Unit 1 Study Guide


The Renaissance and Reformation o Georgio Vasari  16th century painter  first to use the word renaissance y Renaissance = rebirth o Modern notion of individualism was born during the Renaissance o Humanism  Program of study including rhetoric and literature, based on what students in the classical world would have studied  Petrarch father of humanism y Became involved with works of Cicero  Civic Humanists viewed Cicero s involvement in political causes as justification to use their own classical education for the public good  Belief that ideals such as beauty or turuth exist beyond our ability to reason o The Northern Renaissance  Christian Humanists criticized the Church  Erasmus and Sir Thomas More y Erasmus translated the New Testament and played a major role in the sixteenth-century movement to better understand the life of the early Christians o Erasmus believed in reforming the Church not abandoning it y Thomas More o Wrote Utopia (nowhere) o Critical of many aspects of contemporary society and sought to depict a civilzation in which political and economic injustices were limited by having all property held in common  The Gutenberg Printing Press introduced movable type to Europe o The Protestant Reformation  Movement which resulted in the great split in Western Christendom, which dethroned the pope as the single religious authority in Europe  The humanism of the renaissance led individuals to question certain practices such as the efficacy of religious relics o Problems Facing the Church on the Eve of the Reformation

enhanced the church s power y Placed limits on the selling of church offices y Refused to concede to any point of the Protestants  Society of Jesus y Organized by Ignatius of Loyola y Ignatius though that even if the Bible didn t exist. there was still the spirit The Age of Expansion and the Rise of Monarchical States o Spain  Spanish Inquisition expulsion of Jews and Moors from Spain y Also trying to expel any Protestants . and in the worldly wealth of the church o Jan Hus  Led a revolt that combined religious and nationalistic elements  Authority of the bible and not of the church  Council of Constance Hus burned at the stake o Martin Luther  Selling of indulgences was a practice that began during the time of the Crusades  Indulgences released the buyer from purgatory o Peace of Augsburg  Granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in those territories rule by a Lutheran ruler. while a Catholic ruler ensured that the territory remained Catholic o Anabaptists  Denied the idea of infant baptism o Ulrich Zwingli + John Calvin  Zwingli strict sacramentarian in that he denied all the sacraments y Concerned with this world and called for social reform  John Calvin argued that grace was bestowed on relatively few individuals and the rest were going to hell! y Calvinism became the established church in Scotland while in France the Calvinists became known as the Huguenots o The Counter-Reformation  Also known as the Catholic Reformation  Taking steps to counteract some of the successes of the Protestants  Council of Trent dominated by the papacy. the miracle of transubstantiation. the teachers of penacnce.y o John Wycliffe  Questioned the worldly wealth of the church.

Bartholomew s Day Massacre y 20.Spain controlled Italy. who agreed to adhere to the bsic principle that the prince decides the religion of the territory o Did not grant recognition to Calvinists  The Thirty Years War y Began in Bohemia y King Ferdinand was intolerant towards Protestants y Protestant rulers were concerned that the traditional constitution of the Holy Roman Empire had been dramatically altered when the Palatinates electoral vote was given to Bavaria y Edict of Restitution outlawed Calvinism in the empire and require Lutherans to turn over all property o Led to king of Sweden to get involved o Swedes beat back the Habsburgs until their leader died y The Peace of Westphalia o Marked the end of the war o Holy Roman Empire maintained its numerous political divisions and ensured that the Emperor would remain an ineffectual force within German politics o Germany never really recovered from this until the 19th century o France  Henry of Navarre y Sought to balance out the power of the aristocratic families to protect Catherine de Medici s sons y Huguenot aristocracy  St. parts of the Netherlands and the New World  Spain launches the Armada to combat the revolts in the Netherlands and to also move on to dethrone Queen Elizabeth y Dethrone Elizabeth and instate Mary Stuart as queen because she was Catholic o The Holy Roman Empire  Peace of Augsburg y Signified the end of the religious wars in the time of Charles V.000 Huguenots killed all throughout France y Navarre promised to return to Catholicism  Cardinal Richelieu y Defeated the Huguenots and took away many of the military and political privileges given to them by the Edict  .

of Nantes (which gave Huguenots freedom of worship and assembly as well as the right to maintain fortified towns for their protection) .

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