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1 A stainless steel tube with an outside diameter of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm is used as a

compression member. If the axial stress in the member must be limited to 340 MPa, determine the

maximum load P that the member can support.

Solution

The cross-sectional area of the stainless steel tube is

π π

A= (D2 − d 2 ) =

[(60 mm)2 − (50 mm)2 ] = 863.938 mm 2

4 4

The normal stress in the tube can be expressed as

P

σ=

A

The maximum normal stress in the tube must be limited to 340 MPa. Using 340 MPa as the allowable

normal stress, rearrange this expression to solve for the maximum load P

Pmax ≤ σ allow A = (340 N/mm 2 )(863.938 mm 2 ) = 293, 739 N = 294 kN Ans.

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1.2 A 2024-T4 aluminum tube with an outside diameter of 2.50 in. will be used to support a 12 kip

load. If the axial stress in the member must be limited to 25 ksi, determine the wall thickness required

for the tube.

Solution

From the definition of normal stress, solve for the minimum area required to support a 12-kip load

without exceeding a stress of 25 ksi

P P 12 kips

σ= ∴ Amin ≥ = = 0.480 in.2

A σ 25 ksi

The cross-sectional area of the aluminum tube is given by

π

A= (D2 − d 2 )

4

Set this expression equal to the minimum area and solve for the maximum inside diameter d

π

[(2.50 in.) 2 − d 2 ] ≥ 0.480 in.2

4

4

(2.50 in.) 2 − d 2 ≥ (0.480 in.2 )

π

4

(2.50 in.) 2 − (0.480 in.2 ) ≥ d 2

π

∴ d max ≤ 2.374625 in.

The outside diameter D, the inside diameter d, and the wall thickness t are related by

D = d + 2t

Therefore, the minimum wall thickness required for the aluminum tube is

D − d 2.50 in. − 2.374525 in.

tmin ≥ = = 0.062738 in. = 0.0627 in. Ans.

2 2

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1.3 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are

joined together at flange B and loaded, as

shown in Fig. P1.3. The diameter of rod (1) is

D1 = 24 mm and the diameter of rod (2) is D2

= 42 mm. Determine the normal stresses in

rods (1) and (2).

Fig. P1.3

Solution

Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.

Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,

ΣFx = F1 − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F1 = 80 kN (T)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free

end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod

(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the

internal force in rod (2):

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is

π

A1 = (24 mm) 2 = 452.3893 mm 2

4

and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is

F (80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σ1 = 1 = = 176.8388 MPa = 176.8 MPa (T) Ans.

A1 452.3893 mm 2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is

π

A2 = (42 mm) 2 = 1,385.4424 mm 2

4

Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is

F (−200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σ2 = 2 = = −144.3582 MPa = 144.4 MPa (C) Ans.

A2 1,385.4424 mm 2

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1.4 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are

joined together at flange B and loaded, as

shown in Fig. P1.4. If the normal stress in

each rod must be limited to 120 MPa,

determine the minimum diameter D required

for each rod.

Fig. P1.4

Solution

Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.

Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,

ΣFx = F1 − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F1 = 80 kN (T)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free

end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod

(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the

internal force in rod (2):

If the normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 120 MPa, then the minimum cross-sectional area that

can be used for rod (1) is

F (80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A1,min ≥ 1 = = 666.6667 mm 2

σ 120 N/mm 2

π 2

A1,min = D1,min ≥ 666.6667 mm 2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 29.1346 mm = 29.1 mm Ans.

4

Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 120 MPa. Notice that rod (2) is in

compression. In this situation, we are concerned only with the magnitude of the stress; therefore, we

will use the magnitude of F2 in the calculations for the minimum required cross-sectional area.

F (200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A2,min ≥ 2 = = 1, 666.6667 mm 2

σ 120 N/mm 2

π 2

A2,min = D2,min ≥ 1, 666.6667 mm 2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 46.0659 mm = 46.1 mm Ans.

4

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1.5 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are joined

together at flange B and loaded, as shown in Fig.

P1.5. The diameter of rod (1) is 1.25 in. and the

diameter of rod (2) is 2.00 in. Determine the normal

stresses in rods (1) and (2).

Fig. P1.5

Solution

Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. We

will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will

be in compression). From equilibrium,

ΣFy = − F1 − 15 kips = 0

∴ F1 = −15 kips = 15 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we

will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD

reveals the internal force in rod (2):

∴ F2 = −75 kips = 75 kips (C)

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is

π

A1 = (1.25 in.) 2 = 1.2272 in.2

4

and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is

F −15 kips

σ1 = 1 = = −12.2231 ksi = 12.22 ksi (C) Ans.

A1 1.2272 in.2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is

π

A2 = (2.00 in.) 2 = 3.1416 in.2

4

Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is

F −75 kips

σ2 = 2 = = −23.8732 ksi = 23.9 ksi (C) Ans.

A2 3.1416 in.2

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1.6 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are

joined together at flange B and loaded, as

shown in Fig. P1.6. If the normal stress in

each rod must be limited to 18 ksi,

determine the minimum diameter D required

for each rod.

Fig. P1.6

Solution

Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. As a

matter of course, we will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even

though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,

ΣFy = − F1 − 15 kips = 0

∴ F1 = −15 kips = 15 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we

will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals

the internal force in rod (2):

ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 30 kips − 15 kips = 0

∴ F2 = −75 kips = 75 kips (C)

Notice that rods (1) and (2) are in compression. In this situation, we are

concerned only with the stress magnitude; therefore, we will use the force

magnitudes to determine the minimum required cross-sectional areas. If the

normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 18 ksi, then the minimum cross-

sectional area that can be used for rod (1) is

F 15 kips

A1,min ≥ 1 = = 0.8333 in.2

σ 18 ksi

The minimum rod diameter is therefore

π 2

A1,min = D1,min ≥ 0.8333 in.2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 1.0301 in. = 1.030 in. Ans.

4

Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 18 ksi, which requires a minimum area of

F 75 kips

A2,min ≥ 2 = = 4.1667 in.2

σ 18 ksi

The minimum diameter for rod (2) is therefore

π 2

A2,min = D2,min ≥ 4.1667 in.2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 2.3033 in. = 2.30 in. Ans.

4

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1.7 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the

solid cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.7. The diameter of

aluminum rod (1) is 2.00 in., the diameter of brass rod (2) is

1.50 in., and the diameter of steel rod (3) is 3.00 in.

Determine the axial stress in each of the three rods.

Fig. P1.7

Solution

Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end A. We will assume that the internal

force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,

ΣFy = − F1 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips = 0 ∴ F1 = −60 kips = 60 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal

force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):

ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips = 0 ∴ F2 = −20 kips = 20 kips (C)

Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in

rod (3) is:

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ΣFy = − F3 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips − 35 kips − 35 kips = 0

∴ F3 = −90 kips = 90 kips (C)

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is

π

A1 = (2.00 in.) 2 = 3.1416 in.2

4

and thus, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is

F −60 kips

σ1 = 1 = = −19.0986 ksi = 19.10 ksi (C) Ans.

A1 3.1416 in.2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is

π

A2 = (1.50 in.) 2 = 1.7671 in.2

4

Accordingly, the normal stress in brass rod (2) is

F −20 kips

σ2 = 2 = = −11.3177 ksi = 11.32 ksi (C) Ans.

A2 1.7671 in.2

π

A3 = (3.00 in.)2 = 7.0686 in.2

4

and the normal stress in the steel rod is

F −90 kips

σ3 = 3 = = −12.7324 ksi = 12.73 ksi (C) Ans.

A3 7.0686 in.2

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1.8 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the solid

cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.8. The normal stress in

aluminum rod (1) must be limited to 25 ksi, the normal stress in

brass rod (2) must be limited to 15 ksi, and the normal stress in

steel rod (3) must be limited to 10 ksi. Determine the minimum

diameter D required for each of the three rods.

Fig. P1.8

Solution

The internal forces in the three rods must be determined. Begin with a FBD cut through rod (1) that

includes the free end A. We will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it

obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,

ΣFy = − F1 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips = 0 ∴ F1 = −60 kips = 60 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal

force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):

ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips = 0 ∴ F2 = −20 kips = 20 kips (C)

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Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in

rod (3) is:

ΣFy = − F3 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips − 35 kips − 35 kips = 0

∴ F3 = −90 kips = 90 kips (C)

Notice that all three rods are in compression. In this situation, we are concerned only with the stress

magnitude; therefore, we will use the force magnitudes to determine the minimum required cross-

sectional areas, and in turn, the minimum rod diameters. The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) must be

limited to 25 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area required for rod (1) is

F 60 kips

A1,min ≥ 1 = = 2.40 in.2

σ 1 25 ksi

The minimum rod diameter is therefore

π 2

A1,min = D1,min ≥ 2.40 in.2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 1.7481 in. = 1.748 in. Ans.

4

The normal stress in brass rod (2) must be limited to 15 ksi, which requires a minimum area of

F 20 kips

A2,min ≥ 2 = = 1.3333 in.2

σ 2 15 ksi

which requires a minimum diameter for rod (2) of

π 2

A2,min = D2,min ≥ 1.3333 in.2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 1.3029 in. = 1.303 in. Ans.

4

The normal stress in steel rod (3) must be limited to 10 ksi. The minimum cross-sectional area required

for this rod is:

F 90 kips

A3,min ≥ 3 = = 9.0 in.2

σ 3 10 ksi

which requires a minimum diameter for rod (3) of

π 2

A3,min = D3,min ≥ 9.0 in.2 ∴ D3,min ≥ 3.3851 in. = 3.39 in. Ans.

4

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1.9 Two solid cylindrical rods

support a load of P = 32 kN, as

shown in Fig. P1.9. Rod (1) has a

diameter of 16 mm and the diameter

of rod (2) is 12 mm. Determine the

axial stress in each rod.

Fig. P1.9

Solution

Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle α between

rod (1) and the horizontal axis:

5.6 m

tan α = = 1.4737 ∴α = 55.8403°

3.8 m

and the angle β between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:

3.3 m

tan β = = 0.7174 ∴ β = 35.6553°

4.6 m

horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)

are two-force members.

ΣFx = F2 cos(35.6553°) − F1 cos(55.8403°) = 0 (a)

ΣFy = F2 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) − P = 0 (b)

Unknown forces F1 and F2 can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the

substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F2 in terms of F1:

cos(55.8403°)

F2 = F1 (c)

cos(35.6553°)

Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives

cos(55.8403°)

F1 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) = P

cos(35.6553°)

F1 [ cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°)] = P

P P

∴ F1 = =

cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°) 1.2303

For the given load of P = 32 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:

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32 kN

F1 = = 26.0101 kN

1.2303

Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F2:

cos(55.8403°) cos(55.8403°)

F2 = F1 = (26.0101 kN) = 17.9742 kN

cos(35.6553°) cos(35.6553°)

The diameter of rod (1) is 16 mm; therefore, its cross-sectional area is:

π

A1 = (16 mm) 2 = 201.0619 mm 2

4

and the normal stress in rod (1) is:

F (26.0101 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σ1 = 1 = 2

= 129.3636 N/mm 2 = 129.4 MPa (T) Ans.

A1 201.0619 mm

The diameter of rod (2) is 12 mm; therefore, its cross-sectional area is:

π

A2 = (12 mm) 2 = 113.0973 mm 2

4

and the normal stress in rod (2) is:

F (17.9742 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σ2 = 2 = 2

= 158.9269 N/mm 2 = 158.9 MPa (T) Ans.

A2 113.0973 mm

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1.10 Two solid cylindrical rods support

a load of P = 70 kN, as shown in Fig.

P1.10. If the normal stress in each rod

must be limited to 165 MPa, determine

the minimum diameter D required for

each rod.

Fig. P1.10

Solution

Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle α between

rod (1) and the horizontal axis:

5.6 m

tan α = = 1.4737 ∴α = 55.8403°

3.8 m

and the angle β between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:

3.3 m

tan β = = 0.7174 ∴ β = 35.6553°

4.6 m

horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)

are two-force members.

ΣFx = F2 cos(35.6553°) − F1 cos(55.8403°) = 0 (a)

ΣFy = F2 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) − P = 0 (b)

Unknown forces F1 and F2 can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the

substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F2 in terms of F1:

cos(55.8403°)

F2 = F1 (c)

cos(35.6553°)

Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives

cos(55.8403°)

F1 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) = P

cos(35.6553°)

F1 [ cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°)] = P

P P

∴ F1 = =

cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°) 1.2303

For the given load of P = 70 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:

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70 kN

F1 = = 56.8967 kN

1.2303

Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F2:

cos(55.8403°) cos(55.8403°)

F2 = F1 = (56.8967 kN) = 39.3182 kN

cos(35.6553°) cos(35.6553°)

The normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 165 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area

required for rod (1) is

F (56.8967 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A1,min ≥ 1 = = 344.8285 mm 2

σ1 165 N/mm 2

π 2

A1,min = D1,min ≥ 344.8285 mm 2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 20.9535 mm = 21.0 mm Ans.

4

F (39.3182 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A2,min ≥ 2 = = 238.2921 mm 2

σ2 165 N/mm 2

π 2

A2,min = D2,min ≥ 238.2921 mm 2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 17.4185 mm = 17.42 mm Ans.

4

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1.11 Bar (1) in Fig. P1.11 has a cross-

sectional area of 0.75 in.2. If the stress in bar

(1) must be limited to 30 ksi, determine the

maximum load P that may be supported by

the structure.

Fig. P1.11

Solution

Given that the cross-sectional area of bar (1) is 0.75 in.2 and its normal stress must be limited to 30 ksi,

the maximum force that may be carried by bar (1) is

F1,max = σ 1 A1 = (30 ksi)(0.75 in.2 ) = 22.5 kips

equation about joint A, the relationship between the force in

bar (1) and the load P is:

ΣM A = (6 ft)F1 − (10 ft)P = 0

6 ft

∴P = F1

10 ft

Substitute the maximum force F1,max = 22.5 kips into this relationship to obtain the maximum load that

may be applied to the structure:

6 ft 6 ft

P= F1 = (22.5 kips) = 13.50 kips Ans.

10 ft 10 ft

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1.12 Two 6 in. wide wooden boards are to

be joined by splice plates that will be fully

glued on the contact surfaces. The glue to

be used can safely provide a shear strength

of 120 psi. Determine the smallest

allowable length L that can be used for the

splice plates for an applied load of P =

10,000 lb. Note that a gap of 0.5 in. is

required between boards (1) and (2). Fig. P1.12

Solution

Consider a FBD of board (2). The glue on the splice plates provides resistance to the 10,000 lb applied

load on both the top and bottom surfaces of board (2). Denoting the shear resistance on a glue surface as

V, equilibrium in the horizontal direction requires

ΣFx = P − V − V = 0

10, 000 lb

∴V = = 5, 000 lb

2

In other words, each glue surface must be large enough so that 5,000 lb of shear resistance can be

provided to board (2). Since the glue has a shear strength of 120 psi, the area of each glue surface on

board (2) must be at least

5, 000 lb

Amin ≥ = 41.6667 in.2

120 psi

The boards are 6-in. wide; therefore, glue must be spread along board (2) for a length of at least

41.6667 in.2

Lglue joint ≥ = 6.9444 in.

6 in.

Although we’ve discussed only board (2), the same rationale applies to board (1). For both boards (1)

and (2), the glue must be applied along a length of at least 6.9444 in. on both the top and bottom of the

boards in order to resist the 10,000 lb applied load.

The glue applied to boards (1) and (2) must be matched by glue applied to the splice plates. Therefore,

the splice plates must be at least 6.9444 in. + 6.9444 in. = 13.8889 in. long. However, we are told that a

0.5-in. gap is required between boards (1) and (2); therefore, the splice plates must be 0.5-in. longer.

Altogether, the length of the splice plates must be at least

Lmin = 6.9444 in. + 6.9444 in. + 0.5 in. = 14.39 in. Ans.

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1.13 For the clevis connection shown in Fig. P1.13,

determine the shear stress in the 24 mm diameter bolt

for an applied load of P = 175 kN.

Fig. P1.13

Solution

Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,

including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each

exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force

on each bolt surface is

175 kN

ΣFx = P − V − V = 0 ∴V = = 87.5 kN

2

The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the cross-sectional area of the bolt:

π 2 π

Abolt = Dbolt = (24 mm) 2 = 452.3893 mm 2

4 4

V (87.5 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

τ= = 2

= 193.4175 N/mm 2 = 193.4 MPa Ans.

Abolt 452.3893 mm

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1.14 For the clevis connection shown in Fig.

P1.14, the shear stress in the 5/16 in.

diameter bolt must be limited to 40 ksi.

Determine the maximum load P that may be

applied to the connection.

Fig. P1.14

Solution

Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,

including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each

exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force

on each bolt surface is related to the load P by:

ΣFx = P − V − V = 0 ∴ P = 2V

The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the cross-sectional area of the bolt:

π 2 π π

Abolt = Dbolt = (5 /16 in.) 2 = (0.3125 in.) 2 = 0.076699 in.2

4 4 4

If the shear stress in the bolt must be limited to 40 ksi, the maximum shear force V on a single cross-

sectional surface must be limited to

V = τ Abolt = (40 ksi)(0.076699 in.2 ) = 3.067962 kips

P = 2V = 2(3.067962 kips) = 6.135923 kips = 6.14 kips Ans.

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1.15 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.15,

determine the average shear stress in the 0.75 in.

diameter bolts if the load is P = 60 kips.

Fig. P1.15

Solution

The bolts in this connection act in single shear. The cross-sectional area of a single bolt is

π 2 π

Abolt = Dbolt(0.75 in.) 2 = 0.4418 in.2

=

4 4

Since there are five bolts, the total area that carries shear stress is

AV = 5 Abolt = 5(0.4418 in.2 ) = 2.2089 in.2

Therefore, the shear stress in each bolt is

P 60 kips

τ= = = 27.1624 ksi = 27.2 ksi Ans.

AV 2.2089 in.2

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1.16 The five-bolt connection shown in Fig.

P1.16 must support an applied load of P = 550

kN. If the average shear stress in the bolts must

be limited to 270 MPa, determine the minimum

bolt diameter that may be used in the connection.

Fig P1.16

Solution

To support a load of 550 kN while not exceeding an average shear stress of 270 MPa, the total shear

area provided by the bolts must be at least

P (550 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

AV ≥ = = 2, 037.0370 mm 2

τ 270 N/mm 2

Since there are five single-shear bolts in this connection, five cross-sectional surfaces carry shear stress.

Consequently, each bolt must provide a minimum area of

AV 2, 037.0370 mm 2

Abolt ≥ = = 407.4074 mm 2

5 5

The minimum bolt diameter is therefore

π

Abolt ≥ 407.4074 mm 2 = 2

Dbolt ∴ Dbolt ≥ 22.7756 mm = 22.8 mm Ans.

4

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1.17 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.17,

the average shear stress in the 16 mm diameter

bolts must be limited to 210 MPa. Determine

the maximum load P that may be applied to the

connection.

Fig. P1.17

Solution

The cross-sectional area of a 16-mm-diameter bolt is

π 2 π

Abolt = Dbolt = (16 mm) 2 = 201.0619 mm 2

4 4

This is a double-shear connection. Therefore, the three bolts provide a total shear area of

AV = 2(3 bolts)Abolt = 2(3 bolts)(201.0619 mm 2 ) = 1, 206.3716 mm 2

Since the shear stress must be limited to 210 MPa, the total shear force that can be resisted by the three

bolts is

Vmax = τ AV = (210 N/mm 2 )(1, 206.3716 mm 2 ) = 253,338.0316 N

In this connection, the shear force in the bolts is equal to the applied load P; therefore,

Pmax = 253 kN Ans.

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1.18 The three-bolt connection shown in Fig. P1.18

must support an applied load of P = 60 kips. If the

average shear stress in the bolts must be limited to

15 ksi, determine the minimum bolt diameter that

may be used in the connection.

Fig. P1.18

Solution

The shear force V that must be provided by the bolts equals the applied load of P = 60 kips. The total

shear area required is thus

V 60 kips

AV ≥ = = 4.0 in.2

τ 15 ksi

The three bolts in this connection act in double shear; therefore, six cross-sectional bolt surfaces are

available to transmit shear stress.

AV 4.0 in.2

Abolt = = = 0.6667 in.2 per surface

(2 surfaces per bolt)(3 bolts) 6 surfaces

The minimum bolt diameter must be

π 2

Dbolt ≥ 0.6667 in.2 ∴ Dbolt ≥ 0.9213 in. = 0.921 in. Ans.

4

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1.19 A hydraulic punch press is used to

punch a slot in a 10 mm thick plate, as

illustrated in Fig. P1.19. If the plate shears

at a stress of 250 MPa, determine the

minimum force P required to punch the

slot.

Fig. P1.19

Solution

The shear stress associated with removal of the slug exists on its perimeter. The perimeter of the slug is

given by

perimeter = 2(75 mm) + π (20 mm) = 212.8319 mm

Thus, the area subjected to shear stress is

AV = perimeter × plate thickness = (212.8319 mm)(10 mm) = 2,128.319 mm 2

Given that the plate shears at τ = 250 MPa, the force required to remove the slug is therefore

Pmin = τ AV = (250 N/mm 2 )(2,128.319 mm 2 ) = 532, 080 N = 532 kN Ans.

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1.20 A coupling is used to connect a 2 in. diameter

plastic pipe (1) to a 1.5 in. diameter pipe (2), as

shown in Fig. P1.20. If the average shear stress in

the adhesive must be limited to 400 psi, determine

the minimum lengths L1 and L2 required for the joint

if the applied load P is 5,000 lb.

Fig. P1.20

Solution

To resist a shear force of 5,000 lb, the area of adhesive required on each pipe is

V 5, 000 lb

AV = = = 12.5 in.2

τ adhesive 400 psi

Consider the coupling on pipe (1). The adhesive is applied to the circumference of the pipe, and the

circumference C1 of pipe (1) is

C1 = π D1 = π (2.0 in.) = 6.2832 in.

The minimum length L1 is therefore

A 12.5 in.2

L1 ≥ V = = 1.9894 in. = 1.989 in. Ans.

C1 6.2832 in.

C2 = π D2 = π (1.5 in.) = 4.7124 in.

The minimum length L2 is therefore

A 12.5 in.2

L2 ≥ V = = 2.6526 in. = 2.65 in. Ans.

C2 4.7124 in.

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1.21 A lever is attached to a shaft with a

square shear key, as shown in Fig. P1.21.

The force applied to the lever is P = 350 N.

If the shear stress in the key must not exceed

80 MPa, determine the minimum dimension

“a” that must be used if the key is 25 mm

long.

Fig. P1.21

Solution

To determine the shear force V that must be resisted by the shear key, sum moments about the center of

the shaft (which will be denoted O):

⎛ 42 mm ⎞

ΣM O = −(350 N)(700 mm) + ⎜ ⎟V = 0 ∴V = 11, 666.6667 N

⎝ 2 ⎠

Since the shear stress in the key must not exceed 80 MPa, the shear area required is

V 11, 666.6667 N

AV ≥ = = 145.8333 mm 2

τ 80 N/mm 2

The shear area in the key is given by the product of its length L (i.e., 25 mm) and its width a. Therefore,

the minimum key width a is

A 145.8333 mm 2

a≥ V = = 5.8333 mm = 5.83 mm Ans.

L 25 mm

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1.22 A common trailer hitch connection is shown in

Fig. P1.22. The shear stress in the pin must be limited

to 30,000 psi. If the applied load is P = 4,000 lb,

determine the minimum diameter that must be used

for the pin.

Fig. P1.22

Solution

The shear force V acting in the hitch pin is equal to the applied load; therefore, V = P = 4,000 lb. The

shear area required to support a 4,000 lb shear force is

V 4,000 lb

AV ≥ = = 0.1333 in.2

τ 30, 000 psi

The hitch pin is used in a double-shear connection; therefore, two cross-sectional areas of the pin are

subjected to shear stress. Thus, the cross-sectional area of the pin is given by

AV 0.1333 in.2

AV = 2 Apin ∴ Apin = = = 0.0667 in.2

2 2

and the minimum pin diameter is

π 2

Dpin ≥ 0.0667 in.2 ∴ Dpin ≥ 0.2913 in. = 0.291 in. Ans.

4

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1.23 An axial load P is supported by a short steel

column, which has a cross-sectional area of

11,400 mm2. If the average normal stress in the steel

column must not exceed 110 MPa, determine the

minimum required dimension “a” so that the bearing

stress between the base plate and the concrete slab does

not exceed 8 MPa.

Fig. P1.23

Solution

Since the normal stress in the steel column must not exceed 110 MPa, the maximum column load is

Pmax = σ A = (110 N/mm 2 )(11, 400 mm 2 ) = 1, 254, 000 N

The maximum column load must be distributed over a large enough area so that the bearing stress

between the base plate and the concrete slab does not exceed 8 MPa; therefore, the minimum plate area

is

P 1, 254, 000 N

Amin = = = 156, 750 mm 2

σb 8 N/mm 2

Amin = 156, 750 mm 2 = a × a

∴ a ≥ 395.9167 mm = 396 mm Ans.

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1.24 The steel pipe column shown in Fig. P1.24 has an

outside diameter of 8.625 in. and a wall thickness of 0.25

in. The timber beam is 10.75 in wide, and the upper plate

has the same width. The load imposed on the column by

the timber beam is 80 kips. Determine

(a) The average bearing stress at the surfaces between the

pipe column and the upper and lower steel bearing

plates.

(b) The length L of the rectangular upper bearing plate if

its width is 10.75 in. and the average bearing stress

between the steel plate and the wood beam is not to

exceed 500 psi.

(c) The dimension “a” of the square lower bearing plate if

the average bearing stress between the lower bearing

plate and the concrete slab is not to exceed 900 psi.

Fig. P1.24

Solution

(a) The area of contact between the pipe column and one of the bearing plates is simply the cross-

sectional area of the pipe. To calculate the pipe area, we must first calculate the pipe inside diameter d:

D = d + 2t ∴ d = D − 2t = 8.625 in. − 2(0.25 in.) = 8.125 in.

The pipe cross-sectional area is

π π

Apipe = ⎡⎣ D 2 − d 2 ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣ (8.625 in.) 2 − (8.125 in.) 2 ⎤⎦ = 6.5777 in.2

4 4

Therefore, the bearing stress between the pipe and one of the bearing plates is

P 80 kips

σb = = = 12.1623 ksi = 12.16 ksi Ans.

Ab 6.5777 in.2

(b) The bearing stress between the timber beam and the upper bearing plate must not exceed 500 psi

(i.e., 0.5 ksi). To support a load of 80 kips, the contact area must be at least

P 80 kips

Ab ≥ = = 160 in.2

σ b 0.5 ksi

If the width of the timber beam is 10.75 in., then the length L of the upper bearing plate must be

Ab 160 in.2

L≥ = = 14.8837 in. = 14.88 in.

beam width 10.75 in.

(c) The bearing stress between the concrete slab and the lower bearing plate must not exceed 900 psi

(i.e., 0.9 ksi). To support the 80-kip pipe load, the contact area must be at least

P 80 kips

Ab ≥ = = 88.8889 in.2

σ b 0.9 ksi

Since the lower bearing plate is square, its dimension a must be

Ab = a × a = 88.8889 in.2 ∴ a ≥ 9.4281 in. = 9.43 in. Ans.

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1.25 A vertical shaft is supported by a thrust

collar and bearing plate, as shown in Fig.

P1.25. The average shear stress in the collar

must be limited to 18 ksi. The average bearing

stress between the collar and the plate must be

limited to 24 ksi. Based on these limits,

determine the maximum axial load P that can

be applied to the shaft.

Fig. P1.25

Solution

Consider collar shear stress: The area subjected to shear stress in the collar is equal to the product of

the shaft circumference and the collar thickness; therefore,

AV = shaft circumference × collar thickness = π (1.0 in.)(0.5 in.) = 1.5708 in.2

If the shear stress must not exceed 18 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical shaft

is:

P ≤ τ AV = (18 ksi)(1.5708 in.2 ) = 28.2743 kips

Consider collar bearing stress: We must determine the area of contact between the collar and the

plate. The overall cross-sectional area of the collar is

π

Acollar = (1.5 in.) 2 = 1.7671 in.2

4

is reduced by the area taken up by the shaft

π

Ashaft = (1.0 in.) 2 = 0.7854 in.2

4

Therefore, the area of the collar that actually contacts the plate is

Ab = Acollar − Ashaft = 1.7671 in.2 − 0.7854 in.2 = 0.9817 in.2

If the bearing stress must not exceed 24 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical

shaft is:

P ≤ σ b Ab = (24 ksi)(0.9817 in.2 ) = 23.5619 kips

Controlling P: Considering both shear stress in the collar and bearing stress between the collar and the

plate, the maximum load that can be supported by the shaft is

Pmax = 23.6 kips Ans.

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1.26 A structural steel bar with a 25 mm × 75 mm rectangular cross section is subjected to an axial

load of 150 kN. Determine the maximum normal and shear stresses in the bar.

Solution

The maximum normal stress in the steel bar is

F (150 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σ max = = = 80 MPa Ans.

A (25 mm)(75 mm)

The maximum shear stress is one-half of the maximum normal stress

σ max

τ max = = 40 MPa Ans.

2

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1.27 A steel rod of circular cross section will be used to carry an axial load of 92 kips. The maximum

stresses in the rod must be limited to 30 ksi in tension and 12 ksi in shear. Determine the required

diameter D for the rod.

Solution

Based on the allowable 30 ksi tension stress limit, the minimum cross-sectional area of the rod is

F 92 kips

Amin = = = 3.0667 in.2

σ max 30 ksi

For the 12-ksi shear stress limit, the minimum cross-sectional area of the rod must be

F 92 kips

Amin = = = 3.8333 in.2

2τ max 2(12 ksi)

Therefore, the rod must have a cross-sectional area of at least 3.8333 in.2 in order to satisfy both the

normal and shear stress limits.

π 2

Dmin ≥ 3.8333 in.2 ∴ Dmin = 2.2092 in. = 2.21 in. Ans.

4

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1.28 An axial load P is applied to the

rectangular bar shown in Fig. P1.28. The

cross-sectional area of the bar is 300 mm2.

Determine the normal stress perpendicular to

plane AB and the shear stress parallel to

plane AB if the bar is subjected to an axial

load of P = 25 kN.

Fig. P1.28

Solution

The angle θ for the inclined plane is 35°. The

normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is

found from

N = P cos θ = (25 kN) cos 35° = 20.4788 kN

V = P sin θ = (25 kN)sin 35° = 14.3394 kN

The cross-sectional area of the bar is 300 mm2, but the area along inclined plane AB is

A 300 mm 2

An = = = 366.2324 mm 2

cos θ cos 35°

N (20.4788 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

σn = = = 55.9175 MPa = 55.9 MPa Ans.

An 366.2324 mm 2

V (14.3394 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

τ nt = = = 39.1539 MPa = 39.2 MPa Ans.

An 366.2324 mm 2

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1.29 An axial load P is applied to the 1.25 in.

by 0.75 in. rectangular bar shown in Fig.

P1.29. Determine the normal stress

perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress

parallel to plane AB if the bar is subjected to

an axial load of P = 20 kips.

Fig. P1.29

Solution

The angle θ for the inclined plane is 60°. The

normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is

found from

N = P cos θ = (20 kips) cos 60° = 10.0 kips

V = P sin θ = (20 kips)sin 60° = 17.3205 kips

The cross-sectional area of the bar is (1.25 in.)(0.75 in.) = 0.9375 in.2, but the area along inclined plane

AB is

0.9375 in.2

An = A / cos θ = = 1.8750 in.2

cos 60°

N 10.0 kips

σn = = = 5.3333 ksi = 5.33 ksi Ans.

An 1.8750 in.2

V 17.3205 kips

τ nt = = = 9.2376 ksi = 9.24 ksi Ans.

An 1.8750 in.2

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1.30 A compression load of P = 80 kips is applied to a 4 in.

by 4 in. square post, as shown in Fig. P1.30. Determine the

normal stress perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress

parallel to plane AB.

Fig. P1.30

Solution

The angle θ for the inclined plane is 55°. The normal force N

perpendicular to plane AB is found from

N = P cos θ = (80 kips) cos 55° = 45.8861 kips

V = P sin θ = (80 kips) sin 55° = 65.5322 kips

The cross-sectional area of the post is (4 in.)(4 in.) = 16 in.2, but the area

along inclined plane AB is

16 in.2

An = A / cos θ = = 27.8951 in.2

cos 55°

N 45.8861 kips

σn = = = 1.6449 ksi = 1.645 ksi Ans.

An 27.8951 in.2

V 65.5322 kips

τ nt = = = 2.3492 ksi = 2.35 ksi Ans.

An 27.8951 in.2

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1.31 Specifications for the 50 mm × 50 mm square bar

shown in Fig. P1.31 require that the normal and shear

stresses on plane AB not exceed 100 MPa and 70 MPa,

respectively. Determine the maximum load P that can be

applied without exceeding the specifications.

Fig. P1.31

Solution

The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (b)

2A

The cross-sectional area of the square bar is A = (50 mm)2 = 2,500 mm2, and the angle θ for plane AB is

55°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 100 MPa; therefore, the maximum load P that can be

supported by the square bar is found from Eq. (a):

2 Aσ n 2(2,500 mm 2 )(100 N/mm 2 )

P≤ = = 759,902 N

1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(55°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 70 MPa. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear

stress limit is

2 Aτ nt 2(2,500 mm 2 )(70 N/mm 2 )

P≤ = = 372, 462 N

sin 2θ sin 2(55°)

Pmax = 372.5 kN Ans.

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1.32 Specifications for the 6 in. × 6 in. square post shown in

Fig. P1.32 require that the normal and shear stresses on plane

AB not exceed 800 psi and 400 psi, respectively. Determine

the maximum load P that can be applied without exceeding

the specifications.

Fig. P1.32

Solution

The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (b)

2A

The cross-sectional area of the square post is A = (6 in.)2 = 36 in.2, and the angle θ for plane AB is 40°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 800 psi; therefore, the maximum load P that can be

supported by the square post is found from Eq. (a):

2 Aσ n 2(36 in.2 )(800 psi)

P≤ = = 49, 078 lb

1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(40°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 400 psi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear

stress limit is

2 Aτ nt 2(36 in.2 )(400 psi)

P≤ = = 29, 244 lb

sin 2θ sin 2(40°)

Pmax = 29, 200 lb = 29.2 kips Ans.

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1.33 A 90 mm wide bar will be used to carry an axial

tension load of 280 kN. The normal and shear stresses

on plane AB must be limited to 150 MPa and 100 MPa,

respectively. Determine the minimum thickness t

required for the bar.

Fig. P1.33

Solution

The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (b)

2A

The angle θ for plane AB is 50°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 150 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A

required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (a):

P (280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A≥ (1 + cos 2θ ) = (1 + cos 2(50°)) = 771.2617 mm 2

2σ n 2(150 N/mm )2

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 100 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A

required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (b):

P (280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

A≥ sin 2θ = sin 2(50°) = 1,378.7309 mm 2

2τ nt 2(100 N/mm ) 2

To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the cross-sectional area must be at least Amin =

1,379.7309 mm2. Since the bar width is 90 mm, the minimum bar thickness t must be

1,378.7309 mm 2

tmin = = 15.3192 mm = 15.32 mm Ans.

90 mm

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1.34 A rectangular bar having width w = 6.00

in. and thickness t = 1.50 in. is subjected to a

tension load P. The normal and shear stresses

on plane AB must not exceed 16 ksi and 8 ksi,

respectively. Determine the maximum load P

that can be applied without exceeding either

stress limit.

Fig. P1.34

Solution

The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (b)

2A

The angle θ for inclined plane AB is calculated from

3

tan θ = = 3 ∴θ = 71.5651°

1

The cross-sectional area of the bar is A = w×t = (6.00 in.)(1.50 in.) = 9.0 in.2.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 16 ksi; therefore, the maximum load P can be found from

Eq. (a):

2 Aσ n 2(9.0 in.2 )(16 ksi)

P≤ = = 1, 440 ksi

1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(71.5651°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear

stress limit is

2 Aτ nt 2(9.0 in.2 )(8 ksi)

P≤ = = 240 kips

sin 2θ sin 2(71.5651°)

Pmax = 240 kips Ans.

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1.35 In Fig. P1.35, a rectangular bar having width

w = 2.50 in. and thickness t is subjected to a

tension load of P = 85 kips. The normal and shear

stresses on plane AB must not exceed 16 ksi and 8

ksi, respectively. Determine the minimum bar

thickness t required for the bar.

Fig. P1.35

Solution

The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (b)

2A

The angle θ for inclined plane AB is calculated from

3

tan θ = = 3 ∴θ = 71.5651°

1

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 16 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A

required to support P = 85 kips can be found from Eq. (a):

P 85 kips

A≥ (1 + cos 2θ ) = (1 + cos 2(71.5651°)) = 0.5312 in.2

2σ n 2(16 ksi)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A required

to support P = 85 kips can be found from Eq. (b):

P 85 kips

A≥ sin 2θ = sin 2(71.5651°) = 3.1875 in.2

2τ nt 2(8 ksi)

To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the cross-sectional area must be at least Amin =

3.1875 in.2. Since the bar width is 2.50 in., the minimum bar thickness t must be

3.1875 in.2

tmin = = 1.2750 in. = 1.275 in. Ans.

2.50 in.

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1.36 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 3.00

in. and a thickness of t = 2.00 in. The normal

stress on plane AB of the rectangular block

shown in Fig. P1.36 is 6 ksi (C) when the load P

is applied. Determine:

(a) the magnitude of load P.

(b) the shear stress on plane AB.

(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in

the block at any possible orientation.

Fig. P1.36

Solution

The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)

2A

and the angle θ for inclined plane AB is

3

tan θ = = 0.75 ∴θ = 36.8699°

4

The cross-sectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (3.00 in.)(2.00 in.) = 6.00 in.2.

(a) Since the normal stress on plane AB is given as 6 ksi, the magnitude of load P can be calculated from

Eq. (a):

2 Aσ n 2(6.0 in.2 )(6 ksi)

P= = = 56.25 kips = 56.3 kips Ans.

1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(36.8699°)

(b) The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is

P

τ nt = sin 2θ

2A

therefore, the shear stress on plane AB is

56.25 kips

τ nt = sin 2(36.8699°) = 4.50 ksi Ans.

2(6.00 in.2 )

P 56.25 kips

σ max = = = 9.3750 ksi = 9.38 ksi Ans.

A 6.00 in.2

and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is

P 56.25 kips

τ max = = = 4.6875 ksi = 4.69 ksi Ans.

2 A 2(6.00 in.2 )

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1.37 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 100

mm and a thickness of t = 75 mm. The shear stress

on plane AB of the rectangular block shown in

Fig. P1.37 is 12 MPa when the load P is applied.

Determine:

(a) the magnitude of load P.

(b) the normal stress on plane AB.

(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in the

block at any possible orientation.

Fig. P1.37

Solution

The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is

P

τ nt = sin 2θ (a)

2A

and the angle θ for inclined plane AB is

3

tan θ = = 0.75 ∴θ = 36.8699°

4

The cross-sectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (100 mm)(75 mm) = 7,500 mm2.

(a) Since the shear stress on plane AB is given as 12 MPa, the magnitude of load P can be calculated

from Eq. (a):

2 Aτ nt 2(7,500 mm 2 )(12 N/mm 2 )

P= = = 187,500 N = 187.5 kN Ans.

sin 2θ sin 2(36.8699°)

(b) The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is

P

σn = (1 + cos 2θ )

2A

therefore, the normal stress on plane AB is

187,500 N

σn = (1 + cos 2(36.8699°)) = 16.00 MPa Ans.

2(7,500 mm 2 )

P 187,500 N

σ max = = = 25.0 MPa Ans.

A 7,500 mm 2

and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is

P 187,500 N

τ max = = = 12.50 MPa Ans.

2 A 2(7,500 mm 2 )

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