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In the last ten years there has been an intense growth of transactions in the service sector, i.e.

in banking, insurance and other service institutions. To facilitate smooth functioning of these institutions, it became necessary to maintain the latest financial software packages, global networking facilities and a user-friendly ATM service. This, in turn, has led to a largescale computerization and consequent need for back up power or Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)., to avoid the ever-increasing problem of power failure.

The integral part of a UPS is the battery bank. The battery stores electrical energy in the form of chemical energy during the mains-on period and converts the chemical energy to electric energy during the power demand. Thus the battery acts as a back-up power source that supports the UPS system. Due to several reasons, the most popular battery system being used with UPS is the Lead Acid battery system.

For a better understanding of the utility of Lead Acid batteries in the Banks, Financial institutions etc. let us answer some of the most frequently asked questions:

~What are Lead Acid Batteries?

Lead Acid Batteries use an electrochemical reaction between lead dioxide positive electrode, pure lead negative electrode and di lute sulphuric acid to store and regenerate electrical energy as per the requirement. The nominal potential difference between the two participating electrodes is almost 2 volts.

,...Where are they mainly used? How do they help us? There are 2 principal uses of lead acid batteries.

1. They are used in automobiles for starting the engine, lighting and ignition.

2. They are used in industrial applications as back up power in critical areas like telephone exchanges, power stations, railway coaches, UPS of various applications, inverters and other "auxiliary" power sources.

In these applications the systems are provided with a battery that form a secondary source of power when the mains are off. These sources are in a constant state of readiness, and provide a secondary source of power when the main source is absent.. Thus they ensure that our Jives can go on without the slightest impediment.

People generally tend to associate a Lead Acid Battery with a car battery. As a result they use Automobile batteries for their inverters and UPS too. However, even a moment's reflection will show that the two applications are widely different.

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',.... WJhat .3!"€ the d~ffe.r:ence~ betw~en Auto,mobile L€ad Acid Batterl€S and lndustrial Appllcation Lead A.cld [3att€:rIes(

Automobile Lead Acid Battet)': Automobile batteries suppl~H\ high current for startlnq til e .a:utomobi~e eng ina. The lime taiken for th is cu rrent d raiihage is en Iy a few seconds. Once the eRgine'starts a small current is withdrawn from the battery for ignit~on and li~ihtinQ purpose but then at that point the battery is already 0[1 charge in pata~ler. They are normaUy desi.Qined with "thin" fla~ plates or electrodes' to enable ~. high current very low dma~lon discharge, The plate's thickness ~s typically weill below'2 rnm.

Indusb"ial l.ead Acid batttery: Lead Acidl batter~es for industrial application hancle extended and variable loads. They call be u,sed tor cyclic operation.for a couple of he urs or more.

Oonsequentlv, lndustrial lead A'oid batteries have far m,ol'@. complrex designs than Autornoblle batteries, Two teehnoloqles are commonly used ~ill batteries for UFlS ,application: one with tubular electrodes and the other wi1h a very special thick plate (above- 2 mm) d€slgn known-as "f~at plate" type. An advanced version of this !'flat plate" type ernplovssoplusticated techrlGlngy in terms of antimony wee alloys and special absorbent glasS mat separators etc. that make thlese typ,8 of batteri~s "Maintenance Free". Due to their specific deslgn parameters they are called "V~lve Reg.ul~teq Lead Aoid" batteries or simply WH_A batteries, T~is vari$tion of Lead .Acid Battery 'is also commonly known as "~,ealed Maintenance Free~ or SMF batteries.

These d~sign dirfferences account tor the cost dffferenoe between the InchJstl'~al and Automo!b1le batteries.

~What are the' types of lead Add Batteries suitable for UPS?

Broadly there!3re two types of Lead Acid 8aneries suitable for UPS: "* SMF-YIR.lJI. 'ba1terie'S ( No fre€ electrolyte,)

"* Tubular baUeri es

~Whatare VR1A Batteries:?

VIRLA batterie§.llte frat plate batteries which do not require periodic topping-up' with water an d norm a:lly do not 'emit any fumes or g ases an a continuous basts, They are best suited'for applications where back up requirement Is LJsually short. normally not e:xceedtng 30 m i ns to 1 hour They are the autorn ati c chol ce where 'amb~efllt temperature is hot very high and space is a constralnt. ExidE/S Powersate VELA batteriea are: a superier range of prQdu91.s mat prT)vkje ~de.al back·UJil' power 'for UPS s.yst~m,

""'What is, the difference between IMP' batteries & 'SMF' bstterles ?

'MF baHerjes'ar€!'basically F,lood~d Flat Plate batteries suitab~e & mostly used for AUitomobHe application. 'SMF~ on the contrary, means Sealed Macintelii.ance Fre:e Ba1l:t®i'iies and are also called VR1A batterles, wher:a no tappi:ng. up e is necessary throughout its lite,

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~What are Tubular Ba,tterieii?

Tubular batteries use a. special technology tly which theactlve.rnatenal is enoapeulatsd in polyMter tubes to prevent 'shedding'. The elec1fode

··geometry fBoi~it~te.s 'oyclle' deep dlscharqes l.e. kmg repetitive power out~.ges. Th~9y are recommended fat back. up power for UPS where environ mental conditions are toug hand 'hig h ernb lent ternperatares are ccrnmcn. Exide" for more than 25: years now"has b'eein manutactunnq tine unique '''Exide EL" 'range' of tubular products which :h~ proved to be the most re!iab'le$Qurce of baek up power tor unvert:ers and UPS operating uridar d ernandililg .corrdltlons, These are capable of ~ong h.OI,,.i~S of babkup.

,... How ls Exide Tubular superior to other Tubulars ?

Tubular batteries have always been wicelv used for Standby applteeticn .. Whi~e all tubuilar batteries behave slrnllarly in the beginning. the strength of their guts and their ~ife, especially ln heavy duties, is declded by the way theur spines are cast.

There are thr!3€l standard casting practices: ~ . G rav'ity Casti ng

2. Low Pressure Casting

,3. H~gh ~ressure "HADI" Casting

Exide Standby Banerjee have the spinee.cr the',positive 'Itlbli!::fffll~an('j itsVUllOus.components plate supped made by Hig.h Pressure "HADI" Cas~ing

Process (100 Bar) which can protect the lead plate support from anodic corrosion. The SCaJllning E~®ctro,n Microscope (SEM) study reveals the W)eakness' of the plate: support made by other processes.

2. Low Pr~ss,LJre(Qstlng (done at 10 Bar) (sEM Picture of plat~)

J, H ~gh Pre5S:Ute. ~·HAD I" Glsting (do n e aHQQ Gar) (SEM Pldut}!!' of pbt~)

1.. Gravity Ca$tir.l'l (SEM PictLlre-of plollte)

&naJ1\ud~ very 1[]1,'1 liiitr() HardnE<S~

~o 'IOid'5 Uni~OOl1 micro hardness

Bg\\Dids No.n uniform micro . h!lrd~e'S~

"'_What ere the differences between Tubular batterv and VRLA battery?

A. T1iJbu~ar Battery:

'* Frequent, tong duraitbn diseharqes can only be served by Tl"Jbl,J~~x batteries. This is, because by design they are meant for deep eye I lc dutles.

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* Tubular batteries canrecover eas1ly from deep d~scharge condltlons. They are suited for fast charge without any major effect on the battery I~fe.

"* Tubuilar batteries are designed to operate in EXTREME temperature environment, BOTH HIGH AND lOW.

* Modern Tubular batteries are designed as "low maintenance" i.e, requires topping up with disttlled water once in 6 months.

'* Tubular batteries require more space compared to the VRLA counterpart.

VR LA, Battery:

* VRLA batteries do not neec:l periodic service or toppung u!p-

* If there IS a major space constraint or a restriction on battery emissions the VRLA has to be the automatic, choice.

* VRLA's are not at all. suited for aggressive charge and hence are best used for short duration backups not exceeding 1 hour,

* In case the battery bank is used in normal ambient where during Slimmer months temperatures are invariably above 38~C for the greater portlon of the day VRlA:;;, do not c:le;lil'!i'9t satisfactory Ufe.

"_How safe is Exrde's t.ead Acid B2In~ry from duplication?

The complex technology of Lead Acid Battery and Exide'g proprietaty manufacturing process ensures that they cannot befabrioated by roadside vendors or even by small battery making corrpanles, Thus the lead 'Add Batter:y manutactured by Exide IS undiluted and oneof irs kind.

,..Wh2lt are the factors one should consider before selectlnq ,a batte,ry?

Before seteGting a battery one should consider the following; * Desired back up duration

'* Average operating temperature r,ange * Space availability

* Envjro nmental factors

* Toppi ng ,up rec uirements

* CertificatiQns like 1509001 :2000' .lIS014001 for manufacturing plants

'* Safety stand!ard certifications from international certifying agenc:ies like uncerwnters laboratory - USA for VRLA products

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The extra power UP S/Inverter Battery'

TUBULAR BATTERY THAT LASTS '3 TIMES LONGER

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• •

IEXlOE EI.. RANGE OF TUBULAR. MON'OBLOC aArreFlU~S

OAP'ACITI ES, "'EIGHTS &. DllMENS~ONrs
CiJt~cit1ln M Cherg8 AflPfOO!; ~t111ii' . Approx. Olfarall T~C};19
ai ~l'C w~>2n C~! Weight &~id q,it dimam;Xlns CI~
diScliarged fa- ~A) 11.220 CUtl·@tllmA
Sp, Gr/ooiO
Typ3 lOW, to Hr, Namlni!l S,fErf'lin;q Fillishil"!ii Mirirrmm i<h V41!l:t!J1 (lcid FI[ed wllh l>1res L wi H Min Mt\>:
I\.iof)obbo:: Unit InlXlt()UMg (KG) =S'% seid mm ITlrr'l rum
Wll~~CM l~ii!l chargs ~KG) :t:6% ,tl. ~ ±-'l
Final ','cRagG U5 .8 - 1 2.3$ ;t70 I
j}l)fCi;ll ~J) ~".,,",
il'IS"J~:~
o'EL.,O 40 313 ~2 4.,(l I 2.4 1'&1 1M ,e,2 (;I,e :wJ I 'in :?40 I oW I sen
~L.5(1 ~() ~7 ~~ G I 3 2~~ 1S ~ p.S5 ·ua ti6 1':49 I 00 1:1
'I'ia~ .;q 6S ~2 7-.92 ~,OO ~!"l7 23 31.7 1,2 ·ua 171j 2~S S:~
SfL7!l 75 71 ~2 g 4.5 937 25 33.5 1,16 .$10 17., 2411 7.5 300
6EL 1(10 100 95 '12 12 6 4(1) :34.6 47.5 1.85 503 220{) 257 100 4.00 EXlDE ElL TALL TUiBUlAR RAN,GE

C'A""ACITU~S. WEI,G .... TS &, DII1II[(I;;;NSIONS
Cspa:;it}' in A'h. C!l~e Approx, BBttay ~flfID;· Oo'(!l;J.I! Tiickt~
at 27'C \\tH~'" CI.J;'Tfm! WO@t aci::lq~' dimensiD1l6 GhB'g9
(jiscll(}rge::Hcr lA) (1:2ro OIirTlllnlm';
cSp.Grk~
IYrC! 1D Hr. ~d Hr, Nominal I :;10l1li~ Fini&lil1{l M!r'lI(fJ~M Wlllnauts,:;iQ Alled'llli~lI Litfaa L W 11 ~ei1 Ma>:
1.100itm".(:{;unil !npul durinq (KG) ~5% ac-"i;:l mrn !l1[ll rnm
WtageM I rrlti "I ,ttl iitg (:, (Kt3I!05% ili :E3 ~
Final VOItaSB 1.75 iii - 2.~S 2.70'
p3r8ll1l\V! ~1~?i'i51~
alB ~~!iS)
'1l~!.liW i:lO I 123 12 15,6 f,e i;i~$ 40.1 66,35 3,5 aOD Hl7 4:?1 ~JO 5ro
-- I-
6El1S0 150 ld.:2 t2 18 ~ Q7·S <16,.6- 71.35 as aOD 167 4.21 150 600
!)a,lS0 i80 17i 12 J;;: 1; I 31"0 55 74 ao ~OIJ ~a7 ~"21 laO 720 ·or CQMt~rrt potential Qtiarg_inQI higher ratea.are P."filllssible ferrnaxlmum Qh?r~er ~effing of 2.-10 volts per ceil. b .. Trickffi ch..'lrgQ·. ~'()ltage should be adJI.J~ted between 2.15 - 2.25 volts p9tl' cell.

o, T,;;.;hf1iCl;lI inftirni8tion r$gardirtg 6\1 IE L Tubular 3Na!lablle on request,

Initi a'i Charging lins1!;ruct'ions,

"" RII lip 10 t~ required leval wIth battery grade !':hlut€ SUlptJUflc acid • hilling sp~ciflC g~.avLty: 1,220;1; (I.0Q~ et 27'C

•. Re!3~' period: 1,2 r.ours

.' Cflarg.e at 12% of q10) capacity to .2_3!i:Ypo andtheri a16% 01 C(10)cap~iiyto 2.7vp~- 2_75 ... pc .' Miriin'llll'r'l A1'I1r"lpUI: 450% of C10 ~apacity

'The 'ben~fi'$ d.eni~ed al'll ·as foIlo ..... s;

1, The float li~~ of Exid~ EL extends "..rall Dsyond 5 yeari and on an avera~ 5 - 8 y>BB;ra

2, The cycl~(; life ;j,f EL is atso ver.y.h~!h to Die tune o,t 12.000 cyclc-s at 00% Qep.th of r;li!l~8!l'ge.

3. The low antimony content or tile .spilles ensures a very lowse.lf dlscllarge loss of tlw order Q·f 1 % of the 11l hour ratecapacity per we(lik at 25"c.

4, The- combination of !IOIII al'ltimOI)Y alloy and cernmw vent ..,1.1191 ~ep!;l thawall;lr 8iddi~ioi'l r-eqlJiremool very tow, A toppi"\i!f !JpfreqUl!f'}{;.y.

01 once In '6~9 monlils car- e~~i~ be achieved in normal ,opar,atlng .;oooltlOI1S, .

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EP'SERIES

SPECIFICA"J'JONS CHART'

8~~ttl)' Conrulncr COl1l.iJiner Nomina~ F1a1~r:I C~p"dt~' t'!"h~ ;1,1 27·0: Dimen~iiJn~ (mill) we~.!:.ht!
l~'p~ & Lid Colour Vq.ltag!7 W!I1 .. 1 1 (I hr ,~t 3 hr J.l 1 .s hrat 1 hr at O~r<llli 11~i~1;,1 upto len!l~h VVidtih 14) ,
nirueri~1 IVJ 1 _7S~'feell 1.15v!~11 t. i 'J/~el! 1,7 '!;!/(:('-II U),>,/'ccll Hd~hl 4,"- :2 lal sop 4/- 2: f./- 1 +,/-1 +/- 5%
EP 4.S-11 A.£I5 Gr.,)' 12 .\5 4 Jq 3.2 2,7 HB 1ill 140 1.B. I U'
~p 1·12 AilS Gra~' 1 ~-;: 7 {i,) G 5 .~ 100 ~I·l 151 es 2.6
,.~
EE' , 2-12 AIlS ("~l' 12 12 ltd LOA 8.6 7.2. 1m:) '14 151 9'!J ~, ,
~p 1 i-12' ;\!l$ Gray 12 p 1.5-~ l~_f 1.2,2 1()'2 IQ ,.,~ Iill 76 6.'
~1'l!~·U AfI~ G~.l.'r' I 1<: ZG 23M n~ 18.J 15_Eo i2s US Ufo 11'5 9.2
1:I'~6-12W pp !~r"~· I 12 2!i 13.-6 n.~ 1~] }S_f. "175 Il~ I 166 12"~ 9,~
~p 34-12 pp Gr<ly' I 11 34 H_'l ]9.5 :;!'::'.l 20A PO 170 I 1')7 16"5 12
E1'42-i2 PI' Cr<ly 1l 4;l I l[l,2 %,5 30,2 25.2 Wi ]7U 1YI 1f>.5 1~.~
~I' ;;2--1<: pr {_;r.,~ 12. 52 , 4?.3 15.2 37A, ll.~ 17.t 174 350 1~ P,S
[f'~5-12 P.I' I Gr<1·~ 12 ~ .~';J.1 _%.5 ·~(',8 J~ 17.4 174 3.50 ](;!; 21.5
EI' 7u-li I PI' I Gr-il)' n 7Q ~J,7 GO,9 50,4 .:j;~ I 17'1 l{'~ ~.;IJ lEi06 ~H
[1'7$-'2\11' Pi' GI.:!~ 12 .- ~~.2 ·&$.2 ~,j ,~:; 174 174 35:0 l~<1o 215
I'~
W ll0-12 I"r' Gr<l)' 12 1M 1D~_2 l04.4 1I6A 72 m 23~ 407 m 16 Batt'N)' Container COI~~ipl~r Numinal R~d C~p.aci~y (Ali) <Ill 27 e Di~siQns (f~m~ V\"~i~hL
T},r.c s Lid Colour \,Ialj;·S~ "20 hr ,11 1 (I hr ot 3 hf a~ 1.5 hr ~t 1 hr ~ o,-r;:rall I'I~fght u,pLao ll!r;lSih Wid",h (kg~
m,)jeri~1 1'.0 1.7S~'k: .. 11 1.75\'kell 1,7 '.',1cell 1 ,""/ ~'lc~1I 1',6 .,.ic~1I iid~lhl +/- 2- lid top.+I- 2 +/-1 4,1. ·1 +1-.5%
~p /',5-1211" I Atl5 Gr~!' 12 7.5 D.l> I).,; 5.4 4,5 I 100 94 151 65 .2,6
tP 1229~V
EI' 9·121-1/ AilS. Gr~)' 12 9 S.l I i.8- nA 5.4 lOO 94 151 65 2,('
l-f'ln4W
For '~.l2H AFJ$ Cr'3)' 12 ·1.8 16,:~ I ' 5_6 n.~ ][1.8 167" 167 HIl 76 G.1
EI' :2~~11H fJI" Gr.'l~' 12 .713 I .25.4 l·O ;!().1 HiJ:l 17~ ·17·j 1~ ]:<:3 9,~
EP ii4-12H pp I Grow I 12 44 40 }6,2 31.£ .26.4 170 "170 HI7 If'" ·14
EP 60cl2H pp Gray 12 ~() I 72_6 (,9.& [,],(, 48 23:5 21~ .,07 173 21'1
r:P I 00-1 2t'l pp Gr;)}' 12 100 91 -87 72 (,0 235 2.35: "11), 173 33 -----&

A COMPAR~50N BETWEEN MF FLOODED AND INDUSTRiAL BATIEIR1ES

Particulars MFFfooded I TubuJar Battery VRLA Battery
1. A~2Iication: Usually f(lf startin~ and For UPS and Inverters, For UPS ..
lighting ota vehicle.
2. TQl!lrance to Very low as Suite.d for discharges Suited for high discharges
Depth of,jDisc·narge: discharge is. for normaJly upto 80% but i'n normally upto 50% but in _.
few seconds on~ exceptional cases even, exceptional cases even·h igher,
dming starting of
aut(}m(lbil~s; rest
of the operation is
011 float
3. Retovery after Diffico~. No problem. Pos-s'ible,but takes a very
droop discharge: long time.

4. Cyclio Operation Unsuitable for Approximatel~( 150fl 400 - 450 cycles at 80% DOD,
fif~ cyClic operati<m. cycles ror80% DOD
{ ciepth of discharge).
5. Standb~ USB: Maximum 2.·3 6- 8 years 8ft 2r c. 3-5 years at zr C.
years at 27" G,
6., Constructi:on: Th in flat plate. Tubular plate. Thicker plate with absoroont
glass mat separator.
7. Active M~terial High shedd ing, Negligibl,e. No shedd~ng,
Sheddil]J~

B. InternaIS-hto:rt High possibility. Very lOIN possi nil ity. Low poss~bi li'ty,
Circu~t; I I I I I I II

,I

I

AA~

VVINDLAN OVERSEAS BANK

CHEMBUR BRANCH - MUMBAI - 400071.

E ~ Ma'il: chembmgr@mummrc01.iobn·et.cQ.in

Telephone

Telefax

25286390 25280669 25229879

31 May2004

The Regional Sales Manager, Industrial (West)

Exide Industries Ltd., Murnbai,

Dear Sir,

We are using at present 8 Nus. 6 EL 100 in Our system for more than 6 years and these are working fine as 011 date.

This is for your information.

Yours faithfully,

(R. PURUSHOTHAMAN) CHIEF MANAGER.

'.":; .... ' ...

(~'->r %::~; >

::rT;:.:r~·BANK OF hl'flJERABAD

I~!!'.-t If.lOI~ A&~ ... ':"I.\:o:(;~ (:0. 81J~"CIIN;:L Gr-.~iJ.\!(l FL{>;);:!. M. t,. flO""O. FORT_ t~u~,~OlJ'1 -~oo on

-::::~ .:::~ ~r~. f.:!~! ~rn 1f.ii~1I "". ,g. "'I. q~. 9-1 . 000 (l2:!c

T~: .. : "", O~~f, 2~~ 2'~ ~o. 2~ I O·~:T?

~[.._~:-:: fl.; ~-!I!i~~~. ~I3H ita: - 13?·;/I.:~~· .hI~·~":H'{I!_)l!I"I.NK r:.r, :.1' ~l3i·!~rl{!lI ..... _ ~:~,L-:::;:'I r':-i'l '1)

Iro:

Date: 4j6!04 F/BiUil2:0

R .. S.M. IIMl0N) Exid® Industries Ltd. MlLlmb8111

Dear Sir/Madam

Ref.!Sub: IPURCHIASE OF SELBe IBATTER~ES

15 NOS. BUY BACK 8ASIS 8ATTERIES.

We would like to inform you the present batteries we have are 6:I::L 66 batteries, AU batteries are working since 6 yrs.

According to you r service pers-onnel, as the life of these batteries come to anend, so it ls better to replace [hem with new batter! es.

So send the quotaU:on of same Ci3paci.1ty & quarrliities of bstterles at earliest.

Performance Report

Customer: l'C'lti' OJU~f.[IAL.. G ..... M ~ Oll:

COHMEP.;..(.&

E P&td_B~~ P l.;>;.2:.,A

A NN"A -(! ,l.'q-A-1

L-~~G'NfY"'l ~. be-oo a 2..

B Q1tte,t.:: Type l~ LS Lr_C""" ~ .3}i No-'J

MClfllliactur€:r: M/s_Exide Indushies UmHed

Roling of Battery ls A-t'l

DatE rO'f Commi:5sion'lng 1.2.' 0 7.. I r '/ 1 S

. ttl \'TJ,;:Llj_ fi~f? QJ. t;

Name: r~.1)btt.idA l3~ rJ ))~(...,.

IDesignolion: l'i..N)·U!\,..\.,f

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Bank ot Baro~a

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