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Chapter 5 (Brunei 1800 - 1852)

Chapter 5 (Brunei 1800 - 1852)

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Published by: Sekolah Menengah Rimba on Jul 13, 2008
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02/20/2013

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CHAPTER 5

BRUNEI 1800 - 1852

“You (true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his sunnah) are the best peoples ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin Al-Ma’ruf (all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (all that Islam has forbidden) and you believe in Allah...” (Al-Imran:110)
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5.1

POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE

Under Brunei’s traditional system of government, Sultan has sole authority over Brunei territories and subjects.

Brunei’s Traditional Land Rights

Kerajaan

Kuripan

Tulin

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The Brunei Sultanate before 1841

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5.2

SULTAN OMAR ALI SAIFUDDIN II
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin I (1740-95)

Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin (1795 – 1804 & 1804 – 7)

Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam (1807 – 26)

Sultan Muhammad Jamulul Alam I (1804)

Raja Isteri Nor Alam

Sultan Muhammad Alam (1826 – 28) Pengiran Muda Hashim

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1828 – 1852)

THE GENEALOGICAL LINE OF SULTAN OMAR ALI SAIFUDDIN II
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

Dutch Relations with Brunei Dutch had done trading with Brunei since 1600 1840: Dutch interested in deposits of coal in Labuan and Muara

Dutch decided not to pursue matter in order to maintain good relations with British

However Dutch unhappy with British involvement in Brunei

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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

British Relations with Brunei Sarawak had been province of Brunei since 14th century 1824: Pengiran Indera Mahkota was appointed Governor in Sarawak. 1834: When Pengiran Muda Hashim arrived in Sarawak, he was angered that Pengiran Indera Mahkota did not personally welcome him. This incident caused friction between the two nobles. This gave James Brooke an opportunity to intervene in Sarawak.
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In August 1839, James Brooke arrived in Lidah Tanah (present day Kuching).
Map showing location of present-day Kuching, where James Brooke first arrived

He was interested in Sarawak because he had heard about its rich supplies of antimony.
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

1839: James Brooke arrived in Kuching Pengiran Muda Hashim promised Brooke control of Sarawak in return for helping to defeat the rebels. Rebels were crushed. 1841: Brooke replaced Pengiran Indera Mahkota as Governor of Sarawak.

James Brooke

Brooke was formally appointed by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II as Sultan’s Representative (Governor) of Sarawak.
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

• Due to a royal family feud and some problems, Pengiran Muda Hashim was killed. • James Brooke was angered at this news. • He brought warships from Singapore.
1846 attack on Brunei Town

8 July 1846: British attacked and occupied Brunei Town.
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

To end British occupation of Brunei Town, a treaty was signed with Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II on 2nd August 1846.

Terms of Treaty: • James Brooke as ‘Raja of Sarawak’ – to rule territories from Tanjung Datu to the Samarahan river • Brooke to appoint his own successor • Brooke to pay $4 000 a year to Sultan of Brunei

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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

• Shortly after signing of 1846 treaty, British pressured Brunei to cede Labuan to British • Brunei refused • Britain lined up warships near Sultan’s palace

Result:
Brunei had to agree to Treaty of Labuan. Signed on 18th December 1846. James Brooke was first Governor of Labuan.
Signing the Treaty of Labuan
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

Anglo-Brunei Treaty of Friendship and Commerce 1847 • British worried that Sultan might seek help from other countries. • Signed treaty of friendship

Terms of treaty: 3) 4) 5) 6) British to have extraterritorial rights British imports/exports to be free from taxes British warships to be able to enter all Brunei ports Sultan would not cede Brunei territories without British consent
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5.3

DUTCH AND BRITISH ACTIVITIES IN BORNEO

Treaty of Friendship and Commerce signed between Brunei and the United States.

United States of America was only interested in trade.

1850
United States of America did not try to control Brunei
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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY

1600 – Trade with Brunei 1845 – Dutch interest in coal deposits

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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY

1839 – British intervention. Arrival of James Brooke 1846 – British attack on Brunei. Cession of Labuan 1847 – Anglo-Brunei Treaty of Friendship and Commerce

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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY

1850 – Treaty of Friendship and Commerce

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Chapter 5 – Brunei 1800-1852
1. Name one major export of Sarawak in the 19th century. 2. Which incident caused friction between Pengiran Indera Mahkota and Pengiran Muda Hashim? 3. Which incident gave James Brooke the opportunity to attack Brunei in 1846? 4. When did the British attack Brunei? Who was the Sultan of Brunei at that time? 5. In what year was the Treaty of Labuan signed? Who was appointed as the first Governor of Labuan?

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