Chapter 3

NATIONALISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

“…Verily! Allah will not change the (good) condition of a people as long as they do not change their state (of goodness) themselves...” Surah Ar-Ra’d, Verse 11

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OFF

3.1

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Main concern of foreigners was in making profits for themselves

Local people forced to work hard for them

They resented colonial rule and this helped stir up feelings of nationalism

Local people lived in hardship and poverty

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3.1

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Many locals educated in the West Western education exposed them to ideas of freedom Upon return, they began to stir the feelings of their own people They led social and political nationalist movements
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3.1

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Western educated locals did not want to be dominated economically by foreigners

Worldwide economic depression of the1930s caused frustration with foreigners

Arrival of Chinese and Indian immigrants and their success made many locals resentful. This stirred up feelings of nationalism.
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3.1

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Islam played an important role as a unifying factor in the nationalist movements of Southeast Asia

External factors eg. Struggle for independence led by Mahatma Gandhi, the Chinese Revolution of 1911, and Japan’s shattering of European superiority during World War II encouraged the Southeast Asian rulers even more

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3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
During the Second World War, Britain began to draw up plans to govern a post-war Malaya. Malayan Union However, many of the Malay Sultans were not happy with the plan The Malayan Union was established in April 1946, despite strong protests from the Malays

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3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
It threatened the special position of the Malays It meant the loss of Sultans’ power and prestige Granting citizenship rights to non-Malays meant Malays would be outnumbered by other races By May 1946, the Malayan Union was abandoned.
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Why did the Malays oppose the Malayan Union?

3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA

The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) was formed in March 1946. Dato Onn bin Jaafar was the President.
Dato Onn bin Jaafar

Main aims of UMNO:

• To make the British withdraw the Malayan Union • To defend Malay rights and interest • To prepare the Malays for their part in self-government
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3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
The Alliance 1952: UMNO and MCA formed a temporary alliance MIC joined the alliance before the first general elections in 1955

Since then, this alliance has become a permanent feature The Federation of Malaya • Established in 1948 to replace the Malayan Union • Made up of Federated, Unfederated Malay states and two settlements under one government • Malay Sultans retained sovereignty • Citizenship restricted to those born in the Federation

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3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
June 1948: the Malayan Communist Party launched a full scale armed revolt in the country AIMS OF MCP
Sir Harold Briggs • Disrupt the Malayan economy • Defeat the British government • Set up a Communist Republic in Malaya

• The government declared a state of Emergency • 1950: Briggs Plan – ‘New Villages’, ‘Operation Starvation’
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3.2

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
• Gerald Templer as new High Commissioner • New scheme introduced – ‘Black Areas and White Areas’

Baling Talks
General Gerald Templer

• 1955: Tunku Abdul Rahman announced pardon for communists • Dec 1955: Talks between government and communists failed • July 1960: The Emergency ended

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3.2
1955 1956 1956

NATIONALISM IN MALAYA
General Elections  won by the Alliance Merdeka Mission  a success, British agreed to grant independence to Malaya Reid Commission set up to draw up new constitution for an independent Malaya • Malaya to have Parliamentary Democracy and
Constitutional Monarchy • Automatic citizenship for those born after Independence day •Islam and Malay language as official religion and language

31st Aug 1957

Malaya became an independent nation

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3.3

NATIONALISM IN THE PHILIPPINES
1565 - 1898: Spanish ruled in Philippines Spanish presence, exposed Filipinos to western liberal ideas 1899: Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence for the Philippines. He was unsuccessful. Filipinos became aware of injustice in their country

Emilio Aguinaldo

1898: After the Americans defeated the Spanish in a war, they set up their own government in the Philippines.

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OFF

3.3

NATIONALISM IN THE PHILIPPINES
• 1907: Filipinos given representation in the Lower House of the government. Filipinos unsatisfied • 1907: Nationalist Party formed by Sergio Osmena • 1934: Tydings-MacDuffie Act • 1935: Commonwealth set up with Manuel Quezon as President • 1941: Japanese invasion 1945: Americans recaptured the Philippines 4 July 1946: The Philippines given independence
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Signing the Tydings-Macduffie Act

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3.4

NATIONALISM IN INDONESIA
Factors responsible for the rise of Indonesian Nationalism:

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Radin Adjeng Kartini

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3.4
1912 1916 1920 1927

NATIONALISM IN INDONESIA
Sarekat Islam established Sarekat Islam asked the Dutch to grant Indonesia selfgovernment Partai Komunis Indonesia formed. They aimed to gain independence by force. Partai Nasional Indonesia formed. They aimed to adopt a policy of noncooperation with the Dutch to gain independence. Sukarno, leader of PNI arrested Sukarno became leader of PARTINDO
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1929 1932

Sukarno
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3.4
1936

NATIONALISM IN INDONESIA
President of Indonesian Civil Service handed petition to Dutch asking for participation in Dutch administration Wiwoho Resolution sent to the Dutch The Japanese invaded Indonesia and agreed to grant Indonesia independence if they cooperated with them The Japanese surrendered in Indonesia Sukarno declared Indonesia independent
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1940 1942

15 Aug 1945 17 Aug 1945

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3.4

NATIONALISM IN INDONESIA
When the Dutch returned to Indonesia after World War II, they refused to recognise Indonesia’s independence. Fighting broke out between Dutch and Indonesians At Hague 1949: Dutch agreed to recognise Indonesian independence

Conference in the Hague, 1949

17 August 1950: Indonesia became independent. Sukarno was the first president
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3.5

NATIONALISM IN THAILAND
(1910 - 1925) • His administration was inefficient and corrupt • Siamese nationalism grew not only from civilian but also military discontent against the absolute power of the king. (1925 - 1935) • Supported plans to introduce constitutional government • 1932: A bloodless revolution took imposing democratic rule out of his hands
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OFF

3.5

NATIONALISM IN THAILAND

• Led by Nai Pridi Panomyong • Brought about by widespread discontent among the people of Thailand • The new parliamentary government consisted of a Legislative assembly and a Cabinet

Nai Pridi

1933: The Army and Navy took control of government 1938: Pibul Songgram became the Prime Minister of Thailand. He encouraged Thai nationalism.
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3.5

NATIONALISM IN THAILAND
Thai Nationalism During Japanese Expansion • Under Pibul, Thailand allied with the Japanese • 1944: Aware that the Japanese would be defeated, Thai nationalists decided to support the Allies • 1945: Thailand gained support from America when the Japanese surrendered

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Pibul Songgram

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CHAPTER 3: SUMMARY

Oppressive Colonial Rule Role of Religion

Economic Trends Western Educatio n Asian examples of nationalism Progress of Immigrant Communitie s

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CHAPTER 3: SUMMARY
NATIONALISM IN MALAYA

1946: Formation of the Malayan Union Formation of UMNO, MIC, MCA and the Alliance 1948: Federation of Malaya 1948 - 1960: The Emergency General Elections, the Merdeka Mission and Independence
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CHAPTER 3: SUMMARY
Nationalism in Philippines • American-Filipino alliance • Constitutional reforms under the US • Indonesian political parties formed • Japanese Occupation • Dutch forced to give independence • Movement against the absolute power of Chakri Dynasty • Rivalry between civilians and the military • Japanese Expansion and switch of allegiance to Americans

Nationalism in Indonesia

Nationalism in Thailand

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