British rule in India, which can be said to have come into being after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, was initially established in Bengal and then gradually spread to other regions. Being economically exploitative and destructive in the social fabric, it encountered resistance right from the beginning. There were innumerable peasant revolts which broke out in different parts of the country. Also, dissatisfaction among the Indian soldiers was prominent based on the grievances they had on economic, social and religious grounds. The Revolt of 1857 was the most severe outburst of anger and discontentment accumulated in the hearts of the various sections of the Indian society ever since the inception of the British rule. British historians called it a “Sepoy Mutiny” and the Indian historians called it “The First war of Independence”. Jawaharlal Nehru, in his book “Discovery of India” described it as the “Great revolt of 1857” and added that “it was much more than a military mutiny and it rapidly spread and assumed the character of a popular rebellion and a war of Indian Independence”.i In this project, I will be examining the various causes (economic, social and religious, political as well as military) of the Revolt of 1857. Then I will proceed to examine the various reasons for the failure of the Revolt (lack of planning, organization and leadership as well as Indian help to the British). And finally, I will conclude the project by providing an insight on the consequences of this Revolt (end of Company’s rule, changes in the British policy towards Indian states, end of Peshwanship and Mughal rule, reorganization of the Army, economic exploitation of India, rise of Nationalism as well as the Divide and Rule Policy).

forbidding the use of Indian textiles in Britain. instead of purchasing finished textile goods from India. this pattern of trade underwent a drastic change in the 18th Century. the little patronage that they received from the native Princes was gone because of the annexations of those . the Company used its political resources to buy the best quality cotton from the Indian markets. the East India Company confined its activities to trade and commerce and had no political intentions. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution. There was a major unemployment problem. saltpeter and foodgrains from the Indian market in exchange for gold and other precious metals. supplying raw cotton and jute to the factories of Britain. Cotton was processed into finished cloth and exported back to India. So.CAUSES OF THE REVOLT OF 1857 i) • ECONOMIC CAUSES: During the first 200 years (16th and 17th Centuries). The poor Indian weavers could not compete with the machine made goods imported from England. Moreover. England developed its own textile industry and with that. spices. In fact Indian goods became so popular in Britain that the British Government actually had to pass a law in 1720. Gradually. The Company purchased textiles. the British now purchased raw cotton and exported the same to England. However. indigo. British traders made massive profit through this two way trade. the local handloom industry incurred heavy losses and suffered badly. Also. dependence on Indian textiles came to an end. India soon became a producer of raw materials. leaving no scope for the Indian weavers to produce good quality products. the Indian handicraft and cottage industries died out. Demand for Indian textiles having reduced.

The trade and commerce of the country was monopolized by the by the East Indian Company. The people who were affected rose against the British. No efforts were made to improvise on the living conditions of the people. Also. their families were deeply affected by their impoverished state. Most of the soldiers under the East India Company came from peasant families and so. The English also established Chapels and Churches for propagating Christianity at the expense of the government. These very disgruntled landlords became leaders of the Revolt. Cruel exploitation of the economic resources caused periodic famines which added to the misery of the people. a lot of partiality was done against Indians like not giving them posts above Subehdars and salary being less than their English counterparts. especially those of Oudh. • Gradual disappearance of many states also deprived those Indians who held civil and judicial posts in the states. The religious sentiments of the people . of their jobs. a rebel attitude towards the British developed. • The general discontentment grew rapidly and strongly among the Indian soldiers. a kind of hatred and therefore. Even civil and military officers were asked to propagate the gospel. The fear was largely due to some of the activities of some Christian missionaries who openly ridiculed the customs and the traditions of both Hindus and Muslims. Naturally. ii) • SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CAUSES: Indians had a lurking suspicion that they would be converted to Christianity under the new regime. Even religious preachers were divested of their livelihood with the extinction of native kingdoms. • The British confiscated the lands and properties of many landlords and Talukdars.dominions.

In the military service the highest office that an Indian could secure is that of a Subedar. • The educated Indians were also denied high posts. Satara and Nagpur . iii) • POLITICAL CAUSES: Lord Dalhousie's policy of annexation caused an uproar among the people of India. Baji Rao's adopted son Nana Sahib was deprived of the pension his father was receiving. To make matters worse Lord Dalhousie announced in 1849 that Bahadur Shah Zafar will not be allowed to stay in the Red Fort anymore and they were compelled to move to a place near Qutab Minar. legislation for the suppression of sati and the remarriage of the widows engendered a belief that the British were determined to convert the people to Christianity. 500 only. The proposal of taking away the title from the Mughal emperor shocked the Muslims. They looked upon foreign innovations as something designed to break down the social order to which they were accustomed and which they considered sacred. his successor will not be allowed to use the title "king". The annexation of Jhansi. The highest office open to an Indian in Civil Services was that of a sadar or an Amin with an annual salary of Rs. Rani Laxmi Bai's adopted son was not given the throne after the death of his father. • The annexation of Oudh without a reason led to a huge uprising. • The spread of English education. The introduction of railways was resented on the ground that people of all castes would have to travel in the same compartments.were further hurt when a tax was imposed on property held by temples and mosques. To further worsen the situation Lord Canning announced in 1856 that with the demise of Bahadur Shah Zafar. The last Peshwa. This racial discrimination hurt Indian sentiments tremendously. the construction of railways and telegraph lines.

The remaining Hindus and Muslims who were unaffected became insecure. The Sepoys were convinced that the introduction . lest they meet the same fate. negligible. Although the Sepoys had fought and won many wars for the Company with determined devotion in the most difficult and dangerous circumstances. most of the times. • The myth about the superiority of the British was shattered when they were badly beaten in the first Afghan War. The cartridges of these rifles were greased with cow and pig fats. They were again humbled in 1855-56. The Sepoys had to remove the cartridge with their teeth before loading them into the rifles. sent overseas to fight. iv) MILITARY CAUSES: The Sepoys of the Bengal Army belonged to the high castes of Oudh and the North-Western Province. This proved that the Indian army was quite powerful. This rumour emanated from the fact that the battle of Plassey in 1757 brought about British power and with 1857 a century would be completed which will mark the end of British rule. • There was a rumour floated around that with the end of the Revolt of 1857 the British Raj would come to an end. The Bengal army lacked discipline. when they had to face the rebellion of the Santhal tribe of Bengal and Bihar. they didn’t get a fair deal.shocked the Hindus as they were predominantly Hindu states. The emoluments were very low in comparison with that of the British soldiers and their chances of promotion. which was not desirable at all as it meant loss of caste. The Sepoys were unhappy as they were. Both the Hindus and Muslims were discontented as it was against their respective religions. The bitter feeling and anger reached its highest point with the emergence of the Enfield Rifles.

Mathura. According to one estimate one-fifth of the Indian population in 1857 directly or indirectly participated in the Revolt. Azamgarh. Arrah. The 1857 Revolt began on 29th March 1857 when Mangal Pandey of the 34th infantry in Barrackpore became the first martyr. the peasants and artisans joined hands with the sepoys to fight their common enemy – the English. despite their class contradictions the zamindars. On 11th May 1857 the sepoys of the Meerut regiment captured Delhi and proclaimed the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar as their undisputed leader. Faizabad. Fatehpur. Meerut. Patna. . Delhi. Hatras. Jhansi. Lucknow. Bareilly and Roorki – these emerged as storm-centres of the Revolt. Shahjahanpur. Kanpur. Rohilkhand. As a matter of fact. Allahabad. Gwalior.of the greased cartridges was a deliberate attempt by the British to defile Hindu and Muslim religion. Dehri. Fategarh. Agra. Agra. The mutiny spread rapidly in eastern and northern India. Gorakhpur. Etawah. Bharatpur.

ii) INDIAN HELP TO THE BRITISH: Unfortunately.REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF THE REVOLT i) LACK OF PLANNING. there is nothing much the leaders could do. 1857 as decided by Nana Sahib and his colleagues. The leaders had made no plans. The Sikh princes of Nabhya. Holka and Scindia remained loyal to the British. Patiala and Kapurthala and the rulers of Hyderabad and Gwalior very openly helped the British suppress the war with men and money. But an incident at Meerut whereby the soldiers had to bite cartridges made of pig fat and cow fat added fuel to the fire leading to the revolt breaking out early. 1857. Their help at this point of time . The movement had no leader on top to guide people and command obedience. ORGANISATION AND LEADERSHIP: The revolt was supposed to have started on May 31. But since the Revolt unexpectedly broke out on May 10. some of the Indian prince's helped the British government at that point of time. Every movement requires some sort of discipline and a leader to guide and help.

Doctrine of Lapse was abandoned and . he came to be known as Viceroy while dealing with Nawabs. the rule of the Company came to an end. A secretary of State for India was to take the place of the President of the Board of Control. Rajas and native princes. With this. Further.riveted the shackles of British yoke over India for almost another century. He was advised by a board of fifteen members. ii) CHANGE IN THE BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS INDIAN STATES: To appease native princes. While he remained Governor-General for the provinces under his rule. the British declared that they would honour all treaties and the agreement entered into by the East India Company with the native rulers. whereby the administration responsibility was passed into the hands of the British Queen and her Parliament. RESULTS OF THE REVOLT i) END OF COMPANY’S RULE: The British Parliament passed an "Act for the Better Government of India" in 1858. The designation of the Governor-General was changed. The Board of Control was abolished and the Board of Directors had no power left.

India now became a dumping ground of British manufacturers and an almost inexhaustible field for investment of capital for it offered unlimited scope for commercial and industrial enterprises like railways. the continual existence of Native States was guaranteed. and coffee plantations. Thus came the end of the glorious Mughal dynasty founded by Babur in 1526 in the first battle of Panipat. iii) END OF PESHWANSHIP AND THE MUGHAL RULE: Nana Sahib escaped after the Revolt as he had actively taken part in it. the expenditure also increased. The British henceforth started abusing political power for the enhancement of their commercial and economic interest. He could not be traced after that. there were clearly defined restrictions and limitations to them. tea. With his escape the Peshwaship came to an end. steamers.the right to adoption recognized. iv) REORGANISATION OF THE ARMY: The British soldiers realized that the numerical inferiority of the British Indian army was one of the causes of the Revolt. In order to break down the unity of the Indian soldiers. The Indian princes were assured that their territories would never be annexed. The British soldiers were increased in number which means. The title of Mughal emperor was also abolished as the last Mughal emperor. However. The military prowess was greatly reduced. . Henceforth. they were divided and separated. v) ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION OF INDIA: Economic exploitation of the country was an inevitable situation after the Revolt. Artillery and other advanced means of warfare were in the care of British hands. Bahadur Shah Zafar who also took part in the Revolt died in 1862.

So much so that the unrest between the two communities has still not been resolved. As the Muslims had taken a prominent role in the Revolt. they adopted the "Divide and Rule" that completely destroyed the relationship. vii) POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE: During the Revolt of 1857 the Hindus and Muslims had unity and fought together for the welfare of the country. The British government realized that the unity of the Hindus and Muslims was posing a serious threat and therefore the best thing would be to create a wall between the two communities. Thus. The revolt became a symbol of challenge to the mighty British power in RISE OF NATIONALISM: The sacrifices of some great Indian rulers during the Revolt of 1857 aroused feelings of Nationalism among men. Nana Sahib. The British used this disharmony to their advantage and widened the gulf between the two major communities. It was on this ground that India had to be partitioned on the event of her independence in 1947. business and services and Hindus were given preferential treatment. . At a later stage the Policy was reversed. Rani of Jhansi and Bahadur Shah became National heroes. they were deprived of patronage in education.

The British left no stone unturned to create an eternal wall between Hindus and Muslims. Further more. The introduction of the greased cartridges took the situation to its highest point and thus in addition to economic. Rough treatment was meted out to the soldiers and they lived in squalor. it soon proliferated all over the country. the Doctrine of Lapse. but this Revolt clearly shows the suppressed hatred that the Indians had for the foreigners. helpless and homeless. social and political causes there were military causes added to the Revolt of 1857. whereby adopted children were refused recognition and deprived of pension. The Revolt did not take place overnight.CONCLUSION Though the revolt was started by the Indian soldiers in the service of the East India Company. The British tried to dismiss this Revolt by merely calling it a "Sepoy Mutiny". artisans and soldiers fought heroically for over a year and sacrificed their life so that others might live. The British did not even spare the Indian soldiers. The Revolt failed due to lack of . The Revolt of 1857 was clearly not a success but it is unfair to dismiss it as a mere mutiny. This was the first time when Indians got together to fight against an invincible power. There were many economic causes : the British were exploiting the Indian economy and thus leaving many people jobless. Millions of peasants. Hindus and Muslims kept their religious differences aside and fought together in order to free themselves from foreign subjugation. Many social and religious causes: the British started imposing their religion on the Indians by building churches and by forcing people to convert to Christianity. instigated the political causes of the Revolt.

organization and leadership. With the escape of Nana Sahib and the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar came the end of Peshwaship and the Mughal Rule. Indian people became more aware of the heroes. One of the most important outcomes of the Revolt was that it gave rise to Nationalism. who sacrificed their lives so that others might live. The end of the Revolt also led to the reorganization of the army and India was completely ruined from economic point of view. scarred the relationship between Hindus and Muslims with the Divide and Rule Policy. Even though the Revolt was a failure. the consequences of the Revolt were very important in the Indian history. The Revolt brought the end of Company's rule. along with changes in the British policy towards Indian States. . Had they cooperated.planning. The Revolt however. the Revolt might have been a success. The unfortunate part however was that there were some Indians who helped the British suppress the Revolt.

Delhi. 1976. 1857-1859.html . Awadh in Revolt 1857-1858: A Study in Popular Resistance.html http://www. 1959. Discovery of India (1941). Jawaharlal. Bipan. 1984.1985. 6. Karl and F.. 2. Marx. The First Indian War of Independence.U. O. Rudrangshu. Delhi.. Nehru. Modern India. 3. 5. 4.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.beta-theta.P. Mukherjee. http://www.


(1985). Pg.323. Hons.I Section. Discovery of India (1946).(Political Science) Year. Jawaharlal Nehru. O..371 1. .A.U.P.Arpita Bhuyan B.A Roll no.

2. Industrial Revolution. . This change came over in Britain in the second half of the 18th Century.Social and economic change resulting from the introduction of machines and the development of large scale production.

3. . First Afghan War.It was fought between British India and Afghanistan from 1839-1842.This was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie. Doctrine Of Lapse. who was the Governor General of India between 1848-1856. 4.

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