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Crime DA Done

Crime DA Done

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Published by David Trigaux

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Published by: David Trigaux on Oct 14, 2010
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USFSP Debate

Crime DA

Trigaux 2010

1NC Shell Increased migration will cause increased gang populations, crime, and violence Carlie 2(Michael K. ± PhD in sociology, ³The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs,´
http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/what_I_learned_about/gangs/racial_composition.htm) This situation is developing in communities across the United States and in other countries as well.The

inability of people from different nations or races to accommodate each another in the same cityor neighborhood sometimes leads to conflict.This is evident in gang neighborhoods where rental properties and transient populations abound.There is little stability in those neighborhoods and they are socially disorganized.When I began my research on gangs I thought most gang members in the United States were African-Americans. That's

what the mass media seemed to portray. But the reality of the streets was quite different. "The 1998 National Youth Gang Survey revealed that Hispanics were the predominant racial/ethnic group among all gang members nationwide. As shown in Table 19 (below), Hispanics accounted for 46 percent of all gang members, followed by African Americans (34 percent), Caucasians (12 percent), Asians (6 percent), and other races (2 percent)." By 1999 those proportions had changed only slightly to be 47% Hispanic, 31% African-American, 13% Caucasian, and 7% Asian.The proportion of gang members who are Hispanichas been steadily growing, as have the number of Hispanics living in the United States. The estimated number of Hispanics living in the United States increased from 27,107,000 in 1995 to 32,832,000 in 2000 - an increase of approximately 20% in five years. This

increase, due primarily to immigrationand a high birth rate among Hispanics, is now being felt beyond the sunbelt states as Hispanics move into communities throughout the United States.While the vast majority of Hispanics in the United States are hard-working and make important contributions to the communities in which they live, somedisaffected Hispanic youth contribute to the growing Hispanic gang phenomenon. An ethnically diverse population immigrating into the United States results in a more ethnically diverse gang population. It has been that way since peoples of other lands first began immigrating to the United States. For

example, in the late 1890's through the first decade of the 1900's, many people from Ireland and Italy immigrated to the United States. At that time, Irish and Italian street gangs were commonplace. Decades later we have other ethnic minorities immigrating here and, as is often the case, a small proportion of their members are represented in the gang population. If anything became clear to me over the past three years it was thatthe of the Asians as exemplified by their emphasis on education and entrepreneurial skills),

most recently arrived minority, unless supremely well suited to compete in American society (as are many will likely find a portion of its youth disenfranchised ... and they may turn to gangs as a means of rebelling, finding a place for themselves, or for earning an income, among other things. This is referred to in the
literature as the "immigration gang tradition" (Miller, 2001, p. 43). While data on the racial and ethnic composition of gangs suggest they are predominantly Hispanic, African-American, and Caucasian, what's missing is a look inside those ethnic and racial groups. According to the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey (2000), Respondents estimated thatmore than one-third (36 percent) of their youth gangs had a significant mixture of two or more racial/ethnic groups. The largest proportion of these ³mixed gangs´ was in small cities, where they represented 54 percent of all gangs, and the smallest proportion was in large cities (32 percent). The proportion of mixed gangs was larger in the Midwest than in any other region. Not only are some gangs composed of a mixture of people from different racial and/or ethnic groups, within these racial and ethnic groups there are wide variations and accompanying conflicts. Depending upon their roots, these populations may or may not associate with one another peaceably. Within the category of "Hispanic," for example, are Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorians, Dominicans, Colombians, Panamanians, and others. The situation is the same concerning African-Americans. Depending upon which African nation an individual comes from, his or her relations with others of African descent may vary. Antagonisms sometimes exist between West Indian blacks ("Afro-Caribbeans," as they are sometimes called, who come from such places as Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Trinidad, Barbados, and Haiti) and blacks from the African continent (i.e., Ghana, Somalia, Kenya, Senegal, and Nigeria, as well as between ethnically divergent tribes within those nations). Conflicts also arise between continental Africans. Conflict and distrust within the Asian community also exists and may be observed at the gang level between Asians who are natives of the Philippines, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and other Asian nations. Conflicts between all of these ethnicities

One can see, therefore, ideological, political, cultural, and personal conflicts between gang youth from different nations, regardless of whether they are all Hispanic, African-American, or Asian.Their relationships with each othermay sometimes be characterized as distrustful, disrespectful, and violent.The point here is that knowledge of the diversity which exists within larger ethnic categories helps us understand some gang
(Hispanic, African, Asian) are sometimes ancient in origin and often fueled by current world events. behaviors and may guide efforts to reduce the most harmful of them.

USFSP Debate

Crime DA

Trigaux 2010

Uniqueness²Crime is down in the SQ
Jansen 2010
Kim, AP, ³Times are tough, but crime is down´ Chicago Sun Times September 14, 2010 http://www.suntimes.com/news/24-7/2705954,CST-NWS-crime14.article

Nationally, violent crime is down for the third straight year.Property crime for the seventh.And experts are hard-pressed to explain why Violent crimes dropped 5.3 percent last year, the FBI said Monday, and property crimes fell 4.6 percent.Typically crime rates head up when the economy heads down.So this trend is "one of these welcome puzzles,"says Richard Rosenfeld of the American Society of Criminology. "This is forcing us to think more
seriously under what conditions economic activity influences crime."Violent crime fell in Chicago by 6.6 percent last year, and property crime declined by 9.3 percent

Link²the affirmative lets more immigrants into the country, causing ethnic clash, poverty, and social disenfranchisement, which leads to the formation of gangs and increased crime and violence²that¶s Carlie in 2002. If the Affirmative allows any new individuals into the nation, they trigger our impacts. Carlie doesn¶t reference mass movements of new foreign nationals, but rather the perception that more foreigners are coming. Their evidence is non-responsive to our perception link

USFSP Debate

Crime DA

Trigaux 2010

2NC Impact Scenario: Drug Trafficking
1. Gangs are migrating to expand drug markets and other criminal trades U.S. Department of Justice 9(³Gangs, Gang Membership, and Comprehensive Strategies´

In the last decade, the media, the public and law enforcement agencies have cited gang migration as a growing trend. The perception of gang migration may stem not only from the spread of gangs into new territories, but may also from the popularization and allure of gang culture in popular culture. Street gangs have

traditionally been associated with inner-city neighborhoods. Many observers, including law enforcement practitioners and academics, cite as a growing trend the movement of gangs into suburban and rural neighborhoods. Factors contributing to this geographic expansion may include increasedpressure by law enforcement operations in urban settings as well as thedesire of gangs to expand their lucrative markets for drug and other illegal enterprises. 2. Drugs Cause Crime White House.gov 6(7/26/06, http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html, accessed 7/31/10) Drugs are related to crime in multiple ways.Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse (such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines).Drugs are also related to crimethrough the effects they have on the user's behavior and by generating violence and other illegal activity in connection with drug trafficking. The chart below summarizes the various ways that drugs and crime are related. Drug-related offenses and drug-using lifestyles are major contributors to the U.S. crime problemand are the focus of this fact sheet. Drug Use and Its Relation to the Commission of Crimes The U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services (HHS) conducts an annual National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) that asks individuals living in households about their drug and alcohol use and their involvement in crimes (see table 1). Provisional data for 1997 show that respondents arrested in the past year for possession or sale of drugs and driving under the influence had the highest percentage of illicit drug use in the past year. Past year illicit drug users were also about 16 times more likely than nonusers to report being arrested and booked for larceny or theft; more than 14 times more likely to be arrested and booked for such offenses as driving under the influence, drunkenness, or liquor law violations; and more than 9 times more likely to be arrested and booked on an assault charge. The annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) asks victims of violent crimes who reported seeing the offender whether they perceived the offender to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol

This snowballs our impact into a vicious cycle of structural violence that can¶t be stopped

3. Drug trafficking funds terrorism, and destroys sovereignty, democracy, and human

Oscapella 2001
Eugene Oscapella -- Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy, October 29, 2001 ³How Drug Prohibition Finances and Otherwise Enables Terrorism´ http://www.cfdp.ca/eoterror.htm Drug trafficking has, throughout this century, been an international enterprise and hence an international problem. However, the ever increasing

vast sums of money involved and the increasing links with transnational organized crime and terrorist organizations constitute a threat which is increasingly serious in both its nature and extent.Illicit drug trafficking now threatens peace and security at a national and international level. It affects the sovereignty of some states, the right of self-determination and democratic government, economic, social and political stability and the enjoyment of human rights.

scale of the traffic, the apparent efficiency of organization and sophistication,the

USFSP Debate

Crime DA

Trigaux 2010

2NC Impact Scenario: Economy
1. Increases in crime can cripple the U.S. economy Lovik 8(John Leonard, journalist, Sept 15 ³U.S. Crime Affects Economy´
http://crime.suite101.com/article.cfm/costs_of_crime_threaten_us_law_enforcement) According to a United Nations report posted by MSNBC,the United States is the leading country in financial loss due to violent crimes; the cost estimated around 45 billion dollars. During a time of recession, this information sheds more light on the impact crime has on our society. Combined with the very real struggle law enforcement agencies face to retain employees and maintain budgets, the report signals a very serious factor degrading our communities.The U.N. report takes several factors into account when investigating each country's financial lost. The initial cost of a violent death is decided by a handful of factors, including: 1) Medical Care 2) Legal Proceedings 3) Lost Investment 4) Property Damage.On top of this, the report also tries to take into account the lost earning potential that occurs when a victim is either killed or hospitalized due to their injuries. In short, the report has found a number that they believe best constitutes the causal cost of crime as well as the lost efficiency due to crime.With

the cost of living increasing, the quality of a community's schools, roads, and utilities are put in question as budgets have to constantly be adjusted for what seems like endless cuts. In an impoverished area with high rates of violent crime, such as inner-cities, these budgets can be

even more restrained as they bear the burden of these crimes.

2. Crime will destroy the U.S. economy AP 8 (Sept 12, ³U.N.: Armed killings cost U.S. $45 billion yearly,´ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26671707/) JJN The United States leads the world in economic loss from deaths caused by armed crime,according to a global survey released Friday.The United States registered an estimated loss of up to $45.1 billion in terms of economic productivity because of violent crimes, said the
report by the U.N. Development Program and the Geneva-based Small Arms Survey. At least 490,000 people are killed in armed crimes each year worldwide,placing a huge economic cost and social burden on nations, the report said. The report did not give a country-by-country breakdown of the numbers of people killed in armed crimes. But the report said that Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica and South Africa are among the countries with the highest numbers of recorded violent crimes in the world.More

people are killed worldwide in violent crimes every year than in wars, it said, phenomenon of armed killings and its economic impact on nations is largely underreported.In the 90 countries surveyed, the economic cost from people killed by arms each year is estimated to
asserting thatthe total between $95 billion and $163 billion, according to the report."These estimates are based on calculations of the 'lost product' that is

people ² had they lived ² would have contributed as any other individual as productive members of society. Their deaths represent a loss that can be quantified," he told The Associated Press. The
represented by premature deaths from armed violence," said AchimWennmann of the Small Arms Survey."These cost arising from these deaths includes a wide range of expenses from medical care, legal proceedings, and lost earnings to lost investment, the 162-page report said. Wennmann said the report was based on figures compiled by international organizations and national authorities. The most recent available statistics from all the 90 countries surveyed were from 2004, said Wennmann, one of the editors of the report. He said they had more recent statistics from North America. In 2007, the region lost up to $46.76 billion from armed violence, he said. The vast majority of that loss ² up to $44.8 billion ² occurred in the United States, said Wennmann.

USFSP Debate

Crime DA

Trigaux 2010

3. Economic collapse causes nuclear war- extinction Broward 9 ((Member of Triond) http://newsflavor.com/opinions/will-an-economic-collapse-kill-you/ AD: 7-7-09 ) Now its time to look at the consequences of a failing world economy.Withfive offical nations having nuclear weapons,and four more likely to have them there could be major consequences of another world war. The first thing that will happen after an economic collapse will be war over resources. The United States currency will become useless and will have no way of securing reserves. The United States has little to no capacity to produce oil,it is totally dependent on foreign oil. If the United States stopped getting foreign oil, the government would go to no ends to secure more,if there were a war with any other major power over oil, likeRussia or China, these wars would most likely involve nuclear weapons. Once one nation launches a nuclear weapon, there would of course be retaliation,and with five or more countries with nuclear weapons there would most likely be a world nuclear war. The risk is so high that acting to save the economy is the most important issue facing us in the 21st century

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