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Hibbeler

Ch T i Chapter 5: Torsion

• The effects of applying a torsional loading to a long

Objectives

• The effects of applying a torsional loading to a long

straight member such as shaft or tube.

• To determine both stress distribution within the

member and the angle of twist when the material

behaves in a linear elastic manner and also when it is behaves in a linear-elastic manner and also when it is

inelastic.

Due to axial distribution of shear

stress shafts made from wood stress, shafts made from wood

tend to split along the axial plane

when subjected to excessive

torque

This tubular drive shaft for a truck was

subjected to an overload resulting in failure

caused by yielding of the material.

Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts

• Stresses and strains of circular

shafts subjected to twisting couples

or torques*

T bi t t T th

• Shaft transmits the torque to the

• Turbine exerts torque T on the

shaft

• Shaft transmits the torque to the

generator

• Generator creates an equal and

opposite torque T’

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

* Momen that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis. Its effect is of

primary concern in the design of axles or drive shafts used in vehicle and machinery.

Example Example

Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses q

• Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal

torque, equal and opposite to the applied torque,

( )

í í

= = dA r dF r T t

• Although the net torque due to the shearing • Although the net torque due to the shearing

stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses is

not

• Distribution of shearing stresses is statically

indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations

• Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the

distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional

loads can not be assumed uniform.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

Shaft Deformations

• From observation, the angle of twist of the

shaft is proportional to the applied torque and

to the shaft length.

L

T

·

·

u

u

L · u

• When subjected to torsion, every cross‐section

of a circular shaft remains plane and p

undistorted.

• Cross‐sections for hollow and solid circular

shafts remain plain and undistorted because a

• Cross‐sections of noncircular (non‐

i t i ) h ft di t t d h

p

circular shaft is axisymmetric.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

axisymmetric) shafts are distorted when

subjected to torsion.

Shearing Strain

• Consider an interior section of the shaft. As

a torsional load is applied, an element on the

interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus.

• Since the ends of the element remain planar,

the shear strain is equal to angle of twist

• It follows that

the shear strain is equal to angle of twist.

L

r

r L

u

o u o = = or

• Shear strain is proportional to angle of twist

and radius

u r c

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

max max

and o o

u

o

c

r

L

c

= =

Stresses in Elastic Range

M l i l i h i i b h h • Multiplying the previous equation by the shear

modulus,

max

o o G

c

r

G =

4 4

d c

J

t t

max

t t

c

r

=

From Hooke’s Law, o t G = , so shear stress

• Recall that the sum of the moments from the

32 2

J = =

The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial

position in the section.

t t

í í

• Recall that the sum of the moments from the

internal stress distribution is equal to the torque

on the shaft at the section,

J

c

dA r

c

dA r T

max 2 max

t t

t

í í

= = =

( ) ( )

4 4 4 4

d d

• The results are known as the elastic torsion

formulas,

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

( ) ( )

32 2

4

1

4

2

4

1

4

2

d d c c

J

÷

=

÷

=

t t

and

max

J

Tr

J

Tc

= = t t

Tr Tc

and

max

J

Tr

J

Tc

= = t t

Where

τ

max

= the maximum shear stress in the shaft, which occurs at the

outer surface

T = the resultant internal torque acting at the cross section.

Its value is determine from the method of sections and

the equation of moment equilibrium applied about the

h ft’ l it di l i shaft’s longitudinal axis.

J = the polar moment of inertia of the cross‐sectional area

c = the outer radius of the shaft c = the outer radius of the shaft.

Angle of Twist in Elastic Range

f • Recall that the angle of twist and maximum

shearing strain are related,

cu

o =

L

o

max

• In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear

are related by Hooke’s Law,

T

JG

Tc

G

= =

max

max

t

o

• Equating the expressions for shearing strain and

l i f th l f t i t solving for the angle of twist,

JG

TL

= u

If th t i l l di h ft ti • If the torsional loading or shaft cross‐section

changes along the length, the angle of rotation is

found as the sum of segment rotations

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

¯

=

i

i i

i i

G J

L T

u

Sign Con ention Sign Convention

• Sign convention for the

i t l t d th internal torque and the

angle of twist of one end

of the shaft with respect to

the other end the other end.

• Use right hand rule: both

torque and angle will be

iti id d th positive, provided the

thumb is directed outward

from the shaft when the

fingers curl to give the fingers curl to give the

tendency for rotation.

Example

T

AB

= +80N.m, T

BC

= -70N.m, T

CD

= -10 N.m

φ

A/D

= (+80) L

AB

+ (-70) L

BC

+ (-10) L

CD

JG

JG JG

Example 1

Determine the maximum shearing stress caused by a

torque of magnitude T = 800 N.m.

Example 1

torque of magnitude T 800 N.m.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

Example 2

Knowing that the internal diameter of the hollow shaft shown

is d = 23 mm, determine the maximum shearing stress caused

Example 2

is d 23 mm, determine the maximum shearing stress caused

by a torque of magnitude T = 1.0 kN.m.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

Example 3

The shaft is supported by two bearings and is subjected to three

torques. Determine the shear stress developed at points A and B,

located at section a–a of the shaft.

A

C =75 mm

B

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

r =15 mm

Example 4

Under normal operating conditions, the electric motor exerts a torque of

2.4 kN.m at A. Knowing that each shaft is solid, determine the maximum

Example 4

shearing stress (a) in shaft AB, (b) in shaft BC, (c) in shaft CD.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

E l 5

The allowable stress is 104 MPa in the 38 mm diameter rod AB and 55 MPa

in the 46 mm diameter rod BC Neglecting the effect of stress

Example 5

in the 46 mm diameter rod BC. Neglecting the effect of stress

concentrations, determine the largest torque that may be applied at A.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

Power Transmission Power Transmission

Power is defined as the work performed per unit of

time time.

For a rotating shaft with a torque, the power is

Since the power equation is

dt d T P / locity, angular ve shaft where u e e = =

f 2 rad 2 cycle 1 t e t = ¬ =

Since , the power equation is

For shaft design the design or geometric parameter

f 2 rad 2 cycle 1 t e t = ¬ =

fT P t 2 =

For shaft design, the design or geometric parameter

is

ll

T

c

J

t

=

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

allow

c t

Example 6

A solid steel shaft AB as shown in the figure is to be used to transmit 3750

W from the motor M to which it is attached. If the shaft rotates at N = 175

d h l h ll bl h f 100 MP

Example 6

rpm and the steel has an allowable shear stress of t

allow

= 100 MPa,

determine the required diameter of the shaft to the nearest mm.

© 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Torsion Chapter 5: Torsion

Mechanics of Material 7 Mechanics of Material 7

th th

Edition Edition

Example 7 Example 7

The motor delivers 30 kW to the shaft while it rotates at 20 Hz. The shaft is

supported on smooth bearings at A and B, which allow free rotation of the

shaft. The gear C and D fixed to the shaft removed 18 kW and 12 kW

respectively. Determine the diameter of the shaft to the nearest mm if the

allowable shear stress is τ

allow

= 56 MPa and the allowable angle of twist of C

D i 0 20

o

G 76 GP respect to D is 0.20

o

. G = 76 GPa.

Objectives

• The effects of applying a torsional loading to a long straight member such as shaft or tube. • To determine both stress distribution within the member and the angle of twist when the material behaves in a linear-elastic manner and also when it is linear elastic inelastic.

Due to stress. . stress tend to when torque axial distribution of shear shafts made from wood split along the axial plane subjected to excessive This tubular drive shaft for a truck was subjected to an overload resulting in failure caused by yielding of the material.

Its effect is of © 2008 Pearson Education in the design of axles or drive shafts used in vehicle and machinery. primary concern South Asia Pte Ltd .Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts • Stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques* • T bi Turbine exerts t t torque T on th the shaft • Shaft transmits the torque to the generator • Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T’ Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition * Momen that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis.

Example .

equal and opposite to the applied torque.Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses q • Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque. the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform. the distribution of the stresses is not • Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations • Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads. T r dF r dA • Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known. Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Shaft Deformations • From observation. • Cross‐sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a p circular shaft is axisymmetric. • Cross‐sections of noncircular (non‐ axisymmetric) shafts are di t t d when i t i ) h ft distorted h subjected to torsion. the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length. T L • When subjected to torsion. every cross‐section of a circular shaft remains plane and p undistorted.

As a torsional load is applied. rhombus • Since the ends of the element remain planar. • It follows that L r or r L • Shear strain is proportional to angle of twist and radius Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd max c r and max L c . an element on the interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus. the shear strain is equal to angle of twist twist.Shearing Strain • Consider an interior section of the shaft.

max Tc Tr and J J © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . so shear stress J c4 2 d 4 32 max r c The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section. G .Stresses in Elastic Range M li l i h i i • Multiplying the previous equation b the shear by h h modulus. • Recall that the sum of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section. r G G max c From Hooke’s Law. T r dA max c 2 r dA max c J J Chapter 5: Torsion 2 32 Mechanics of Material 7 Edition th 4 4 c2 c14 d2 d14 • The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas.

Its value is determine from the method of sections and the equation of moment equilibrium applied about the shaft’s longitudinal axis. which occurs at the outer surface T = the resultant internal torque acting at the cross section. . h ft’ l it di l i J = the polar moment of inertia of the cross‐sectional area c = the outer radius of the shaft = the outer radius of the shaft. max Where Tc Tr and J J τmax = the maximum shear stress in the shaft.

Angle of Twist in Elastic Range f • Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related. TL JG • If th t i the torsional l di l loading or shaft cross‐section h ft ti changes along the length. max max G Tc T JG • Equating the expressions for shearing strain and solving f th angle of t i t l i for the l f twist. the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd i Ti Li J i Gi . max c L • In the elastic range. the shearing strain and shear are related by Hooke’s Law.

• Use right hand rule: both torque and angle will be positive. . provided th iti id d the thumb is directed outward from the shaft when the fingers curl to give the tendency for rotation.Sign Convention Con ention • Sign convention for the internal torque and the i t l t d th angle of twist of one end of the shaft with respect to the other end end.

m.m φA/D = (+80) LAB + (-70) LBC + (-10) LCD JG JG JG .m. TBC = -70N. TCD = -10 N.Example TAB = +80N.

m. Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . torque of magnitude T 800 N.Example 1 Determine the maximum shearing stress caused by a torque of magnitude T = 800 N.m.

determine the maximum shearing stress caused by a torque of magnitude T = 1. Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .m.Example 2 Knowing that the internal diameter of the hollow shaft shown is d = 23 mm.0 kN.

located at section a–a of the shaft. A C =75 mm B r =15 mm Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . Determine the shear stress developed at points A and B.Example 3 The shaft is supported by two bearings and is subjected to three torques.

Example 4 Under normal operating conditions. the electric motor exerts a torque of 2. Knowing that each shaft is solid. (b) in shaft BC.4 kN. (c) in shaft CD.m at A. determine the maximum shearing stress (a) in shaft AB. Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Neglecting the effect of stress BC concentrations. Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .E l Example 5 The allowable stress is 104 MPa in the 38 mm diameter rod AB and 55 MPa in the 46 mm diameter rod BC. determine the largest torque that may be applied at A.

d / dt Since 1 cycle 2 rad 2f . the power is P T where shaft angular velocity. time For a rotating shaft with a torque.Power Transmission Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. the power equation is P 2fT For shaft design. the design or geometric parameter design is J T c allow ll Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Chapter 5: Torsion Mechanics of Material 7th Edition © 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . If the shaft rotates at N = 175 rpm and the steel has an allowable shear stress of tallow = 100 MPa. d h l h ll bl h f MP determine the required diameter of the shaft to the nearest mm.Example 6 Example 6 A solid steel shaft AB as shown in the figure is to be used to transmit 3750 W from the motor M to which it is attached.

The shaft is supported on smooth bearings at A and B. The gear C and D fixed to the shaft removed 18 kW and 12 kW respectively.20 GPa. .Example 7 Example 7 The motor delivers 30 kW to the shaft while it rotates at 20 Hz. which allow free rotation of the shaft. G = 76 GP is 0. Determine the diameter of the shaft to the nearest mm if the allowable shear stress is τallow = 56 MPa and the allowable angle of twist of C respect to D i 0 20o.

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