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-question carefully. Choose 4 out of the five-(5) items. • Submit the final printout on Wednesday, October 13 not later than 6pm at URC Office. • Please observe a font size of 12 and 1.5 spacing between the lines. Good luck and May the force be with you. 1. Discuss briefly the relevance of each discipline, anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy and history in education (25%) 2. Identify one-(1) cognitive and one-(1) behavioral theories and discuss at least three-(3) implications of such theories to education. Write the authors of the theories you are going to choose. (25%) 3. Discuss briefly any three-(3) of these areas in Anthropology, religion, arts, culture, language, archeology, ethnography. (25%) 4. Enculturation and acculturation are processes discuss how these concepts happen within the context of family; school; and society. (25%) 5. Pick three-(3) philosophies that is applicable in Nursing Education. Support your choice with philosophical reasons. (25%) By-the-way, do you find this academic exercise meaningful? PROFESSOR: ROBERTO, F. INES, PhD, EdD, MEd, BSE, BSIE
Indiongco Encarnacion O.and practice of thrift.” Undoubtedly.PHILOSOPHY Riza C. “The unexamined life is not worth living.H. Sico Angela Tuason The Meaning of Philosophy The role of philosophy in education is to provide the student the ability to synthesize. Rizal.never leaving the path of righteousness and justice in order to attain thine own perfection. the study of philosophy will always be an important feature of human experience and its importance in the development of the complete social being. Our education should instill love for work. Mabini. And by setting thought free. an eminent Athenian philosopher.working and studying according to thy ability. said. .” 3. It is aimed to make a well-developed mancultured refined and well rounded. The Importance of Philosophy The study of philosophy will provide an individual a strong foundation in meeting the demands of his profession and in coping with the problems brought about by multifarious activities of man. Nicholson brought into being on a firm place the importance of philosophy in the life of a person and of society when he eloquently stated: “there is no other knowledge that so widens our intellectual horizon and that deepens thereby both our understanding and our symphaties.Show us theschools of a people and we will tell you what those people are. The Filipino philosophies of education are comparable to or in some cases more sound and practical than the philosophies of education of the great educational thinkers of the past. it permits that full functioning of the life of the spirit that alone constitute the good life” Socrates. including human beings in the universe. existence. Pardo de Tavera. assimilate and evaluate a variety and huge mass of knowledge. It breaks up that “intellectual crust” of which Wordsworth speaks the “yoke of conventional custom” that thinking tends fatally to impose upon itself. criticize. The school is the book in which is written the future of the nations. Philosophy developed from the concept which recognized man’s essential worth as a member of society. J. purposes and relationships of things. 2. It is an important part of the student’s total development that will provide opportunities for him to lead a life worthy of man’s dignity as an individual and as a member of society.love for peace.A. Mayordomo Maria Cristina L.spirit of tolerance. philosophy means a systematic and logical explanation of the nature. 1. THE EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF FILIPINO EDUCATORS Some Filipino educators also developed their own philosophies of education. Evangelista Kristine Marie L.T.respect for law. The Meaning of Philosophy Summing up. “Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts which had been granted thee. ready to take on his responsibility in his rapidly changing world cannot be over emphasized.
Makes the teacher more aware of his own life and work. d. e. This is a true knowledge according to plato. This is the advise usually given to graduating high school students that they have to discover what or where they are good at and this is their guide on what course they have to take in college. IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION TO THE TEACHER Philosophy of education is very important to the teacher because of the following: 1. Camilo Osias. The physical objects are not permanent representations of unchanging ideas and that the ideas alone give true knowledge as they are known by the mind. Every individual should devote his life to what is best fitted for him to do. Plato . and effort. Social justice is giving of what is due to whom it is due. Provide theories and hypothesis in education which may be tested for their effectiveness and efficiency. Venancio Trinidad Education should aim to develop men and woman who are as deeply concerned in the development and uplift of our communities particularly in the rural areas. 8. Education must secure freedom efficiency and happiness for all people. and mentally alert. (2) knowledge of the past and current events. 4. as in the promotion of their own personal or individual well-being. 2. Rafael Palma. Philosophy of education saves time. 7. The object that we see is not permanent. Plato emphasizes that every human being should discover what his/her abilitiesare and should concentrate his life in it so that he/she be successful in his/her life. what is permanent is your idea of what this object should look like. discriminating.4. Helps the teacher develop a wide range of interests. and makes him more dynamic. The qualities that should distinguish the educated Filipinos of today are (1) power to do. that you are using your mind to interpret things. FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION 1. Joerge Bocobo. 5. Provide norms or standards for evaluation purposes. 3. 2. Provide direction toward which all educational efforts should be exerted. Provides the teacher with a basis for making his decisions concerning his work. Provide guidelines in the formulation of educational policies and programs and in the construction of curricula. critical. . Education must produce individuals who are both useful to themselves and to society. and 6. money. The important function of education is to determine what every individual is by nature capable and fitted of doing things. and values concomitant to his professional life as a teacher. 3. Poor leadership will lead to wrong decisions. attitudes. Francisco Benitez. c. . To my humble way of thingking education (college) has for its supreme overshadowing aim the formulation of a sound and noble outlook of life. and (3) possession of the elements of conduct that are the accomplishments of culture and morality.
. All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth. . • Knowledge is virtue and ignorance is vice. The end of education is not knowledge alone. those the art of living well. which in effect. Education is a pleasant thing which can becompared to beauty. It is in education that bad discipline can most easily creep in unobserved. .. Those who educate children well are more to be honored than parents. g. • Learning without thought is labor lost. thought without learning is perilous. (Aristotle.for the object of education is to teach us to love beauty. It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it. ' but let your children's lessons take the form of play. . . The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living from the dead. Confucius • Study the past if you would define the future. I. Virtue which is moral excellence goodness and righteousness is not possession of knowledge. h. Vices are irrational habits or practices because they often stem from passion which often goes beyond reasons. I am one who is fond of antiquity. 'Then don't use compulsion. The process of correct thinking can be reduced to ruled like physics and geometry and taught to any normal mind.' (Plato) That learning should not give stress to the child. for these gave only life. advocates the practice of moderation . It is the state of the will. An individual who should lead society should be endowed with superior intelligence and possessed impeccable integrity. (Aristotle) . means virtue. It is the union of the innate intellect of the individual and his will. .. • Knowledge is the basis of all right actions including the art of living. but he should enjoy what he is learning and in that way he properly discovers his innate gifts. In Education) .' I said to him. J. Socrates • Knowledge is wisdom. • Development of moral and ethical principles promote peace and order and to preserve human dignity. and earnest in seeking it there. Intellectual aristocracy is the rule of intellectual elite.. Aristotle . It is knowledge express in action. .f. I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge. You will learn more about their natural abilities that way. • The problem of evil is the result of ignorance.
• Knowing consist of sensation and abstraction. • Social development Pestalozzi • Education is a social process of organized growth and development. • a subject matter curriculum emphasizing the great and enduring ideas of culture. • Methods of instruction should consider habit formation through drill and exercise. • Subject matter curriculum should be humanistic. • Postulated the golden rule for all men to follow. • Value are absolute and eternal based on nature's laws. Locke Tabular rasa" or "blank slate" theory. • Education is a social process.• The family should serve as model for correct relations among men. • Knowing is the rethinking of latent ideas. based on natural law. "treat others as you wish them to treat you. • Play. • Lessons were to be learned through direct experiences with objects and places through observation. . Froebel • Father of kindergarten" • Creative expression should be encouraged. • Education should be in accordance with the laws of natural growth and development of the child. • Self-activity as a means of development. inquiry and reasoning. • Reality is objective and is composed of matter and form. • Emphasized formal discipline moral and physical education. • Individual differences should be respected. it is fixed. • Order and harmony should begin in the inner nature of man. spontaneous activity should be utilized to promote self-realization. • Emphasis or method and technique of imparting knowledge and information. • Education can help shape the pupil according to the disposition of the teacher.A child is born with blank mind neither good nor bad. memorization and reasoning. not preparation for life. • Education is growth and a continuous reconstruction of experience. • Education should be accompanied with spirit of informality and joy. John Dewey • Learn by doing • Education is life. • Values are eternal. • Reason and natural law constantly enjoy man to live righteously to offend no one and to give one this due.
and testing. cognitive science. psychosocial studies. health care workers. Many educational-psychological problems of development that are still of current interest were discussed in ancient times. particularly in relation to social subjects and activities." Psychology is also defines as the scientific study of human or other animal mental functions and behaviours. Introduction Psychology is derived from two Greek words. In the 18th century. It is a branch of psychology concerned with the learning processes and psychological issues associated with the teaching and training of students. It took on the literal meaning of "the study of the mind. engineering. • The school is primarily a social institution. both in childhood and throughout their lifespan. that is. learning and reasoning. mental health. As a college subject. It is a dynamic discipline with immense potential applications. Like industrial. and moral development. Rosa Vilma Torda Dawn Marie D. it emphasizes the various kinds of behaviour which have particular reference to education: the nature of the child at various ages and the processes of growth and development.• The center of education is the child's own social activities. instruction. THEORIES OF LEARNING The S-R Bond Theory It is assumed that through conditioning specific responses can be directly linked with a particular stimulus. primarily in schools. Behaviorism . the term psychology started being used with more frequency. It includes study of subjects such as theories of learning and motivation. but also in instructional and training programs in industrial and social institutions. social workers. and clinical psychology. methods. one in which the objective is to solve immediate practical problems. and example to another are considered an educator. PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATION Karina Joy Aure Diane Jeane Mallari Jose Paulo Longanilla Ma. These bonds are the result of biological processes in the human system. Virtudez EMPIRICAL BEGINNINGS AND BASIC CONTENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY A. military. and “logos” the study of a subject. The information gained from this discipline is of value to parents. mentoring. Existing by definition somewhere between psychology and education. live in service to their community. learn to become mature human beings who fulfil their individual potential. span of life development. the goal of those working in the field of educational psychology is to understand the processes and conditions under which human beings. Educational Psychology is a comprehensive term referring to psychology in an educational setting. ministers. and persons seeking self improvement. it is sometimes referred to as an applied field. coaches. Much of the research in this field is designed to address the desire of teachers to improve their skills. neurobiology. Ultimately. and exercise loving stewardship over the environment. Educational psychology as a field of study has quite literally struggled throughout its history with an identity problem. “psyche” the soul. including difficulties between children in ability and school performance and the measurement of these differences. the discipline has experienced the crosscurrents and whirlpools often created when two great oceans meet. In a broader sense. organizational trainers. linguistics. anyone that provides guidance.
This state behavior and mental processes enable the individual to adjust to a changing environment to maintain equilibrium. he is driven by various motivations instigated by needs. It is inferred that almost all that an individual becomes in relation to this theory is a matter of conditioning of reflexes. This is exemplified by solving a difficult mathematical problem. Learning is a lifetime process. which is results of reinforced practice – Edwards Process which brings about change in the individuals ways of responding to a stimuli as a result of practice and experiences. These learning processes are classical conditioning. The learning processes are characterized by motivation. the first investigator to study conditioning process for which he won a novel prize. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning refers to the procedure to the procedures established by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. The knowledge and skills acquired extend throughout the life of an individual. Pavlov referred to this . The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. special training. social learning and cognitive learning. Learning is pervasive. LEARNING It is described as the process of having one’s behavior modified. by what happens in the world around him Any change in behavior those results from experience – except changes which are due to injury or psychological adjustments such as sensory adaptation and muscular fatigue. reinforcement and generalization. readiness responses. More or less permanent modification of behavior resulting from various activities. more or less permanently. Learning in terms of modification of behavior that takes place in meaningful patterns and configuration is stressed by the Gestalt. As long as the individual interacts with forces in the environment. Learning is interactive and developmental – mental process that results from past experience. It may also be subtle as in the case of the gradual assimilation of a particular culture. observation and experience –Munn Relatively permanent change of behavior as a result of practice – Hilgard A concept of describing changes in behavior. It completely denies the existence of instincts or inborn tendencies of the individual. Functionalism This theory assumes that behavior and mental processes are adaptive (functional). Gestalt theory This theory of learning emphasizes use of insight as a basic principle and is opposed to trial and error.This theory assumes that learning is a process of building conditioned reflexes through the substitutions of one stimulus for another. Learning may be deliberate. operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning). goal.
psychic reflexes. conditioned response. Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR). Watson (1878-1958). The original and most famous example of classical conditioning involved the salivary conditioning of Pavlov's dogs. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. Pavlov noticed that. often reflexive. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Summary: Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. From this observation he predicted that. Russian physiologist. Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning. respectively. and studied in infants by John B. Extinction: This is eliminating a learned response by arousing but failing to reinforce it. If generalization is a reaction to similarities. The fundamental stages of classical conditioning: 1. Pavlov used a bell to call the dogs to their food and. as when an organism makes one response to a reinforced stimulus. after a few repetitions. unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov called these psychic secretions. rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat powder (an innate response to food that he called the unconditioned response). presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR). Keywords: stimulus-response. respondent conditioning Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior.as a conditioned stimulus (CS). If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. Conversely. eyeblink conditioning. Stimulus Discrimination: This is complementary to generalization. Stimulus Generalization: This is based on the principle of similarity wherein the individual’s ability to react to the new stimuli similar to a particular conditioned response. Originators and Key Contributors: First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). repeated pairings of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (USC) are said to be strengthen or reinforce the association between the two. response. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its . discrimination is responding differently. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. then this stimulus would become associated with food and cause salivation on its own. if a particular stimulus in the dog's surroundings were present when the dog was presented with meat powder. 4. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. the dogs started to salivate in response to the bell. in 1903. In his initial experiment. the dogs began to salivate in the presence of the lab technician who normally fed them. 2. 3. and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis. Acquisition: During this period of learning.
Skinner devised a Skinner box with a lever with the rat can operate. You learn facts about American history. In the operant conditioning. however. Positive reinforcement – stimuli that strengthen a response when they are presented after the response has occurred. Examples: Food given to a hungry rat after it presses a bar is a positive reinforce. Example: The response of taking aspirin is followed by the relief of headache. 2. Example: The case of a first year high school student who studies only when his parents are watching. is called an operant. because it is assumed that knowing those facts will make you a better citizen when you are an adult. eating is the behavior and eating with gusto is reinforce. water. taking aspirin is likely to occur when a similar pain occur again. The hungry rat is placed the conditioning apparatus which leaves it free to roam about within the confined area. the rat presses at a faster rate. 2. Generalization and Discriminations Operant conditioning responses are very important in human behavior. which indicates that certain stimuli usually gain control over behavior. the rat presses the bar. The two types of reinforcements: 1. Primary Reward Conditioning – This is the simplest type of operant conditioning where the learned response is instrumental in obtaining a biologically significant reward. while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of respondent behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. After a few repetitions. Eventually. Avoidance Conditioning – This is the type of learning where a response to a cue is instrumental in avoiding or preventing the occurrence of an unpleasant or painful experience. That will come later when you graduate and get a job. Secondary reward conditioning – This is the type of operant conditioning where there is instrumental behavior to get at a stimulus which has no biological utility but which has been associated in the past with some biologically significant stimulus. Those consequences are the availability of food. Behavioral learning does not. The process of strengthening behavior by following it with the removal of a repugnant stimulus. praise or some other reward. Behaviors conditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences. The response. In this case. 4. For some people the stimulus of a dining table implies eating. Escape Conditioning – This is the type of operant conditioning where the organism learns a response that is instrumental in getting out of a place where he is not comfortable. and later it discovers that pressing the bar brings a pellet of food. This is also called reward. 3. You learn basic mathematics computational skills because you may need them when you get a job. Some behaviors are reinforced only when they occur in the presence of a discriminative stimulus. the dining table is the discriminating stimulus. generally ask you to actually put the skills or knowledge you learn into use in a "real" or "authentic" situation. General Implications of Behavioral Theories Behavioral teaching and learning tends to focus on skills that will be used later. for example. This is often referred to as stimulus control. . Stimulus Discrimination This refers to stimulus that signals whether reinforcement is available when a response is made. An individual who does not have proper appetite to eat saw a dining table. The four types of operant conditioning: 1.consequences. which operates upon the environment. The term used to represent the reward in operant conditioning is reinforcement. at intervals of varying length. Negative reinforcement – unpleasant stimuli such as frustration and pain that strengthen a response when they are discarded after the response happened.
In a series of experiments. learning is manifested by a change in behavior. It loosely encompasses the work of people like Edward Thorndike. Second. curriculum based measurement. the environment shapes behavior. vowel digraphs. a behavior may result either in reinforcement. and Hull. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior. What characterizes these investigators are their underlying assumptions about the process of learning. Educational approaches such as applied behavior analysis. It is important to note that. the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process. Therefore. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B. After a while. F. the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. and diphthongs. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’. And third. Guthrie. Other literacy skills such as appropriate uses of the comma may also be taught in separate lessons. In essence. Within this framework. Every time the dogs were served food. There are two types of possible conditioning: 1) Classical conditioning. For behaviorism. Behaviorism Main article: Behaviorism Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. a punishment is not considered to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior. learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning. which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring.[original research?] First. the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. Social Learning Theory (Bandura) . the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat. or punishment. when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. three basic assumptions are held to be true. he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. they responded by drooling. for example.F. students may spend many lessons on phonics skills such as consonant clusters. Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal. often by whole class lectures followed by individual drill activities. their saliva still dribbled. Briefly. 2) Operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. Although no food was in sight. and direct instruction have emerged from this model. where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov's Dogs. In the elementary school classroom. into subskills that are taught separately is very common in American schools today. and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions. such as learning to read. at the mere sound of the bell.The behavioral emphasis on breaking down complex tasks. For example. Skinner. Tolman. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats.
Originator: Albert Bandura Key Terms: Modeling. via observation.Summary: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another. imitation. and modeling. memory. reciprocal determinism . The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention. and motivation.
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