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"The Temple of Juno at Agrigentum.00/0 ? 1983 by Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal. Volume 20 0079-0958/83/20061-008$3. Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal. Inc." 1830.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 61 61 Heidegger'sThinkingon Architecture Caspar David Friedrich.. and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
"2 The example moreover shows that a building according to Heidegger is. eagle and bull. done for its own sake. Hofstadter (New York:Harper& Row. Only from and in this expanse does the nation first return to itself for the fulfillment of its vocation. rather it presents. assuming of course that we have. he does so to illuminate the nature of the work of art. and its own repose brings out the raging of the sea. it brings something into presence. victory and disgrace. . It simply stands there in the middle of the rock-cleftvalley. In the things that arise. are never present and familiar as unchangeable objects. a Greek temple. The temple. The Greeks called this emerging and rising in itself and in all things phusis. Such an exposition may also contribute to a better understanding of the complex environmental problems of our time." That is. the breadth of the sky. Poetry. first gives to things their look and to men their outlook on themselves. a work of art. rather. p. Deliberately he chooses to describe a work "that cannot be ranked as representational. an eye for how differently everything then faces us. The temple and its precinct. As a work of art the building "preserves truth. in its standing there. Standing there. The temple-work. also. which one fine day is added to what is already there. yet first brings to light the light of the day. This resting of the work draws up out of the rock the mystery of that rock's clumsy yet spontaneous support. His concept of being-inthe-world implies a man-made environment. But men and animals. but we shall also have to refer to other writings 1 Martin Heidegger. 2 Poetry. Thought. Language. We shall get closer to what is. portrays nothing. standing there. plants and things. An exposition of Heidegger's thinking on architecture therefore ought to be a part of our interpretation of his philosophy. The luster and gleam of the stone."a major example is taken from architecture. that on which and in which man bases his dwelling.' What does this passage tell us? Firstof all we have to consider the context in which the quotation is used. snake and cricket first enter into their distinctive shapes and thus come to appear as what they are. only to represent incidentally also a fitting environment for the temple. endurance and decline acquire the shape of destiny for human being.Christian Norberg-Schulz 62 62 Heidegger did not leave us any text on architecture. Standing there. or with the merely astronomical idea of a planet. ed.The steadfastness of the work contrasts with the surge of the surf. do not fade away into the indefinite. We call this ground the earth. This presence of the god is in itself the extension and delimitation of the precinct as a holy precinct. the building rests on the rocky ground. the building holds its ground against the storm raging above it and so first makes the storm itself manifest in its violence.if we think of all this in reverse order." Whatis thus preserved. What this word says is not to be associated with the idea of a mass or matter deposited somewhere. the god is present in the temple. The all-governing expanse of this open relational context is the world of this historical people. The temple's firm towering makes visible the invisible space of air. In his essay "The Origin of the Workof Art. Tree and grass. disaster and blessing. 36. Thought. Mere reversing."he explicitly refers to the art of building. By means of the temple. to begin with. and how is it done? The quotation indicates answers to both questions. or may be. which itself only thus emerges as native ground. 41ff. earth is present as the sheltering agent. however. Earth is that whence the arising brings back and shelters everything that arises without violation. opens up a world and at the same time sets this world back again on earth. the work of art does not represent. pp. It is the templework that first fits together and at the same time gathers around itself the unity of those paths and relations in which birth and death. The building encloses the figure of the god. Heidegger defines this something as "truth. 1971). the darkness of the night. reveals nothing. and in this concealment lets it stand out into the holy precinct through the open portico. and when discussing the problem of "dwelling poetically. yet it plays an important role in his philosophy. Language. When Heidegger mentions the temple. which we shall use as our point of departure: A building. It clears and illuminates. though itself apparently glowing only by the grace of the sun.
Thought. which taneously with the housing of the god. see."3 the references made in the discussion of T'hisfactum is revealed when a world is opened up to give things their look. as was already suggested by held forth into the Open by the work. In doas death." and calls this however. p. 6 Poetry." In doing this. emphasizes that "it is not the "multifariousbetween" the world. and death. is taken care of called mortals because they can die. it gives to things their look. and consider man or society its origin. the drifting clouds In holy precinct for the god is formed. at a better understanding of Heidegger's As the totality of things. Second. ment.and ontologically as the Being of these fhings. the course are certainly not introduced as an ornaof the moon. the temple's standing. plant and animal. cepts. Language. it is and thing are hence interdependent conwhich we have to consider to arrive given here and now. 3 Poetry. In "The Origin of the Workof Art" Heidegger does not offer any true explanation. Heidegger. Language.6The mirror-playmay Heidegger's interpretation of architecture be understood as an open "between. fecit' that is to be made known. Being and Time (New York:Harper. wants to remind us of the fact that our To understand what all this means. and may even seem bewildering. 93. the clemency and inclemency extension and delimitation. nourishing there.5 ing this.prominent places. is not explicit. being used to thinking again on earth. thus. tutes the world. the given place possesses a hidden meaning which is revealed by the The divinities are the beckoning temple. mortals and divinities. are.the temple makes the god present. and towers into the air. p. he defines components. Neske. the glitter of the stars. Out of tiny of the people present. Today Heidegger in fact talks about man's stay we are used to thinking of art in terms of "between earth and sky. of the day and the darkness of the night. between work and word. the hidden sway of the divinities the done simulbut it is implied that this is god emerges as what he is. the naThe what in our question comprises three ture of world can only be indicated. Ratherthan being conceived as a distant world of ideas. 7 Martin Heidegger. rock. . 13. Final. the plants. and even the light later writings he offers an interpretation of this wherein as a fourfold of earth. 1957). between joy and pain.N.4In his earth visible: the rock.the simple 'factum est' crete totality. tending water and it temple does not stand anywhere. Fourtimes Heidegger repeats that the temple does what it does by "standEarth is the building bearer. dusk of day. How the building makes the desmessengers of the godhead. 179. that Heidegger's world is a conis to be Rather. In particular. the temple makes all the things of the wherein a human being is living. Thought. the may of science. 178. Hebel der Hausfreund(Pfullingen: G.the word means the ly. between birth expression and representation. Ratherthey indicate that temples the year's seasons. 5 Poetry. They all belong tobut that the building first makes the which constigether in a "mirror-play" things emerge as what they are. p. however. other words. shapes the destiny of human being. we everyday life-world really consists of concrete things. Language. stands there. the animals. whereby a of the weather."The words rock-cleftvalley The sky is the sun's path. finally." Both words are important. the gloom and glow of By means of the building the place gets night.7We 'N. mirrorsthe others. Heidegger also emphasizes that the temEach of the four is what it is because it ple is not added to what is already there. They are tion of the earth. it sets truth of world in terms of physical. p. Thought. Again we may and at the same time sets this world back feel bewilderment. removes him from any comparison that is: the fate of the people is also intiwith beings that are present. In his essay on Johan Peter Hebel. 1962). of Heidegger's to arrive at the needed understanding. The visualizamortals are human beings. the air. Evidently Heidegger into work. The ing with its fruits. Thus he says: how. "in the middle of the rockcleft valley. rather than the abstractions look at the second question." In Being and Time. the light and are built in particular. social or cultural structures. First. 65." wherein things appear as what they as a "setting-into-work of truth" is new. the sea. it fits together what world ontically as the totality of things. p. and he even remarks that "here. Thus it rests on by To die means to be capable of death the ground. the world is howtheory.Christian Norberg-Schulz 63 63 4 Martin Heidegger. the temple "opens up a world sky. In general. The mately related to the place. World the Greek temple. and blue depth of the ether.
for an historical people it's earth."18 What.. the world they gather. but the names keep them. What Heidegger wants to reveal in his examples. but to denote things that are disclosed through the gathering of the bridge." Man dwells in language. the temple relates to all of them. Language. . Before they were just transient phenomena. he introduced the term Andenken to indicate that kind of genuine thought which is needed to disclose a thing as a gathering. is the origin of poetical images? Heidegger answers explicitly: . Heidegger accordingly defines language as the "House of Being. the selfclosing ground on which it rests together with everything that already is. 75.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 64 13 Poetry. Thus Heidegger says: The bridge gathers the earth as landscape around the stream .10 guage. and ask for an interpretation which discloses their thingness."9 Heidegger also offers examples to illustrate the nature of the thing. Language. This disclosure happens in poetry. 74. implicitly. Language is therefore the original art. jug. first brings beings to word and to appearance. When things are named for the first time. The jug."8Thus he says: "Things visit mortals with a world. Both examples are relevant in our context. 194ff. however. p. 12 Poetry. Language. the human beings. only when and only as long as [we respect] language's own nature. by naming beings for the first time. is opened up. p. In this kind of thought language comes to play a primary role as a source of understanding. Of course. and. window-at best: column. p. they are recognized as what they are. Human life takes place on earth.'6 Language's own nature is poetical. As a thing. that is. Heidegger calls this to "dwell poetically. and a world is opened up.. thus. The banks emerge as banks only as the bridge crosses the stream. is the thingness of the things. Language. p. tower. 200. Thought. Thought.. This is the earth and. Thought. and is deliberately created to reveal a world. Heidegger says. Just as he does not understand art as representation. 15 We may in this context be reminded of Rilke'sIX Elegy: "Arewe perhaps here to say: house. Language. Language. It is.. and makes them appear as what they are. Language keeps the world but is used to say a world. then. ever not a mere collection of objects. p. as is a bridge. 18 Poetry. 152. Naturalthings." 16 Poetry. Language. Thought. fountain.however. p."" Later. 215." The temple is manmade. When Heidegger wrote "The Origin of the Workof Art" he had not yet arrived at the concept of the fourfold. and "the nature of the image is to let something be seen. fruit tree. Thought. and an authentic existence becomes possible. and in general in language which "itself is poetry in the essential sense. at the same time as they are united into a "simple onefold. which prevails in virtue of the relation of human being to the unconcealedness of Being. Thought.p. By contrast.the sky.. 9 Poetry. [We receive] 10 Poetry. Language. 174.. In Being and Time the technique used was called "phenomenology." 7 What this means is beau- 17 Poetry. its world. p. 226. . but in the description of the Greek temple all the elements are there: the god. though still hidden from itself. at the same time as its elements emerge as what they are. based on habit and convention. 14 Poetry. also gather the fourfold. 58ff. and discloses "that into which human being as historical is already cast. ."'3 The last quotation shows that in order to grasp Heidegger's theory of art we also have to consider his notion of language. however. and they gather the fourfold each in their own way. copies and imitations are mere variations on the genuine image . forms part of that equipment which constitutes man's proximal environment. which lets the invisible be seen . gate. It does not just connect banks that are already there. the earth. whereas the bridge is a building which discloses more comprehensive properties of the surroundings. that is: when he listens to and responds to language the world which he is. p. Thought.. The bridge thus makes a place come into presence. he cannot accept the interpretation of language as a means of communication."'4 The quotation is important because it tells us that the earth and the world of an historical people are what they are because they are related to the earth and the world in general. 11 Being and Time. bridge. p. Poetry speaks in images. A jug is a thing. and the bridge makes this fact manifest. The words "earth" and "landscape" are not used here as mere topographical concepts. When Heidegger understands the thing as a manifestation of the fourfold he revives the original meaning of thing as a coming together or "gathering. tifully shown by Heidegger in his analysis of Trakl'spoem "AWinter Evening."15 Thus he says: But where do we humans get our information about the nature of dwelling and poetry? ."2 "Lan- it from the telling of language. and when we use language poetically the house of being is opened. 8 Poetry. Language. Thought. Thought. 73.
. it becomes part of the immediate here and now. 135. By themselves. 25 Hebel der Hausfreund. but we have to emphasize that its quality as a work of art does not reside in its being a representation. Thought. Heidegger says. Mnemosyne is also simultaneously human and divine." An inhabited landscape obviously is a known landscape. but the work of art speaks for them.. the most fugitive. that is. which he relates to the regions of life and death. p.. In Being and Time Heidegger points out that "what is withinthe-world ." Heidegger points out that the Greeks already understood the relation between memory and poetry. It is therefore not a mathematical." The word opens up the world.28 Already in his early magnum opus. Thus Heidegger says that a man dwells "between work and word. VortrageundAufsatze II (Pfullingen:G. we first have to say a few more words about man-made things as such. p. This landscape is brought close to us by the buildings. sunset and midnight. understand "thought" in the sense of Andenken. as the disclosure of "thingness" or the "Being of beings. at the same time as it discloses the nature of this space by standing there. and below as what is on the floor. Although poetry is the original art. memory.25 This statement offers a clue to the problem of architectural gathering."'9 The German word for memory. Being a goddess. Thus the building defines a precinct. 26 In Hebel der Hausfreund. humans and divinities. in particular works of architecture. and are hence to be understood as non-representational images. p. 28 Being and Time. the work gives the world presence. Language. which implies that the memories which give rise to art are our understanding of the relationship between earth and sky. the landscape is revealed as what it is in truth. look to us. The poetic image is therefore truly integral." Heidegger says. 20 Poetry. He also mentions sunrise. 23 Poetry. What is a non-representational image? To answer this question. 151." Here we must."27 and explains the concrete nature of this space referring to above as what is on the ceiling. What is gathered. and specially construct things that do not grow. p.6 or in other words. whereby the latter is disclosed in its being.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 65 65 19 Martin Heidegger. it does not exhaust the disclosure of truth. memory is kept in language."23 Therefore "mortals nurse and nurture things that grow. What. was the mother of the Muses. Language." But it also has to be "set-into-work. 22 Poetry. but its thingness is hidden and has to be disclosed by a work. 7. In general he points out that spatiality (Raumlichkeit) is a property of being-in-the-world. isomorphic space."20 In other words. but a "lived space" between earth and sky. p. and radically different from the analytic categories of logic and science. p. 151. What a poem and a work of art have in common is the quality of image. is a landscape? A landscape is a space where human life takes place. do not portray anything. 11. 24 Poetry. and the things which constitute the place have to be dis- closed in their immediate presence. or a space in the narrower sense of the word. In poetic language truth is brought "to word."24 Buildings are such constructed things." "Memory is the source of poetry. is the "inhabited landscape. 21 We may again recall Rilke'sIXElegy: "Andthese things.Heidegger explicitly considers villages and cities "buildings"in this context. and her daughters are hence understood as the children of a complete world: earth. for rescue. something that is gewohnt. "Only image formed keeps the vision. that is. the notion of the fourfold was implicit. Thought. and he adds: "Yet image formed rests in the poem. is also within space.. As a gathering it mirrors the fourfold in its way. Thought. he "saves the earth. 1954). however. p. Gedachtnis. midday. A work is in addition a thing. Neither earth alone nor sky alone produces a work of art. awaits the divinities and initiates the mortals. with Zeus as the father. Language. The discussion of the Greek temple indicates the nature of spatiality.22 When man stays with things in a fourfold way. Language.2' In "The Origin of the Work of Art" Heidegger shows how van Gogh's painting of a pair of peasant shoes reveals the thingness of the shoes. In the work the world is set back on earth. Neske. Zeus needed memory to bring forth art: Mnemosyne herself was the daughter of the earth and the sky. sky. which gather a world and allow for dwelling. means "what has been thought. Thought. 137. that live only in passing .p." Human life takes place between earth and sky in a concrete sense. whereas a thing proper does not possess the quality of image. that is.. however. receives the sky. Van Gogh's painting may be called a representational image. Other works of art. It is this kind of disclosure which is accomplished by the Greek temple. 150. In the Hebel essay Heidegger says: The buildings bring the earth as the inhabited landscape close to man and at the same time place the nearness of neighbourly dwelling under the expanse of the sky. the shoes are mute. Heidegger in fact emphasizes that "Staying with things is the only way in which the fourfold stay within the fourfold is accomplished at any time . In his essay "Building Dwelling 27 Being and Time. To them the goddess Mnemosyne. . 13.
Architecture occurs in the boundary as an embodiment of world. As the image comprises an elevation. (but) because it produces things as locations. The location makes room for the fourfold and simultaneously discloses the fourfold as a built thing. p. Space is therefore not given a priori. The earth thus keeps the world that is opened up. The simultaneous opening and keeping may be understood as a conflict which Heidegger calls the "rift"(Riss). as it does not treat the problems of the architecturalGestalt as such."30 location or "lived space" is generally called a place. 40 Poetry. the dark glow of colours."40 Here Heidegger's thinking on the art of building stops. Language. rests and towers. "Building never shapes pure 'space' as a single entity . 38 Poetry. Language.38 a In building the threshold separates and simultaneously unites an outside and an inside. 37 Poetry. 35 Die Kunst und der Raum. (space) originates from raumen. p. he certainly laid a foundation for the 31 Martin Heidegger. it is a thing rather than a mere geometrical diagram. Thinking"Heidegger makes this more precise. Together. p." "The place opens a domain. "Standing there" as elevation. Language.. In his analysis of Trakl's"A Winter Evening. Thought. which he. 154."36 The world. building is closer to the nature of space and to the origin of the nature of 'space' than any geometry and A mathematics." saying: "This thinking on building does not presume to discover architectural ideas. These embodiments are the characters which constitute the place. whereas the earth as embodi- ment provides a boundary. p. the simply belong to the place."Gestalt is the structure in whose shape the riftcomposes and submits itThe word Gestalt evidently could self. 63. Setting back on earth means embodiment. but to help man to get back to authentic dwelling. as an embodiment of a difference. that is. however. 32 Die Kunst und der Raum." Heidegger shows how the threshold carries the unity and difference of world and thing (earth)."29 Admittance (Einraumen)and installment (Einrichten)are the two aspects of spatiality as location. 39 Poetry. what is alien and what is habitual. rather. offers a measure to things. 36 Poetry. that is."32 learn to understand that the things themselves are the places and that they do not Second. 11. p. The rift is fixed in place by a Grund-rissas well as an Auf-riss.Christian Norberg-Schulz Norberg-Schulz 66 66 29 Poetry. the boundary is that from which A something begins its presencing. Gallen. p. 41 Poetry.' whereby we gain an important clue to the understanding of the architecturalimage. In German its nature is beautifully shown by language itself."4' The statement clearly shows that for Heidegger the arts have their particular professional problems. 1969). Language. that is. as a philosopher. p. did not feel qualified to discuss."39 be replaced by 'image."33 are embodied by means of sculpplaces tural forms. 34 Die Kunst und der Raum. p. as the word Riss means rift as well as plan. the dumb hardness of wood.3'First he points out that the German word Raum. we may say that a place is determined (be-dingt) by its boundary. Language.. 158. It is a gathering middle where an outlook on the world is opened up and set back on earth. p. p. whereby the twofold nature of spatiality again becomes apparent. . Boundary and threshold are constituent elements of place. All the same. let alone give rules for building. the "freeing of places for human dwelling. Thus Heidegger says: "A boundary is not that at which something stops but. Thought. Language. saying that buildings are locations and that "the location admits the fourfold and installs the fourfold. 145. but is provided for by locations. that is. that the fourfold is brought into a thing through the act of building. or in other words.34 Sculptural embodiment is therefore the "incarnation of the truth of Being in a work which founds its place. They form part of a figure which discloses the spatiality in question. "The conflict. is not a riftas a mere cleft is ripped open."37 boundary may also be understood as a threshold. In general this lines up with Heidegger's saying that the building sets the world back on earth. In a certain sense it stops outside architecture itself.it is the intimacy with which opponents belong together. Thought. and architecture may be defined as the making of places."35 Heidegger's statements here may be related to his description of the temple as a body which stands. Ifwe refer this to our context. In a late essay "Artand Space. 202. 12. Thought. Thought. thus. by a plan and an elevation. Thought. the architectural image sets the rift "back into the heavy weight of stone. in the sense of poiesis. 64. 30 Poetry. p. p. 13. And in fact Heidegger starts his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking. Thought. His aim was not to offer any explanation. Thought. plan and elevation make up a figure or Gestalt. The thingness of a building is hence determined by its being between earth and sky as a sculptural form. 10." Heidegger in more detail discusses the twofold nature of spatiality." "The rift does not let the opponents break apart. it brings the opposition of measure and boundary into their common outline. in gathering things "We must which here belong together. as the Greeks recognized. 158. Language. Die Kunst und der Raum (St. Language. 63. 33 Die Kunst und der Raum.
" A work of architecture is therefore not an abstract organization of space. Heidegger explicitly distinguishes spaappear as variations on archetypes. Heidegger's thinking shows great consistency and may certainly be understood as a "way. tiality from space in a mathematical sense."which got its classical manifest as a particularbetween of earth definition in the slogan "Formfollows and sky. At a moment of the fourfold. and comes into presence confusion and crisis."In our opinion. or tower. it may help us to arrive at an authentic understanding of our through the buildings which bring it close to man. Standing there. field. and lets him dwell poetically. and actschematic and characterless environment. also stand." Already in Being and Time. however. 47 It is therefore something more than a matter of convenience when architects present their projects by means of plans and elevations. 203."The discussion of the Greek temple illustrates this idea. 45 On several occasions Heidegger uses the German word Ort. The general point of departure is the thought that the world only emerges as what it is. The later essays on "TheThing"(1950) and "BuildingDwelling Thinking"(1951) as well as the late text on "Artand Space" (1969). clarifyand organize the thoughts contained in "TheOriginof the Workof Art. scape cannot be isolated from human life and from what is divine. stiften die Dichter. "TheOriginof the Workof Art" (1935) does not represent a new departure. Between the two wars. but only cerfer to modes of being-in-the-world in tain of its aspects. The into presence consists in what it gathers. The natural and man-made things which constitute the boundaries of the be. architectural landscape denominates the spatiality practice was founded on the concept of of the fourfold. standing. and demonstrated that his Andenken may bring us far "on the way to architecture. when it is "said" or "set into work. Thus Heidegger quotes Holderlin's dictum: Watbleibt aber. water and air. Duringthe last ply that man's being-in-the-world mirrors decades it has become increasingly clear the between of earth and sky. it is impossible to consider the world separately from language. man also has to set truth into Heidegger does not offer any further exwork.) may be translated with "domain"or "region. gable. therefore. The very fact that nominating a domain (Gegend) of things language names these things. that is. and enter the field of and sky. It is an embodied Gestalt. Spatiality is a concrete term dearch. and the world it brings ple."42 To sum up. These aspects are terms of spatiality. be derived directly from the When we say that life takes place. as column. But it also suggests that landarchitecturaltheory proper. light and darkness. Although the possibilities are infinite. Heidegger emphasized that "discourse is existentially equiprimordial with In state-of-mind and understanding. tween. suggests its nature.what remains." remake a total world visible. The inhabited Heidegger's thinking on architecture is of landscape therefore is a manifestation of great immediate interest. which is the ultimate aim of architecture. but rather brings us a step further on the way. the factum est. We could also say that inhabited field. proves which constitute an inhabited landscape. thus. 46 This is also how the world is described in Genesis I. stating that the work "opens up a world" and "first gives to things their look. It is the "luster and gleam of the stone which brings to light the light of the day. Language names things which "visit man with a world. We all know some of these. The problem of meaning in ar- . is founded by the poets. The primary purpose of architecture planation of the architecturalGestalt or is hence to make a world visible. A work of architecture therefore discloses the spatiality of the fourfold through its standing there. p. resting. It does image. pp." and "towering. however.4 But here we go beyond the limits fers to several concrete elements of earth of the present essay. spatiality and building were implicit already in Being and Time (1927). rest and tower. 43 Being and Time. thing. implies that what is standing must be understood as a materialized image. This spatiality becomes "functionalism. dome.Christian Norberg-Schulz 67 67 42 It is interesting to notice that Heidegger's basic ideas on world.47Thus it brings the inhabited landscape close to man. as a place." "resting. 44 Heidegger's term Gegend (in Gelassenheit." This sentence presents Heidegger's thinking on architecture in a nutshell! We have already pointed out that To give the world immediate presence." and man's access to the world is through listening and responding to language. words "extension. which is understood as the House of Being. Pfullingen 1959. 38ff. the modes always comprised in the concept of spatiality. hardly intending it in a radicalfunctionalist sense. it admits life to happen in a concrete place of rocks and plants. the breadth of the sky. Thus they embody characters which mirror man's state-ofmind (Befindlichkeit)."49 The architecturalsolution should. animals and men.for instance in "Artand Space" where we read: "DerOrt offnet jeweils eine Gegend. we impatterns of practical use.4 their importance as types of images The Greek example in fact starts with the which visualize the basic structure of spaimage of a rock-cleftvalley and later retiality. indem er die Dinge auf das Zusammengehoren in ihr versammelt." 48 We may infer that a theory and history of archetypes is urgently needed." "delimitation. 49 Louis Sullivan who coined the phrase. however.45 function. the same time as at delimit a precinct which admits they man's actions.dwelling. with insufficient possibilities for human ing. to recall the terms used in Heidegger's description of the Greek temple. where the Grundriss mirrorsthe admittance and the Aufriss the mode of standing."a metaphor he himself liked to use.46Standing there. the darkness of the night. The discussion of the Greek temthis as a thing. Man is in that this pragmatic approach leads to a this between." Evidently a work of architecture does not "standing.""3 other words. we may repeat the main points of Heidegger's thinking on architecture.
thing. 1969). Language. See C. . it has mostly been approached in semiological terms. eds. Through such a poetical Andenken we take "the measure for architecture.1979).eds.. Language. Signs. 1980). however."54In other words.51Considering architectural forms as representations of something else. p." New Chicago Architecture (Chicago: Rizzoli.52By means of the concepts of world. and C. 53 See C.Heidegger and the Language of Architecture. This is apparent in architectural practice. whereby architecture is understood as a system of conventional signs. we have to give thought to the thingness of things in order to arrive at a total vision of our world. 54 Poetry..the structure of dwelling. In his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking. Broadbent. Building and think- ing are.Christian Norberg-Schulz 68 68 50 See C. ."55 . each in its own way. 52 This was also accomplished by Louis Kahn. 150. proved incapable of explaining works of architecture as such. and his Andenken is certainly the method we need to gain a fuller understanding of the things themselves. Thought."Chicago:vision and image. Today we are only at a beginning. R. Norberg-Schulz. 51 See G.50So far. where functionalism is being abandoned while a new architecture of images is emerging. Baird. Norberg-Schulz. however. Here Heidegger comes to our rescue." Heidegger in fact concludes that "thinking itself belongs to dwelling in the same sense as building . and back to what is concrete. inescapable for dwelling. 227. "Kahn. Jencks. that the problems are solved. 1981).53Heidegger's thinking may help us to understand what this implies." Oppositions 18 (New York.whose conception of architecture comes surprisinglyclose to Heidegger's thinking. Meaning in Architecture (London: Design YearbookLimited. p. that is. to the things themselves. 55 Poetry. His thinking on architecture as a visualization of truth restores its artistic dimension and hence its human significance. Bunt. Symbols and Architecture (Chichester:Wiley. chitecture has therefore come to the fore. and work. he leads us out of the impasse of scientific abstraction. This does not mean. semiological analysis has. Thought. Jencks and G.
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