petroleum Company formed in 1922 • Paid oil royalties to Brunei government • Created infrastructure and welfare programmes

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1.4

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Coal Industry • Coal mining concentrated in Brooketon (Muara Town) and Buang Tawar. • From 1888 - 1924, more than 600,000 tons of coal were produced • 1917 – output began to decrease after closure of Buang Tawar mine • 1925 – coal mining activities stopped

With the use of petrol, demand for coal fell
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1.4

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Rubber Industry • Rubber was most important cash crop for
export in first half of twentieth century •Rubber seedlings were first introduced in Brunei in 1908 by Haji Mohammed Daud. • Rubber first planted in Labu area of Temburong District and Brunei District • Rubber was first exported to Britain and the United States in 1914 • Export earnings rose during rubber boom at the end of World War I
Rubber estate

1922: Rubber Enactment 1933: Kilanas Agriculture Station 1936: Agriculture Department

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1.4

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Cutch Industry (Ubar) • Main export of Brunei in early twentieth century • Mainly used by fishermen, and as a colouring for leather • 1901 – Factory opened at Subok • Sold mainly to Britain, United States, Japan and China • 1911 – Highest recorded export (2,900 tons)

Sultan Hashim visits cutch factory

Early 1930’s – cutch production drastically reduced

With emergence of oil, cutch industry never recovered

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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
Residential System • In Administration • In Social Welfare • In Economics • In Politics • Power of the Sultan weakened • Disrupted responsibilities and land rights of the Wazirs • Lack of commitment, sincerity and sensitivity to Brunei • Brunei’s interest not served • Locals not given opportunities
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
Economic Development of Brunei 1906 - 1941

Discovery of oil

Set up of BMPC

Other economic resources • Coal • Rubber • Cutch
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BETTER ADMINISTRATION
•Taxation and the collection of revenue were centralised. •New departments were set up such as Customs and Excise, Postal services, Agriculture, Public Works, Police, Medical and Education. •Brunei was divided into 4 districts, each under a District Officer who had the powers of a magistrate. •Each district was divided into mukims and villages under the ‘Penghulu’ and ‘Ketua Kampong’ with the authority of a Peace Officer.

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SOCIAL WELFARE
•The Sanitary Board was set up to be responsible for cleanliness of towns and streets. •Town Planning bodies were established for the improvement of housing conditions. •Communications systems were improved, for example, by building roads.

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ECONOMICS
•Oil was discovered in Seria, in 1910. This put Brunei on stronger financial footing, allowing it to introduce social and welfare services in the country. •Agriculture was encouraged, especially rubber or fruit cultivation and fish farming. •A land policy was introduced whereby land was properly transferred with land grants and titles being issued.

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POLITICAL
•The dynastic line of Sultan Hashim was guaranteed and the line of succession survives till today. •This prevented both Brookes and the Dutch from gaining territorial control over Brunei. •The Resident was responsible for Brunei’s foreign affairs.

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DISADVANTAGES
•The Resident assumed more executive control over the administration. The Sultan’s power weakened. •Residential System disrupted the traditional responsibilities and rights of Wazirs, forcing them to give up their land rights and privileges. •The Resident did not make the effort to understand local feelings. There was a lack of commitment and insincerity towards Brunei. •The Resident did not help to work for Brunei’s interests, as stated in the Protectorate Agreement, such as to help Brunei recover Limbang from Brooke’s regime. •Locals were not given the opportunity to head any departments.

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