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Ic Engine Cycles_1

# Ic Engine Cycles_1

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# I.C.

Engine Cycles
Thermodynamic Analysis

AIR STANDARD CYCLES

1. OTTO CYCLE

OTTO CYCLE Efficiency is given by L !1  1 r K 1 Efficiency increases with increase in compression ratio and specific heat ratio ( ) and is independent of load. amount of heat added and initial conditions. .

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67 0.698 0.541 0.Efficiency of Otto cycle is given as L= 1.565 0.426 0.356 0.(1/r (K-1)) = 1.512 0.475 0.242 0. efficiency CR from 8 to 16.4 L r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 20 50 0 0. efficiency CR from 4 to 8. efficiency is 76% is 32.791 CR from 2 to 4.6% is 18.585 0.6% .602 0.

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It is given by W mep ! V1  V2 Q23 ! V1  V2 . if exerted on the piston for the whole outward stroke. would yield work equal to the work of the cycle.OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure It is that constant pressure which.

of state: To give: V1 ! 0 1 m p1 p1 23 MR0T1 ep ! L 1 1 r .OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure We have: ¨ V2 ¸ V1  V2 ! V1 ©1  ¹ © V ¹ ª 1 º ¨ 1¸ ! V1 ©1  ¹ rº ª Eq.

so p1 d R0T1 ep ! L 1 1 r .OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure The quantity Q2-3/M is heat added/unit mass equal to Q¶.

OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure Non-dimensionalizing mep with p1 we get « » ¬ 1 ¼ « Qd » mep m !L¬ ¼¬ 1 ­ R0 T1 ¼ p1 ½ ¬1  ¼ ­ r½ Since: R0 ! cv .

K  1 m .

cv and . initial temperature.OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure We get mep Qd 1 !L p1 cvT1 « 1 » K ¬1  r ¼?  1A ­ ½ Mep/p1 is a function of heat added. compression ratio and properties of air. namely.

Mf/Ma Ma=Mass of air.Choice of Q¶ We have Q23 Qd ! M Q2 3 ! M f Qc ! FM a Qc in kJ / cycle For an actual engine: F=fuel-air ratio. Qc=fuel calorific value .

Choice of Q¶ FM a Q c We now get: Q d ! M Now M a V1  V2 } M V1 V1  V2 1 !1 V1 r And Thus: ¨ 1¸ Qd FQc ©1  ¹ ! rº ª .

we get a value of Q¶/cvT1 = 13.8(r ± 1)/r.2. FQc at stoichiometric conditions is equal to 2975 kJ/kg. T1 of 300K and cv for air is assumed to be 0. = 0. Under fuel lean conditions.1(r ± 1)/r .6(r ± 1)/r.8. thus Q¶ = 2975(r ± 1)/r At an ambient temperature. Q¶/ cvT1 = 16. = 1.Choice of Q¶ For isooctane. Under fuel rich conditions. Q¶/ cvT1 = 11.718 kJ/kgK.

OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure We can get mep/p1 in terms of rp=p3/p2 thus: r mep r .

p  1 r  1 ! .

r  1 .

K  1 p1 K 1 .

We can obtain a value of rp in terms of Q¶ as follows: Qd rp ! 1 K 1 c v T1 r .

is the quantity mep/p3. which is of importance. This can be obtained from the following expression: mep mep 1 ! K p3 p1 r 1 Qd 1 K 1 cvT1r .OTTO CYCLE Mean Effective Pressure Another parameter.

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Air Standard Cycles

2.

DIESEL CYCLE

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Diesel Cycle Thermal Efficiency of cycle is given by 1 « r 1 » L ! 1  K 1 ¬ ¼ r ­ K .

rc  1 ½ rc is the cut-ff ratio. V3/V2 We can write rc in terms of Q¶: K c Qd rc ! 1 K 1 c p T1 r .

. cv and T1: 1 mep Qd !L p1 cvT1 « 1 » 1  ¼?  1A K ¬ r½ ­ .We can write the mep formula for the diesel cycle like that for the Otto cycle in terms of the . Q¶.

Diesel Cycle We can write the mep in terms of . r and rc: mep K r .

rc  1  r r  1 ! .

r  1 .

K  1 p1 The expression for mep/p3 is: K .

K c mep mep ¨ 1 ¸ ! © K¹ p3 p1 ª r º .

Air Standard Cycle 3. DUAL CYCLE .

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Dual Cycle The Efficiency is given by K « » rp rc  1 1 L ! 1  K 1 ¬ ¼ r ¬ rp  1  K rp .

rc  1 ¼ ­ ½ We can use the same expression as before to obtain the mep. To obtain the mep in terms of the cut-off and pressure ratios we have the following expression .

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Dual Cycle mep K rp r .

rc  1  r p ! .

r  1 .

K  1 p1 K K .

r  1  r .

r K p c r 1 For the dual cycle. the expression for mep/p3 is as follows: .

Dual Cycle r mep K rp r .

rc  1  r .

p  1  r r r  1 ! .

r  1 .

K  1 p1 K K K p c .

the expression for mep/p3 is as follows: mep mep ¨ p1 ¸ © ¹ ! ©p ¹ p3 p1 ª 3 º . For the dual cycle.

Dual Cycle We can write an expression for rp the pressure ratio in terms of the peak pressure which is a known quantity: p3 ¨ 1 ¸ rp ! © K¹ p1 ª r º We can obtain an expression for rc in terms of Q¶ and rp and other known quantities as follows: .

Dual Cycle ¸ 1 ¨ «® Qd ¾ 1 » rc ! © ¬¯ ¼  .

K  1 ¹ K 1 ¿ ¹ c K © ¬°vT1r À rp ¼ ½ ª­ º We can also obtain an expression for rp in terms of Q¶ and rc and other known quantities as follows: « Qd » ¬ c T r K  1  1¼ ­ v 1 ½ rp ! 1  K rc  K .

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AIR STANDARD ENGINE EXHAUST PROCESS .

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Exhaust Process .Exhaust Process Begins at Point 4 Pressure drops Instantaneously to atmospheric. Release Process 2. Process is called Blow Down Ideal Process consists of 2 processes: 1.

Release Process Piston is assumed to be stationary at end of Expansion stroke at bottom center Charge is assumed to be divided into 2 parts One part escapes from cylinder. undergoes free (irreversible) expansion when leaving Other part remains in cylinder. undergoes reversible expansion Both expand to atmospheric pressure .

. which in ideal case will be isentropic and extension of path 3-4.Release Process State of the charge that remains in the cylinder is marked by path 4-4¶. Expansion of this charge will force the second portion from cylinder which will escape into the exhaust system.

Assuming no heat transfer.Release Process Consider the portion that escapes from cylinder: Will expand into the exhaust pipe and acquire high velocity Kinetic energy acquired by first element will be dissipated by fluid friction and turbulence into internal energy and flow work. it will reheat the charge to final state 4´ .

expand to atmospheric pressure and acquire velocity which will be progressively less.Release Process Succeeding elements will start to leave at states between 4 and 4¶. with first element at 4´ and last at 4¶ Process 4-4´ is an irreversible throttling process and temperature at point 4´ will be higher than at 4¶ thus v4´ > v4¶ . End state will be along line 4¶-4´. This will again be dissipated in friction.

Such an ideal cycle drawn on the pressure versus specific volume diagram will resemble an Atkinson cycle or the Complete Expansion Cycle .Expansion of Cylinder Charge The portion that remains is assumed to expand. in the ideal case. isentropically to atmospheric.

COMPLETE EXPANSION If V is the total volume and v the specific volume. then mass m is given by V m ! v And if m1 is the TOTAL MASS OF CHARGE: .

COMPLETE EXPANSION m1 V1 ! v1 Let me be the RESIDUAL CHARGE MASS. then me V6 ! v6 .

COMPLETE EXPANSION f ! m m e 1 Let f be the residual gas fraction. given by ! V v 6 6 V v V V V V v v 1 1 ! 6 1 x 1 6 ! 2 1 x v1 v 4' ¸ ¹ ¹ º ! 1 r ¨ v1 © © v ' ª 4 .

Mass of charge remaining in cylinder after blow down but before start of exhaust stroke is: m5 V5 ! v5 V6 ! v6 m6 .

m6 = me or mass of charge remaining in cylinder at end of exhaust stroke or residual gas v5 ! v6 V5 ³ V6 @ m5 ³ m6 .

Residual Gas Fraction f = (1/r)(v1/v4¶) ¾ ® ± ± ¨ pe ¸ © ¹ ± ± © pi ¹ 1± ª º ± f ! ¯ 1 ¿ r± « Qd » K ± ±1  ¬ c T rK 1 ¼ ± ± v 1 ­ ½ ± À ° 1 K .

Temperature of residual gas T6 can be obtained from the following relation: T6 ¨ pe ¸ !© ¹ ©p ¹ T1 ª i º K 1 K ¨ Qd ¸ ¹ ©1  K 1 ¹ © cvT1r º ª 1 K .

INTAKE PROCESS .

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Piston moved downwards to the BDC at time t2.  Clearance volume is filled with hot burnt charge with mass me and internal energy ue at time t1. Since .  Fresh charge of mass ma and enthalpy ha enters and mixes with residual charge.Intake Process  Intake process is assumed to commence when the inlet valve opens and piston is at TDC. It can be analyzed by applying the energy equation to the expanding system defined in the figure.  This is a non-steady flow process.

Eflow out is zero.Intake Process  Q ± W = [Eflow out ± Eflow in + (Esystem]t1 to t2 «.. Process is assumed to be adiabatic therefore Q is zero.W = ± Eflow in + (Esystem «. (2) . Thus  . (1)  and. since the flow is inward.

Neglect kinetic energy. (3) . Energy crossing a-a and entering into the cylinder consists of internal energy ua and the flow energy pava so that  Eflow in. t1 to t2 = ma (ua + pava) «.Intake Process  Assume flow is quasi-steady.

The work done by the air on the piston is given by . between times t1 and t2 is entirely a change in internal energy and since m1 = ma + me « (4) @(Esystem = m1u1 . (Esystem.meue « (5)  The mass of the charge in the intake manifold can be ignored or made zero by proper choice of the boundary a-a.Intake Process  Change in energy of the system.

6 Integrated from tdc to bdc .Intake Process W ! ´ pdV This is Eq.

5 and 6 in Eq. Substituting from Eq.Intake Process  This integration is carried out from TDC to BDC. . 2 to give BDC    ´ pdV !  ma ha  mu  mr ur TDC This is the basic equation of the Intake Process. 3.

pex. For the spark ignition engine operating at full throttle. At this operating condition. exhaust pressure. This is also similar to the conventional (naturally aspirated) compression ignition engine.Intake Process There are THREE cases of operation of an engine. These are as follows: 1. is equal to inlet pressure. pin. that is pex/pin = 1 .

. Inlet valve opens before piston reaches TDC.Intake Process 2. (ii) Late inlet valve opening. For the spark ignition engine operating at idle and part throttle. that is pex/pin > 1 There are two possibilities in this case: (i) Early inlet valve opening. exhaust pressure is greater than inlet pressure. Inlet valve opens when piston reaches near or at TDC. At this operating condition.

For the spark and compression ignition engine operating with a supercharger. the inlet pressure is greater than the exhaust pressure.Intake Process 3. At this operating condition. that is pex/pin < 1 .

 Fig.Case 1: Wide Open Throttle SI or Conventional CI Engine.1 .

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WOT SI and Conventional CI Since intake process is at manifold pressure (assumed constant) and equal to pa Thus p1 = pa = p6 hence 1 W ! ´ pdV ! p1 .

mep6v6 = m1pava . m = V/v so that W = m1p1v1 .mepeve . 1  V6 V 6 By definition.

. f. for W.WOT SI and Conventional CI Substituting in the basic equation for the intake process. and simplifying m1hm = maha + mehe Dividing through by m1 and remembering that the ratio me/m1 is the residual gas fraction. we get h1 = (1 ± f) ha + fhe This gives the equation of the ideal intake process at wide open throttle for an Otto cycle engine and can be applied to the dual cycle engine as well.

2 . Fig.Case 2(a): Part throttle SI engine. Early inlet valve opening.

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1 Now W ! ´ pdV ! p1 .Part Throttle: Early IVO If the inlet valve opens before the piston reaches TDC. the residual charge will first expand into the intake manifold and mix with the fresh charge and then reenter the cylinder along with the fresh charge.

1  V7 V 7 = p1v1m1 ± p1v7me .

this becomes m1h1 = maha + meu7 + p1v7me Thus we get h1 = (1.Part Throttle: Early IVO Hence: -(p1v1m1 ± p1v7me) = -maha + m1u1 .meue Upon simplification.f) ha + f (u7 + p7v7) = (1 ± f) ha + fh7 .

Fig.Case 2(b): Part throttle SI engine. 3 . Late inlet valve opening.

However. Thus before the charge enters. since the fresh charge is at a lower pressure. can be assumed to be isentropic. In this case. the valve opens when the piston reaches the TDC. the mixture of the residual and fresh charge will press against the piston during the rest of the work process. mixing will not take place until pressure equalization occurs. . 7-7¶. in the ideal case. the residual charge expands and does work on the piston in the expansion process.Part Throttle Late IVO The residual at the end of the exhaust stroke is at point 6. 7¶-1. This process. Once pressure equalization occurs. The piston starts on its intake stroke when the fresh charge begins to enter.

the work done by the residuals is given by .U = me(u7 ± u7¶) Hence. W = me(u7 ± u7¶) + p1(V1 ± V7¶) .Part Throttle Late IVO Now: BDC 7d 1 W! ´ TDC pdV ! ´ pdV  ´ pdV 7 7d During the adiabatic expansion.

m1h1 = maha + meh7¶ Which reduces to hm = (1 ± f) ha + fh7¶ This gives the equation for the case where the inlet valve opens late. Although the throttle may drop the pressure radically. W = me(u7 ± u7¶) + m1p1v1 ± mep7¶v7¶ Thus. after the piston reaches the top dead center of the exhaust stroke. being zero for gases behaving ideally. . this has little effect on either the enthalpy of the liquid or the gases. that is.Part Throttle Late IVO And since m = V/v.

Case 3: Supercharged Engine Fig. 4 .

Intake starts from point 6¶ 1 As before 6d W ! ´ pdV ! p1 .Supercharged Engine Here. Pressure p6¶ or p1 represents the supercharged pressure and p5 or p6 the exhaust pressure. the intake pressure is higher than the exhaust pressure.

1  V6d V = p1v1m1 ± p1v6¶me .

f) ha + f (u6¶ + p6¶v6¶) = (1 ± f) ha + fh6¶ .(p1v1m1 ± p1v6¶me) = -maha + m1u1 .Supercharged Engine Hence . this becomes m1h1 = maha + meu6¶ + p1v6¶me Thus we get h1 = (1.meue Upon simplification.

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