# ﻿Guidance for Designing

Appendix 2

reinforce' the panel with stiffener as one of the alternative solutions. In this study, we select a stiffener and evaluate whether-the stiffener withstands the given condition or not. The rigidity of typical stiffeners are summarised in Table 3.

(1) How to calculate stress

The bending moment over the area B is given with the following equation:

M "" W' 82 I' 8 (N . 111m) Where,

W: Wind pressure loaded on the area B W=w-B

(w :: uniform distributed load, Nfmm!)

~.r· ~:.::;.;::"::~~:::::::::::'

" . ".. . . : : . • ::->",

1/0/

Stiffener

b

This bending: mOITI8,nt is shared by stiffener and ALPOLIC/fr panel respectively as follows:

Stiffener:

A LPO LlC/f.!':

MI = Moll J O~ + b) M;! = M· h l' (I t 9= I:)

Where,

11: Moment of inertia of stiffener (refer to Table 3)

h : Moment of inertia of ALPOLlC/fr, given with the following equation: h=B(H3-h3)/12 (mrn")

B: Length ofthe area B (111m)

1-1: ALPOUC/fr thickness (rnm]

11: Thickness: of core material, or internal span between aluminium skin sheets (mm)

~en, the bending stress is given with the following equation:

S:bress[ "" M, ! Z. ®tf~S2= M2· / Z:

(Stress in stiffener) (Stress in ALPOLIClfr)

:Whef~,

2;.: Section modulus of stiffener (refer to Table 3)

~: Section modulus ofALPOLlC/fr., given with the following equation:

Z2 = B· (H' - h~) I 6E (mrrr')

. ~rn:ulnel1.t deformation 'will not 'occur within the. following range:

t1~l'ls. < Stress.v (for Stiffener)

tress2 < Stress-, (for ALPOLIC/fr)

0.2% proof stress (yield stress} of stiffener (refer to Table 3)

0.2% proof stress (yield stress) of aluminium skin ofALpOUC/fr 0 52 N/mm2)

2} CalcQJ t·· 0

A.. n . a. 101) exam p.le of stress

I remisl

25

Guidance for Designing

Appendix 2

Wind load: 2.5 kPa (""2.5 kNim" "" 255 kg/m")

ALPOLIC/fr thickness: 4 rnm

Panel size: 1220;,:2440 mill

Supporting condition: 4-side fixed

Stiffener: 5Gr25x2.5mm t, aluminium extrusion (A6063, 15),2 pieces per panel

2440

50

8i3

I 1220

B. Moment of inertia ard section modulus

Stiffener: II =3.5lxI04mm~ 21 = 2.8.1 x 10' mru'

ALPOLlC/fr: b = B'{H~ _ h,1) j 12 = 8 j 3 x( 43 ~3)) / 12

;::. Q.25x lO~ mm"

Z2 = B'(H'_ h3) 161~ = 813x(4' -3') 124 = L2SxlO·rnm·l Stiffener+ALPOLlCifr: :£1:= 11 +11:= 3.76x 10'1 111m"

C. Calculation of stress

Bending moment: M "" Wa2 18

= 2500x lO'('x813x 12202/8"" 37.81 x J 04 Nrnm

Stiffener's share: MI"" M·II! (I, + I.)

= 37.81x104x 3.51 /3.76 = 35,JOxlO4- ALPOlIC/fr's share: M:2= M'h I (II + Iv

= 37.81 X I04x 025/3.76 = 2.51 x I O~

StresSI"" MI / ZI

=35.30xI04/Z.8IxIO'= 126< 147 Nimm2 (OK) Stress= Ml f z,

= 2.51 xl 04/1.25 x to' = 20' < 152 N/mm2 (OK)

Therefore, the panel will withstand the above conditions including safety factor 1.17 for stiffener.

Bending stress:

(3) How to ealeulate deflection

As for the deflection, respective deflection of stiffener and ALPOLIC is calculated first, and then the t(!.taJ 'deflec[lon is given as a combined sum.

Deflection of stiffener:

Deflectioil, = 5 W' (l4! 384 Er II (rnm)

26

Guidance for Designing

Appendix 2

Where.

E.: Blastic modulus of stiffener (,"'70000 N/mm:')

Deflection of ALPOUC/fr:

Deflection, = A'w'b-l ! (£/\1'.tl\/) (rnru)

Combined deflection can be calculated with the following equation:

Deflection = Deflection I x Deflectiora ,' (Deflection, + Deflections) (mm)

(4) C'alculatiQn example of de:f1ccI'iQ!l

A. Premise (the same conditions as above)

WInd load: 2.5 kPa t=2.5kN/m2 = 255 kg/m1)

ALPOLlC/fr thickness; 4: rum

Panel size: 1210>.2440 rum

Supporting condition: 4-s,jde fixed

Stiffener: 5'Ox25x2.5mn1 t, aluminium extrusion (A6063, 1'5), 2 pieces per panel

B. Deflection

Deflection of sf ffener:

Deflection, = 5 W' ail 1384 E.· I.

= 5><3000:-< 10·6x8 u- 1220<~/ (334Y70000x3.5l x I 0'1) = 28,6 mm

Deflection or ALPOLlC:

Deflection- = A· w ·b I) (EAP" t,w') Where,

a/b= 1220/813= 1.50, then A=O.08J8 (from Table 2 or While Binder P.12) Deflection- = 0.0838)(3000)( IO·(ix81 J'l (2546:.: 10')

= 43, I min

Combined deflection:

Deflection = Defleetion,« Deflection:;.! (Deffection, oj. Def ect ion:) "" 28.6><43.1 J (28.61-43.1)

= 17.2 mm

27

Guidance for Designing

Appendix 2

'fable 1 Coefficient:B for cale ulation of s tress

Support condition EIlLIatiQnand B value
2·si-de simply supported [JJ [ Stress,..; = O.7S·w·bl It:
and 2-s~id.e free
~
2-side fixed and 2-side [JJ I tress 1 = O.5·w·b1! r~
fi-.ee
~w.
I
4-side simply supported 1<-' ~ ~I [ Stress 1 = B-w-bil r
alb I I l._:! IA 16 IS 20 3_0
~r I I 0,:&7"
-~ c. IS u 17ti: o 4530 <i 5112 o ~8 000102 <),11'-1
4-side fixed J ' ~ 'IJ Stress., = B·w·b~ It:'!
Whl I I': I d 16 U! 20 >20
B L 0,;;0 IS lU:8.l~ M,S" 0.'1(;110 O.4H:! t\,41114 o.sooo
0_ ~ Note: The above is am excerpt from White Binder p, 10. Refer to White Binder for other cases.

Table 2. Coefficient A for calculation of deflecnun

Support condition

Equation and A va lue

2-side s-imply supported and 2-side free

[JJ

Deflection == O.156'w·b·1 / (E ".tAp3)

-

A I O,04~ 0062 (ton 0.0006 Q !Ill? O.IIIQ 0 Ul,S OI4l-.

1.<1

J ~

IS

2,"' J.Q ::.3 o

2-side fixed and 2-s1de free

[JJ

4-side simply supported

4-side fixed

~.ote: The above is an excerpt from White Binder P.ll. Refer to White Binder for other c-ases.

28

Guidance for Designing

Appendix 2

Table 3. Rigidity, of Various Stiffeners

Stiffener / Material MOIDl;).ot of inertla Section modulus 0,2% proof
(Unit weight) (Ix, mrn") <Zx, mm3) stress
(Nimm2)
Aluminium extrusion 40 Ix ~ !.44~]O4 Zx - 1.44x 1'03 J.47N/mm~
.to >e20 x2 .Ommr '182,01
G063S-T:5 20 -'El'
I
(640glm)
Aluminium extrusion SI) Ix "" 2.34>< 1 04 Z-,< EO 1.87><10' !41'Nlmm2
50 x25)( .l.5mmt {E]l,jt
6063S.T5 25 ...
Il500glm)
Aluminium extrusion 50 Ix = 2.9'6)( 10" Z;;,; ;;;;: 2.36x 10J 147 N/mn.l"
::Ox25112.Q:mmt ·{E]··~·(ll
'6063S-T5 2S
{800.ail1:!) I
A I !,II11,i nlum extrusion so Ix = 3.5 j><!o~ z, ~ V:Hx103 147 Njmll11~
50x25x2.5mmt -11· .... no .1Ii' ~,.51
6063S·T5 l~
(lOOOg/m)
Alumlnium extrusion 20 Ix "" 4.45>-; ](),i 7,:-; ;;;;;; 2.22x 101 147 Nlml1l=
40" 20 ;.:2,0\ 0::"'
WG3S·15 .j!)
i640gfm)
Alurnlnium <.:Xl,·USIOJl 25 Ix :;;;; 7.01 :<104 z, = 2_80>: J(); Ill? N/n1l11:
50x25)lL5t W_O'5<
5063S-T5
_ ~6()Owm)
Alum inium extrusion ;;\$ Ix -\)OlxIO" Zx =J.60>:jQol 147 N/rnm~
50>Q5>i2.0t "'0'"
6063S·n
(800glm)
Aluminium extrusloo 25 1(( =- 10-85:< I O~ Z~ = 4.34)( 103 i 4 i' Nhn1l1 '.l
50:><25x2.51 ;~ ·D· ':"
fj063S-T5
(IOOOg).m)
Aluminum sheet 1;-: "" 2.80x IOd Zx = 1.35:-:10· 118 Nhi"Ht12
&O'x30x3.(H 6'0
IIOO-U2.4 3q.L=J'~'O
j270glm)
...._ 29