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G E O R G E T O W N U N I V E R S I T Y
Faith-Inspired Organizations and Global Development Policy
A Background Review “Mapping” Social and Economic Development Work in Southeast Asia
A project of the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs and the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Supported by the Henry R. Luce Initiative on Religion and International Affairs
BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS
Luce/SFS Program on Religion and International Affairs
The Luce/SFS Program on Religion and International Affairs has been exploring the intersection of faith, world politics and diplomacy since September 2006. A collaboration between the Henry Luce Foundation and the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (SFS) and Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs at Georgetown University, the Luce/SFS Program initially focused on two issue areas: Religion and Global Development and Religion and US Foreign Policy. A follow-on award from the Luce Foundation in November 2008 has enabled the continued growth of both program areas and the addition of two more: Government Outreach and an online Religion and International Affairs Network.
The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service
Founded in 1919 to educate students and prepare them for leadership roles in international affairs, the School of Foreign Service conducts an undergraduate program for over 1,300 students and graduate programs at the Master’s level for more than 700 students. Under the leadership of Dean Robert L. Gallucci, the School houses more than a dozen regional and functional programs that offer courses, conduct research, host events, and contribute to the intellectual development of the field of international affairs. In 2007, a survey of faculty published in Foreign Policy ranked Georgetown University as #1 in Master’s degree programs in international relations.
The Berkley Center
The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs at Georgetown University, created within the Office of the President in March 2006, is dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion and the promotion of interreligious understanding. Through research, teaching, and service, the Center examines religion as it relates to global challenges of international diplomacy, democracy and human rights, and economic and social development. Two premises guide the Center’s work: that deeper knowledge of religion’s global role is critical to address these challenges, and that the open engagement of religious traditions with one another and with the wider society can promote peace. Thomas Banchoff, associate professor in the Department of Government and the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, is the Center’s founding director.
The World Faiths Development Dialogue
The World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD) bridges between the worlds of faith and secular development. Established by James D. Wolfensohn, then President of the World Bank, and Lord Carey of Clifton, then Archbishop of Canterbury, WFDD responded to the opportunities and concerns of many faith leaders who saw untapped potential for partnerships. Based in Washington, D.C., WFDD supports dialogue, fosters communities of practice, and promotes understanding on religion and development, with formal relationships with the World Bank, Georgetown University, and many faith-inspired institutions.
The Asia Faiths Development Dialogue
The Asia Faiths Development Dialogue (AFDD), launched in 2006, seeks to strengthen faith by mobilizing support of the different faith groups in Cambodia and in Southeast Asia and the broader Asia-Pacific region, to work for peace, development and harmony in order to achieve a peaceful coexistence of the people in Asia and beyond. AFDD fosters constructive inter-faiths dialogue through broad participation in order to promote trust-building and reconciliation as well as societal development. By bridging the gaps among the different faith groups at the national, regional, and international levels, AFDD strives to ameliorate the lives of diverse people around the world.
Copyright 2010, Georgetown University.
About this Report
This report was prepared as part of the Berkley Center’s global “mapping” of the work of faith-inspired organizations worldwide. The report specifically served as background for a consultation on faithinspired organizations and global development policy in Southeast Asia in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in December 2009. A separate, companion report summarizes the meeting itself, including interviews with participants; all are available on the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs and World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD) websites.1 The draft report was reviewed by participants in the Phnom Penh consultation; we acknowledge their inputs with gratitude. The Southeast Asia review is part of the comparative project on Religion and Global Development supported by the Henry R. Luce Foundation. Through a series of meetings with stakeholders and background reports, the Berkley Center and WFDD have worked to ‘“map’” the role of faithinspired organizations around the world, highlighting best practices and policy issues that arise. Prior events have included: a meeting in Washington, DC in April 2007 focused on the United States; a meeting in Doha, Qatar in December 2007 focused on the Muslim World; a meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands in June 2008 focused on Europe and Africa; and a meeting in Antigua, Guatemala in January 2009, focused on Latin America. A future meeting is planned for South Asia.
About the Authors
The report was prepared by a team of researchers at the Berkeley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs and the World Faiths Development Dialogue. The principal author is Michael Bodakowski, working under the supervision of Katherine Marshall. Sarah Arkin and Walker Grooms, graduate research fellows at the Berkley Center, contributed significantly, as did Michael Scharff and Augustina Delaney from their on-going work in Cambodia. Thomas Bohnett provided invaluable guidance and input throughout the process. Melody Fox Ahmed played a key role from the beginning of the consultation process, without whose contributions this report would not have been possible. Kory Kantenga and Amy Vander Vliet also made important contributions.
BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS
Table of Contents
Part 1: Southeast Asia: An Overview
G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y
Religion in Southeast Asia: A Brief Overview—Actual, Historical, Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Indigenous Beliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Faith-Inspired Organizations with Transnational Mandates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Major Faith-Inspired Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Part 2: Sector Focus and Emerging Trends and Policy Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peace and Conflict Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human Trafficking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environment and Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Governance and Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 1: Filipino Catholic Church Fights for Good Governance and Against Corruption. . . . . Part 3: Country Case Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion and Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Government, Religious Institutions, and NGOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nadlhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Faith-Inspired Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interfaith Cooperation and Conflict. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 2: Women’s Rights and Faith-Inspired Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Socio-Economic Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion in the Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 3: Mindanao: Conflict and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faith and Public Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 4: Civil Society, the Catholic Church, and Agrarian Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NGOs, Civil Society, Faith, and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 5: Environmental Call for Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 6: Habitat for Humanity—Peace Build Program in Mindanao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 7: The Catholic Church and Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emerging Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 8: Sister Adelia S. Oling and People’s Alternative Livelihood Foundation . . . . . . . . . . Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cambodia’s Religious Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development and Buddhist Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 9: The Association of Buddhists for the Environment (ABE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 16 17 18 20 20 21 25 25 25 26 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 37 37 37 38 39 39
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burma (Myanmar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion in Burma (Myanmar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese Foreign Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development Work in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 13: The Hajj Fund and Islamic Banking in Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 41 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 46 46 46 47 47 49 49 49 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 57 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 63 63 64 64 65 66 67 67 67 Appendix 1: Annotated Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interfaith Cooperation and Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . . The Country in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NGOs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 12: Tzu Chi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Socio-Economic and Political Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religious Organizations. . . . . . Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faith-Inspired Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emerging Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion in Laos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Socio-Economic Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 11: Korean Missionaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faith-Inspired Organizations and Development in Japan and Abroad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korea . . . . United States and Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role of Faith-Inspired Actors . . . . . . . Socially Engaged Buddhism in Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NGOs. . . . . . . . Faith-Inspired Development Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christian Development Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 4: Transnational Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Development and Muslim organizations . . . . . . . . . . Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Politics. . . . . . . An Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box 10: Soka Gakkai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Development . . . . . . . . . . Socio-Economic Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Islam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion in Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and emergency relief. some classically religious in nature (teaching scripture. The review has proved challenging. HIV/AIDS. public and private. among many other sectors. though they do have vibrant faithinspired organizations engaged in development work that deserve investigation. conflict resolution. environmental preservation. transmits experience and ideas across national and often faith boundaries. The report aims to identify and examine the practical. To a significant extent. Their overall nature and form are not documented or analyzed in any systematic way. and religious practices and institutions both shape and are changed by the social revolutions across all realms of Southeast Asian society. Religion and faith are tied to moral and ethical attributes that tend to emphasize human and spiritual contributions to political and economic domains. and they vary by country and region. Given the diversity and size of Southeast Asia. some countries are not discussed in this report. focusing primarily on those with an Asian focus but also international faithinspired organizations including World Vision. and other religious institutions across the region. and economic) largely determines and influences their roles and activities. development related roles of faith-inspired institutions and the environments in which they work. enriched by ongoing WFDD field work in Cambodia and interviews with specialists and practitioners. These organizations and the people who work with them form a web of development practitioners that. political. mosques. belief and action. and in an extraordinary array of partnerships with secular institutions. inter alia. humanitarian relief. Institutions and communities with faith links engage in widely ranging activities. A separate section explores the work of transnational organizations. They work independently. It also sets out to identify areas meriting further investigation and discussion. Its approach is wide-ranging and inclusive. this review is exploratory. pastoral care). in collaboration with other faith-inspired groups. churches. ranging from the spiritual realm. Faith-inspired institutions can be found working in all sectors of society. Religious beliefs are as diverse as the region’s geography and peoples. 5 2010 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . The wide range of religious beliefs that characterize the region give rise to an extraordinary diversity of institutional forms and activities. The report makes no systematic effort to define religion or faith. The country context in which faith-inspired organizations work (social. working from the many thousands of temples.2 Its central aim is what we term a “mapping” of the landscape of faith-inspired organizations working in development. cultural. health. and our use of the term “faith-inspired” reflects an appreciation of the complex links between inspiration and organization. Muslim Relief. The report thus focuses on a country by country overview that highlights the challenges and constraints at a national level. and the Council for the Parliament of the World’s Religions. and their policy implications. and thus has not constrained its analysis to a tightly defined set of faith actors. both historically and present-day. in order to identify and highlight areas with potential for increased collaboration. The report is based largely on desk reviews of existing material and literature. therefore. and its findings are far from definitive.Faith-Inspired Organizations and Global Development Policy A Background Review “Mapping” Social and Economic Development Work in Southeast Asia R Introduction eligion is a pervasive and influential force across Southeast Asia. They work in education. to those more commonly associated with secular organizations. focusing on Southeast Asia. others covering a wide gamut of services and community action.
Recent natural disasters in Southeast Asia highlight how effectively some faith-inspired actors can respond and their extraordinary reach. Confucianism. and wide-ranging efforts to address conflicts and social tensions. cultural. Faith-inspired organizations thus find themselves often at the epicenter of local understanding and influence surrounding development work and humanitarian aid. bringing faith communities into close proximity. who are often particularly imbued with their religious identity. is not on the ways in which faith and belief shape attitudes towards development and related behaviors. In Southeast Asia. and often have a significant value-added. The report focuses on the largest faith communities. practical ways. Belief systems are syncretic in many situations. In places where there are active conflicts. and each of the larger world religions has a uniquely Southeast Asian character. at the grassroots level. Diverse faith-inspired organizations form part of the development architecture. but on a set of more pragmatic questions linked to policy engagement and service delivery. The primary focus of the present exploration. leading both to constructive cooperation. faith-inspired institutions.Beliefs affect behaviors relevant to many endeavors having clear social. and environmental degradation in concrete. and established relationships and trust with local leaders and community members. In communities. The major faiths present in Southeast Asia all profess a particular focus on those who are excluded and marginalized in society. and Christianity. however. significant and well established networks. The review is designed to inform and serve both faith and development practitioners. Faith-inspired organizations are particularly active. Often the faith-inspired experience suggests new insights and practical lessons. faith-inspired grassroots initiatives engage the poorest members of the community. Shintoism. as such. and indigenous religions and beliefs are also significant. and those who are poor. which tend to have the most active institutions: Buddhism. The central threads running through much of the analysis and discussions are the purposeful focus of much faith-inspired work on poor communities and grassroots endeavors. national borders and ethnicities overlap. Hinduism. economical. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y . Muslim. interreligious conflict. The report’s findings could serve as a useful enrichment for development discussions. and religious fabric of Southeast Asia. human rights abuses. faith-inspired organizations can have a nuanced understanding of the local context. and in some instances. and Judaism all have reach and influence. those who suffer. have rarely figured on development agendas. as well as special challenges on issues ranging from governance to effective community mobilization. except as elements of what is broadly defined as civil society. and political reach. A wide array of groups addresses social injus6 tice. but other religions and indigenous belief systems also help to weave the social. presenting attendant challenges of coordination and aligning with national and international strategic objectives. To date.
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Thus. Buddhism. relations between state and faith. sometimes mirrored also in wide differences among regions of a single country. has been used by political leaders to derive power and support. with a vibrant and established democracy. Buddhist kings and powerful Buddhist empires reigned across the Mekong River region for hundreds of years. for example. while in Vietnam. Malaysia. including those with a faith character. Trends Figure 1 Southeast Asia. the oldest of the three main divisions of Buddhism and most widespread practice in Southeast Asia. The capacity of the state also shapes the approach to faith-inspired organizations.09% Muslim: 36. Religious demography. Cambodia. This diversity gives rise to widely different arrangements and focus in terms of types of development programs and sector concentration. and as a force for national cohesion. The respective roles of local versus regional and international organizations also differs markedly by country. Buddhist: 27. and Laos. nongovernmental organizations. Historical. the Buddhist lineage of the King remains a symbol of national cohesion during its on-going political crisis.83% Source: The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) Buddhism Theravada Buddhism. In Thailand. the Philippines. Population by Religious Affiliation (%) Ethnoreligionist: 4.3 while in Burma (Myanmar).90% Christian: 21. including prominently but not exclusively education and health. Burma’s (Myanmar’s) military regime has in many respects coopted the upper echelons of the Buddhist sangha. and each country presents a quite different profile.4 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 9 . a communist state. has a large and dynamic civil society with thousands of different organizations working in virtually every imaginable sector.69% Other: 6. historically spread from India and Sri Lanka to present day Burma (Myanmar). as well as to civil society more broadly. and predominant areas of activity of faith institutions vary widely across the region.23% Agnostic: 2. beside more classic spiritual roles. Thailand. Faith-inspired institutions are involved in a range of social and public services at the community level. installing Buddhism as permanent and influential fixture across these Southeast Asian societies. through the 13th century. The following section briefly introduces the region’s major religious traditions. work under significant restrictions.Part I Southeast Asia: An Overview R Religion in Southeast Asia: A Brief Overview—Actual. Even the most remote and inaccessible locations are likely to have a vibrant religious center or centers that often function as a social and economic hub. in addition to its obvious and influential spiritual realm.98% eligious institutions and faith-inspired organizations have a strong physical and spiritual presence across most Southeast Asian communities.
but are discussed within policy and operational circles. Some observers suggest that movements towards Sharia law. In Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand. Soka Gakkai. Mindanao (Philippines). Some countries or sub-regions are witnessing pressures to follow stricter Islamic legal and political codes. law. notably in Indonesia and Malaysia. Indonesia is the world’s most populous Muslim country. often offering education and other social services.6 Buddhist organizations from the wealthier countries in Asia (particularly Japan and Taiwan). are active in promoting socially engaged Buddhism on a regional and international level. Caritas. replaces public education systems in many areas. Traditionally Southeast Asian Islam has lived harmoniously alongside the region’s other large religions and indigenous belief systems. Apart from the Philippines. Islam was introduced in Southeast Asia by way of Arab merchants and sailors and is present today throughout the region. They remain a widespread presence in Southeast Asia. Christianity has experienced quite rapid growth in Vietnam in the past decade. a Japanese lay Buddhist movement. Large Christian organizations include: World Vision. Prominent examples are Aceh. and regional levels. in addition to spiritual guidance. Islam Islam is the most widely practiced religion in Southeast Asia (an estimated 37 percent of the population). Laos. In Cambodia.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Buddhist monks. but also recognized in majority Buddhist countries such as Thailand. Christianity Christianity is thought to have begun its journey into Asia with the mission of the apostle Thomas in India. for example. in many cases together with local traditions and customs. Most Southeast Asian Muslims follow Sunni Islam. contributing a Buddhist voice to international development discussions on topics ranging from social justice and education to environmental protection and sustainable development. has active chapters in most countries in Asia. Islam influences governance. and Malaysia. Christianity has exerted less influence than Buddhism. Cambodia. for example. and finance. among other aspects of daily life. are driven by a small minority of religious hardliners and political elites. Alongside traditional Buddhist structures. at times blurring the line between the secular and religious realms. Jesuit Relief Service. with significant minorities in most countries (particularly Burma (Myanmar). Cambodia. Indonesia. both national and transnational. national. The Buddhist temple often serves as an important center of social life in villages and towns. laying the foundation for the predominantly Roman Catholic heritage in the Philippines today. The tensions are not easily measured or mapped. lay Buddhist movements. and southern Thailand. political fabric. are actively engaged in social development work at the local. many faith-inspired organizations are Christian and involved in a wide range of activities including education and health. especially in Thailand. put to practice the tenets of socially engaged Buddhism. Adventist Development and Relief Agency. South Korean churches are particularly active in sending missionaries (primarily Protestant) across Southeast Asia. predominantly lay movements. However. Hinduism. and Vietnam). and Burma (Myanmar). Protestant Christianity was first introduced in the region by the Dutch in the early seventeenth century but did not spread extensively until missionaries arrived en mass early in the nineteenth century. In predominantly Muslim countries. approximately 9 percent of the population is Christian. Malaysia.5 Sulak Sivaraksa has been particularly influential in bringing attention to the socially engaged Buddhist movement. Muslim organizations are an integral component of the social and BERKLEY CENTER | 10 .7 Islamic education is influential. Catholicism arrived in Southeast Asia on a large scale with the Spanish in Manila in 1571. though it faces various obstacles from the government. and in Indonesia. These contrast with traditional practices and beliefs. Christianity’s reach and influence today is spreading. and Southeast Asia is home to 65 percent of the world’s Muslims. The most populous Muslim countries and regions are: Indonesia. Islam. and finance policy. though Christian missionaries and development workers are widespread in Buddhist majority areas as well. Christians are present primarily among minority ethnic groups. in varying ways and to varying degrees. are influenced by Muslim practice and thought. historically. including education. and Cordaid. Recent tensions within specific communities are seen to result largely from the influence of strains of Islam from the Middle East. legal. Daily functions of the state. and.
the largest Christian non-governmental organization operating in the Asia Pacific region.”10 (Myanmar). for instance. Local beliefs and superstitions present in rural areas influence communities’ views on modern development. the world’s largest Hindu temple. often in conjunction with other faiths. Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs are generally animist in nature. Vietnam. and intermarriage. a pantheon of nats. In Burma Transnational development work by faith-inspired organizations from all of the major religions is significant across Southeast Asia. Although less than one percent of Cambodia’s population is Hindu today. and Burma (Myanmar). Fo Guang Shan. Taiwan’s many Buddhist organizations do social development work with international mandates. In the cosmologies of Southeast Asian animism. compared to about 9 percent in Indonesia as a whole. While many of the original religious practices have faded as other religions were introduced. Both organizations collaborate between and across faiths and with the United Nations and other international organizations with the explicit aim of promoting a harmonious society. Indigenous belief systems tend to be more common and “pure” in rural areas. Animists living in Burma (Myanmar). much variation in the degree to which animism and other indigenous beliefs have or have not been institutionalized. Australia. Many of these organizations have strong ties in wealthier countries. the Supreme Patriarch of the (Buddhist) Dharma Yuttikanikaya Order observed in February 2009 that “Buddhism is the national religion of Cambodia. Australia’s largest transnational faith-inspired organization is World Vision Australia. but Hinduism is the traditional culture of Cambodia. especially those in the region. involving the worship of spirits that inhabit many different living organisms. Laos. several Buddhist organizations. Spreading from India in the first century. have significant international programs. Hinduism has left an indelible cultural and religious heritage in Cambodia. and practices in the country. rituals. there are often different strata of spirits that have access to or inhabit different ethereal levels. at times presenting challenges for faith-inspired organizations. and objects. especially at the local level. Korea. the highest concentration being in Bali. Shamanism sometimes plays a role in the indigenous religious practices of Southeast Asia. Laos. 9 Today. particularly evident in local ceremonies and traditions. Hindu art. Korea draws on its Buddhist and BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS Faith-Inspired Organizations with Transnational Mandates | 2010 11 . Thailand. Indonesia. architecture. notably Soka Gakkai and Rissho Kosei-kai. and traditions are still important today and permeate local culture in many aspects. and Taiwan have active faithinspired development and relief organizations. places. after he unsuccessfully tried to enforce a ban on nat worship. Indigenous Beliefs Indigenous beliefs are widely practiced throughout Southeast Asia. There is. some of the largest being Tzu-Chi. animist spirits of people who died violent deaths. trade.8 Hinduism first spread to Indonesia through colonization. whose traditional healing practices are to varying degrees integrated into Islam. From Japan. Bour Kry. and Vietnam often face additional antagonism from the state since they are more likely to belong to ethnic minority groups that the government associates with “subversive” political activity. however. and Chung Tai Shan. Hindus account for about 90 percent of the total population in Bali. Cambodia is home to Angkor Wat. was formalized in the middle of the eleventh century by King Anawrahta of Bagan. for example the Malaysian bomohs. Japan. as the Angkor kings promoted Hindu sects in the 8th century. often creating a unique national religious character reflecting each country’s distinct history and culture. the historically peaceful coexistence of Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism has ensured a lasting Hindu influence on beliefs. They blend with larger religions.Hinduism Millions of people throughout Southeast Asia practice Hinduism. traditional and animist beliefs are prohibited by law. In Indonesia. Throughout the 1800s Dutch colonial policy brought India and Bali under the same rule and later aimed to protect Balinese Hinduism by limiting Christian and Islamic proselytization. and adherents have reported discrimination. Dharma Drum Mountain.
regionally. American Jewish World Service. religion CHRISTIAN organization Caritas Internationalis Catholic Relief Services Christian Aid Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) World Vision Jesuit Refugee Services World Council of Churches Lutheran World Relief Norwegian Church Aid Habitat for Humanity Salvation Army G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y BUDDHIST Tzu Chi Dharma Drum Mountain Guang Shan Chung Tai Shan Buddhist Peace Fellowship Buddhist AIDS Project Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation Soka Gakkai The Buddhist NGO Network of Japan (BNN) Thai Rissho Friendship Foundation Rissho Kosei-kai Arigato Foundation Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA) International Network of Engaged Buddhists (INEB) BERKLEY CENTER | MUSLIM Muslim Aid Islamic Relief BAHA’I INTERFAITH Baha’i International Community Coordinating Group for Religion and Society (CGRS) Council for a Parliament of the World’s Religions World Conference of Religions for Peace Major Faith-Inspired Organizations Major world faiths with a presence in Southeast Asia are engaged in social development work on varying scales. Is decentralization the ideal route. raising the question as to how local and transnational organizations should best collaborate amid catastrophes. The Asian tsunami of 2004. Muslim Aid. Faith-inspired organizations are based both in Asia itself and abroad. They are instrumental in rapid response to complex humanitarian emergencies following natural disasters or conflict. Islamic Relief. lists some of the 12 JEWISH American Jewish World Service American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee largest and most recognized organizations working in the region. Numerous other primarily Western based international faith-inspired organizations are active across Southeast Asia. the largest humanitarian emergency of our time (possibly alongside the January 2010 Haiti earthquake).11 . These organizations are working nationally. and independently. grew out of the tsunami response. saw the mobilization of organizations from around the world. The tsunami also brought to light the difficulties of coordination among faithinspired actors. Most of these organizations work with populations whose faith-beliefs differ from their own and strive to provide aid and assistance regardless of religious orientation.Christian roots in its overseas development work. can be found on the Berkley Center website. More comprehensive country lists. Large organizations include World Vision (USA and Europe). increasing transnational and national networks of development practitioners and building local capacity. Many interfaith initiatives. The following chart. Catholic Relief Services. and Jesuit Refugee Service. as well as collaborating across faiths and with secular development agencies and governments. many with headquarters in the USA and Europe. or should a central coordinating body manage and oversee development and relief efforts? Transnational faith-inspired organizations often have larger operating budgets than their national counterparts (though this is not always the case) and many employees that form a worldwide network of offices. Organizations in the list were chosen based on their range of activities in one or more countries in Southeast Asia. including local organizations. These organizations commonly work through partnerships with local faith-inspired organizations and institutions. for example the partnership between World Vision and Muhammadiyah in Indonesia.
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and perceptions of religion’s role vary by actor and over time. religious heritage linked to historical memories and the politics of identity clearly can infuse or exacerbate conflicts which also have political and economic dimensions. faith-inspired actors are undeniably engaged in virtually all contemporary conflict situations in the region in different capacities. Under virtually all circumstances. at the international. Religion. More specifically. Malaysia. the rise of more fundamentalist interpretations and tendencies within some Muslim communities. notably those involving Mindanao (Philippines). including in Southeast Asia. regional. Looking beyond religion as a cause or fuel for tension. many ascribe religious elements. how religious beliefs contribute to conflict situations is complex and contentious. Information about the roles of faith-inspired organizations in all these areas is partial and scattered.12 and. broader social and economic dynamics. humanitarian aid during conflicts (especially work with refugees). but examples are religious leader participation in formal and informal peace negotiations (as has been the case in the Philippines). Notable are the potential and actual tensions linked to climate change that introduce new forms of dislocation or social competition (for example land and water disputes and climate driven refugees). religion may also enter into other. for Southeast Asia. religious institutions. support for trauma healing and victims. roles in conflict resolution. national. As an example. and ethnicity overlap in shaping attitudes towards violence and the position of “the other. Religion is almost always one among many sources of tension. which contribute to social tension. thus. The terms “peacemaking” and “peacebuilding” apply to a wide range of work. faith-inspired contributions at the grassroots level emerge as an area of particular interest. while still others see religion as a proxy for tensions that have other roots. and Burma (Myanmar). Agreement on the range of activities that these terms include vary. especially in rural areas. to several Southeast Asian conflicts. communities. These activities form the backbone and often raison d’être of a wide range of faith-inspired organizations. Aceh and Sulawesi (Indonesia). Some well-known instances of terrorist acts where the perpetrators say that their motives are religious are a mounting concern with global implications. 2010 | . and leaders can and do play central. inter alia. The historical and almost universal presence of faith institutions as centers of social and economic life in most communities. others see incitement or encouragement by religious leaders. competition over water resources more broadly. culture. These conflicts range from armed disputes and terrorist threats to simmering social tensions and communities where high crime rates and other factors produce insecurity. support during resettlement. often has earned for them a level of trust that is typically not associated 15 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS eligion plays a visible yet often ambiguous role in the multiple and very different conflict situations across Southeast Asia. Some ascribe conflicts to intrinsic tensions that give rise to inter. and migration.or intra-faith conflict.Part 2 Sector Focus and Emerging Trends and Policy Questions R Peace and Conflict Resolution That said. has raised societal tensions. often critical. Southern Thailand. Beyond “traditional” conflicts. In the Southeast Asia review.” This complexity helps to explain the lack of consensus on religion as a cause or fuel for conflicts worldwide. However. and grassroots levels. and serving as a witness to both atrocities and heroic actions.
including reconciliation work with very practical rebuilding of infrastructure destroyed by the tsunami. albeit complex. The gap 16 . These transnational organizations often work in partnership with local churches. A vicious cycle can result. Historically. and voicing opposition to oppression. reconciliation. including: World Conference of Religions for Peace. particularly in reaching rural areas. interfaith dialogue. Islamic Relief. the initiatives appear to be making significant headway. combined with actions targeted at specific groups. Change and crisis. More significant is the substantial overlap among different categories of work. and other faith-inspired and secular organizations. Their programs vary widely and include humanitarian assistance. and civil society. like education and community support. BERKLEY CENTER | Health The lower income countries in Southeast Asia face a significant array of health issues. In Mindanao. with the so-labeled group increasingly resentful of their treatment. The review highlights the widely held view that the potential for working with and through on-the-ground networks of faith-inspired organizations is only partially developed. but it is related to the development agenda because of significant. they often provide the little education and health care that is available and have extraordinary knowledge of local circumstances. The growing set of activities under the heading of “peacebuilding” focus particularly on peace education. undermining the stability and physical security which are preconditions for successful social progress. and trauma healing. Catholic Relief Services. There. World Vision. faithinspired actors have been effective in mobilizing public support for peace (for example in Cambodia with the Buddhist-led peace marches and Soka Gakkai’s advocacy for nuclear disarmament). and garners attention at the national level. which have incorporated many elements of different traditions and have prided themselves on living side by side. and are particularly marked in Cambodia. depending on the country context. Indonesia is a special case. Philippines. The reality and perception of corruption is increasingly a platform for political mobilization (witness Indonesia in 1998. Again. Poor governance and corruption. and leaders in ongoing dialogue about development directions and issues can play important roles. as well as broad community development. in the wake of the Khmer Rouge genocide. National and local level faith-inspired organizations range in influence and activity. Increased transnational exchange and influence within faiths (an example being educational exchange between the Arab world and Southeast Asian Muslims—contributing to what some term “Arabization” of Southeast Asian Islam) has put pressure on the historical character of Southeast Asian faiths. facilitating dialogue across warring sides. Muslim Aid. may blur the lines between tendencies that truly represent a distortion of religious teachings towards an extreme and more dubious labeling and marginalizing of a group as extremist.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y with government or secular agencies. faith institutions. Caritas. While actual outcomes are difficult to measure. American Jewish World Service. Thailand). United Religions Initiative (all of which have regional bodies working to promote interfaith dialogue). Religious extremism is in many respects a distinct topic. and Jesuit Refugee Service. Soka Gakkai. religious leaders. communities. temples. More extreme segments of most faith traditions draw on popular anger about perceived social injustice and group exclusion. fears. Their contributions have particular importance in fragile states and communities. The result is a perception of mounting tensions both within and between faiths. and aspirations. local NGOs. links between development and instability. Parliament of the World’s Religions. and faith-inspired organizations are involved in various ways. with the large and experienced Muslim organizations Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama carrying significant influence with their combined 70 million members. mosques. NGOs. where conflict involves a predominantly Muslim minority in a majority Catholic nation. The role of inequalities has a complex interplay with violence. social and economic. Thus massive work in Aceh in which many of these organizations participated following the 2004 tsunami combined postconflict work. and long-term development planning. interfaith dialogue spans the government. providing refugee assistance and trauma care. often spark tensions. Most of the large international faith-inspired organizations work in the major conflict zones in Southeast Asia. and long-term development assistance and capacity building. Their conflict work is closely tied to other activities.
as well as general care for common illnesses and maternal and child health. Pagoda-based care and monk engagement in health care has historically been active throughout Buddhist societies in Asia. an example is the UNICEF supported Buddhist Leadership Initiative. and conflict all contribute to health concerns. and role. and partnership arrangements among faith-inspired organizations and governments. Their services are particularly important in rural areas. engaging monks in the Mekong region in HIV prevention. is difficult to come by. with numerous points in between. where education and basic services are limited (notable examples exist in Cambodia. to complete religious instruction. polio. where indigenous faith beliefs remain prevalent and are syncretic with the larger religious traditions. this preliminary review found numerous examples where faith-inspired run education plays important roles. Mongolia. making blanket policy generalizations about faith-inspired education rather perilous. While it is generally appreciated at the international level that faith-inspired organizations are significant actors in the education sector and should be more engaged at the policy level. Coordination. In such situations. natural disasters.14 National Buddhist NGOs have developed to engage monks in health imperatives. While it is increasingly appreciated within international health circles that faith-inspired organizations provide significant health services. faith-inspired leaders have collaborated with the government (as has been the case in Indonesia) to promote health initiatives and clarify misunderstandings among their faith-group adherents. and in devout religious societies. Faith-inspired organiza- Faith-inspired organizations play significant if hard to measure roles in education across much of Southeast Asia. teaching about HIV/AIDS and how to avoid high-risk behavior. migration. and physical health) and a wide array of specific health interventions that are part of the community and national programs of faith-inspired organizations (for example numerous HIV/AIDS programs. Major health challenges include HIV/AIDS. The missing knowledge about quantity. Laos. data for Southeast Asia that would answer questions about how much are not available. Education | 2010 .Health challenges differ significantly by country and region across Southeast Asia. Cambodia. data on the range and scope of their involvement (as is the case with most sectors where faith-inspired organizations work). major facilities like the Sihanouk Hospital Center for Hope in Cambodia. Laos. Burma [Myanmar]. Furthermore. All of the major faiths offer education through different types of institutions and in very different forms. Region-wide health imperatives also are significant—witness the SARS and H1N1 crises. quality. Despite these challenges. the Sangha Metta Project (active in Thailand. and reach of faith-run health services makes it difficult to engage these actors in both policy discussions and programming for priority interventions for poorly served populations. malaria. where trust of the government may be weak. especially in filling gaps where the government is unable or has failed to provide adequate education to its population. Southern China. and international organizations vary significantly by country. which work with monks and nuns. the active sex industry. Monks are working directly with international organizations. with examples found today in the Mekong region. impact. and tuberculosis. the content of education varies from essentially secular-style instruction following government mandated curriculum. though limited mapping and coordination makes it difficult to know the true scope. Human trafficking. Indigenous healers continue to play a role as well. working specifically at the community level. inter alia. the education landscape and challenges differ substantially by country. mental. cooperation. What emerges from this preliminary review is both a significant continuing health agenda among the major faiths (for example the Buddhist focus on meditation as a foundation for overall spiritual. as reliable coordination or mapping mechanisms are limited. tions have contributed to several of the region’s successful family planning programs. and Bhutan) and Buddhism for Development in Cambodia.13 and specific interventions like the neo-natal resuscitation and wheelchair programs run by the Church of Latter Day Saints). particularly at the rural community level. Vietnam. and Thailand). 17 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS between the mounting demand for care and that readily available to the most vulnerable and marginalized groups is increasingly apparent. urbanization. NGOs. for example in the impact of epidemic diseases. Faith-inspired organizations have been most visible in some public health campaigns and in the response to HIV/AIDS.
and madrasah) are found in most Muslim majority regions and play a central role in education in Muslim societies. Most. quality. some teaching a stricter version of Islam than has been traditionally present. corruption. Islamic faith-inspired education is well established (particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia) and in many cases is recognized by the government as a parallel system to public education at the primary. but there is a special spotlight on Islamic education. A challenge facing schools of all faith beliefs is a lack of rigorous evaluation of the quality of instruction. A quite wide spectrum of organizations with faith links have come to play significant roles in the global effort to combat human trafficking. perhaps the most prolific in Thailand. This applies to secular and faith institutions. however. Kuwait. universities. tends to be better documented and more centralized than Buddhist education. Christian schools in Southeast Asia are widespread (though mapping is limited) and run by myriad organizations. natural disasters. Proselytization is. They attract local students of different faiths. who are often educated in Christian ethics and moral beliefs. destination. and transit region for trafficked persons. where Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama report that they reach over one million students at all levels of education. or individuals to choose voluntarily a path that puts them at risk of trafficking. Best known is for sexual exploitation. these include poverty. and social marginalization. It is closely related to challenges and rising global social tensions facing Islamic madrasahs and the content of their education. undergoing substantial change. Estimates of the number of trafficked persons in Southeast Asia vary significantly. The range of educational institutions varies. raising similar questions. reaching over a half million students. however. and scope of education vary widely and is largely unmeasured and not publicized. secondary.15 The effects of human trafficking are wide-ranging. a nagging concern and challenge surrounding Christian education. orphanages. It is. Islamic boarding schools at the primary and secondary level (known as pesantren [Indonesia]. including boarding schools. The most extensive system of Islamic schools is in Indonesia. Malaysia. but most agree only a small share of those affected are currently reached by aid organizations. though the content. pondok [Malaysia and southern Thailand]. but different forms of bonded labor are also important. as they are often perceived as providing a higher quality education compared to the government system. They are active 18 . Trafficking takes many forms. This trend has raised concerns about fundamentalist education and its effect on traditional societies and cultures that have lived in harmony for many centuries. An important phenomenon in Southeast Asia is transnational education and educational exchange. though not all those involved. and primary and secondary schools. though recent discussions surrounding this review highlight that many of these schools are increasingly forced to charge fees. gender inequality. Buddhist universities are found in several countries in Southeast Asia. with both stricter forms of Islam (with influence from the Arab world) affecting in some cases the character of education and the religious and political perspectives of students. and some operate free of charge. and Saudi Arabia. Many children in orphanages are not technically orphans but are sent by their parents to receive an education. Some students travel to study in. impunity. BERKLEY CENTER | Human Trafficking Southeast Asia is a region of special concern to the community fighting contemporary human trafficking. the Ministry of Education supports Islamic (and Buddhist) education outside of the national government system. A host of socio-economic factors lead families to sell or traffic minors. In Buddhist societies pagoda-based education was the historic center for education and remains important today in many areas. and university levels. generally. Funds from the Arab world support Islamic boarding schools. migration. both for society as a whole and for the individual trafficked. are minors. particularly in rural areas. where Christian schools operate in non-Christian majority locations and enroll non-Christian students. both national and from abroad. among others. increased tourism. Islamic education. and increased government involvement in faith-inspired education institutions (particularly in Malaysia). In Thailand as well.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Faith-inspired organization run education is historically perceived as reaching out to the poor and marginalized in society. The region is an origin. trade schools.
Work by faith-inspired organizations on human trafficking. Local cultural norms. The response often involves differing levels of social stigmatization. In Cambodia for example. creating opportunities for increased cooperation. and international levels and their work takes many forms. Each country and local context. however. economic opportunity. undermining the role of the family unit and respect for elders. the Khmer Rouge largely wiped out Buddhist influence on society. It is also more broadly driven by efforts to change the underlying systems at work.19 The mix of on the ground efforts to work with communities and individuals and high visibility international advocacy offer an example of both the strengths of faith-inspired work. cultural emphasis on purity and virginity. because there are disagreements among different groups about the most appropriate and effective ways to combat the problems of trafficking. 19 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . This work has brought about surprising and often very constructive alliances among institutions across quite distinct political spectrums (described by Allen Hertzke in Freeing God’s Children). and international levels. has brought intense international attention to brothels in Cambodia through its highly publicized raids alongside Cambodia police. and growing church membership in some countries ensures publicity and support on key issues including human trafficking. describe their work as driven by compassion for the victims. can affect people’s views on those who have worked in the sex industry. Expanding communications technologies and increasing transnational religious links. some groups are concerned that its “cowboy” style and focus on political visibility may undermine broader efforts. Gender roles also play a significant role in victim response. underpin common activism around trafficking. shelters. particularly in cases of sexual exploitation and abuse. national. between countries with at times contentious relationships to strengthen a regional response to trafficking. many though not all with faith links. as a phenomenon and in its response. trauma counseling. with differing faith beliefs and historical contexts shaping how and to what extent religion and faith-inspired organizations engage and shape views on human trafficking. informed by religious beliefs in many cases. contribute to the societal response to victims of trafficking. both of which can affect responses to human trafficking. regional. Human trafficking is a transnational issue that crosses national and regional boundaries in Southeast Asia. has political dimensions at the national. however.at local. Those most actively involved. regional. for example. A 2010 report of the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking suggests that the enormous potential role faith-inspired organizations can play at the local. or creating increased hardship surrounding their assimilation back into society. and shelter). though similarities exist. and global levels should be harnessed more effectively. alongside active involvement of religious lobbies in some countries (especially the United States). as well as generating a host of sensitive debates. especially young girls involuntarily trafficked and trapped in virtual slavery. are hard to come by. and work within legal frameworks to bring perpetrators to justice and change legal systems. national. efforts within “sending” communities to combat the factors that lead women especially to leave their homes. Human trafficking as a transnational issue has particular significance in Southeast Asia and requires more effective cooperation.17 The vitality.18 International Justice Mission. prompting some victims not to identify themselves to aid organizations.16 In Muslim societies as well. at an international level. and of some of the pitfalls. advocacy on human rights grounds for governmental and intergovernmental action. an American faith-inspired legal NGO. which brings out the moral dimensions and builds on faith communications assets and networks. in the interests of social justice. The latter include the fragmentation of efforts and lack of coherent reflection and consensus on strategic approaches. It has also at times given rise to controversies. Overall data on levels of engagement. is unique. reach of American Christian church networks in particular. resourcefulness. faith-inspired organizations can be instrumental in helping to shape constructive opinions and norms. including quiet compassionate support of victims (including livelihood training. regardless of the circumstances that brought them there. The United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong subregion (UNIAP) has facilitated a consultative process called COMMIT that works specifically on cooperation across borders.
Large organizations including World Vision Australia and Muslim Aid are engaged in government level advocacy. Their efforts remain rather decentralized and largely unmeasured. revival of ancient teachings (as in Mongolia). but contains 80 percent of the world’s biological diversity. To cite an example. Its long coastline is home to millions who are at risk from frequent severe weather and the adverse effects of climate change. while some are imbued with the history and culture of each country and. as well as rising sea levels.20 though its influence and reach vary widely depending on the context. While in many ways faith-inspired organizations are an integral and largely indistinguishable part of the region’s civil society in terms of stance on environmental issues. Buddhist leaders speak forcefully and often to great effect about the importance of respect for nature and harmony within the ecosystem. are two notable examples. and local faith-institutions. are increasingly active in voicing concerns about environmental degradation and climate change. and “ordination” of individual trees to symbolize their sacred character. It is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and natural disasters. International interfaith conferences have involved faith-inspired development practitioners from across Southeast Asia. Faith-inspired organizations. the region overall. and mudslides. Nonetheless. Many faith-inspired organizations have taken up the cause. governments. including advocacy. with potential for increased interfaith collaboration. along with resulting population shifts. Generally. Faith-inspired development practitioners point to the environment and climate change as topics of general consensus and shared commitment. faith-inspired actors are particularly active in the response to natural disasters and climate change issues. stressing the importance of a systematic and concerted climate change response. to a degree. With increased access to communications technology. with numerous examples of cooperation between international organizations. In Indonesia. Rapid industrialization and agricultural expansion. Socially engaged Buddhist organizations engage through individual monks working to preserve the forest through advocacy work. and long-term mitigation. and. cyclones. Muslim ideals influence laws and approaches to governance. both in their operational roles and speaking to their spiritual traditions. a recent interfaith climate manifesto in Sweden and numerous programs during the December 2009 Parliament of World Religions in Melbourne. into both the overall governance climate (for example in shaping community values) and into some specific debates. particularly when it moves towards . An area of intense activity is disaster response. so that consistent policy level engagement is a challenge. and in the Philippines Catholic leaders are vocal in urging public participation. and about harming it as something that should be prevented. through various paths. Long-standing programs of the Alliance of Religions for Conservation (ARC) include workshops. a number of experiences highlight direct and constructive engagement between faith-inspired organizations and government/secular actors. prone to frequent earthquakes. from there. The region has only 3 percent of the world’s land area. religion is tending to be a more visible part of the public discourse. in Indonesia and Malaysia. Australia.Environment and Natural Disasters Southeast Asia has one of the most fragile and diverse natural habitats in the world. disaster relief. all put considerable pressure on the already fragile environment. and training. like every world region. for example information campaigns. BERKLEY CENTER | Governance and Transparency Southeast Asia. Religion and culture enter. advocacy and work to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change and unsustainable develop20 G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y ment projects. tsunamis. As illustrations. the Philippines. Some challenges are general to contemporary law and administration and the evolving role of the state. both as advocates and activists. and Burma (Myanmar) in particular. faith-engagement on development policy for good governance remains a sensitive topic in many countries. confronts a wide range of governance challenges. the current Thai crisis involves questions about the Buddhist heritage in Thailand and its links to the authority of the monarchy. they can and often do bring special perspectives tied to both spiritual teachings and their lived experience. noting that the effects of climate change have ramifications not only on the region’s developing countries but on developed countries as well—climate induced migration being one example among many.
While some faith leaders would like to see religions in a vanguard in advocating for good governance. Catholics stated publicly that they are concerned about issues of governance and corruption. Angel Lagdameo. and nourished by a system where Filipinos proactively and responsibly participate in the mainstream political life. the Catholic Church. spoke about the need to reshape Philippine society to promote a common good. and the malice of corruption in society. while effective partnerships to bring tangible improvements in governance are fairly rare. as well as collaboration with secular development actors. There are active Box 1 2010 Filipino Catholic Church Fights for Good Governance and Against Corruption In the run-up to the 2010 presidential elections in the Philippines. though there are numerous examples where organizations are strong and effective advocates even in the face of government opposition and repression. In Cambodia. Groups that enjoy tacit support of the government. Mixed attitudes of governments towards civil society roles color the way in which relationships with faith-inspired groups akin to NGOs tend to evolve. should be anchored in grassroots economic empowerment. the ruling military junta retains tight control and influence over the Buddhist sangha.2009. 2009 at a good governance summit in Makati City. along with other Christian and civil society organizations. In Indonesia faith-inspired organizations are more visible and active players on issues at the center of public policy debates.advocacy. good leaders produce good citizens. On May 5. 2010. Responsible citizens produce good leaders. These efforts represent important faith-inspired approaches to promoting good governance. Religious communities and networks are tightly restricted and monitored in some countries. law-makers. nonetheless. some faith-inspired organizations quietly promote good governance. especially promoting honesty and focus on the poor and excluded. as a reported 75 percent of the eligible 50 million Filipinos voted for a new president. the sangha-oriented Buddhist organizations in Thailand for example. are often less involved in working actively for better governance and may support the status quo. archbishop of Jaro and president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines. how they have enhanced transparency and social accountability. On his blog. home of the largest Jesuit community in the Philippines. he writes that “Graft and Corruption is an evil that affects many levels and areas of life. where corruption and lack of transparency are widely acknowledged as challenges at all levels of government.” and that “Leadership in governance starts with leaders as citizens.ateneo. the Philippines ranks relatively low (139/182) on a ranking of the world’s most corrupt countries. Close relationships with governments in some instances dampen criticism and advocacy. The conference focused on: how local government officials have successfully empowered their constituents. he said. urged their constituents to push for good governance and transparency.” Ateneo University.21 Faith actors are. and public officials. and how all these were used to make growth work for the poor. strengthened by an effective political system where accountability and the rule of law prevail.php?p=120&type=2&sec=29&aid=7589 21 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . According to Transparency International’s 2009 corruption perception index. vice-president. in practice their roles and record are mixed. From http://www. On May 10. senators. The Archbishop emphasized the need for strong values in governance. Graft and corruption is a sin that cries to heaven especially if it is committed against the poor people. like poor drivers. In Burma (Myanmar) for example.edu/index. Governance. but. limiting their formal capacity to influence governance norms policies. engaged in governance issues through a wide range of often complex relationships. held a World Bank sponsored conference on good governance from November 4 to 6. as advocacy arouses government suspicion. activities are often not publicized. how they have partnered with civil society organizations for better public service delivery and protection of disadvantaged groups.
Of particular interest are the roles that religious institutions and communities play in working for peace. There are cases where religiously labeled and led political parties are pivotal actors. The largest religious organizations. Positive examples include Buddhist movements working largely through peaceful social protest and criticism in both Thailand and Cambodia. and efficient and honest administration. The roles of faith-inspired communities and organizations in pressing for and supporting political reforms also varies widely. accountability. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y 22 . Faith-inspired organizations themselves acknowledge many challenges within their own institutions in terms of transparency. Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah. by faith or community within faith traditions. and the Catholic peacebuilding movement in Philippines. have initiatives that are explicitly designed to promote good governance and government accountability. and by country. to those that aim to infuse democracy with Islamic values. at different moments in time.Islamic political parties ranging from those advocating an Islamic state. Capacity weaknesses and a lack of well adapted systems are partly responsible.
23 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 .
despite the Netherlands’ attempt to regain control of the country. Jewish. the Japanese invaded and later occupied Indonesia. ending Dutch rule but continuing foreign occupation. and the country with the largest Muslim population. 25 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS he following sections examine in greater detail the involvement of faith-inspired organizations in Southeast Asia. and 2 percent Hindu. | 2010 . the nationalist leader Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo) declared independence and was appointed president. The country’s Muslim population divides roughly along two differing strains: “modernists. The Dutch established the Dutch East India Company. 3 percent Roman Catholic. The lists of organizations are far from exhaustive. and Islam into the newly independent state. 4) consultative democracy. Indonesia is comprised of 13. Those organizations listed are the most well known and active. 2) humanitarianism. 3) nationalism expressed in the unity of Indonesia. Seeking to incorporate elements of Marxism. The number working in the region is easily in the thousands. with about one percent a wide range of other faiths (Buddhist.22 Most Indonesian Muslims practice Sunni Islam.” who emphasize personal It was during the 16th century that European traders first came to the archipelago in search of spices. 6 percent Protestant. By the 16th century. interpretation of the Qur’an while embracing modern learning and concepts. it was established as the dominant religion practiced by most of the population with the notable exception of the island of Bali. During World War II. Indonesian nationalism. strung across 5. Of its roughly 245 million. as well as smaller organizations known to be making a substantial difference in the communities where they work. Islam first arrived in Indonesia during the 11th century.” who adhere to strict scriptural interpretations (though some participants at the December 2009 consultation in Cambodia suggested that the distinction between the two strains is steadily diminishing). the Netherlands formally established the Colony of the Dutch East Indies in 1800. third largest democracy. and with governments. After the Allied victory in 1945. and other Christian). Hindus remain a majority to this day.000 kilometers. across faiths. with a Shia population of between one and three million. There. part of a pattern of increasing trade. and specific examples of faith-inspired organizations that are working independently. approximately 88 percent are Muslim. maintaining control until World War II. as the number of faith-inspired organizations involved in development work is vast. To balance different political factions. while political and historical particularities shape the environment in which faith-inspired organizations operate.700 islands.Part 3 Country Case Studies T Indonesia Historical Overview The world’s fourth most populous. Sukarno established the unique “five principles” of Pancasila: 1) belief in one supreme God. and when the company went bankrupt. he implemented an ideology dubbed “guided democracy” along with martial law. and 5) social justice. the challenges they face. traditional indigenous religions. and “traditionalists. largely rural population. Local realties and contexts have a strong influence on the range and scope of their activities. with secular organizations. The country sections summarize information on the country contexts where faithinspired organization operate.
Local legislators and large parts of the population. During his tenure. the government cracked down on hard-line Muslim groups. is investing heavily in the Ministry of Education’s Strategic Plan (RENSTRA). cities have passed legislation restricting the rights of women and certain religious minorities. its Human Development index is 0. have faced discrimination. Indonesia has relatively low health and infrastructure development indicators.29 USAID specifically provides support. especially technical assistance. heresy and blasphemy.24 are given due notice by the government when drafting legislation and formulating policy.26 Development Challenges Indonesia has made significant strides in development. it accords “all persons the right to worship according to their own religion or belief. still face multiple development challenges. In the area of education.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y The then-head of the army. school management. which follows from the Kecamatan Development Program begun in 1998. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono became Indonesia’s first directly elected president. although religious minorities. Proselytizing is strictly forbidden in The Guidelines for the Propagation of Religion. The notable exceptions to the freedom of religion are traditionalist and animist religions of Indonesia. In 2007 almost half of the country’s population lived below or only slightly above the national poverty line. General Suharto. is widely seen as a central challenge for Indonesia. particularly in overall economic growth. Indonesia is hampered by a lack of effective procedures and accountability in institutions across most sectors. however. with substantial international community support. It does. Development has been uneven across Indonesia’s geographic regions. notably Christian minorities.” Aceh is the only province that can legally implement Sharia law (non-Muslims are exempt). Religion and Government Indonesia’s constitution states that “the nation is based upon belief in one supreme God.23 Though the government is officially secular. at all levels. Buddhism. Catholicism. and article 156 of the criminal code describes proselytization as “spreading hatred. instituting strict anti-terrorism laws. and Suharto resigned in 1998. Indonesia has moved quite steadily towards more democratic systems since then. 28 The government.30 Corruption in the public sector.27 The World Bank highlights that in addition to limits imposed by financial resources. The World Bank’s National Program for Community Empowerment Mandiri (PNPM). however. The government requires all citizens to note their religion on state-issued identity cards. and Confucianism. and clearly falls within the lower middle income category of nations today. though other BERKLEY CENTER | 26 . among others. In 2004. and many localities will only accept one of the six recognized religions. Hinduism. for example trouble registering marriages and births. oppose many of the laws derived from strict interpretations of Sharia and elected more moderate Muslim legislators to office in 2009. The Jakarta government granted this right after a struggle with the separatist Free Aceh Movement (GAM). Protestantism. effective teaching methods. these schools typically suffer from a lack of resources and weak capacity. Many Christians and Christian organizations report official discrimination by the government. to strengthen moderate madrasahs.” while at the same time. which are explicitly forbidden.25 Some reports suggest that taxes are higher for building churches than they are for mosques. and community involvement have all adversely affected the quality of basic education (despite a generally impressive 94 percent enrollment rate for 7–12 year olds). which are particularly important to the education of girls (who make up a large part of madrasahs’ student bodies). Following the 2002 nightclub attack in Bali and the 2003 and 2009 hotel bombings in Jakarta. the Asian Financial Crisis had devastating effects on Indonesia’s economy in 1997. notably the Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI). with the support of the United States ousted Sukarno and became president in 1968. inefficient systems as well as inadequacies in teacher qualifications.734. Officially. the government does recognize this right. Muslim religious leaders. the government recognizes only six religions: Islam. shortly after the devastating tsunami in 2004. Indonesia underwent an era of economic growth.” Generally. This ushered in an authoritarian New Order government. however. ranking 111 out of 182 countries measured.
the government and religious organizations have generally strong relations.”31 as part of increasing citizen participation in local governance throughout Indonesia. Currently. though as groups began to reach out to international networks. religious organizations often seemed able to accomplish more in terms of social and economic development. NU and Aisyiyah (young women’s association within Muhammadiyah) were central to helping implement a joint Indonesian government/USAID immunization program against polio. as well as a related lack of capacity in the health sector. At the same time. Observers offer a number of reasons for this warming of relations. Compared to secular organizations during this time. Health challenges include relatively high infant and under-five mortality. There is a clear recognition that community development strategies succeed best when done in close consultation with local religious leaders. campaigned aggressively against contraception and family planning programs. civil society and religious groups began to flourish under the new title of Self-Reliance Groups. with many large scale industries vying for timber. Muhammadiyah also worked with USAID on a community-based public health response to the outbreak of avian influenza in mid-2006. Two examples highlight the importance of religious support for public policy measures. a high incidence of neo-natal and reproductive health problems for women. Deforestation contributes to climate change as well. services. as opposed to family planning. To address some of these issues. support from religious organizations is often crucial to successfully implementing development projects. and information.35 More recently. During the 1970s. the New Order regime passed the Mass Organizations Law that required NGOS to file reports so that the government could monitor their activities. The government appreciates the reach and deep roots of religious organizations in society and their ability to influence policies. Islamic development organizations such as Muslim Aid have advocacy programs that promote Islamic views on the environment. fearing that they would incite anti-government sentiment or become too powerful (particularly those advocating agrarian reform and human rights).33 Recently. 27 The Government. Rapid industrialization has put pressure on the country’s extensive forests. and an increasing rate of HIV/STD infection. one being Suharto’s realization that many government policies required religious leaders’ sanction to be effective. USAID works with Muhammadiyah and Aisyiah (a major Islamic women’s social activist organization) to promote the principle of democratic pluralism as an “Islamic value. The Ministry of Religious Affairs worked with religious organizations to shape the message of family planning in a way that was understandable to the Indonesian population.34 Furthermore. the government became increasingly intoler- BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 .” or kelaurga maslahah. the National Family Planning Coordinating Committee took on an ambitious program. though the struggle to harmonize rapid industrialization and sustainable development has proven arduous.32 In general. Indonesia’s largest Muslim organization. Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). In the initial phases of the family planning campaign. these problems stem from lack of access to adequate health facilities. Suharto slowly improved relations with modernist Muslims and went on hajj to Mecca in 1991. the environment and climate change has attracted attention as a priority development challenge. With the United States. Suharto’s New Order emphasized birth control and family planning as integral components of its development programs.is one of the largest-scale community development schemes in the world designed to promote good governance and alleviate poverty. consequently displacing small farmers and communities from their land. In March 2003. each realizing the benefits of the other. the government was largely unsuccessful in its campaign. In 1985. Coupled with many Indonesians distrust of the United States and fears that family planning was a creative way of stemming Muslim growth. ant. the kyais (experts in Islam) stating it was against the will of God. Religious Institutions. Muhammadiyah has integrated HIV prevention and stigma reduction materials into certain curricula at Islamic middle schools. and NGOs Suharto’s regime discouraged both religious and secular NGOs. NU released a fatwa advocating “family welfare. It was not until NU approved of the program that it was effectively implemented. putting the island archipelago at a heightened risk of extreme weather and rising sea levels.
former President of Indonesia and of NU.36 Faith-inspired organizations have a central role in providing education. but others are committed to longer-term development goals. those primarily secular in curriculum. Despite some religious tensions. In addition to disaster relief and recovery. in 2004. a Dutch Catholic organization. 3. There are about 13. Catholic Relief Services. whose 30 million members are mostly modernists. A large number of Christian organizations work in Indonesia. some communities expressed concerns about vaccines being developed using pork derivatives. Though there are numerous examples of partnerships and some degree of cooperation. many organizations are involved in long-term healthcare and sanitation projects. notably in their involvement and sponsorship of educational institutions. 197 elementary schools.000 pesantrens. whose 40 million members are mostly traditionalists.37 Muhammadiyah’s followers are largely concentrated in the urban areas of Java.38 NU is also indirectly involved in the majority of Indonesia’s Islamic boarding schools. Cordaid. which among other goals aims to develop dialogue between spiritual and political leaders in the Western world and Muslim societies. in collaboration with Caritas.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y polio appeared in Indonesia. and outer islands of Indonesia. Both NU and Muhammadiyah stress the importance of pluralism and religious tolerance. During the campaign. and Muslim organizations. for 28 . the involvement of both organizations is clearly crucial. the late Abdurrahman Wahid. secular. Nadlhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah Two Muslim religious organizations dominate the realm of social and charitable organizations in Indonesia: Muhammadiyah. Both organizations have far-ranging social development programs. throughout Indonesia. approximately one million Muslim and non-Muslim students. founded the Wahid Institute. NU members are found primarily in the more rural areas of Java. or Islamic boarding schools. and the majority of large organizations provide assistance to people irrespective of faith or creed. including non-Muslim organizations. 44 universities and 23 academies/ colleges. focusing on a range of development issues including disaster recovery. BERKLEY CENTER | International Faith-Inspired Organizations International Christian organizations implement a substantial amount of overseas aid. also partners with numerous local Christian. NU operates both secular and religious schools: 8. is one of the largest and most active.861 Islamic elementary schools.522 kindergartens. Sumatra. and 212 Islamic senior high schools. international Christian organizations seem able to work well in the country. Muslim elders confirmed that vaccines were halal and used Friday prayers and Mosque loudspeakers to encourage families to immunize their children. 211 senior high schools. 733 Islamic junior high schools. Similarly. the government maintains tight oversight of religious organizations. 378 junior high schools. largely on the island of Madura. In addition to their heavy role in education. and Nahdlatul Ulama. and women’s rights.000 schools throughout the country. Muhammadiyah operates over 12. With only between 1 and 2 percent of the country’s GDP going to education (according to USAID). microfinance development. pesantrens also provide religious education. notably with Muhammadiyah. MCC/IIP partnered with NU and Aisyiyah to conduct social mobilization in support of routine immunization. In addition to the standard academic curriculum approved by the Ministry of Education. healthcare. former leader of Muhammadiyah Ahmad Syafi’i Maarif founded the Maarif Institute for Culture and Humanity with a core mission to develop interfaith dialogue. World Vision also has an active chapter in the country and is actively engaged in interfaith work with Muslim organizations. and religious pesantrens which typically include religious curriculum. Many provide primarily disaster relief for large-scale natural disasters. both house women’s groups and youth movements and operate health clinics. The four districts of Madura Island were identified by Indonesia’s National Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) for support under the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s Indonesia Immunization Project (MCC/IIP). In 2003. Most collaborate with secular and Muslim groups as well as with other Christian organizations. Prominent figures in both organizations have worked to promote interfaith cooperation on development projects. There are two different styles of schools in the Muhammadiyah system. especially in rural areas.
Islamic Relief Indonesia has a large presence. are devoted to exploring women’s rights and issues. Christian missionaries have been seen handing out Bibles along with disaster aid and relief supplies. Founded initially to explore and promote women’s rights in pesantrens. State and national law aver that women and men have equal rights. as seen in the aftermath of earthquakes in 2009. particularly through pesantrens.7 million students in madrasahs are girls. many women say it is difficult to refuse their husbands taking more than one wife.org/fileadmin/user_upload/appeal/gender/indonesia. 29–31 May 2008. obligations. or financial) to local religious groups.unesco. penalties for interreligious marriage. Information from “Girls’ and Women’s Education in Indonesia” UNESCO Bangkok Office: http://www. personnel. Both NU and Muhammadiyah have active women’s groups dedicated to promoting women’s rights and involvement in the community.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Inclusive_Education/Reports/bali_08/ 29 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 Box 2 . most notably in West Sumatra on account of frequent earthquakes and other natural disasters. Muslim Aid has also done substantial work on both disaster relief and conflict related programming in Aceh. The disaster management committee activates immediate responders in the disasters. which outlined strict segregation of religious communities. In Aceh and Sumatra. the Fahmina Institute has become a large and influential organization. It also challenges increasing collaboration and coordination among faith-inspired organizations. for example.39 Interfaith Cooperation and Conflict Interreligious cooperation among Muslim and Christian NGOs has increased markedly over the past few decades with the Indonesian government recently embracing a more receptive stance. and teachers of religion and the Qur’an are growing. Family law in Indonesia is largely governed by the Sharia-based family law for Muslims. the government introduced the Religious Harmony Bill. The official State Ministry of Women’s Empowerment reported in 2004 that 90 percent of women and 25 percent of men experienced sexual harassment in the workplace. The numbers of female kyias. Many faith-inspired organizations have components or projects specifically devoted to women and gender rights. Foreign missionaries must obtain religious worker visas. depriving women of some rights men enjoy. women’s participation in development and civil society must not conflict with their role in improving family welfare and education. Indonesia is seen as a leader in pioneering women’s rights. and it is difficult to get divorced. development aid and relief have become synonymous with religious missionaries. there is a large gender gap within the governmental school system with girls dropping out of junior and high schools at much higher rates than their male counterparts. A number of organizations. and opportunities. Indonesia. Still.ibe. Women throughout the country can report cases of unfair treatment. one being The Fahmina Institute. http://www. for in some communities. though legally they must consent. particularly in Aceh and other areas where Sharia law has been implemented. often through the lens of Islam. At the same time.unescobkk. and prohibitions against celebrating a religious holiday or entering a house of worship that did not reflect one’s Women’s Rights and Faith-Inspired Organizations In the Muslim world. and within the communities themselves. Some estimates show that slightly more than half of the roughly 5. For example. a few Christian organizations still actively promote their religion within their aid programs. and pesantrens are increasingly focused on promoting female empowerment through religious teaching.pdf UNESCO Regional Conference on Inclusive Education: Major policy issues in the Asia-Pacific region Bali. scholars. Though proselytizing is strictly prohibited by law. and foreign religious organizations must obtain permission from the Ministry of Religious Affairs to provide any type of assistance (in-kind. Such activities can create tensions with faith-inspired and secular development organizations. In 2004.
Thus. as a symbol of unity and common humanity.” As previously noted.300. In response. which. who also founded the Wahid Institute to “seed plural and peaceful Islam.46 BERKLEY CENTER | Philippines The Philippines is extraordinarily dynamic in its social.40 NU has its own International Peace Forum. religious organizations united under the banner of the Advocates for Intercommunity Relations and convinced community leaders to lobby the Ministry of Religious Affairs to reject the bill. along with the government. marking one of the first occasions that Muslim groups not only actively addressed interfaith issues in the public sphere.8 percent in 2009. positive advances. Muslims and Christians have historically tense relations in some parts of the country. People’s Reform Party.44 and high population growth (the country’s projected 2009 population was 91. Nationalist People’s Coalition. in contrast to the rest of Indonesia. chemicals. including faith-inspired organizations. 2. income inequality—the richest 10 percent have 20 times that of the poorest 10 percent). notably on the island of Sulawesi in Maluku and North Maluku. petroleum products. 20 percent of medical technicians. 68 percent do not have access to land other than their residence. 12 percent Christian of other denominations. pharmaceuticals. civil society.3 percent in 2007 to 3. coconut oil. 30 . GDP has fluctuated somewhat in recent years. Although its characteristics differ by region. poverty in the Philippines is predominantly rural. transport equipment.000. and fruits. where there have been cases of interethnic and religious conflict over the past decade. only 10 percent of doctors. garments. placing it as a lower-middle income country. and fishing. Struggle of Filipino Democrats. Force of the Philippine Masses. founded by Abdurrahman Wahid. and the pace of growth is down from a high of 7. Muhammadiyah and World Vision set an example of Muslim and Christian organizations cooperating closely around development programs. former leader of Muhammadiyah Ahmad Syafi Maarif founded the Maarif Institute for the fundamental purpose of developing interfaith dialogue. After weathering two successive colonial regimes and the repressive dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos from 1965 to 1986. The Philippines’ main industries are electronics assembly. and 5 percent Muslim (concentrated in Mindanao). The Pura Dalem Jawa Hindu Temple in Bunutin Village for example. is engaged with these issues in ways that show promise for sustainable. dentists and pharmacists. painted with World Vision colors. Nacionalista Party. cultural. and armed conflicts that have persisted for decades. it has the world’s third largest Catholic population and a significant Muslim minority. environmental problems. petroleum refining. Muhammadiyah recently built a school along with World Vision and posted the Muhammadiyah symbol on the school. Liberal Party. with prominent parties including Lakas-Kampi Christian Muslim Democrats. while its main exports are semiconductors and electronic products. and political landscape.42 a lack of high quality social services in rural areas (for example. is 90 percent Hindu. in celebration of centuries of both Muslim and Hindu presence on the island.45 up from 48 million in 1980 and over 66 million in 1990). footwear.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y own religion. offers space for Muslim ablutions and has hosted numerous interfaith exchanges.8 percent in 2002). but did so alongside Christian organizations. garments. NU and Muhammadiyah joined the Council of Churches in condemning the bill. food processing.983. wood products. In 2006. an estimated 33 percent of the population lived below the Philippines’ poverty threshold.41 Despite these positive developments. Though the country still struggles with poverty. civil society in the Philippines today is vibrant and dynamic. Issues that contribute to rural poverty include: inadequate expenditure on rural infrastructure (infrastructure represents a small portion of the Philippines’ GDP. and 30 percent of nurses practice in rural areas). are taking active steps to encourage interfaith harmony. In the face of violence. Its per capita GDP is $3. Socio-Economic Background The Philippines’ nearly 92 million people are approximately 81 percent Roman Catholic. Distinctive in its religious demographics (particularly in the context of Asia). Tensions have also flared in Bali (notably the 2002 nightclub bombing in the tourist district of Kuta). copper products. and United Opposition. The country has a very active multiparty political system.43 inequitable land and income distribution (of those working in agriculture. it disproportionately affects the more rural southern part of the country. many religious groups.
President Arroyo asked the BUC to direct a “deep consultative ➤ 2010 to an increase in internal and international human traf- 31 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . The conflict has contributed ficking from Mindanao. The stretching of health resources has been particularly acute for the pregnant and recent mothers among the displaced. The development impact on society has been equally severe in areas including health. Some families in rural areas who have lost land and other economic means due to the conflict have turned to sending their young children out of their communities to be domestic workers. and economic development. the highest in the Philippines. The BUC has facilitated the Imams-Priests-Pastors Dialogue. often condemning specific acts of violence. i s “Philippinized” (a term coined by historian John Leddy Phelan). however. and the World Food Program Reports that over 50 percent of the population lives below the national poverty line. claims 5 percent of the population. the largest indigenous religious organization in the country. Health concerns include a lack of adequate healthcare facilities and basic amenities such as clean drinking water and are compounded by forced displacement. the majority of the Muslim population is concentrated in the southern island of Mindanao. and nearly 2 million have been displaced. The conflict has contributed to difficulties in education. t h e m a j o r i t y re l i g i o n t o d a y. The Aglipayan Church. At the recommendation of the government and the MNLF. Males are more disadvantaged than their female counterparts in access to education throughout the Philippines. Those belonging to smaller Christian denominations constitute a significant proportion of the population.47 Islam is the oldest non-native religion in the Philippines and was introduced to the southern islands in 1350. founded the Bishops-Ulama Conference (BUC) in 1996 to advance peace and interreligious understanding between Muslims and Christians in Mindanao. Many native Philippine Protestant denominations tend to be restorationist and non-Trinitarian in outlook. with emphasis on certain faith aspects that resonate with Philippine heritage. Latin-Catholic traditions. or Philippine Independent Church (which maintains full communion with the Episcopal Church of the United States). as is reported by the United States Department of State. Faith-inspired organizations have played a particularly central role in responding to the conflict.” a term employed by Spanish colonizers which Philippine Muslims now use to selfidentify) belong to ethnic minority groups. According to the United Nations Development Program Human Development Report for 2008/2009. Davao City Archbishop Fernando Capalla and Mahid Mutilan. President of the Ulama League of the Philippines. Throughout more than three decades of conflict in the province. where the incidence of child labor and recruitment into gangs is particularly high for boys.000 people have been killed. particularly as adolescents in conflictaffected areas leave school early to provide for their families. The overall dropout rate for Mindanao is 23 percent. the quality of life in the conflict-affected provinces of Mindanao is the worst in the Philippines. The organization has issued joint statements calling for the government and Moro separatist organizations to work towards a constructive peace. Box 3 Mindanao: Conflict and Development One of the foremost development challenges facing the Philippines is the conflict in Mindanao. In 2008. such as the fiesta celebrating the day of a town’s (or barangay) patron saint are central to the culture of many Filipinos. more than 160. many Catholic observances are blended with native folk traditions. a series of seminars-workshops on interreligious dialogue and peaceful coexistence in communities and schools that encourages participation in the government-sponsored Mindanao Week of Peace. education. and most Muslims (or “Moros. but the situation is even more pronounced in Mindanao. the BUC has held 35 dialogues on common concerns about the peace process in Mindanao and related themes. Today.Religion in the Philippines C a t h o l i c i s m . such as the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ). To date.
48 Cofradías (religious brotherhoods) were established to fulfill broader social and community support functions. mass interfaith mobilizations in support of access to employment and services. Dr. to implement a multifaceted interfaith program entitled “Building Darusalam (Peace Communities). community organizing. Jesuit Refugee Service. During the time of the American colonial government. stated that “to broaden participation. human rights and community development advocacy. including: interfaith dialogue groups (grassroots and otherwise). such as Women of Faith in Dialogue and the aforementioned BUC. program works in the areas of interfaith dialogue. Lutheran World Relief. healthcare. interfaith community events. State Department’s 2009 Religious Freedom Report on the Philippines stated that the government “generally respected religious freedom in practice. the Church sought to directly engage peasant farmers’ social and economic plight in order to counter communist affiliation among this demographic. Among the specific projects Ummah Fi Salam and SPI have undertaken jointly to address these issues have been interfaith workshops for low-income urban community groups. Most welfare organizations in the Philippines during the colonial periods grew out of the Catholic Church and related religious orders. At the conference. Alberto Romulao. Other international faith-inspired organizations working in Mindanao include: the Mennonite Central Committee. peace education institutions and the integration of peace education into school curricula.” Religion. It helps fund a variety of activities. however. With the rise of the communist movement in rural areas in the 1920s and 1930s. The Catholic Relief Services is one of the most engaged international faith-inspired organizations in addressing the conflict and its development impact. religious organizations such as the Catholic Women’s Organization contributed to welfare efforts. 32 . and networking for peacebuilding and economic development. sanitation programs. G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y The Mindanao coalition of NGO networks (MINCODE— comprised of 12 NGO members) is one such mechanism. 2010. the Philippines hosted the Special Non-Aligned Movement Ministerial Meeting on Interfaith Dialogue and Cooperation for Peace and Development (under the auspices of the United Nations). The range of organizations working is vast. and the U. It is with these and subsequent agricultural and economic efforts by non-Catholic churches that rural development efforts truly began in the Philippines. and later some were established to oppose Spanish rule. we must institutionalize a program that will recognize grassroots [interfaith] initiatives. Adventist Development and Relief Agency. and Soka Gakkai.S. Out of the cofradías grew the Propaganda Movement. nutrition. and development programming aimed at engaging Christian and Muslim communities in projects together.Box 3 (continued) process” to formulate a plan for enduring peace in Mindanao. At the government level. these. Secretary of Foreign Affairs. support for impoverished Muslim families through leadership. functioned primarily to serve the elite. education. World Vision. the World Conference of Religions for Peace. on March 16. | Faith and Public Life The Philippines constitution guarantees freedom of religion. alongside secular domestic organizations and American NGOs. is regularly invoked by government leaders and is evident in public monuments such as the statue of the Virgin Mary that is part of the shrine to the Epifano de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) movement which ousted Ferdinand Marcos. particularly Christianity. Grassroots and local initiatives focusing on interfaith solutions to conflict and development are widespread and an integral component of the development strategy in Mindanao. led by the native intellectual vanguard. attended by President Arroyo. which pursued social reforms and equal rights for Filipinos under the Spanish colonial government. functioning since 1992. capacity-building through seminars and workshops. Muslim Aid.” One grassroots endeavor that has made particular strides in interfaith collaboration for peace and development is between the Muslim organizations Ummah BERKLEY CENTER Fi Salam (whose name means “Community for Peace”) and the Catholic organization Socio-Pastoral Institute (SPI). with established local coordinating bodies recognizing the intrinsic faith component to the conflict. and advocacy against housing demolition.” funded by the British organization Christian Aid.
Working in concert with pressure exerted by reformist politicians. the Catholic hierarchy (led by Bishop Arturo Bastes and others) has been involved in protests opposing mining operations on the island of Rapu-Rapu and in the southern island of Mindanao. the Muslim minority is active in promoting social development and peace building efforts. and is intended to distribute land to millions of poor farmers. the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) released an influential pastoral letter urging action to counter environmental degradation. constituting about half of the country’s farmland. NGOs. The Catholic Church has also taken a role in environmental action. and Agrarian Reform Civil society has had particular success in the Philippines in the area of agrarian reform. In numerical terms. Civil Society.Box 4 Civil Society. from 1972 to 2006. Although the Arroyo administration has not been a strong proponent of land reform. actual supervision is limited. as well as forming the backbone of the “people power” movement. In 1988. In recent years. and Development The Philippines is a host to myriad development actors. the Catholic Church hierarchy and Church-related organizations including the Institute on Church and Social Issues and the Bishops-Businessmen’s Conference for Human Development lent support to peasant organizations on agrarian reform advocacy. and although they are subject to the oversight of the Securities and Exchange Commission. POs and NGOs played crucial roles in bringing Spanish and American colonial rule to an end. Basic Christian Communities (local groups that discuss and take action on their social concerns) organized by the Diocese of Boac began to protest the impacts on fishing and health caused by Marcopper Mining Company’s illegal dumping of tailings into Calancan Bay. both international and national. Justice and Peace organized a “Campaign for a Genuine Agrarian Reform Program. No prior permission is required to establish an NGO. 5. about two-fifths of the agricultural population. government records state that as of 2006. along with Catholic leaders. Catholic bishops advocated for a more comprehensive and vigorous extension of the measure.” although the resulting Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 produced very little new reform and land distribution because of the influence of large landowners in Congress. In 1987 the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines’ (CBCP) National Secretariat of Social Action. The CBCP has revived a task force to monitor closely the implementation of the law to ensure that the government appropriates 2010 its agreed upon budget allocation to land distribution. the Philippines has achieved a significant level of partial land reform. and civil initiative following the Marcos regime. The role of the Catholic Church in public affairs. and in Mindanao. Organized groups in the Philippines fall into two legal categories: NGOs and communitybased organizations known as People’s Organizations (POs). Following the Vatican II reforms in the 1960s. in the midst of national protests.9 million hectares of private and public lands. have been redistributed to 3 million rural poor households. civil society groups have secured the expropriation and redistribution of contested private estates to landless and near-landless peasants. Partly because of the government’s sensitivity to popular demand and pressure. 2009. the Philippines has one of the most robust and advanced civil societies in the developing world. and also passed a resolution calling for the repeal of the Mining Act of 1995. In 1981. and the legal controls over the establishment and oversight of NGOs are less stringent than most other East and Southeast Asian countries. the Catholic Church. with particularly active contributions from faith-inspired organizations. | . NGOs are intermediaries between POs and the state. An extension passed and was signed into law on August 7. Faith. the World Bank argues that. including development is marked. With the expiration of this law in 2008. The country has more NGOs per capita than any other country in Asia.49 As examples. that overthrew the Ferdinand Marcos’ dictatorship in 1986. Fidel Ramos (president from 1992–1998) involved civil society in the Mindanao peace initiative (particularly in engag33 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS Civil society is extraordinarily active and diverse in the Philippines.
comprised of one national NGO. development planning and policy. and . Heherson Alvarez. | ing poor communities) and in national policy formation. Environmental Science for Social Change (ESSC). social justice and basic needs. rural development.000 NGOs (including faith-inspired organization) in total.Box 5 Environmental Call for Action In recent years and months. and constituent members of the networks are typically very engaged in the decision making processes. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s advisor for global warming and climate change. On October 23. The Philippine government is also taking steps of its own to combat climate change. Inc. Christian NGO Dalan sa Kalambuan (DALSAKA). Denmark) should respond to G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y the targets of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. seven national networks. and international development assistance. 2009. to coordinate action plans to prepare the country for extreme weather and integrate climate change initiatives into broader policies. addressing economic growth and job creation. among other community development initiatives. typhoons caused a landslide BERKLEY CENTER which killed 250 in April and at least 240 died in flooding due to a typhoon in late September. engages in community environmental education as it relates to waste management and other issues. aquatic reform and fisheries. and anti-corruption and good governance. Similarly. the issue of climate change is very real. PHILDHRRA (Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas) focuses on agrarian reform. to facilitate and foster interfaith cooperation on environmental responsibility. CODE-NGO (The Caucus of Development NGO Networks) is one of the largest NGO networks. education and youth. trade and investment. Faith-inspired organizations are active in addressing key ecological issues. In Central Mindanao. (BBK). the Philippine government has kept pressure on foreign governments to ratify a new treaty to reduce greenhouse gasses. Thus. is active on several fronts. Its member congregations have also endorsed political candidates based upon their support for ecological or other development policies. 34 as opposed to vertical hierarchy. in particular barangay (or district level) development planning. and current president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has included NGOs in the formulation and implementation strategy for the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan. In 2009 alone. ESSC also engages Christian and Muslim communities in Southern Mindanao in the local government planning processes. In the absence of a national land use inventory for nearly 20 years. For the Philippines. These NGO networks tend to be characterized by horizontal cooperation. To help make NGO efforts more efficient and organized. stated that the UN Conference of Parties (which met in December 2009 in Copenhagen. provides environmental education. located in Laguna. It employs innovative environmental mapping techniques to facilitate ecological sustainability in: natural resource management. The National Coalition for Urban Transformation (NCUT) was formed from organizations within the Alliance of Christian Development Agencies (ACDA) which works with Roman Catholic and Muslim organizations and leaders and counts among its activities the promotion of environmental advocacy through education. The Jesuit organization. President Arroyo enacted a new law that established a Climate Change Commission (CCC). a number of NGO networks and coordination mechanisms have been formed. which posits a 25 percent to 40 percent cut in emissions from 1990 levels to prevent irreversible climate change by 2050. upland development. Its member networks each have particular foci. given the link experts have drawn to recent weather-caused disasters that have struck the island nation. Buklod Biyayang Kristiyano. faith-inspired organizations have been instrumental in bridging the grassroots and policy levels on the environment. These storms were more severe than the Philippines had seen in years and exhibited unusual patterns in their geographic incidence as well as the time of year they occurred. the organization’s resource monitoring efforts have helped guide local policy and regional agencies to facilitate water and nutrient resource sustainability in the highland areas of the country. 2004–2010. and two regional networks—about 3.
The faith-inspired NGO community is a vibrant and important part of the broader cohort of development NGOs. NCSD (National Council on Social Development) focuses on social welfare and development. It also has extensive network of parochial schools. such as in August and September of 2008. among others. the Catholic Church. the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The Catholic Church and Contraception The official position of the Catholic Church in the Philippines has been to oppose contraception of any kind. the Church opposed the Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008. different levels of government. NATCCO (National Confederation of Cooperatives): cooperatives. reaching out in particular to poor and marginalized youth. credit. has embraced social and economic development work throughout the country. relief and rehabilitation. in which interfaith housing builds are held in areas where there has previously been violent conflict that saw many people of both faiths lose their homes. as well as the local imam and even the former Miss Universe were among the signatories to the peace covenant establishing the framework for the program. PHILSSA (Partnership of Philippine Support Service Agencies) focus on urban land reform. Faith-inspired organizations are active members of all these networks. under Peace Build. while the encouraged Filipinos to vote against political candidates favoring any government support for contraception in the May 10. Advocates of the bill have affirmed that they will refile the law in the next legislative session. The bill was presented to Congress in January 2010.010 houses in Peace and Development Communities (PDCs). Even though the Church holds great influence over the views of many Filipinos. following heated debate among legislators. The project aims to build at least 1. particularly in trying to foster economic self-reliance among structurally disadvantaged segments of the population and promoting peaceful coexistence in pluralistic communities. built and renovated over 600 houses. organizing low-income urban areas. the reproductive health bill is supported by 63 percent of Filipinos. Peace Build has included government soldiers and ex-MNLF combatants in the builds. having attained a predominantly Filipino clergy by the 1990s (at the Vatican’s encouragment). but expired after the congressional session ended. and some of the latter have been among those who have contributed land for build sites. many of which are attentive to the connections between education and poverty. the Peace Build program (funded by the European Commission). By September 2008. The number of Muslim faith-inspired organizations in the Philippines has grown in recent years. and housing. Muslim and Christian groups have been intentional about constructive interfaith collaboration in addressing the conflict in Mindanao.Box 6 Box 7 Habitat for Humanity—Peace Build Program in Mindanao In Mindanao. Although smaller in numbers. excluding abortion. according to a Pulse Asia poll conducted in October 2008. Representatives from the Philippine army. and livelihood. There are many 35 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . in cooperation with other organizations. the United Church of Christ. Habitat had. a viewpoint at odds with many in civil society and the development community. 2010 elections. Faith-inspired organizations are active across various sectors and regions in the Philippines. Recently. The Catholic Church. Habitat for Humanity operates. non-Catholic Christian faith-inspired organizations have been equally vigorous in their development and peacebuilding efforts. working alongside a multitude of faith-inspired NGOs. which would require governments at all levels to provide free or low-cost reproductive services. seeking to confront particularly severe poverty in Mindanao and calling for a peaceful political solution to the conflict there. Filipino Catholic orga- nizations have forged long-term relationships with foreign Catholic faith-inspired organizations helping to increase the capacity and sustainability of the former. 2010 Catholic Bishop’s Conference of the Philippines has social forestry. working together even in light of instances of violence.
Inc. Governance is one of the principal areas of programming for the Consortium of Bangsamoro Civil Society. In Mindanao. encompassing a wide range of interventions including community organizing. World Vision. since many elected officials do heed the views of the Church. one of the most active. capacity building and local governance is increasingly becoming an area of interest for faith-inspired organizations. Socio-Pastoral Institute (Christian) and Ummah Fi Salam (Muslim). BERKLEY CENTER | Emerging Challenges Corruption and a lack of transparency at all levels of government is a significant challenge for faith-inspired organizations. Two local faith-inspired organizations. rural areas. in addition to emergency relief. and civil society more generally.000 children with education needs through child sponsorship and community-based programs. creating Peace Communities. education. partners with church. The Christian microcredit organization Rangtay sa Pagrang-ay. and networking for peacebuilding and development. stressing what it sees as the interrelated nature of entreprenurial development.000 homes throughout the country through 15 affiliates and 6 Local Management Councils (See Box 6). oriented toward dialogue based on a deepening of Christian and Muslim faith. Given that faith is a central component of life for large parts of the population in conflict affected regions. provides microloans to the poor (90 percent provided to women with small businesses—12. However. assists approximately 122. advocacy for human rights and community development. and community organizations to expand access to health services in underserved areas.000 new loans worth over $1 million in loans in 2002). Another important area of focus for faith-inspired development organizations is that of children and youth. and so effectively coordinating a unified effort to vigorously address corruption and transparency is a challenge. Faith-inspired organizations are quite active in interfaith dialogue and interreligious peacebuiling activities. Kabilikat para sa Maunlad na Buhay. government. particularly at the grassroots level. the umbrella group for Muslim NGOs in Mindanao. (KMBI) is a Christian microcredit organization operating across the Philippines. For instance. have forged interfaith dialogues at the grassroots level throughout Mindanao. Both Christian (the Catholic Church is publicly engaged) and Muslim inspired development organizations are active on issues of governance. focused in particular on improving the livelihood of Filipina women. it is the most likely candidate for spearheading a conversation on these themes that would have substantive impact. As a major part of development initiatives to address poverty in the country. (RSPI) seeks to empower financially the marginalized indigenous groups of the Cordillera region. local patronage and clanship-based politics further complicate the environment. Habitat for Humanity has built over 26. but many draw their ideas from native Filipino faith communities and/or are sustained by local efforts. though it is important to note that the Church in the Philippines is not a monolithic voice in terms of its socio-political agenda. interfaith dialogue for understanding and solidarity.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y international religious NGOs undertaking development initiatives across the country. and cooperative economic activities. Inc. already made extremely difficult by violent conflict and extreme 36 . and engages in emergency disaster relief. community development. Catholic Relief Services. John Bosco (Roman Catholic) are two examples of Christian organizations that seek to improve the health and welfare of disadvantaged children in urban and remote. The Catholic Church has shown leadership in certain reforms (see Box 1). Finally. Silsilah (meaning “chain” or ”link” in Arabic) Dialogue Movement is a Muslim-Christian interfaith organization founded by a Catholic priest in 1984 in Zamboanga City. faith-inspired microfinance organizations that have come about alongside secular organizations of the same kind. Kalinga Mula Sa Mga Anak ni Juan Florentino (Apostolic Catholic) and Daughters of Mary Help of Christians: Salesian Sisters of St. Mindanao. religious leaders are particularly influential in mobilizing communities scarred by religious conflict toward reconciliation and understanding. have a crucial role to play in peacebuilding in Mindanao in particular (see Box 3). 50 It is clear that faith-inspired organizations. or Darusalam. Some of the former have origins in other countries. and personal internal renewal. interfaith immersion. there has been a growth of grassroots. The National Council of Churches in the Philippines (which includes the Catholic Church) has formed a group to combat fraud in the May 2010 elections.
This discussion reflects preliminary findings of the review. taking a particular interest in microfinance. Sister Oling decided that simple interest in the poor was not enough.000 small and medium scale entrepreneurs. but their religious character presents some distinctive features that merit both a broad survey of what they are doing and why. Cambodia faces extraordinary challenges. and there is lively attention to the contemporary roles of Cambodia’s particularly active civil society. the overall impact of their work. notorious 37 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | .” Source: Fox. In the words of Sister Oling. the great diversity of both Muslim and Christian organizations on the island and .’ I feel 2010 very satisfied indeed. the development roles of the large number of faithinspired organizations that work in Cambodia are poorly understood. and the Foundation now operates out of Sorsogon and Zamboanga (in the southern Philippines) and has grown from a three-person operation to a staff of 109. 2010. A full report should be available by August. continues today. but now we can.000 clients. http://ncronline. Substantial research on Cambodia’s religious heritage is available. “Nun lifts the lives of thousands. in partnership with the Asia Faiths Development Dialogue (AFDD). a Sister Servant of the Divine Healer. Cambodia Background Cambodia is a country of special emphasis for this exploration of intersections between religion and development and specifically the work of faith-inspired organizations. nearly all women. Thomas C. who have worked to bring their families out of extreme poverty. Cambodia’s recent economic and social progress. Since she began exploring ways to increase locally-grown food for economic development. her foundation had reached a credit line of over $800. she secured a grant from Catholic Relief Services for $50.000 and was serving 20. seriousness of cooperation between the two faith communities demonstrate that there is a desire and resilience among many in Mindanao to address development needs meaningfully despite challenges posed by power dynamics. Nonetheless. and its actual and potential contribution to building a more equitable and prosperous Cambodia. However. her efforts have supported more than 11. Religious traditions have played an important role in Cambodia’s history and its present. but that she would turn to social action to fight poverty. is impressive on many fronts. WFDD is engaged in a year-long “mapping” review for Cambodia. though the shock of tumult under the Khmer Rouge (especially during the 1975–79 period) represented a sharp discontinuity from which Cambodia is still recovering.” Her research found that meeting monthly expenses was a large contributor to persistent poverty and an inability to meet basic needs. these organizations are part of communities and civil society more broadly. Learning about the Grameen model of microfinance from a nearby development agency. poverty.000. Sister Oling. given the devastation of decades of conflict and genocide. Oling and People’s Alternative Livelihood Foundation Sister Adelia Oling.Box 8 Sister Adelia S. conducted a questionnaire “to understand how pervasive underlying poverty was keeping local residents out of the economic market. Web. ‘Thank you very much. a microfinance organization that provides capital to low-income people in central and southern Philippines who are unable to provide adequate collateral for conventional loans. Sr. To a degree.org/news/women-religious/nun-lifts-lives-thousands Accessed 21 April 2010. in many instances. is CEO and founder of People’s Alternative Livelihood Foundation. Oling’s work to address people’s “woundedness” from poverty. In 1997. before we could not even purchase milk for our children.” National Catholic Reporter 13 April 2010. which include growing imbalances between rich and poor. along with the help of a priest. “When I hear someone say. as informed by her faith. However. Primarily through an intensive set of interviews. and by 2006. WFDD is investigating the development related activities of individuals and organizations that are in significant ways motivated and shaped by faith.
where hundreds of thousands of ethnic Khmers had sought refuge. but by the latter half of the 10th century. even before the French protectorate. When Cambodians returned to their home provinces. 53 Few Cambodians practice Hinduism today. but Hindu traditions contributed to the uniquely Cambodian forms of Buddhism.54 Far more intensive Christian influence came after the fall of the communist regime and after 1979. The shifting balance gives BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Cambodia’s Religious Heritage Cambodia has a rich religious heritage and many faiths are present among Cambodia’s population. Buddhism had overtaken it as the major faith of the population and elites. and today focusing on education and health service delivery. but their converts were few in number. But religious understanding. The country’s official motto underscores the importance accorded to faith tradition: “Nation. A Muslim man highlighted the impact of the genocide: “after the Khmer Rouge. are important questions facing Cambodia as it looks to the future. The legacy of the Khmer Rouge and communist regime for Cambodia’s religions is still felt today. Religious teachings and practices of all kinds were banned. Faith-inspired communities and institutions are very much part of the overall development process. when Christian missionaries and aid workers flocked to the refugee camps along the Thai and Vietnamese borders. These weaknesses are linked to widespread institutional capacity challenges.52 Hinduism gained a foothold primarily in 38 . However. Christianity is the fastest-growing faith tradition in Cambodia.1 percent Christian.” 2008/2009 statistics published by the Ministry of Cult and Religions in Cambodia indicate a religious profile with (out of a population of about 14 million) some 96 percent Buddhists. Religion. showing greater religious diversity. people from the now-extinct Champa kingdom in present day Vietnam.3 percent Muslim.”55 Lack of knowledge and of people to teach has colored a nonetheless remarkable revival of both Buddhism and Islam. Other sources give somewhat different breakdowns. especially contributing to humanitarian aid. French Catholic missionaries first came to Cambodia in the early 18th century. and those found to be practicing were punished. and the specific place for faith-inspired organizations. The first Muslims to arrive in Cambodia were the Chvea. an ethnic group thought to have immigrated as early as the fourteenth century from the Malay Peninsula or the Indonesia archipelago. but today most Cambodians call themselves Buddhists. By international standards. A wide array of organizations expanded emergency aid and relief portfolios into development activities. which represent a diversity of traditions. when the Cham. including.51 Sacred texts and some recently discovered ancient Buddhist statues date back to before 500 CE. Both Hinduism and Buddhism have ancient roots in Cambodia. many of these groups. is still relatively weak. particularly amongst the younger generation. and the assistance provided by the multitude of Christian-based relief and development organizations. King. and less than 0. an increase in the number of churches. migrated to Cambodia to escape conflict. given its importance for future stability. thus securing a place for Christianity in Cambodian society. for example. traditions of ancestor worship and a strong grip of superstitions. often by death. for example about the Millennium Development Goals. Islam also has a long history in Cambodia. education. individually and as a community (though it is a stretch to suggest that a faith-inspired community exists). have not been notably part of national development planning and strategic reflection. though their origins and early history are shrouded in legend. Perhaps foremost among the challenges. owing in part to the presence of overseas missionaries. all religions were reborn. especially the Buddhist values that Cambodians view as a central feature of their social fabric and culture. a range of social tensions. are the weaknesses of Cambodia’s education system. and environmental threats. Cambodia has an unusually large array of faith-inspired organizations that work in virtually every sector with particular concentrations on health. many Christian churches and aid organizations entered the country.governance and capacity weaknesses. The role that religion will play. royal circles. and post conflict healing. 0. A second wave of Islamic followers arrived in the late fifteenth century. which was decimated during the period of troubles.
Hiek Sopheap. Development and Buddhist Organizations Despite the wide presence of visible symbols of Buddhism. 2010 nection between Buddhism and the environment. and the Wildlife Alliance). this means ABE trains monks who then return to their temples and turn the grounds into a focal point for rallying the community in support of environmental issues.” After nearly 20 years in the monkhood. ABE maintains a website (although somewhat dated) for the Sangha Network which is dedicated to helping connect Buddhist communities throughout Asia who are working to promote environmental conservation. ABE’s aim is straightforward: monks should demonstrate in word and action the importance of preserving the environment.rise to some tensions. Moreover. Sopheap disrobed and is today the Executive Director of the Association of Buddhists for the Environment (ABE). and helped oversee the maintenance of community wells. Sopheap says that communities are gradually beginning “to realize the important role the environment plays in their lives. their informal structures and a lack of publicity (and fanfare) make the true magnitude and impact of their work difficult to assess. Buddhism’s links to Cambodia’s dynamic development processes are not easy to pin down. To date.” (Donors past and present to ABE include the United Nations Development Programme. Mustard Seed Charitable Trust UK. and a lack of understanding about natural resource management are all working to quicken the pace of environmental degradation. Conservation International. lax regulation. Buddhist teachings and institutions do play significant and probably increasing roles and merit careful attention. Hundreds of local residents have shown up at individual Satisfied that ABE’s contributions are making a difference. most based in Korea and Japan. “The monks are respected by members of the community. WildAid. community members themselves have become involved. constructed compost bins at Pagodas. has long been interested in the interplay between his Buddhist faith and the natural environment. with plans for more trainings. which leverages the influence of monks to promote environmental conservation and consciousness in a country where economic growth. the Alliance of Religions and Conservation. USAID. On the surface. In practice. with the support of the UK-based Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC). Nonetheless. Monks have participated in the planting and ordaining of trees in forests. has 39 | .” explains Sopheap. Buddhism appears to be little engaged with the development enterprise. BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS screenings of an ABE-produced educational video showcasing various initiatives throughout Cambodia where monks are taking an active role in environmental conservation activities. which highlights the conhelped place greater attention on the need for community members to take responsibility for their environs. give financial aid to local Box 9 The Association of Buddhists for the Environment (ABE) A self-described former “socially active” monk. The video. but Cambodia prides itself on its constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and long traditions of religious tolerance. ABE has championed a number of other projects. “The forest is life. Several international Buddhist organizations.” Not only have communities learned to accept the monk’s newfound roles (some were skeptical at first because traditionally monks do not engage with communities). Pagodas in Kampong Chhnang and Kampot provinces have been outfitted with community announcement boards to communicate important messages about environmental initiatives. “The Buddha was born in the forest and reached enlightenment in the forest and passed away in the forest. While quite a wide range of local and international Buddhist-inspired organizations operate in Cambodia. they listen.” says Sopheap. ABE has trained over 200 monks in 21 provinces throughout Cambodia. like spirit houses in homes and shops and orange-clad monks moving in and out of the ubiquitous pagodas. “When monks tell people to do something. ABE is a faith-inspired NGO in Cambodia.
Work is often carried out by individuals or small informal groups. Some argue that Buddhist faith and traditions require active engagement with the society and the corresponding actions or contributions. Cambodian Muslim Development Foundation.57 The Chvea have long had roots in the Malay community in southern Thailand and Malaysia. As one Buddhist monk put it.” adding that monks and laypeople are “respected more because we do not announce our activities. while others see Buddhism’s proper role as more removed from modern demands. Projects focused on educating the community on health and environmental issues and providing support to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and their families are the most common. and to a less obvious extent nuns. are respected authority figures in their communities. A significant difficulty in measuring and evaluating social action in communities by Buddhists is their decentralization and fragmentation. meeting spiritual. More significant are local organizations that appear to be taking increasingly active roles. providing small loans and on occasion material goods. both secular and faith-inspired. which range from compassion to a commitment to integrity. present day central Vietnam. acts as a coordinating body and channel for donor funds for eight Muslim development organizations. owing largely to the small size and scope of their activities. BERKLEY CENTER | 40 . few other avenues exist for community members to secure funds or other resources for communal projects or individual use. 58 Today the Cham and Chvea recognize the same supreme religious leader in Cambodia and many Chvea. The role that Buddhist institutions should play in development work is actively debated today in Cambodia. the Cham and the Chvea. particularly between older and younger generations. In addition to the structured organizations. An umbrella group. not material needs. often refer to themselves as Cham. UNICEF has a program called The Buddhist Leadership Initiative56 that actively engages monks in community outreach surrounding HIV/ AIDS prevention and awareness. the Cambodian Islamic Youth Association (CIYA). recognize the benefits of engaging monks and laypeople linked to pagodas as a way to ensure the strong links to communities that are vital for development. but there are about 20 formal Muslim organizations working in Cambodia. beginning in the late 15th century. Like many Buddhist organizations. Buddhists would rather “focus on the end result. and the Buddhism Society and Development Association. working in various sectors. Examples include Buddhism for Development. Notwithstanding the limited assistance provided by the committees and the support available from the structured organizations. Muslim organizations address a range of development issues but place particular emphasis on education and income generation activities. It is thought that the Chvea preceded the arrival in Cambodia of the Cham. Muslim development organizations in Cambodia are often difficult to identify. who came to the country from Champa.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y pagodas. They have embarked on specific efforts to engage Buddhist structures in development work. among them the Islamic Local Development Organization (ILDO). which suggests that little distinction is made between Islamic-based NGOs run by particular branches of the Muslim community. This blending of the two ethnic groups as one Muslim minority corresponds with the narrative. Numbers are not clear. who share the same religious views but tend to live in separate villages. largely owing to the similarities between their ethnic group and the Cham and also for reasons of simplicity. a more informal system consisting of elected committees formed around individual mosques provides an outlet for community members to request emergency assistance. Committees help where they can. and the Cambodian Islamic Association (CIA). but are often constrained by lack of financial support. Compounding the difficulty in recognizing Buddhist contributions to development is the pattern whereby formal organizations that do exist often have limited publicity. Development and Muslim Organizations Indigenous Muslims in Cambodia fall into two ethnic groups. One monk characterized Cambodian monks as having “salty spit”—meaning that people listen to them and act upon what they are told. Monks.” Many development organizations. The Association of Buddhists for the Environment. There is among all who speak to Buddhism’s role a strong focus on the values that Buddhism represents. and support of those already infected.
creates another set of complications. and for some time they operated with little administrative restraint. education.” even if it means. are playing an increasingly influential role in supporting Cambodia’s Muslim community.Several Muslim majority countries. Faith-inspired organizations develop their own materials and projects based on the knowledge 41 Emerging Issues In addition to the myriad project-specific challenges that each faith-inspired organization faces (which are not dissimilar to those facing most NGOs). because faith-inspired organizations oftentimes feel the need. including peacebuilding. Lack of effective dialogue among organizations or religious bodies. and several NGO coordination mechanisms took root. BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . since they are. weak coordination mechanisms. refusing to pay any extra “fees. there is merit in engaging the community in broader ongoing discussions with the government and the aid community. but it may well be related to the quite wide perception that many Christian groups use development projects as a means for or excuse to proselytize. unlikely to have any significant impact on the overall climate and problem. a resource center and coordinating mechanism for groups working in the field of trafficking. Christian Development Activities Although Christianity’s influence is relatively new to Cambodia. Virtually all the leading international Christian-inspired NGOs have active programs in Cambodia. either by choice or circumstance. given the generally difficult operating environment in Cambodia. the American Friends Service Committee. All organizations must find ways to respond to the general capacity weaknesses and to endemic patterns of corruption.” Coordination challenges are rife. There are also a large number of smaller organizations representing an extraordinarily wide set of denominations. individually. to exercise a certain moral code of conduct. However. Catholic Relief Services. Voluntary coordination mechanisms emerged. and Kuwait. It is generally appreciated that corruption is deeply embedded in Cambodia today. health. Cambodian Muslim students are receiving scholarships to study abroad in such places as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia. Foreign financing has contributed to the construction of mosques and Islamic boarding schools. Others cite the Catholic Church’s long history in Cambodia and thus deeper roots. World Relief. Foreign nations are also sending religious teachers to Cambodia to serve as teacher-trainers to Cambodian Muslims eager to enter the profession. In discussions in Cambodia. studying the Qur’an and Islamic practices is their sole form of education. accentuated by the large number of organizations. for example. For organizations operating today. some common challenges emerge. waiting months for a shipment of much needed wheelchairs to clear through the Customs Department. This issue is especially problematic. These are linked to generally weak institutional capacity and unclear ‘“rules of the game. there is no clear solution. The Catholic Church and its associated organizations are often described more favorably than other Christian organizations. Caritas. Essentially. including World Vision. communications difficulties. In addition. notably Malaysia. similar to what one might part with to expedite the delivery of a package. which has given high priority to finding practical solutions that will improve accountability and increase the demand for good governance. Reasons for the divide are unclear. and income generation. children. some Cambodians drew a distinct line between the way they perceive the work and motivations of “Christians” and Catholics. Organizations face difficult ethical dilemmas: pay bribes or risk facing programmatic delays. The current rather poor coordination creates gaps and overlaps in the delivery of services. For some however. Church World Service. “Christians” being for the most part Protestants. trafficking. the majority of faith-inspired organizations operating there today are rooted in Christian principles and beliefs. environment. Some groups take a strong stance. thereby sidestepping the issue of perpetuating a corrupt system. Cambodia attracted large numbers of organizations in the post genocide period. and a tendency towards competition. Christian organizations are involved in all sectors. or are driven by their faith. Students who go abroad combine religious and secular studies. One that is specifically Christian and faith linked is Chab Dai. and Jesuit Refugee Services.59 Other organizations take the view that paying a bribe to expedite the delivery of the wheelchairs can be viewed as simply paying an express fee.
In addition. might provide sizeable per diems and motorbikes to volunteers. like the Church of Latter-day Saints and Adventists. with the latter subject to greater skepticism and restrictions. completely free. The youth. The three networks have one representative who sits in on the CDCF. Organizations that proselytize or are seen to proselytize are also viewed with apprehension. Alongside. and they are descibed as the most effective way for them to influence policy. But for young people in Cambodia today that is not easy to understand. and are able to (given limited resources) engage and build relationships with communities and volunteers inhibit the productiveness of programs. health is particularly active). For example. That includes groups well-known for evangelizing tendencies. The practical meaning of religious freedom is a topic of lively exchange today. there are three networks that aim to address civil society coordination challenges: the NGO Forum. these mechanisms represent a substantial investment and show some success. the general judgment is that both coordination and networking efforts and bodies. The Christian churches offer English lessons. especially young students. rather than building upon the experience and materials of other organizations. And it has much to offer for daily life. which vary in intensity and form by sector (for example. particularly the sector working groups or sub-groups. The government tends to make a sharp distinction between service delivery and advocacy organizations. What this means is that Buddhism has to work much harder to make its messages clearer. The larger faith-inspired groups. Competition for volunteers among beneficiary groups is fast becoming a major concern of organizations. led by the government. on balance. Organizations spend time and resources creating their own HIV/AIDS curriculums and educational materials. It is about much more. and the Cooperation Committee for Cambodia (CCC). Overall. which serves as a high level meeting of government officials and donors. University of Cambodia Professor and Ministry of Culture Secretary of State Samraing Kamsan summarizes the situation and challenges as follows: “There are problems with Christianism in Cambodia today. Cambodia is a country where special and quite intensive effort is going towards aid coordination. like World Vision and CRS. They do not spend time on Buddhist practices and even if they do it is very superficial. They have computers. Buddhism is part of our culture. are not interested in going to the pagodas. deeply so. What they want most is IT. The operating environment for non-governmental organizations is changing. are well tuned in to this system.” Most faith groups say that their work is clearly differentiated between service and development versus evangelical work. there is no standard set of training materials for HIV/AIDS work in the country. MEDiCAM. but the many smaller organizations largely fall outside the system.they have. Buddhism is not about reciting the Dharma alone. there is a plethora of local aid coordination mechanisms. with new legislation 42 G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y aimed at better regulating civil society activity under discussion. There is freedom of belief in Cambodia. They take young people on sightseeing trips. Relevant research and operational experience can be presented in this setting.” BERKLEY CENTER | . and for those responsible for religion. But the trend towards joining Christian churches and the weakness of Buddhism are also worrying for us. are plainly inadequate to the challenge. so this is all legal and accepted. another organization operating in the same area and providing similar services might be willing to cover only their volunteers’ cost of transportation. for example. Inconsistencies in how organizations choose to. Having this freedom is part of peace and harmony. However. with many comments about “rice Christians” or “food for faith. or CDCF. computers. to Angkor Wat and other places. So young people are attracted and they join. for the Ministry of Culture. and to learn English. While one organization. Membership is voluntary for NGOs. The government chaired Cambodian Development Cooperation Forum. brings together government and major external development partners on a fairly regular basis. and they offer trips overseas.
Income inequality is approximately the same as the United States. Mon. 75 percent are ethnically Thai. following the 2006 military coup and the 2008 global financial crisis. at 10 percent. and fled to exile in Dubai. Vietnamese. The crisis began when populist multi-billionaire Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was accused of corruption. The percentage of the population living below the poverty line is also relatively low. Thailand’s deeply respected king remains one of the only unifying figures in Thailand’s political landscape. Anti-government street protests in April 2009 disrupted the regional ASEAN summit. 14 percent ethnic Chinese.). Thailand is a middle income country. Burmese refugees started seeking refuge in Thailand in large numbers in the late 1980s. when former Prime Minister Thaksin was appointed advisor to the government of Cambodia. Protests against the ruling party continued in early 2010. and led to a temporary state of emergency in the capital. Faith-inspired organizations are active in working with both refugee and migrant populations. prompting diplomatic tensions between the two countries.63 Thailand also has a large (largely undocumented) migrant worker population.Thailand An Overview Thailand’s rich history and culture are inextricably intertwined with Buddhism.400 (2008 est. As human rights abuses continue in Burma. ousted from power. and advocacy. for example. The Jesuit Refugee Service in Thailand.5 percent). and numerous smaller groups. 2010 Socio-Economic and Political Background Of Thailand’s population (estimated at 66 million). remains a persistent problem and a contributing factor to social conflict. Political instability has also affected the tourism industry.61 The official unemployment rate is among the world’s lowest (1. Bangkok. Religion influences many aspects of Thai society and life and serves as an important unifying force. Karens. near the top of the medium development bracket and higher than all of its neighbors. The majority of these laborers come from Burma. increased the exodus of Karen.4 percent in 2008) but is rising significantly (end 2009 estimate close to 2. with a variety of ethnic and religious influences. counseling. many more live as internally displaced people in the Burmese jungle.6 percent) concentrated in the southern provinces. he has never completely left the Thai political scene.000 Burmese refugees in camps near the Thai-Burma (Myanmar) border. and the remaining 11 percent Malays. A nagging territorial dispute has escalated as both countries exert their claim to land near the Preah Vihear Buddhist temple. followed by the failed 1990 elections. as well as students and pro-democracy activists to Thailand. as well as prolonged political tensions. Thailand has been embroiled in a political crisis since the military coup of 2006. following an extended period of rising political tensions. Thailand hosts more than 143. legal aid. operates refugee settlements along the border with Burma (Myanmar) and works in urban centers on education. Khmers. but also Laos and Cambodia. The majority of the population is Buddhist. refugees are still arriving to Thailand in significant numbers. cent of Thailand’s population lives in rural areas. exemplified during recent political upheavals that affected both civil society and the upper echelons of political leadership. especially the northeastern and southern provinces. social services and community development. Most social and political institutions are deeply rooted in Therevada Buddhist tradition. but Thailand has significant religious diversity. Karenni. thousands of Burmese live outside the camps without being recognized as refugees. and Shan ethnic populations. Many refugees have lived in the camps for 15 to 20 years. With a GDP per capita of US$8.62 Thailand has impressive achievements to show on human development and ranks 87 on the Human Development Index. which contributes about 7 percent to the economy. The political intrigue and regional character of the crisis deepened in late 2009. including a sizable and politically active Muslim minority (4. economic growth has declined sharply. However. Pro-democracy demonstrations in Burma (Myanmar) in 1988. Poverty.60 Religion is thus an integral part of Thailand’s approach to its development challenges. however. The economic contraction was primarily caused by a decrease in global demand and a decline in investor confidence spurred on by the continued political instability. Some 66 per- 43 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . emergency medical services. with one of the most robust economies in South East Asia.
among other issues of social justice. and for renovation of temples. and the Seventh-day Adventists. In exercising the liberty referred to in paragraph one. a person is protected from any act of the State. Thailand’s King Bhumibol Adulyadej is the world’s the longest ruling monarch and is part of a royal lineage dating back to the 13th century. as was the Buddha. and is a model of for social engagement across Southeast Asia and within international Buddhist networks. monks across the country are engaged in environmental advocacy. religion is closely intertwined.600 Christians. or 0.64 Many Thais regard the king as a semi-divine figure. China. Saha Christchak (Baptist). There are 3. The government recognizes five Christian organizations: the Catholic Mission of Bangkok (Roman Catholic). Though ethnicity is a large contributing factor to the conflict. and Indonesia. The 2007 Constitution also has a clause providing that the government must “patronize and protect Buddhism and other religions. Cambodia. At some point in their lives. as well as a hub for social and economic activity. a religious sect or creed. as a spiritual center. or on the path to enlightenment. allowances for monks and clerics. For example. notably the environment and HIV/AIDS.” The government has a budget for all recognized religion. and he remains a unifying force. in section 38: A person shall enjoy full liberty to profess a religion. public order or good morals. and spirit worship.66 BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Socially Engaged Buddhism in Thailand The pagoda is a center of social and economic life in many communities across Thailand. The pagoda generally plays a central role in village life.088 of them located in the 14 southern provinces. and Hindu beliefs and indigenous religions figure prominently in local traditions and festivals. churches. highly concentrated in the south along the Malaysian border. the Evangelical Fellowship of Thailand (Protestant). Thai Buddhism is unique among its Buddhist neighbors. which is derogatory to his or her rights or detrimental to his or her due benefits on the grounds of professing a religion.Religion in Thailand Religion plays a prominent role in Thai society and politics. was bodhisattva. but the Muslim population includes descendants of immigrants from South Asia. A large majority of Thais are Buddhist. giving rise to a national and international socially engaged Buddhist movement led by prominent figures including Buddhadasa Bhikkhu and Sulak Sivaraksa (founder of the Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation and the International Network of Engaged Buddhists—INEB). Depending on the figures used. 3. the influence of Buddhism is clearly evident. and economic and societal marginalization. and observe religious precepts or exercise a form of worship in accordance with his or her belief. Thai Buddhism has a strong heritage of social engagement across a wide range of sectors and issues. and Buddhist monks have been instrumental in reaching the poorest and most marginalized communities through their social work. to fund education. or chao khao. and mosques. influenced by the region’s particular history. The 2000 census estimated that Thailand had 438. as is lack of representation in the national government.000 persons who prac44 tice varied forms of Buddhism. monks in Thailand have borne witness to the harmful societal and environmental effects of unsustainable development.7 percent of the population. Historically. comprised of approximately 920. Christianity. almost all Thai men are ordained as monks. and monks are given preferential treatment in society. Muslims (majority Sunni) comprise 5–15 percent of Thais. Over the last few decades. Today. a religious sect or creed or observing religious precepts or exercising a form of worship in accordance with his or her different belief from that of others. and although officially there is not a state religion. . Most are ethnic Malay.644 registered mosques in 67 provinces. the Church of Christ in Thailand (Protestant). provided that it is not contrary to his or her civic duties. There are nine recognized tribal groups. health. as he continues to be viewed by many today. A separatist movement by the ethnic Malay Muslim population in the south has caused widespread violence and unrest.65 The Constitution provides for freedom of religion. Theravada Buddhism was imported from Sri Lanka. Taoism. where the king. they have free access to public transportation.
On the environmental front, monks living in the forest and rural communities (“ecology monks” as they have come to be known) have been negatively affected by various development projects, including gas pipeline construction, strip mining, and deforestation. Ecology monks trace a direct connection between the root causes of suffering (greed, ignorance, and hatred) and environmental destruction, and as such see environmental activism closely aligned with Buddhist teachings. 67 Sulak Sivaraksa is a vocal activist for the environment, publicly placing blame on international corporations and corrupt officials for unsustainable development practices. Recently, a 2006 Thai judicial ruling dropped charges against him for obstruction of the Yadana Gas pipeline in Kanchanaburi, considered by environmental groups to cause ecological and social damage in the local villages. Monks continue to “ordain” trees as well, a symbolic protest that aims to signal to loggers that the forest is a sacred place. In 2005, Phra Supoj Suwajano, a monk involved in forest protection in Chiang Mai province, was murdered, highlighting the sensitivity of social advocacy and further bringing the environmental cause of Thai monks to international attention. Thai monks have been active at the grassroots level, working on HIV/AIDS from the early days of the epidemic in the early 1990s. UNICEF and UNAIDS, recognizing the effectiveness of monk engagement, have partnered with the monk community through the Sangha Metta Project since 1997. Sangha Metta is an NGO based in Chiang Mai, which trains monks in social awareness, prevention education, social engagement, tolerance, acceptance, and spiritual support for people living with HIV/AIDS. As of 2003, about 7,000 monks, nuns, novices, community members, and youth had completed project training courses.68 The project shows good sustainability, as the Thailand Government Department of Religious Affairs has followed up with funding for HIV care projects in temples.69 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria actively supports the engagement of monks in HIV prevention and care. The monks help to change the mindset of the predominantly Buddhist society, portraying HIV as a cultural and social issue, and not only a sexual issue, one that would preclude monks from becoming involved. As of 2007, Buddhist monks had educated over 300,000 people on HIV prevention
in Thailand through Global Fund supported projects to the Ministry of Health and Raks Thai Foundation.70
Interfaith Cooperation and Dialogue
A clause in the 2007 Constitution requires the government to “promote good understanding and harmony among followers of all religions.” The government has sponsored interfaith dialogue through regular meetings and public education programs. The Religious Affairs Department (RAD) has responsibility for carrying out and overseeing many of these efforts. On August 18, 2008, the RAD held its annual interfaith assembly with approximately 1,200 representatives and members of all registered religious groups participating. From May 12–14, 2009, the RAD sponsored a Youth Reconciliation Camp in Chonburi Province, just outside of Bangkok, that attracted 214 participants. Further, the Ministry of Public Health conducted a religious camp in Chiang Mai that brought together Buddhist, Muslim, and Christian youth to participate in activities that promoted religious reconciliation. Other events included the Religious Relations Caravan (a relief project for the poor in January 2009), the celebrations for World Visakha Bucha Day (held during May 2009 in Bangkok and Nakhon, and involving approximately 2,000 participants), and Mobile Religions, Arts, and Cultures Program to the Southern Border Provinces (a series of events featuring religious exhibitions and seminars—the first event in May 2008 in Natahiwat and the second in June 2009 in Pattani). In addition, the Police Crime Suppression Division in Bangkok conducted an interfaith seminar on crime prevention in January 2009. Members of the Buddhist, Muslim, and Christian religious communities in Bangkok participated. Lastly, a group of “peace ambassadors” comprised of representatives of the Buddhist, Muslim, and Christian communities met with the 4th Army Chief, Pichet Wisaijorn, at the Sufficiency Economy Learning Center in Pattani in May 2009 for a peace conference. The RAD has a religious interfaith subcommittee that is comprised of approximately 30 representatives from all religious groups in the country and RAD officials, and convenes at least every two months. The RAD also produces a weekly television program, Thailand: Land of Good People, as well as CDs/DVDs and the periodic newsletter, Religion Direct.71
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Numerous faith-inspired organizations from the three major regional faiths are active in Thailand, working on a host of issues: children and youth, human trafficking, education, HIV/AIDS, health, and gender issues. These organizations include a wide range of both national and international actors. Large international Christian organizations present on the ground include: Adventists Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), World Vision, Jesuit Refugee Service, and Caritas International. The Jesuit Refugee Service is active working with Burmese refugees at the Burma (Myanmar) border, as well as with labor migrants that work in Bangkok in often dangerous conditions. ADRA is working on a range of programming areas with current projects focusing on migrant worker rights, minority rights and development, HIV/ AIDS education, and a refugee vocational training program. One project focuses specifically on girls in Chiang Rai province, providing education, shelter for at-risk youth, and awareness campaigns on trafficking and sexual exploitation. Thai Christian organizations are active on a broad spectrum of activities with numerous organizations focusing on at-risk youth and operating orphanages. Huen Nam Jai Home of the Chang Kham Church in Bangkok, as an example, provides shelter and education to street children at risk of drug use, prostitution, and AIDS. The Im Jai House in Chaing Mai, an orphanage, provides education, food, shelter, and spiritual teaching to the children in the city. The Human Development Foundation—Mercy Centre in Bangkok is shelter for street kids, orphanage, kindergarten for 500 children, hospice, and home for mothers and children with HIV/ AIDS, originally built on a former Buddhist temple site, established over 30 years ago. The center’s director, Father Joseph Maier, has been working in the country for over 30 years and received the Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand for his service. Buddhist organizations are largely motivated by the teachings of socially engaged Buddhism and are active in the areas of environment, health, education, gender equality, and social justice, among others. There are numerous examples of faith-inspired organizations, movements, and individuals working for social justice
across the country, including the Sangha Metta Project (HIV/AIDS prevention and care—funded by UNICEF and UNAIDS), Thailand’s Health Promotion Temple Project (initiated by Public Health Ministry for Physical and Mental well-being), Thai Bhikkhunis (promotion of women in Buddhism and ordination), and the We Love Nan Province Foundation (founded by Phrakhru Pitak—an environmental conservation NGO). Several Muslim organizations work on development and peacebuilding related issues, particularly in the south. Notable examples include the Asian Muslim Action Network (Muslim and interfaith network at grassroots and policy level working on poverty reduction, environmental protection, human rights, social justice, interfaith and inter-cultural dialogue, and communal harmony and peace) and Kamphuan Women’s Group (Sustainable livelihoods for women). Development work by organizations linked to other faiths include Jewish organizations (American Jewish World Service Thailand, and Thai Jewish Community under the leadership of Rabbi Yosef C. Kantor), and the Baha’i (Baha’i Foundation of Thailand).
G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y
Vietnam is at a unique and critical juncture on development issues, a communist regime rapidly opening up to the global economy. Against a long history of confrontation with several foreign powers, today it actively courts international investment. Vietnam is one of the fastest growing economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth of 7.2 percent prior to the recent worldwide economic recession, (the government expects growth to rebound to 6.5 percent in 2010). Through wide ranging development initiatives with a myriad partners, Vietnamese and international, Vietnam has lifted approximately 35 million above the poverty line. Vietnam’s poverty rate fell from 58 percent in 1993 to 14 percent in 2008. Vietnam aims to reach middle-income status (defined by the World Bank as countries with a per capita income above US$1,000) in the near future. Even so, Vietnam still has significant pockets of poverty, especially among its ethnic minorities, who live primarily in
mountain regions The next few years will be crucial in Vietnam’s development trajectory. Vietnam’s population is quite diverse. Approximately 86 percent of Vietnamese belong to the Kinh (Viet) majority ethnic group, and there are seven minority ethnic groups that constitute at least one percent of the population each, and four percent of the population belong to smaller ethnic groups. Official census figures indicate, in terms of religion, that approximately nine percent of Vietnamese identify as Buddhist, seven percent as Catholic, 1.5 percent as Hoa Hao, one percent as Cao Dai, 0.5 percent as Protestant, 0.1 percent as Muslim, and 81 percent claim no religious affiliation at all. A key unifying spiritual and cultural element for nearly all Vietnamese is ancestor veneration.
public), and the estimates of the number of Catholics in Vietnam range from 5 million to 8 million, giving it the second largest Catholic population in Southeast Asia after the Philippines. Hoa Hao and Cao Dai are nationalistic Buddhistderived religious sects and were among the first groups to instigate armed revolt against the French and then the Japanese colonial presence. The government officially recognizes them both, but many of their followers reject affiliation with government committees that oversee their respective religious affairs, causing some conflict with the government. Hoa Hao was founded in 1939 by Buddhist reformer Huynh Phu So, whom its adherents regard as a prophet. Cao Dai is more syncretic than Hoa Hao, with its collection of saints including Jesus Christ, Confucius, Muhammad, Julius Caesar, Joan of Arc, Pericles, Sun Yat-sen, and Victor Hugo. Protestantism represents only a small percentage of the population, but it is the fastest-growing religious denomination in Vietnam, having grown as much as 600 percent in the last decade. There are two main state-sanctioned Protestant bodies: the Evangelical Church of Vietnam North (ECVN) and the Southern Evangelical Church of Vietnam (SECV).72 Many small Christian groups are not registered with either. These include Christian members of ethnic minorities in the central highlands, known collectively as Montagnards, who meet in house churches. In 2007, Hanoi officially recognized Mennonite and Baptist denominations, and it recognized the Presbyterian Church in Vietnam (PCVN) in 2008. Islam in Vietnam is mostly associated with the Cham ethnic minority, although about a third of Muslims in the country are of other ethnicities, and 15–20 percent of Cham people are Hindu. Islam has become somewhat syncretic in nature with many Vietnamese Muslims practicing Bani Islam, which uses a 20-page version of the Qur’an.
Religion in Vietnam
Historically, Mahayana Buddhism is the largest religion of Vietnam since it arrived in Vietnam’s Red River Delta from China in the second century A.D. Theravada Buddhism from India also came to the southern Mekong Delta between the third and sixth centuries (and mostly remains in those regions). Over time, Mahayana Buddhist rituals have become, to varying degrees, intertwined with indigenous animism and Confucian and Taoist philosophies. The communist regime established in the North in the 1950s repressed Buddhist activity, while the clergy had a great deal of independence in the South, even though the Ngo Dinh Diem administration increasingly discriminated against Buddhism in favor of Catholicism. After Vietnam was consolidated in 1975, following the Vietnam War, the government attempted to co-opt and control the clergy in the South through the Patriotic Buddhist Liaison Committee. As a consequence of coercive government policies, Buddhist practice was substantially reduced. Today, the government still exerts significant influence though the state-sponsored Buddhist Church of Vietnam (BCV), the only officially recognized Buddhist entity in the country. French, Spanish and Portuguese missionaries brought Catholicism to Vietnam in the early 17th century, and the French colonial government promoted its spread to “balance” Buddhism. Today Catholics enjoy some specific freedoms (such as the ability to conduct mass in
Development Work in Vietnam
Registered faith-inspired humanitarian NGOs are governed by the same guidelines as secular organizations doing such work, and there are few legal obstacles in conducting development work in the country. NonVietnamese faith-inspired organizations registered with
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the government see good progress, reporting a trend towards liberalization as development and international engagement increases.73 International Organizations In Vietnam, international NGOs tend to occupy the roles and fulfill the functions of development and poverty reduction that domestic NGOs do in other countries in Southeast Asia, sometimes operating through local NGOs. International NGOs are particularly active at the commune level (the administrative level below that of “district”), often working with mass organizations (which are mainly funded by the Communist Party). As of 2004, at least 50 of the 450 international NGOs registered with the Vietnamese Government’s People’s Aid Coordinating Committee (PACCOM) were faith-inspired organizations, although organizational affiliation or lack thereof is often ambiguous. In general, larger faith-inspired organizations are more likely to register with PACCOM than smaller entities. Among these larger organizations, World Vision is very active in Vietnam. It introduced Area Development Programs (ADPs) in 1997 as one of their principal foci of work in the country. ADPs involve a participatory and long-term view toward community development and integrate into their operations poverty reduction, attention to administrative structures, gender issues, and environmental considerations, among other elements. In 2008, Caritas, seizing upon recent changes in government disposition toward faith-inspired NGOs, resumed working in Vietnam after a 32-year hiatus with development programs focused on the most marginalized segments of Vietnamese society. Oxfam Hong Kong has worked at the commune level (but also with other levels of government) on issues related to landmines, as well as construction of a water supply system as part of a “Peace Village Project.” The Peace Village is a de-mined area that provides housing and other infrastructure for 100 families that have a member affected by “left-over” landmines. Japan International Volunteer Center has created “Community Development Committees” in rural areas of Vietnam to, among other activities, promote agriculture and forest conservation that supports the livelihood of community members, is environmentally sustainable, and is oriented toward promoting local owner48
ship. Islamic Relief, through the Disasters Emergency Committee (United Kingdom), was involved in emergency relief for Vietnam following the devastation of Typhoon Ketsana in September 2009. Smaller international Buddhist and Christian groups (sometimes including overseas Vietnamese) that work informally with Vietnamese nationals often arouse less government suspicion and scrutiny than larger Western NGOS and are thus able to operate relatively easily. One such organization is the Committee for the Relief of Poor Children in Vietnam (CRPCV), a U.S.-based Buddhist NGO founded by a Vietnamese expatriate, working on issues of food, shelter, education, and the effects of natural disasters as they pertain to disadvantaged and orphaned Vietnamese children. Vietnamese Organizations Since the mid-1990s, there has been a substantial increase in Vietnamese NGOs that are relatively independent from the state compared to those that came about because of the Doi Moi reforms of the late 1980s. There has been a recent surge of growth among all types of civil society organizations (including CBOs and cooperatives), so that by 2005 there were approximately 140,000 CBOs, 3,000 cooperatives, 1,000 local NGOs, and 200 charities recognized by the Vietnamese government. At the grassroots level, the profusion of community-based organizations (CBOs), mostly consisting of issue-specific groups not sponsored by the government (such as water-user organizations, farmers’ collectives, and credit groups), has been spurred by involvement of international NGOs and foreign donors. Faith-inspired organizations in Vietnam are active among these organizations on a wide range of development work. Among the officially sanctioned organizations, the Buddhist Church of Vietnam is engaged in anti-drug and child welfare programs, and the Hoa Hao organization asserts that it is involved in various charitable activities and local development projects. Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Man, the Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City, has proposed that the Catholic Church in Vietnam provide “educational training” to help the Vietnamese people (particularly those in large cities) to address social issues of concern to the Church, including unrestrained consumerism, prostitution, drug addiction, HIV/AIDS, among others. Vietnamese
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a technical school. while the Khmou and Hmong make up 11 percent and 8 percent respectively. as a residence for monks. Theravada Buddhism was brought to Laos in the eighth century by Mon Buddhist monks. The wat (Buddhist temple) is an important center of village life. and location for village meetings. This is partly because of a shift in law and policy-making away from a solely topdown process. Buddhist nuns were recently invited by the Catholic Church to learn about the Church’s social programs.Catholics and Buddhists have participated in interfaith dialogues. the PDR government attempted both to influence and capitalize on Buddhism for specific political goals: highlighting the stated compatibility between Marxism and Buddhism at conferences. while other organizations have made some advancements with issue-based advocacy. In terms of ethnicity. The Lao majority comprises 55 percent of the population. only reached 55 percent for males and 20 percent for females. Today. for example. encounters. Villages celebrate several major religious festivals throughout the year. the practice of Buddhism waned. and at least one nun is pursuing the experience with related studies at Ho Chi Minh City Open University. and also work together on social development issues. and Buddhism was the state religion of the Kingdom of Laos. Laos is a very diverse country. there was a marked resurgence of Buddhist religious activity. Buddhism continues to be important in Laos. The reforms have allowed NGOs greater access to lobby the government regarding development issues including HIV/AIDS. and a shelter for 120 disabled children. which resulted in an average of 6 percent annual growth from 1988 to 2008. and the 23rd highest worldwide. Hue Tri. been increased government overtures at foreign investment. a Buddhist nun. the World Bank argues that it is feasible that Laos could graduate from the UN Development Program’s list of least-developed countries by the target year 2020. especially at the village level in the lowlands. The Pathet Lao communist movement that overthrew the Kingdom of Laos gained the support of some of the sangha (Buddhist clergy). and many Laotian kings were patrons of Buddhism. It is also one of the least developed countries in East Asia. including 49 2010 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS Laos Socio-Economic Background The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is one of the few remaining one-party Communist states in the world. For instance. in Mongolia the Vietnamese Salesian mission runs a kindergarten. excluding the Asian financial crisis years in the late 1990s. About 31 percent of its population lives below the poverty line. with economic reform and political liberalization. As an example. The government began decentralizing control over the economy and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. Even earlier. Some local Vietnamese NGOs have been able to contribute to government policy-making processes. In the years immediately following the revolution. The minority ethnic groups lag behind the national average for many development indicators covering health. the remaining quarter of the population consists of over 100 minority ethnic groups. mandating a prominent political component to the curriculum at Buddhist schools. Religion in Laos 67 percent of Laotians identify as Buddhist. the government in place prior to the communist revolution in 1975. works with a Catholic social worker operating a “compassion house” that addresses the needs and problems of street children. education. There have also | . and allowing party members to participate in Buddhist ceremonies and be ordained as monks. but in the late 1980s. Vietnamese Salesians (members of an international Roman Catholic charitable religious order) are engaged in social development work in other Asian countries. Though literacy rates for the country as a whole increased from 48 percent to 79 percent during the years 1980–2001. and economic status. which was important to their mobilization of popular support at the village level. soup kitchens. two farms. It has the highest infant mortality rate in Asia apart from Afghanistan. to one that mandates impact assessments of new laws and the consultation of public opinion regarding the laws. Nearly 80 percent of the labor force works in subsistence agriculture. place for prayer sessions. the literacy rate for the Mon—Khmer ethnic group. Elsewhere in Ho Chi Minh City. There are some signs of economic development hope in the country. and educational exchanges in recent years to increase mutual understanding.
health. Examples of active American and European organizations include Action with Lao Children. transportation. and animist traditions are explicitly observed at most Buddhist wats in combination with Buddhist practices. the servants of Khun Borom.” which included a conference for government officials to meet with leaders from Lao civil society. the Lao PDR government has taken up a purge of animism. Theravada Buddhism. Government repression continues to fall disproportionately on ethnic minority groups striving for greater autonomy. known as phi. In recent years. the country’s ethnic minorities largely do not display this integration of belief. alleging that government forces have used violence to compel Christians to “prove” that they have given up their beliefs. social security. It is often difficult to disentangle political dissent from religious persecution and government antagonism. and death of the Buddha. Agir pour les Femmes en Situation Précaire (Action for Women in Precarious Situations). has faced persecution by the government (although evidently less in recent years than immediately following the 1975 revolution). and actively engage faith-inspired organizations. all men are expected to spend time as monks or novices before marriage (and possibly in their later years). ostensibly because animism is not “compatible” with the communist party ideology. the mythical founder of the Lao race. The Lamet minority’s animist beliefs involve every village having a spirit practitioner (called a xemia) who is responsible for making sacrifices to village spirits. Japan International Cooperation Agency supports projects related to education. Many foreign. this ability is evidenced by one surviving a 50 grave or protracted illness. According to the animist beliefs of the Hmong. there is clearly a great deal of diversity within animist belief and practice among Laotian ethnic minority groups. Aide et Action. the highland ethnic minority groups) and Lao Theung (the mid-slope minorities) are animists. natural resources and energy. the Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Organizations and Voluntary Action Network India hosted a capacity-building conference for civil society organizations in Vietnam. In 2007. because of the fusion between animism and Buddhism. and urban/ regional development. there is an active international presence with organizations doing a wide range of work. phi are omnipresent within living and non-living entities. did not become widespread until the late 13th or early 14th century. persecution of animist practices has increased tensions between the government and the Lao Buddhist sangha. as well as regional Asian government and civil society representatives. are venerated as the guardian spirits (devata luang) of the city. among others. In Laotian animism. Traditionally in Laos. but who also largely belong to animist and Christian sects. about 1. Politics. Although the syncretism between animism and Buddhism is deep and pervasive throughout much of Laos. there is a class of shamans above that of “ordinary” spirit practitioners that is able to directly contact spirits (neeb). At Wat Aham in the city of Luang Prabang. the celebration of the birth.5 percent of the population. secular NGOs in Laos work specifically on issues affecting women and children in poverty. governance. and Development Though there are many challenges associated with development work in Laos. and Cambodia. From these examples. private sector development. which brings distinction to these individuals’ parents. In 2008. The worship of animist spirits. Animist shrines can be found throughout the country. Laos. is the oldest religious practice in Laos. taking various forms throughout the country. exhibiting various religious practices that have in common a cult of ancestors. The small Christian minority in Laos. water resources. according to reports received by the UN and Western media. which seeks to bestow good luck upon an individual as they take a significant step in their life. to discuss requisites for and obstacles to effective collaboration. BERKLEY CENTER | . and Aide Odontologique Internationale (International Dental Aid). Most of the Lao Soung (collectively. enlightenment. G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y NGOs. derives from the worship of animist guardian spirits called khuan. and gives them an important standing in the village. the second oldest. The Lao Buddhist baci ceremony. the UNDP and Lao PDR sponsored the “Government-Civil Society Organisations Partnership for Poverty Reduction. agricultural and rural development.the beginning and end of Buddhist lent and Vixakha Bouxa. However.
a Japanese Buddhist NGO. and by 2004 it had constructed 102 buildings (Mukhopadyaya). rounding the groundbreaking ceremony of a nursing school and the Mother and Child Hospital. met directly with Laotian Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh in January 2010 sur- Burma (Myanmar) The Country in Context Burma. PSI works with the Lao Buddhist Organization at traditional festivals and concerts to promote the Buddhist message of virtue. providing systems for clean water and sanitation. emphasizing abstinence and safe sex. where monks provide a venue (the village wat) and promotion for PSI’s video presentation on HIV/AIDS prevention. nuns. Recent events have focused international attention on Burma (Myanmar) and the repressive policies of the mili- 51 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . So far. Burmese culture reflects diversity of both people and geography with an estimated 135 different ethnic groups officially recognized by the government and many others unrecognized. The nation has a rich Buddhist history. At the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) People’s Forum/ASEAN Civil Society Conference. The latter sponsors initiatives such as the CWS Village Clean Water Program. which operates in rural areas. The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) aims to help Laos meet the UN Millennium Development Goals and increase food security by working with communities in the model of sustainable development. with the government having only approved in April 2009 a decree to allow non-profit organizations to form and operate. While religion is clearly a major part of Burmese identity and society. The Buddhist Aid Center (BAC). Handa Haruhisa. Faith-Inspired Development Work Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and Church World Service (CWS) are both active in Laos. and because the decree only became operational in November 2009. In recent years. has made building schools in Laos its main activity since 1993. Organizations linked to engaged Buddhism have implemented social and aid projects in Laos. Future development will likely depend on the degree to which Laos’ one-party system chooses to afford civil society a voice on governance and development issues. founded in 1980 by the Soto Zen sect of Japanese Buddhism. an ethnic minority health project. Laos’ foray into the area of civil society development is quite recent.Despite the significant amount of work being done. there has been close collaboration between Buddhist organizations and other entities working on HIV/AIDS issues. officially known as the Union of Myanmar since the military government changed its name in 1989. Champassak Province Buddhist Association worked with PSI in 2001 to develop a documentary on HIV/AIDS prevention from a Buddhist perspective. The Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA). with organization president Mr. PSI works with monks at the village level. The Sangha Metta Project. education. the government has recognized few organizations under this decree. World Wide Support for Development. engages in development. Laos was one of five countries to reject its democratically selected civil society representative who was to participate in the conference. Also from Japan. ADRA also operates health programs (including a youth HIV/ AIDS education project. the role that religion plays in development is severely cramped by the nation’s authoritarian regime. and Burma (Myanmar’s) international links are constrained. and advocating for a tobacco control law) and supports the Community Initiative for Primary Education Development (CIED). is geographically the largest country in Southeast Asia. and cultural activities in Laos and other countries in Southeast Asia. has worked in Laos to train and equip monks. a Thai Buddhist organization. contemporary Burmese Buddhism shows influences both of international Buddhism and Burmese indigenous beliefs. Several organizations have worked in partnership with Population Services International (PSI) to promote HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention throughout the country. it remains to be seen how easy or difficult it will be for organizations to register. It has also launched “Metta Tham.” a collaborative project between the Lao Sangha and the Department of Religion of the government’s Lao Front for National Construction. and novices to work with communities to prevent AIDS and assist those living with the illness. Laos still faces many obstacles to sustainable peace and development.
life expectancy 61. however. number more than 400. highlighted tensions and frustration with the ruling junta. tion programs. The poor education system perpetuates poverty. Despite substantial natural resources. Ethnically. recipient of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize and elected Prime Minister in 1990 elections. Lack of opportunity (especially for young people) in a country where the military controls even social mobility was a significant impetus for the protests.76 The military government largely controls social and economic opportunity. The military government oppresses certain groups. officially excluded from holding public office in Burma’s [Myanmar’s] Constitution). Indian (2 percent). Aung San Suu Kyi. national faith-inspired organizations played a critical role in providing assistance. has been under house arrest for 14 of the past 20 years. Rakhine (4 percent). it is actively supported by the government. The ethnic diversity has posed challenges to national integration.tary junta that has ruled the country since 1962. resulting in unpaid forced labor campaigns. killing protestors and civilians as it feared losing its grip on power. falling from 3. As the debacle surrounding Cyclone Nargis showed. aggravate economic hardship. and remains so despite increasing international pressure to allow her party to participate in the elections scheduled for 2010 (she is. The United States has maintained economic sanctions against Burma since 2003 that.77 The black market is a large source of economic activity. During the disaster. killed tens of thousands.74 The Saffron Revolution of 2007. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Socio-Economic Background Burma’s (Myanmar’s) population of approximately 42 million is about 28 percent urban.000. Teacher pay is very poor and investment insufficient. government restrictions make international assistance extraordinarily challenging and thus limited. and displaced hundreds of thousands more. scorchedearth policies that destroy farmland. These conditions have contributed to social unrest. and though Buddhism is not an official national religion. poverty is a central fact of Burmese life today. The government responded violently. including novices. Non-state actors involved in social development in Burma (Myanmar) face a wide array of challenges. and forced reloca52 Religion in Burma (Myanmar) A multi-country analysis that gauges governments’ religious regulation.1 percent in 2008. Economic growth has decreased significantly since 2006. only behind Saudi Arabia and the Maldives (see Figure 2). igniting a tradition of political protest that stretches back to the time of British colonial rule. especially in rural areas. UNICEF reports a 50 percent dropout rate before completion. offering few alternatives. There was widespread international criticism of the brutality. and the private sector is very small. the country is diverse. and other (5 percent). and favoritism ranks Burma (Myanmar) as the third most restrictive country in the world. including severe government restrictions.79 74 percent of the population is Therevada Buddhist. most recently manifesting itself in the nationwide anti-government protests of September 2007. Economic mismanagement and corruption have prevented the majority of Burma’s population from benefiting from the country’s vast oil and gas deposits. Chinese (3 percent). filling the gap left by the absence of the government and international community. Though there is officially 90 percent enrollment in primary school.4 percent and to 1. persecution. 68 percent Burmans with other significant ethnic minorities being the Karen (7 percent). Buddhist monks. estimated to be at least as large as the formal economy.78 Burma’s (Myanmar’s) low rank on the global Human Development Index (138 in 2009. when tens of thousands of monks took to the street in non-violent protest against government oppression. The hierarchy of the Buddhist . Government controls and economic policies perpetuate poverty. Almost 33 percent of the population falls below the poverty line. along with a poor investment climate and the global economic crisis. religious persecution. Burma was also shaken by the catastrophic 2008 Cyclone Nargis that destroyed countless towns and villages. Mon (2 percent).2 years and PPP GDP per capita US$904) sums up the tragedy of its poverty and missed opportunities. and lack of social opportunity. Many deaths could have been prevented if the government had responded immediately to offers of international help.75 Years of oppression have given rise to insurgencies which cause even greater human suffering and loss of life.
Government crackdowns are common. and a modern zoo. their extensive network and presence helped many who were most in need. many with local roots.Figure 2 Religious Freedom Indicators 8.3 7. Christian. noting that at the village level the traditional social welfare support systems.000 Rohingya refugees in the country. well manicured gardens. and the United Nations. high is more persecution Source: The Association of Religion Data Archives sangha is quite tightly controlled by the government. including animism. Faith-inspired organizations were involved in all stages of response. The new capital of Naypyidaw has consistent electricity.80 There are significant religious minorities.000 have fled to Bangladesh. faith-inspired organizations. and consequently do not have citizenship per se and do not receive state services. Community based monks. faces particular hardship and discrimination against Muslims is widespread. poor education. Cyclone Nargis highlighted the effectiveness of many faith-inspired actors as first-responders to a humanitarian emergency. and over 250. low is less favoritism SRI: Social Regulation of religion Index. Religious organizations are tightly monitored and their activities restricted. and Hindu (two percent). low is less regulation Religious Persecution. The majority of Muslims identify themselves as members of the Rohingya ethnic group. 0–10. The Christian population has members from all ethnic groups. where teachers are poorly paid. but the Karen are the largest group.9 10 GRI: Government Regulation of religion Index. and Hindu) all played a role. The Post-Nargis Recovery and Preparation Plan prepared by the government. Muslim. especially visible after the pro-democracy monk protests of 2008. to coordination and planning. from initial humanitarian relief. 0–10. have been crucial in filling the gap. Faith in Burma (Myanmar) cannot be fully understood without taking into account indigenous beliefs. which comprises four percent of Burma’s (Myanmar’s) population.81 Role of Faith-Inspired Actors Burmese social services and infrastructure are poorly developed.83 53 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . lack of opportunity. Given the obstacles that international organizations face to work in Burma (Myanmar). The Rohingya are not officially recognized by the military junta. Muslim (four percent). and mosques work both independently and in collaboration with international organizations. ASEAN. churches. while the rest of the country lives with intermittent electricity. Burma became independent in 1948. including Christian (seven percent).6 9. which astrologists believed was an auspicious time. Non-governmental organizations work to compensate for the many gaps and public sector failings. to program implementation. astrology. As a result.82 The government operates a failed educational system. 0–10. The religious diversity is closely linked to Burma’s ethnic diversity. and limited social freedoms. and engage in all aspect of social development and humanitarian relief. including faith-based structures (Buddhist. The Muslim population. persecution of minority ethnic groups by the military government has often coincided with religious persecution. 0–10. low is less regulation GFI: Government Favoritism of religion Index. as was the case with relocation of the capital from Yangoon to Naypyidaw. specifically points to the importance of community-driven recovery. There are over 300. with most minority religions concentrated within minority ethnic groups. and spirits that are intertwined with Burmese culture and faith.
54 . are the center of religious and social life and in practice often act relatively independently despite the many restrictions imposed on the city based Buddhist sangha. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief ) works with Buddhist monasteries. do operate. as do many socially engaged Buddhist temples and monks. Kids Alive International. including one project where the monastery produced a soap opera that was viewed by over a thousand people at an important Buddhist festival. especially in rural areas.BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y The government does not allow missionaries to operate. both international and national. International faithinspired organizations include: the Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC). PEPFAR (U. Christian aid organizations. and World Vision. Temples.S. however. Save the Children.
55 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 .
particularly those from the wealthier countries in Asia. construction of schools and hospitals. JICA is especially active in Southeast Asia and engages with faith-inspired organizations throughout the region.85 Economically. The country sections summarize information on the country context where faith-inspired organizations are based. including the Asian Development Bank. making it one of the largest donors globally. restoration and preservation of historical and cultural sites. economically and politically. approximately 60 percent of Japanese foreign aid goes to Asia. and Burma (Myanmar).Part 4 Transnational Dimensions T Japan Japanese Foreign Assistance Since the end of World War II. and common faith beliefs transcend national boundaries. and faith-inspired organizations. From 2002 to 2006 Japan led the region in both Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). NGOs. World Bank and the United Nations. during the Cambodian refugee crisis of the 1970s and 1980s. Shanti Volunteer Association. established in 1974. representing an increase of over 8 percent from 2007. Japan’s net ODA in FY2008 was US$9. The government utilizes various mechanisms to distribute foreign aid. The organizations listed are the most active and well-known. Japan is the largest trading partner for ASEAN countries. drawing faith-inspired organizations to contribute to a range of work throughout the region. In 2000. as well as smaller. 2009 pledging US$5. Japan is also one of the world’s largest donors to international multilateral organizations. with emphasis on country-focused and regional programs. Japan has involved a broad spectrum of organizations and institutions. an early example being collaboration with a Buddhist organization. followed by the United States and the European Union. As in the country case studies in section 3. economic and political interests. Japan allocates significant resources to development. but also from the United States and Europe. is one of the most active and largest government development agencies in the world. Japan initiated the US$360 million Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction at the Asian Development Bank and the Japan Social Development 57 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS he following sections examine the role of transnational faith-inspired organizations in Southeast Asia. and human development. including government and international organizations. Japan is actively engaged in regional programs for the development of the Mekong river basin. Japan has emphasized Asia as a pillar of its diplomatic policy. lesser known organizations that have made particular contributions at the regional level. Vietnam.87 Overall. with Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama on November 6. and the countries and sectors in which organizations work.5 billion in aid over the next three years. and views its relationship with the region as an important strategic partnership.4 billion.88 | 2010 . Laos. including infrastructure development. providing assistance to over 100 countries. and historical circumstances all influence present day relationships. the factors that facilitate regional roles.84 Japan and Southeast Asia have especially strong interdependent ties. Aid is given in a wide variety of sectors. the number of organizations working in the region is vast. To that end. Japan began direct dialogue with ASEAN countries in 1978. The Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). 86 In Cambodia. The Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) was created in 1961 to extend low-interest long-term funds to developing countries. Religious and cultural ties.
” In addition to social development activities. illness. Tuberculosis. Seikyo Shimbun. notably Buddhism. A woman called Samith decided that the wells in her community needed to be cleaned. I made the Eighth Route Army of China [renowned for its selfless service to the people] one of my models. but an individual taking it upon herself to make her community a better place. This. the Japan Trust Fund for HIV/AIDS. 1981. yet religion in the country has developed a character that is uniquely Japanese. —Anecdote from interview with Joan Anderson. Box 10 Soka Gakkai Soka Gakkai has its roots in Nichiren Buddhism and is a lay organization founded in the 1930s by teachers wanting to reform the Japanese education system. and Hong Kong. without anyone paying her. Additional prominent international Japanese development initiatives include the United Nations Human Security Fund (UNTFHS) (directed towards key thematic areas including health. In 2008. One story from Soka Gakkai in Cambodia illustrates how one individual worked to improve her community. issue summarizes well the work and approach of the organization: The Gakkai’s greatest achievement lies in unleashing the power of the people. Malaysia.06 billion to the United Nations. including a contribution of US$1. Confucianism. the loss of a spouse. [After the Second World War. but she began out of a personal drive to contribute to her community. largely due to a rise in contributions to international financial institutions. But helping people become self-reliant is precisely what the Soka Gakkai has done. . they do not provide material support. and Malaria. agriculture and G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y small scale infrastructure development). and in revitalizing their lives. International Planned Parenthood Federation. Three of the most active and organized offices are located in Singapore. Eventually others joined in. of those at the very lowest strata of society. Japan saw an increase in overall ODA. in Soka Gakkai’s daily newspaper. Determined to help them in any way I could. ensuring a country specific focus. But it was no good. I went to villages and offered assistance and undertook various volunteer activities. There are now over 12 million members worldwide in 192 countries following the Nichiren Buddhist teachings for “empowerment and inner transformation or ‘human revolution’ which enables individuals to take responsibility for their lives and contribute to building a world where people of diverse cultures and faiths can live in peace. its worldwide offices are independently operated and funded. Religion Religion in Japan historically has been influenced by the major religions of Asia. education. and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. . and so on. Social development programming is for the most part independently organized.] there were so many people suffering emotional or economic distress as a result of physical disabilities. Every week from then on Samith took it upon herself to clean the wells. Soka Gakkai’s programs are unique in that as a general rule. It was not part of any formal program. You can’t foster genuine independence in people merely through charitable deeds or donations of money. Soka Gakkai is an active advocate internationally in the campaign to eliminate nuclear weapons. in the May 3.” Though Soka Gakkai began in Japan. . both created with the mission to provide direct assistance to the world’s poorest and most vulnerable. and Taoism. actually. BERKLEY CENTER | 58 .Fund at the World Bank. is something that I have also devoted great energy to. Office of Public Information—Tokyo Office The quotation by Japanese author and critic Mimpei Sugiura. and without anyone asking or expecting any praise.
which is indigenous to Japan. and World Vision Japan . Japan has the most complex NGO framework in Asia.Buddhism and Shinto are Japan’s two major religions. were religious or faith-based entities. or kami. Buddhism was first introduced to Japan in the 6th century. and this has allowed it to exist peacefully with Buddhism for centuries. and today Japanese Buddhism is quite varied. Rissho Kose-kai. which lends special difficulty to quantitative efforts to estimate Japan’s religious adherents. Shinto is a belief system in which spirits. there were 237.89 Many Japanese consider themselves both Shinto and Buddhist. and educating and nurturing believers. education. Buddhism has coexisted for centuries with Shinto. Nichiren Buddhism is one strand that.92 Some of the largest and most active faith-inspired organizations include Soka Gakkai International. has inspired social and development work both in Japan and abroad. International Shinto Foundation. Terra Net. in particular. or the administration of organizations engaging in these activities can be established without approval by the government. Though comparatively Korea does not have a large presence on the international scene in terms of monetary amount. it is an influential actor in Southeast Asia.5 percent. (the Religious Corporation Law. both throughout Asia and around the world. arts. or 77. with both religions influencing each other to a degree. welfare. all have been very successful in exporting their beliefs and practices around the world. community development. culture.90 Virtually every Japanese Buddhist organization engages in some sort of international relief or social development activity. Article 4 (1951) for entities whose purpose is evangelizing.894. Ayus Buddhist International Cooperation Network. Japan has a specific law dealing with Religious Corporations. Soka Gakkai reports a presence in 190 countries and is also highly involved in social development work throughout Asia (see Box 10) Japanese religion and beliefs have influenced attitudes towards charity and social development. Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA). Association for Renge-in Tanjoji International Cooperation (ARTIC). after one of the most rapid post-war industrialization and development periods Asia has seen. Rissho Kosei-kai. wherein societal harmony is held as the highest value. NGO refers specifically to groups engaged in international cooperation activities. but a smaller number of Christian and Shinto inspired organizations are involved in development work abroad. Shingon Risshu Volunteer Association. Korea modeled its foreign aid program after Japan. of which 183. Buddhism is seen to serve as a moral compass for social development work. disaster relief. The large majority of the organizations stem from Japan’s numerous Buddhist sects. Japan has witnessed the birth of a variety of “new religions” (shinshukyo) stemming from both Buddhist and Shinto beliefs.93 Korea is the most rapidly Christianizing (Protestant) country in the world. The largest three new religions are Soka Gakkai. The Arigatou Foundation. Korea South Korea launched its official development assistance (KOICA) program in 1991. and Tenrikyo. Relief Assist Comfort Kindness (RACK). The Christian community in Faith-Inspired Organizations and Development in Japan and Abroad Many faith-inspired organizations in Japan are engaged in social development work. using both Korean supplies and technical materials. The 1991 “Approved Community-Based Organization Law” and the 1998 “Special Nonprofit 59 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . shyuukyou houjin.91 In the Japanese context. In 2006. will positively intervene in one’s life. as well as the most comprehensive body of NGO classification. The foreign aid program also has a substantial training component. if treated properly. Tendai Shu’s Light Up Your Corner Movement. but the constitution mandated separation of church and state after World War II. Activities Legal Persons Law” state that nonprofit entities whose activities include promotion of health. conducting religious rites.167 registered non-profit person entities in Japan. with a large component devised to develop Korean industry. Buddhist Aid Center (BAC). World Mate. sports. international cooperation. Many consider Shinto more about ritual than a religion. Korea relies heavily on Personal Voluntary Organizations and NGOs as a component of its aid strategy. Shinto was the state religion of Japan from 1871 to 1947. The Buddhist NGO Network of Japan.
94 The recent kidnapping of 23 missionaries in Afghanistan has elicited some discussion in Korea about the sensitivities of sending missionaries abroad. Yoido Full Gospel Church sends missionaries throughout the world.337 are in Southeast Asia. and Loving Concern International. nearly 12. though all agreed that they are an important voice to call to the table. Other faith-inspired organizations include Compassion South Korea. Many missionaries travel abroad under the guise of development workers. and it was reported that the church had 634 missionaries worldwide in 2007. directly affecting government policy on child protection. the number was still increasing.000 Protestant Christians. Cambodia. Faith-inspired organizations in Southeast Asia have voiced some concerns about the ramifications Korean missionaries can have for faith-inspired development work. As of 2008.000 to Asia. including Laos. A range of faith-inspired development organizations are active working both in Korea and abroad. and emergency management.413 missionaries to 168 countries. Caritas.96 Box 11 Korean Missionaries One of the most prolific. including the indigenous Buddhist beliefs and the government’s sensitivities to proselytization. The general coordination challenges that characterize much faith-inspired work seem to apply particularly to Korean groups. and youth development. The 1960 government census recorded 600. Indonesia. intercultural relations. Won Buddhist Youth Association. given a reluctance to engage in networking and coordination work. as well as abroad. supporting 155 development and relief projects in 43 developing countries. and HIV/AIDS. including Japanese-Korean relations. the largest Christian church in Korea. Included in these numbers is the Yoido Full Gospel Church (Assemblies of God). the number had grown to nearly nine million Protestants and five and a half million Catholics as of 2007.000. Over the past half decade. focusing on a range of issues both in Korea and in cooperation with other faithinspired organizations. Between 2000 and 2006. BERKLEY CENTER | 60 . particularly to conflict zones. Another leader reported that negative perceptions of insensitive missionary work have spillover effects for all Christian organizations doing aid work. After the United States. established in 1950. after the United States (see Box 11). Efforts for engagement and interfaith dialogue with Korean missionaries have proved difficult. under the leadership of David Yonggi Cho. from 8. the number of missionaries abroad doubled. Soka Gakkai International has an active Korea branch. works in South Korea reaching out to low-income families in urban areas. Habitat for Humanity Korea. representing various faiths. World Vision Korea G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y is particularly active on government advocacy towards child rights. one Catholic leader suggested that Korean Christian missionaries sometimes lack sensitivity to the local context. The event highlighted concerns about missionaries and the impact they have abroad. Good People World Family. as well as the world’s largest congregation. and the Philippines.000 to over 16. Korean missionary groups are a significant presence across the Southeast Asian faith and development landscape. primary health care. Also in 2007. education. In Cambodia. and at times controversial faces of Korea in Southeast Asia is the explosion of Christian missionaries throughout the region. Korea sends the largest amount of Christian missionaries abroad. The Korean World Mission Association reports 58 denominations and 217 mission organizations sending 19. World Vision Korea. poverty. Vietnam. influential. Korea has experienced one of the world’s largest growth rates of the Christian Church. Despite the tensions.95 The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) works both in Korea and in Southeast Asia on food security.Korea sends more missionaries abroad than any other country in the world. especially when a missionary group links their charity to their belief in Jesus Christ. The World Fellowship of Buddhist Youth. Thailand. economic development. Korean missionaries gained international attention when 23 missionaries from the Saemmul Church were abducted in Afghanistan while proselytizing. both Christian and non-Christian. regardless of their denomination or practice. of which 5.
Both World Vision (through local partner Korea National Economic Cooperation Agency and its South Korea office) and ADRA (with an office in North Korea) have active relief and development programs. and agriculture. 33 centers for the mentally handicapped. About 35 percent of the population is Buddhist and 33 percent Taoist.103 | 2010 A number of organizations. for contributions to public service. A large number of faith-inspired organizations work both in Taiwan and overseas.Taiwan Taiwan holds a unique position in Asia. 12 elementary schools. having established 352 kindergartens. and laying a foundation of trust and understanding for the future opening of the country. The DPRK government maintains strict control over NGO activities in the country. and social harmony. the Korean government established an ASEAN center in Seoul to increase engagement with regional leaders. In 1995. Religious organizations play a particularly important role in delivering healthcare where the state cannot. Among these institutions. encourage their adherents to engage in social services. including strong commitment to religious freedom. Some Taiwanese organizations play important roles in development in other Southeast Asian countries. it is one of East Asia’s “Economic Tigers. In 2009. including WHO. and 107 monasteries and seminaries. . health. as well as responding to natural disasters. 14 universities.99 As martial law of the 1940s to the early 1980s slowly transitioned into a more liberal system of governance. as an example. but Taiwanese culture is deeply influenced by Buddhist and Confucian values. the Taiwanese government held a ceremony honoring more than 200 religious groups from all major religions represented in Taiwan. The largest religious organizations emerged during this time not in opposition to the government. though their roles are in some places circumscribed by political factors. Many organizations. Tzu Chi operates a medical university.101 As of March 2005. the state-financed medical institutions cannot always reach the most destitute citizens who live in remote regions. ADRA opened a western style café in Pyongyang. 14 handicapped institutions. Caritas works on advocacy for poverty reduction as a key component of political and diplomatic efforts. the largest with memberships in the millions. WFP. 25 retirement homes. many faith-inspired organizations work through government partners and a range of United Nations organizations. 12 orphanages. but with some degree of government cooperation that allowed them to grow and flourish over the decades.102 Recognizing the close relationship between faith-inspired organizations and the Taiwanese government.” and an economic powerhouse. Its tenuous relationship with China presents particular difficulties. Faith-inspired groups are also active in education. civil society organizations and religious organizations flourished. and UNICEF. An industrialized and developed nation.98 Some argue that political cooperation with the government is an important value for the Confucian social ethic.100 As Taiwan’s economy began to grow in the 1960s. Much of the population also follows 61 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS The Korean government is giving increasing priority to its role in Southeast Asia with larger investment in the region. religious organizations expanded their religious mandates to include provision of social services. addressing both the humanitarian needs of the North Korean people and refugees. and the organization has been in the country since 1999 working in five provinces. with many people considering themselves adherents in some degree to both (2006 government statistics). in October 2008. although the government instituted a National Health Insurance system providing basic services to 95 percent of the population. as well as implementing programs focusing on food aid.”97 There is officially a separation of Church and State. in addition to Southeast Asia. and clinics around the country. among others. Faith-inspired organizations have played critical roles in supporting the government’s democratization. Korean faith inspired actors are present in almost all countries in Southeast Asia. as well as 147 libraries and 59 publishing houses issuing 774 publications. have a particular focus on North Korea. seen as important to create a harmonious society. hospitals. social welfare. religious groups were operating 32 hospitals. health. and 39 nurseries in the country. Given the challenges. and education endeavors. 6 colleges. 3 rehabilitation centers. beliefs and rituals considered “traditional Chinese folk religions. 41 high schools. Taiwan has maintained high development indicators. In 2005. but despite its political predicament. 43 clinics.
Its international relief work now reaches out to victims of violent conflict. including many countries in Southeast Asia. Tzu Chi attracts many women.106 Box 12 Tzu Chi The Tzu Chi Foundation. among which World Vision has been in the country since 1950. belonging to 26 registered religions and religious groups. founder or Tzu-Chi. environmental protection. She believes that in tackling the world’s problems. floods. Master Cheng Yen believes that a root cause of many of the world’s problems is a “lack of love for others. raising the majority of its funds through small personal donations. Fo Guang Shan. Tzu-Chi operates in 51 countries around the world. and Chung Tai Shan.104 compared to only 17 in 1988.G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y As of September 2008. often received on a daily basis. earthquakes.” exemplifying the philosophy behind the Buddhist organization’s work. is one of the largest philanthropic organizations in the world. The Ministry of Information in 2006 reported that roughly 18. 1526 religious organizations were registered with the government (750 at the national level and 776 at the local level). who many of her followers believe to be an incarnation of the bohisattva Guanyin. Tzu Chi began its international work in 1991. As a central tenet of its work. Master Cheng Yen. and other natural disasters. and rain boots. They provided goods and services including hot meals. drought. and relies strongly on volunteer work. following the charismatic character of Master Cheng Yen. and equality. and that these groups are actively engaged in many sectors in society. combining Buddhist and Confucian spiritual ethics with modern efficient management. introducing modern medicine. heavy machinery. Tzu Chi is a spiritual as well as charitable organization. compassion. said “we should all unite together and cherish and respect our land with the spirit of Great Love. a prominent Taiwanesebased Buddhist organization. In commenting on the work of her organization. and reinterpreting relief and volunteer work as a core spiritual practice of Mahayana Buddhism. alongside the traditional spiritual healing of Buddhist temples. a factor in its longevity and success. a bone-marrow bank. Tzu Chi encourages disaster victims to help those around them and thus also help themselves to become more independent and involved in rebuilding their own communities. Its activities focus on four areas: international disaster relief. “we must begin by transforming the human heart. It began as an organization of 30 housewives who donated a portion of their grocery money to help others in the community. aiding typhoon victims in Bangladesh. Tzu-Chi volunteers provided emergency aid following flooding in the Philippines and an earthquake in Indonesia. the organization was founded in 1966 by Dharma Master Cheng Yen at Pu Ming Temple on the east coast of Taiwan. The organization has made important contributions to health. Tzu Chi remains non-political. focusing on the virtue of compassion. translating Buddhist teachings into everyday practice for Tzu Chi’s members. There are a smaller number of Christian organizations. BERKLEY CENTER | 62 . daily smaller donations encourage compassion on a daily basis. Taiwanese faith-inspired organizations are active abroad as well as in Taiwan. temporary jobs for victims. Dharma Drum Mountain.72 million people in Taiwan are members of one or more religious groups. creating a world of kindness. Awarded the 2008 Niwano Peace Prize for its peace and relief work around the world. joy. and community volunteer work. The organization has since expanded to over 75 countries with over 500 staff members giving material aid to those in need and inspiring the Buddhist concept of compassion in both the givers and receivers of its aid. both laywomen and nuns. In October 2009.” Her goal is to serve all of humanity.105 The majority of Taiwan’s faith-inspired organizations are Buddhist or Taoist.” Master Cheng Yen uses traditional Buddhist teachings to inspire her aid and relief work. The largest and most active Buddhist organizations today working in Taiwan and abroad are Tzu-Chi.
Malaysia has made purposeful. and tradition with economic development as well as to “inculcate sound spiritual. but many of the quota policies continue. and three percent Confucius. The Seventh Malaysia Plan (1995–2000). housing projects. In 1971. Islam plays a prominent role in cotemporary Malaysian culture. also carrying over to areas including the civil service. and economic activity. education. then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad acknowledged that rapid economic growth in Malaysia had brought prosperity but also accompanying social problems. along with continued emphasis on private sector growth and ethnic balance. however. Proselytizing by non-Muslim groups. Religion and ethnicity are tightly linked in Malaysia. nine percent Christian. religion. All ethnic Malays are by law Muslim and are not permitted to convert out of Islam. In the Foreword to the Seventh Plan. address socioeconomic problems and decrease income disparity. A series of five-year economic development plans have aimed to guide development. customs. though in 2009. Ethnicity. politics. and Development Islam. which historically aimed to promote greater balance (largely political and economic) among the country’s ethnic groups. Despite challenges. including Sharia courts for cases involving Malaysian Muslims. Other ethno-religious political parties include the Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress and the PanMalaysian Islamic Party. six percent Hindu. The plan highlighted the need to incorporate moral and ethical values based on religion. Nominally the plan has expired. Taoist and other traditional Chinese religions. The United Malays National Organization (UNMO). and ethical values in order for Malaysia to become fully developed. The growth of the Islamic bureaucracy and recruitment of Islam studies-trained graduates into the civil service may be a contributing factor to this trend. moral. and some observers argue.” 2010 marks the final year of the Ninth Malaysia Plan.Malaysia An Overview Malaysia has been one of Southeast Asia’s top performing economies over the past two decades. Ethno-religious tensions have become more visible in recent years. tensions among both ethnic and religious groups have mounted. Recently. and it is a middle income country. Church burnings in early 2010 were a reaction to a December of 2009 court ruling that allowed the Catholic weekly publication Herald to use the word “Allah” for God. with about 60 percent of the population legally defined as Muslim. and ethnicity are explicitly addressed in Malaysia’s development planning. and promote development through international cooperation. particularly in Muslim majority areas. the New Economic Policy aimed to eradicate poverty for all Malaysians by increasing the Malay share of the national economy. notably an unequal distribution of wealth. Malaysia’s policies have favored ethnic Malay in an effort to rebalance inequalities. Prime Minister Najib Tun 63 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . ethnic divisions remain distinct. efforts to rebalance inherited ethnic inequalities. Malaysia’s quite secular traditions are coming under pressure today with several political groups pressing for larger and more formal roles for Islam. reflects on and further acknowledges the growing influence of Muslim moral and ethical values. Malaysia’s largest political party.107 Approximately 19 percent of the population identifies themselves as Buddhist. increase knowledge-based capacity by improving the school system. and ethnic communities have tended to be quite inwardly focused in terms of politics. has significant political sway. for which it has earned admiration in Southeast Asia and beyond. This and other religiously linked tensions are the topic of active dissent in Malaysia. The Constitution (Article 11) assures that “every person has the right to profess and practice his religion” and (Article 3) that “Islam is the religion of the Federation“. Malaysia ranks 66 of 182 countries in UNDP’s 2009 Human Development Report. Malaysia’s influence in the region is substantial and growing. has been slowly integrating Islamic law into the country over the past few years. and society. and these tensions also have repercussions across Southeast Asia. Islam. is strongly controlled by the government. it has enjoyed relative political stability. while trying to maintain harmony and tolerance among its multi-ethnic and religious society. which broadly sought to elevate high-tech industry development. and higher education.
though data is partial and not readily accessible. The government funded the bank at its outset. thereby qualifying an organization for government grants and other benefits. with both regional and international organizations. The Central Bank of Malaysia reports that 17 licensed Malaysian Islamic banks and four international Islamic banks operate in the country. based on the principles of Sharia. Since the formation of Bank Islam Malaysia numerous other banks have begun to offer interest-free transactions. which implements relief programming in Southeast Asia and around the world and has been active in Indonesia since 2000. 64 . Malaysia is a regional leader on education and is actively positioning itself as an education hub for international students. Many come from the Muslim world. Some of the micro-lending institutions that are active throughout Muslim Southeast Asia. Indonesia and Bangladesh. In 1962. adhere to several principals including prohibition of riba or usury (removing the payment or acceptance of interests on loans). but now owns only 13 percent of the Bank. The government Registrar of Societies has authority for registering religious organizations. allows Muslims to save without being involved in an interestbased system.Razak announced the abolition of the 30 percent Malay requirement for corporate equity for some service sectors. and the role of Islam in education has been and remains a subject for political as well as educational debate. Many Muslim development NGOs have ventured into microfinance following Islamic banking standards. Malaysia’s developed economy and infrastructure facilitate its role as a regional hub for many NGOs. Many faith-inspired organizations are active in supporting development and humanitarian/disaster relief at home and abroad. Prime Minister Najib observed that Islamic finance accounted for 19 percent of Malaysia’s banking assets. and human brotherhood. Islam is the only religious instruction provided in public schools. All banks in Malaysia that are Islamic or follow Islamic banking practices are required to display the Perbankan Islam logo (left). socio-economic justice. a move which many non-Muslims view as discriminatory. while some report a tendency to favor Musliminspired organizations. Religious Organizations.108 All Malaysians are still required to list their religion on their identity cards. Political opposition parties offered cautious support for constitutional reform and an end to the positive discrimination policies. providing disaster relief G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Box 13 | BERKLEY CENTER The Hajj Fund and Islamic Banking in Malaysia Malaysia has emerged as an international center on Islamic Finance. though non-Muslims are not required to study Islam. operate with Islamic principles in mind. which is listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. The Hajj Fund. including the Southeast Asia region. notably Malaysia. Built on the principles of Sharia. NGOs. both in Malaysia and abroad.109 Malaysia’s educational systems still show the influence of a Muslim bearing. and the Government Malaysia’s NGO sector is diverse. Islamic banking is based on a commitment to spiritual values. Malaysia established the “Tabung Haj” or “Hajj Fund” for Muslims to save money to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. “Ethical investing” and “moral purchasing” are encouraged. In 2009. Banks that follow Sharia are prohibited from investing in anything considered haram and forbidden under Islamic law from partaking in a business operation that may deal with anything haram. Islamic faith-inspired organizations active on humanitarian relief and development include Islamic Relief Malaysia. The Islamic banking system was born out of this fund. the Bank Islam of Malaysia operates with no interest-based transactions. Islamic banking.
as is heavy investment in education and aggressive campaigns to stop corruption. and 1.” involving both Malaysian and Asian faith-inspired organizations.5 percent belong to other ethnicities. including Christian. 9 percent are Protestant Christian.111 vides assistance to orphans and other disadvantaged young people in Vietnam. Malaysia is home to numerous interfaith initiatives. By religion. The Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM) frequently takes vocal stances in support of Muslim causes around the world. 14 percent are Malay. ABIM launched Misi Keamanan Sejagat (Global Peace Mission) to provide humanitarian aid. both national and international. notably Albanian Muslims in Bosnia and Palestinians. Singapore is home to many universities.112 The organization Mercy Relief brings together Singaporean youth from different faith communities to work on humanitarian charity projects in the region. which pro- 65 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . This success is partly attributable to an economic strategy adopted in the 1960s that was probusiness. and the United Nations Population Fund interfaith forum “Strengthening Partnerships with Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) in Addressing ICPD. the Adventist Development and Relief Organization (Christian). 2001 attacks. and export-driven. 4 percent are Hindu. 1 percent follows other faiths. Some other examples of non-Muslim organizations in Malaysia (some with regional mandates) include the Tzu Chi Foundation (Buddhist). including recent joint efforts with the Singapore Hindu Endowments Board to raise money for earthquake victims in China and Myanmar. World Singapore Singapore has the 8th highest per-capita GDP in the world. 5 percent are Catholic. collaborates with nonMuslim religious organizations. IRCCs are informal entities intended to promote knowledge and understanding among religious and ethnic groups and also to keep track of grievances and signs of conflict at the community level (information which the national government also utilizes). particularly in Southeast Asia. combined with investments in strategic state-owned corporations that were directed toward the government. Jamiyah Singapore. including the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Buddhist and secular organizations have joined the cause. Several faith-inspired organizations in Singapore are involved in socio-economic development and relief work in Southeast Asia. The Canadian think tank International Development Research Centre (IDRC). The Baha’i Center. and 15 percent claim no religious affiliation. including interfaith efforts. The government mandated “interracial and religious confidence circles” (IRCCs) in the wake of the September 11. Given Malaysia’s pluralistic ethnic and religious character. As a leader in development in the region. which among its activities works on governance issues. and the Institute for Southeast Asian Studies. several regional secular organizations have their headquarters in Singapore. Singapore’s Think Centre which works on strengthening civil society within the country and partners with organizations. Approximately 77 percent of Singaporeans are Chinese. addressing both disaster relief and longer term development issues. In 2001. and reports that none of its population lives below the poverty line. 64 other NGOs. Singapore plays an important regional role.110 World Vision Malaysia (Christian) operates in Malaysia with the specific mandate to raise funds and awareness for communities overseas. whose research addresses a wide variety of region specific issues. approximately 42 percent are Buddhist. 8 percent are Indian. the world’s lowest infant mortality rate. a Muslim missionary and humanitarian organization. Singapore’s government has actively sought to foster understanding among Singapore’s diverse ethnic and faith groups. The Baha’i community office of interfaith activities addresses significant work with youth. which has their Southeast Asian/ East Asian headquarters in Singapore. and the Salvation Army (Christian). despite some challenges of government restrictions. 15 percent are Muslim. Its achievement in promoting social harmony in its diverse population is another factor in Singapore’s success. education and health care to displaced Afghans. 9 percent are Taoist. including those related to faith.and post-disaster rehabilitation assistance. pro-foreign investment. including through a partnership with Soka Gakkai. including the Gentle Fund Organization. an example being the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy in the National University of Singapore. Examples include the Malaysia Interfaith Network.
Australian faith-inspired organizations are actively engaged in relief and development work across Southeast Asia on topics including corruption. 2009. health. training courses. forecast to provide US$3. are increasingly active in Australia. and Australia has supported interreligious dialogue in Indonesia and elsewhere over many years. Sisters of Mercy. Assemblies of God in Australia World Relief. health. and immigrant communities. Australian Relief and Mercy Services (ARMS). Feed The Hungry Australia. The Baha’i community works both in Australia and abroad as well with a particular focus on indigenous rights in Australia. World Vision Australia works with youth on education. Australia is a quite secular country. This stance was one reason why the World Parliament of Religions met in Melbourne in December. The largest faith-inspired development organization active in Southeast Asia. Caritas Australia. collaborating with local organizations on project implementation. Australia Australia is active in all Southeast Asian countries in many domains. Christian Child Fund. education. with around 50 percent of all overseas giving. Climate change in particular has attracted recent much attention. HOME. is World Vision Australia. and leisure-time activities. as well as engaging in interfaith work on disaster relief and conflict resolution.115 Jesuit Refugee Service works with refugees and asylum seekers in Australia and the Southeast Asia region. has partnered with faith-inspired organizations at home and abroad. child protection. and emergency management.Vision’s Singapore office works both in Singapore and throughout Southeast Asia. Baptist World Aid Australia. humanitarian relief. Faith-inspired NGOs have focused on migrant worker rights. YWCA Australia. with respect to reach and budget. education.8 billion of total official development assistance (ODA) in 2009–2010. as well as on advocacy and capacity building within the Church and with civil society on displacement in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. This is giving rise to a progressively more energetic set of organizations and influences. the Australian government and civil society have focused quite sharply on religion and particularly on interfaith dialogue and action. particularly through the Catholic Church. The Adventist Development and Relief Agency Australia (ADRA) works across the Mekong region and the Pacific on a broad spectrum of relief activities. and diplomacy. TEAR Australia. civil society strengthening. children and youth.114 Apart from World Vision. 70 percent of which was for faith-inspired organizations. However. including food security. and the environment and BERKLEY CENTER | 66 . Muslim Aid. In 2009.6 Billion. With religious tensions mounting in the region. good governance. As a proportion of total Australian development assistance. Of this figure. Other Christian faith-inspired organizations include. Most of these organizations are attached to local churches that provide pastoral services. human trafficking. specifically as a likely cause of migration from Southeast Asia countries to Australia.113 G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y climate change. the top 10 NGOs in Australia raised $0. Christian Blind Mission. supports programming both in Australia and aboard. and governance. the percentage of development funds going to or through faith-inspired organizations is relatively small. a secular NGO. but its religious communities tend to have strong ties to neighboring countries. A significant number of Muslim organizations are involved in development work in Southeast Asia countries. World Vision has been influential in advocacy work with the government for involving civil society in social development work. Australia is an influential actor in regional development policy. and Palms Australia.82 billion is to go to the Asia Pacific region. including economics. Habitat for Humanity (Australia). US$2. health. especially from Indonesia. with significant development interests and activities throughout Southeast Asia. there are numerous other Christian organizations involved in international development work. economic development. education. Within Australia as well. one of the largest. Australia is one of the largest aid donors in the Pacific Rim. as well as continuing support for international development through the most recent world economic crisis. It is in this context that Australian faith-inspired organizations are active participants in development discussions and action across the region. notably the Scalabrini Sisters in the Philippines.
Indonesia. are entitled to federally collected church taxes and have the right to run state-subsidized religious social services and hospitals. has a small office for “faith-based and community initiatives. to local churches.118 The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has a 5 year. Greece. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This offers an example of a program which has worked purposefully to engage faith communities.117 The United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia. as well as Judaism (though not Islam—the third largest faith in the country). Taiwan. The share and form that this takes varies according to the statutes and traditions of each country in relation to religion. USAID financing of faith-based organizations abroad doubled. US$48 billion budget to combat global HIV/ Europe Religious leaders and faith-inspired organizations engage actively in social dialogue and development.United States and Europe The private roles of faith-inspired organizations from the United States and Europe across Southeast Asia are varied and. and New Zealand. and mosques engaged in community level relief and development. In France. the Netherlands. and Singapore. including Australia. Japan. and short and long-term missions. their work includes fund-raising. of which many are faith-inspired. Between 2001 and 2005. In 2006. trafficking of people. Denmark. both domestically and internationally. US foundations and private organizations actively work with faith-inspired organizations. notably the 2004 tsunami. and increase coordination with the key donors in the region.122 International aid in the European Union is channeled through two primary institutions: ECHO (European Community Humanitarian Aid Office) and the European Commissions’ External Co-operation 67 2010 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | . with USAID funding. both within Europe and abroad. The US government quite actively involves faith-inspired organizations in its development strategy. as an example. Faithinspired organizations within the European Union receive subsidies both at the EU level and by national governments. conflict resolution. working in Burma (Myanmar) and Indonesia on disaster relief assistance. and it aims to emphasize regional responses as opposed to bilateral.8 billion in U. Myanmar. education. Areas of focus include human rights. and Italy all subsidize faith-inspired organizations. Of particular note is their dynamic and significant presence during major humanitarian emergencies. 25 percent of students attend publically funded Catholic schools. a significant contributor to development policy dialogue and programs in the region. tuberculosis. members of InterAction. overseas development assistance and $6 billion in private funds. Austria. United States The large and diverse United States faith-inspired development community is active in most all Southeast Asian countries. The actors range from large international organizations such as World Vision and Catholic Relief Service.S. Of the European Union’s (EU) 27 member-states. Germany. collection of material donations. including in Southeast Asia. The United Methodist Committee on Relief is presently engaged in Southeast Asia as well with USAID support. The Berkley Center reviews that focused on the United States and on Europe address the range and scope of faith-inspired work in those regions in far greater depth. The Asia Foundation is an example of a foundation that works closely with faithinspired organizations and the government. Norway. and environmental protection.119 Cambodia. including religious schools and social and health services.-based international NGOs.121 and Sweden legally separated church and state in 2000.” which engages organizations working worldwide. including Southeast Asia. USAID’s total request for funds for the East Asia/Pacific region for fiscal year 2009 was approximately US$544 million. The US government gives particular focus in its Asia Pacific strategy to regional cooperation. In Germany. and Thailand are among PEPFAR’s target countries. Thailand. the largest coalition of U. 34 percent of PEPFAR funds went to faith-inspired organizations.S. and malaria. temples. managed $2. health. In 2007. the Protestant and Roman Catholic churches.120 Apart from government funding. Fin land. Indonesia. France. This section briefly highlights some major institutions and trends as they apply in Southeast Asia.116 AIDS. at times. five have state religions. and Sweden are constitutionally secular states but provide direct or indirect subsidies for institutions associated with recognized faiths. works with Christian colleges and universities in the Philippines.
or mosques). temples. is one of the largest Muslim-inspired aid organizations in the world. has many programs in Southeast Asia. Newly admitted countries to the EU are also creating international development agencies. Sweden. The largest European country donors include France. Caritas Internationalis. with a regional office located in Bangkok. Caritas Internationalis was one of the first responders to Cyclone Nargis in Burma (Myanmar). On a country level. including many United Nations institutions that cooperate to a degree with faith. Progressio (UK). including a large program in Indonesia. Islamic Relief. Netherlands. most EU countries have some form of institutionalized foreign aid mechanism. Many European based faith-inspired NGOs work in Southeast Asia. WFP. and Italy. working through local partners and Catholic networks to reach difficult to access locations. UNESCO. and World Vision Germany. headquartered in the Vatican.inspired organizations (WHO. Christian Aid (UK). BERKLEY CENTER | 68 . Many international organizations headquartered in Europe work in Southeast Asia. one of the largest and most active Catholic Charities in world. Muslim Aid (UK). and is active in multiple countries in Asia. Catholic Agency For Overseas Development (CAFOD) (UK).G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y Programs office (EuropeAid). headquartered in the United Kingdom. or decentralized through state registered organizations (ex. Tearfund UK. and FAO are examples). churches. Germany. whether at the national level. United Kingdom. Other large European faith-inspired organizations include Cordaid (Netherlands).
69 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 .
http://siteresources. Luningning. Christopher. Candland.” which unseated dictator Ferdinand Marcos. 2000. from prehistoric times to the present day. culminating in the ecological effects of recent economic and population growth. David. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Bertrand argues that recent ethnic and religious conflicts in Indonesia are the result of the constraints imposed by Suharto’s regime. China Everbest Printing Company. health. Religion and Development. ed. which left the country unprepared for political and social change. and that some organizations have become important agents for social change. it offers perspectives from practitioners of different faiths and their reflections on the Church. Chapter 8 includes a discussion of Philippine land reform. Commissioned by the International Development Research Center.org/8914. 2004. The World Bank. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Chapter 8. as well as touching on the complex interplay between religion and the environment in the region.” Singapore: National University of Singapore. plans. initiatives and priority areas developed by ASEAN to address environmental issues that affect Southeast Asia.aseansec.org/INTARD/Resources/Ag_Land_ Redistribution. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Azizan. Of particular importance for this report is the discussion on the role of the Catholic Church in the pro-peasant movement encouraging rural farmers to claim rights to their land. Asian Institution of Management. Boomgard. Baharuddin. Makati City. Sharon M. this book offers analyses on how different religions intersect with development and humanitarian work.” in The Lab.” February 2004. “Rediscovering the Resources of Religion. http://www. and the connectedness of religion and development. go beyond a Muslim’s individual obligation to aid the poor through zakat. 2005. Chua’s paper describes how arts. Harper. Washington: The World Bank. Bertrand. the authors argue. 2009.P. ASEAN Cooperation on Environment. Consequently. New York: Zed Books. Coming from the perspective that development organizations have been overlooking the role and influence of religion on peoples’ lives. and women’s organizations (aided in part by a high level of internet connectivity) within Singaporean civil society are advancing change and to some degree contesting the status quo-conserving People’s Action Party government. green. Philippines. 2009. Hinduism. Bello and his co-authors attempt to explain the problems with poverty and underdevelopment that the Philippines has faced since the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) “revolution. A History of Cambodia. and Nurjanah Siti. 2008. 2007. The Temple and the Market: Reflections at the Intersection of Science. Beng Huat. 71 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . This book discusses the correlation of population growth in the Philippines with issues of food security. “Presented at Conference—Preliminary Asian Cultural Forum—Connecting Networks. religious. and the challenges and emerging issues surrounding land reform. It is of particular interest for gleaning insight into the role of religion confronting the environment today in light of a modernizing society. The Ties that Bind: Population and Development in the Philippines. and economic growth. Southeast Asia: An Environmental History. Jakarta: ASEAN. http://www. 2nd ed.pdf.htm. the definition of the Indonesian nation and what it means to be Indonesian has come under scrutiny.edu/Polisci/Candland/KBIndonesia. housing. Peter.” and its weakness in disciplining private sector activity. Chua. Singapore: A report on civil society organizations and activities. Bello. et al. The Anti-Development State: The Political Economy of Permanent Crisis in the Philippines. Walden. and how that has affected society. ed. A useful reference for examining regional cooperation around the environment in Southeast Asia. “Women’s Empowerment through Islamic Organizations: The Role of the Indonesia’s Nahdlatul Ulama in Transforming the Government’s Birth Control Programme into a Family Welfare Programme.Appendix 1 Annotated Bibliography Achacoso-Sevilla. Jacques. The essay contains information about Nahdlatul Ulama’s family planning campaign as well as the varied role of women and women’s organizations across the country.pdf. as a main factor in the economic-political problems that have mired the country since then. They specifically blame the “EDSA system. Ottawa: Kumarian International Development Research Center. the World Bank. It raises interesting debate vis-à-vis the Catholic’s Church stance on contraception and birth control. wellesley.worldbank. Agricultural Land Redistribution: Toward Greater Consensus. 2005. development. Boomgard’s book gives a thorough environmental history of Southeast Asia. Chiang Mai Thailand: Silkworm Books. It also outlines the governance structure of ASEAN as it pertains to implementing or addressing the above. Chandler. 2004. Policy Center. The author examines religious and ethnic conflict within the complex Indonesian context. The social welfare of Muslim organizations. The authors argue that religion and personal faith can make positive contributions to development. and government resources. This section gives a general overview of programs. basic education.
“The Ordination of a Tree: The Buddhist Ecology Movement in Thailand. 2006. 2006. 2000. Cima. Civil Society. Tun-jen and Deborah A. It notes that while the Bush Administration and the Christian Right have criticized Vietnam for violations of religious freedom. and trying to tease out the complexities of faith and its relationship to social dynamics. and Michael Jennings. Brown.” University of Pittsburgh. Religious Organizations and Democratization: Case Studies from Asia.pdf. Epley. eds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. The report also cites government responses describing any conflict in Christian ethnic minority areas as “local” issues that are not based on religion because Laos “has a law guaranteeing religious freedom.” Studies on Asia. “Girls’ and Women’s Education in Indonesia. This background paper discusses the legal status of foreign religious organizations in Vietnam and how they are able to operate because of and despite of that status. the Prince. taking a comparative look. Friend.” Nguoi-viet. ministry denies charges. ed.ffrd. This book contains discussions of the intersection of faith. The paper provides a general framework to analyze the intersection of economics.newamericamedia. vol. no. native Vietnamese religious groups). Farkas. 37. Narrative Sculpture and Literary Traditions in South and Southeast Asia (Studies in Asian Art and Archaeology). Jami. ed. Washington: Southeast Asia Studies Program. This report recounts assertions by Lao exiles in France describing expulsions by Laotian government forces of Lao ethnic minority Christians who refuse to renounce their faith. “Christians allegedly persecuted in Laos. Angkor (Cambodia). Susan M. Theodore.html?article_id=7735 6f5298a3c964965a3e969fddc801. 1 (Fall 2004). Java (Indonesia). no. have given NGOs in Vietnam greater ability to influence government activity with regard to their sectoral concerns. The essays in this book deal with different topics related to religion and society in the Philippines and Indonesia.Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. This text gives attention to those in Karnataka (India). 1998): pp. This book includes a case study on Taiwan and the role of Buddhist organizations throughout Taiwanese history and their relationships with different systems of government.. com. 6 Dec 2008.David Chandler provides an in-depth analysis of Cambodian history. and politics with regards to development issues in Indonesia. As recounted in this article. This volume includes a discussion of Buddhism and Catholicism in Vietnam (and a short section about some of the smaller. New York: M. eds.org/refworld/ docid/469dc7b4c. changes in government policy making in Vietnam. both lack partitions between church and state. not only in South Asia.newamericamedia.us/vietnam/. The author displays that Buddhist organizations have been an important actor in social service provision in Taiwan. Addresses the role of organizations in bolstering social services where government was lacking and their relationships with authoritarian governments and democratic ones. carry the images of India’s great narratives.E. 2008. Armonk. development. Cheng. It discusses theoretical aspects. A study of how ancient India’s incredibly rich literary heritage has been visually represented. “The Growing NGO Lobby in Vietnam. He pays special attention to the implications of recent history on present day Cambodia. with information about their family planning campaign. http://www. http://www.org/fileadmin/user_upload/appeal/ gender/indonesia. 1.pdf. A particularly interesting argument on the evolving relations between religion and the state in light of modernization and development. provides interpretations. and Marijke Klokke. more nuanced view of the state of religion in present-day Vietnam. which mandate impact assessments for and the consultation of public opinion regarding new laws.unhcr. Ethnology. An account of how monks in Thailand have used tree ordination for environmental protection. 21 March 2007. and Faith-Based Organizations. “Development Issues and the Role of Religious Organizations in Indonesia. as well as an analysis of Cambodia in face of the changes presented to society by globalization. 2004. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. as well as Chapter 6 focusing on the role of the Catholic Bishop’s Conference of the Philippines’ involvement in electoral politics and promoting citizen engagement after the Marcos regime.unescobkk.” It raises the often close relationship between ethnic and religious conflicts. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y 72 .” UNESCO Bangkok Office http://www. Development. Sharpe. 1 (Winter. Report in News. Useful in examining the continued influence of Indian culture and Hinduism in Southeast Asia. 1987. and Tra Kieu (Vietnam). Jennifer.org. Fontein. and proposes interpretations through advanced comparative and contextual approaches.” Radio Free Asia. Case studies on Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama are included. http://countrystudies. and the period following the Vietnamese invasion in 1979. The authors find that while neither country promotes a state religion. Gerald. “Foreign Religious Organizations in Vietnam: Law and Practice. Numerous temples.” Fund for Reconciliation & Development. vol. Vietnam: A Country Study. Series II. Jan. http:// news. Religion and Religiosity in the Philippines and Indonesia. as well as about religion and development in Indonesia more generally. and civil society in broad terms.org/ Foreign%20Religious%20Organizations%20in%20Vietnam. with notable attention to the reign of Pol Pot. Boston: Koln Brill. 1–15. Inc. including the creation of governmentsanctioned churches to control religious practice in the country. in light of changing societal pressures in Thailand.org/news/view_article. but also in Southeast Asia. Darlington. the experience of some foreign religious organizations provides an alternative. religion. Clarke. Ronald J.html.
Of particular relevance for this report is the author’s account of how the king today remains a symbol of unity despite the political tensions that are boiling in the country. New York: UNODC. David L. and socio-cultural development of the Chinese in Malaysia. This report first gives an overview of the global situation of human trafficking.co. from human trafficking to Tibet to Darfur as areas around which religions are working together for a common cause. The Chinese In Malaysia (South-East Asian Social Science Monographs). and international levels. as well as some of the Catholic Church’s broader environmental activism.nz/stories/ WO0905/S00160. http://www. ramifications on relations between diverse Muslim communities. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. and religious actors. but cooperation on environmental work can contribute to constructive progress. brings to light the challenges and realties facing Islamic education in Southeast Asia.htm. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lee Kam. the author’s analysis of Islamic influence on education in Malaysia and Cambodia highlighted regional tensions around the content of Islamic education. contextualizing it within the development of the latter. limited access to scholarships. Paul M. Barbara. and environmental degradation. Making Modern Muslims: The Politics of Islamic Education in Southeast Asia. UNDP discusses a conference held in Vientiane. given its regional/ transnational character. capture. “The Globalization of Religious Advocacy in America. 2004. undp. Especially interesting is the discussion of how the king. and that their inclusion in policy discussions may contribute slowing the process of strengthening democratic institutions. 28 July 2006. Hefner. regional.An overview of the shortcomings in gender equality in the Indonesian school system. and Tan Chee Beng. 17 Oct 2007. Allen Hertzke examines the role of international religious networks in engaging international relation and social causes across borders. Robert Hefner. economic. Yale University Press. This press release describes some of the recent campaigns and operations against dissident Hmong ethnic and/or religious groups (mostly Buddhist and Christian) by the Lao People’s Army and government security forces. 2006. “Lao Government and civil society move closer to one another. harass. Allen. forcibly repatriate.e-ir. Chapter 6 is a case study of Buddhist ecological thought and action in Thailand. and NGOs. he argues. He cites specific examples.scoop. all have deeply rooted views on the environment. Chapter 5 of this book discusses the connections between ecology and Buddhism.” Center for Public Policy Analysis. His purpose in writing the book is to “shed light on the varieties and politics of Islamic education in modern Southeast Asia. This influential book analyzes the increasing trend of collaboration between affected groups on international issues of human rights. Robert. Allen. In the case of Southeast Asia. The author provides a provocative account of the king’s life. the government. 2000. Handley. Hawaii University Press. This volume serves as a reference on the Catholic Bishop’s Conference of the Philippine’s (CBCP) actions on deforestation. The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand’s Bhumibol Adulyadej. distance of schools. Web. 28 February 2010. Hing. The author finds that religious organizations. Laos in late August. Nong Khai and Washington: Center for Public Policy Analysis. the phenomenon that Hertzke describes is of particular importance for human trafficking. born in the United States and raised in Switzerland. political. New York: United Nations Development Programme Newsroom. http:// www. and the political ramifications at the national. This is a comprehensive study of one of the three major ethnic groups which make up the Malaysian society and nation. 2001. Freeing God’s Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights. non-state. and religious freedom in particular. In some cases. The author proposes strategies to increase girls’ access to education at all levels. which included as participants Lao govern- 73 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 .” E International Relations. Hertzke. has heightened international awareness and increased engagement by religious interest groups. Goldoftas. His analysis of involvement in human trafficking is of particular interest in the Southeast Asia context.org/go/newsroom/2007/october/lao-government-civilsociety-20071017. and then provides country profiles (categorized by region) for 155 UN member states regarding the status of human trafficking within each. He cites human trafficking and track-two diplomacy as two areas of increased involvement. The main challenges to girls in attending school. and the various actors that are involved in education in Indonesia.en. in this edited volume. 2007. the author states. Gosling. discussing the contributions that notable Thai Buddhist figures such as Buddhadasa Bhikku and Sulak Sivaraksa have made in this area. are: limited family income. came to hold the status of bodhisattva. social justice. including state. “Hmong Suffer Religious Persecution in SE Asia.” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2001. http://content. from a childhood in the West to ascending to the thrown in Thailand. In this press release.” United Nations Development Programme. Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge. the Thai government has helped these organs of the Laotian state track down. 7 May 2009. Includes statistics and data. The Green Tiger: The Costs of Ecological Decline in the Philippines. traditional role of women in society. Hertzke. or even kill Hmong who have fled into Thailand (including some Lao American citizens). New York: Oxford University Press. economic development. February 2009. exploring both religious and secular schools. 2009. “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons.info/?p=3318. ed. particularly post September 11. covering the historical. Globalization.” For the purpose of this report.
both in the definition.doc.adb. 2008. particularly from Japan. and Anders Uhlin. and economic realms.” http://www.” “Presented at 2009 Academic Conference on Humanistic Buddhism—Taiwan. notably Tzu Chi and their role in bridging the gap between civil society and government and the oftentimes fluid relationship between organizations and the government. The decree authorizes the Public Administration and Civil Service Authority to register and monitor these organizations. the author argues the point that Islam in Southeast Asia in not a monolithic voice.htm. The report highlights the impressive capacity of civil society organizations in the Philippines. education. as well as religious roles in adding an ethics. “Lao PDR Approves Decree for Non-Profit Associations.html. 1997. This book contains information about transnational organizations.” Essay written for UNESCO. the Vietnamese government still does not have diplomatic relations with the Holy See.th/~ppasuk/culturalgovernance.” manifesting itself differently in each country. the ICNL announces the promulgation by the Lao government of a decree regarding the regulation and operation of NGOs in Laos. as there is no standing law regulating their activity. 23 Jun 2005. though. as well as their promotion of social accountability. beginning to create a framework for future cooperation between government and civil society. including the high profile media coverage. The author provides multiple case studies. http://www. Gordon P.cuhk. A Christian lawyer’s global crusade. legal status. Westwood Press. Thailand. Political Islam in Southeast Asia. its historical progression in Southeast Asian societies. The authors specifically focus on how transnational civil society groups and their activities are related to democracy at the macro and micro levels.netserv. The author. Accessed 27 October 2009. There are. United States/ United Kingdom: Lynne Reinner Publishers.ment officials. Transnational Activism in Asia: Problems of Power and Democracy. “Cultural factors that shape governance in South-East Asia. “Progress and Struggle for Vietnam’s Catholics. “Transnational Networks of Dharma and Development: Engaged Buddhism in the Era of Globalization. For the purpose of this report. This article details the gains in freedom of worship (which are partly due to the Vietnamese government’s 2004 Ordinance on Religion) that some Catholics in Vietnam have enjoyed. http:// www. “Overview of NGOs and Civil Society: Philippines. In general. This book provides an in-depth analysis of Islam in Southeast Asia. as well as specific organizational involvement with the Asian development Bank.org/Documents/Reports/ Civil-Society-Briefs/PHI/CSB-PHI. the article notes. Pasuk. Madsen. but rather “a religion of many faces. In this press release. Nakashima. 2004. as well as in regional narrative. collaboration with local authorities.pdf. particularly compared to other faiths. This book examines how the transnational nature of religious movements leads to the formation of transnational civil society and a fading state sovereignty. their history. educational. or meaning.chula.pdf. The article reports on the Christian organization. This report provides an overview of the topography of NGOs and civil society in the Philippines. but the future of non-profits in the country remains unclear. Ranjana. Washington: International Center for Not-For-Profit Law. http:// pioneer.” looks at local origins of conflict and the potential of religious organizations to make peace as well as war. Indonesia. http://www.” The New Yorker. Nicola. to politics. Mukhopadhyaya. Transnational Religion and Fading States.icnl.com/ wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/22/AR2005062202182. in contrast to Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations.” Asian Development Bank. Piscatori. members of Lao civil society. and their activities to rescue victims of human trafficking. James.org/KnoWleDge/news/2009/05-21. A discussion of the four largest Taiwanese religious organizations. including religious organizations and their work in relief and development in Asia. and government and civil society representatives from several South Asian and Southeast Asian countries.hk/crs/cshb/conference/note/march09/Paper_Ranjana%20Mukhopadhyaya.edu. and the effects of each on the political. and the Philippines. May 1999.ac. Phongpaichit. International Justice Mission. The paper argues that globalization and increased communications technologies have facilitated cross-cultural networking and information exchange between Buddhist organizations worldwide. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y 74 . Susanne Hoeber. still challenges for Catholics. between liberal and moderate views and more fundamentalist or radical views. related to this. and some Catholic clergy continue to be persecuted and imprisoned for “unpatriotic” activities. He provides discussion on the recent divisions within Islam. Ellen. Samantha.” The Washington Post. including one of Shanti Volunteer organization and their work in the refugee camps along the Thai-Cambodia border. 2007. and the multiple controversies surrounding their work. and in practice. Through varied case studies from Malaysia. Richard.and its influence on politics. Power. this conference was aimed at helping the Lao government understand the potential role for Lao civil society in development and. “The Enforcer. the essay examines the cultural aspects that contribute to a population’s understanding of governance. staff and organizational capacity.” International Center for Not-For-Profit Law.washingtonpost. New York/London: Routledge. Democracy’s Dharma: religious renaissance and political development in Taiwan University of California Press. civil society and economics. 2009. its international network and linkages. The article brings to light the positive work the organization does. Piper. The author points to Thailand’s Buddhist heritage as being influential in informing a Thai understanding of governance. Provides an excellent overview of transnational Buddhist organizations in Asia. 19 January 2009. 21 May 2009. and Rudolph. Means.
Malaysia. more effective border security does not appear to be a key factor in stemming the practice. as opposed to interstate. and how improvements in infrastructures.C. Additionally. The situation of human trafficking seems to be worsening. and Thailand.org/en/news/2008/05/07/ vietnam-religious-freedom-denied. “Singapore’s Approach to Counterterrorism: From Social Resilience to Public Imagination. Wilson. In this article.” Singapore: IntSight. and Society in Laos.hrw. November 2009.” Radio Free Europe News—Prauge: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. The author cites this effort as a contributor to Singapore’s relative stability amid an array of lowintensity conflicts in Southeast Asia. Human Rights Watch discussed the restrictions on religious freedom and human rights that occurred even as Vietnam hosted the United Nations Day of Visak (the sacred Buddhist holiday). Sabharwal. Philippines. New York. For the purposes of this report. Asia on Tour: Exploring the rise in Asian Tourism. as much of the trafficking is intrastate. This paper discusses the government’s establishment of Inter-Racial and Religious Confidence Circles in Singapore as part of the government’s anti-terrorism strategy. and Thai women in the context of economic globalization. Tim. culture. Human Rights Watch calls on the Vietnamese government to release people imprisoned for peaceful religious or political activities and end restrictions on independent religious organizations who choose not to affiliate with the officially authorized religious organizations under the control of the government. Jul 2005. as well as government antagonism of animism. liberalized economies. http://www. and international treaties. The book focuses on the rise of tourism in Asia among Asians.html. http://www. Yuit. particularly at the village level. but that Islamic influence on economic development has been marginal.” Johannesburg: CIVICUS. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 75 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS | 2010 . 8 May 2008. and the legal framework in which these organizations operate. This article summarizes some of the findings of the 2009 UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. The authors of this paper discusses the changing context for civil society in Vietnam.” Journal of Islamic Studies 9:2 (1998): 259–276. 2007.org/content/UN_Says_Human_Trafficking_ Appears_To_Be_Worsening_/1492561.rferl. Philippine. Globalization. and how donors interact with Vietnamese civil society. “UN Says Human Trafficking Appears To Be Worsening. Culture. are enabling an increasing number of Asians to travel as tourists. Routledge. Gavin Chua Hearn. It mentions different hybridizations between the two faiths. Malaysian. rather than Westerners. the legal and institutional frameworks of the respective countries. 2008. the Vietnamese government imprisoned members of independent Buddhist groups. http://www.” Asian Development Bank.” Human Rights Watch. 13 Feb 2009. “Vietnam: Religious Freedom Denied. Chang. increasing disposable incomes. New York. Rodney. Boike. 2002. and Than Thi Thien Huong. He concludes that Islam has been an important factor in Malaysia’s political evolution. and development that draw particular international attention in Asia. Gita. and includes some comments by UNODC chief Antonio Maria Costa about the report. It offers country-specific recommendations for legal reform. “Civil Society in Vietnam. “Sociolegal Status of Women in Indonesia. and T. globalpolicy. Winter. it highlights some of the heritage. “Islam and Malaysia’s Economic Development. The author examines Malaysia’s impressive economic growth and the role of Islamic thought and practice in this growth. Around this time. even though a majority of the countries surveyed in the report have enacted laws against the practice. New York: Routledge.Rehbein. Peggy Teo.html.org/component/content/article/176/32074. This volume situates the socio-legal status of Indonesian. Chapter 9 of this book includes a brief discussion of animism in Laos and its relationship to Buddhism. The author examines domestic and regional tourism. religion. and increased globalization. Web. the different types of organizations within Vietnamese civil society.
The network expanded through out years and included members—individuals and organizations—from more than 20 countries from Asia.00.” UNICEF EAPRO.8599. and ecological problems. 15 February 2009. as well as Europe and the United States. Human Rights. and Labor. 15 September 2009. Narrative Sculpture and Literary Traditions in South and Southeast Asia—Studies in Asian Art and Archaeology. (accessed 26 March 2010). Freeing God’s Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights. 4. (Boston: Koln Brill. http://www. and Burma (Myanmar). http://berkleycenter. (accessed 21 February. gender issues. Peggy Teo. Jan Fontein and Marijke Klokke.1891171. 20. 9. Hannah Beech.edu/ World Faiths Development Dialogue: http://berkleycenter.rferl. 18.org/eapro/AW_ BLI_2Sep09. peacebuilding.com/onfaith/georgetown/ 009/08/faith_in_health_1.e-ir.unicef. http://www.00. in partnership with CNN. Laos. that have significant transnational activities in Southeast Asia. Asia on Tour: Exploring the rise in Asian Tourism. Interview with Dr. It also explores work in several of the region’s wealthier countries. and development.Endnotes 1.washingtonpost. Ibid.time. state. “Indonesia’s Aceh Passes Stoning Bill.” United States Department of State Bureau of Democracy. (accessed 23 February 2010). 10. Cambodia. one of the largest international engaged Buddhist networks. | . human rights.georgetown. This report focuses on the lower income countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia. 2000). 2. 21. 16. Berkley Center for Religion. Ibid. 2004).” Time Magazine. http://www1. 15. Europe. 13 February 2009. USA. Ibid. Peace. 14.html (accessed 18 March 2010). New York: 2009). http://www. James Piscatori and Susanne Hoeber Piscatori.edu/wfdd.edu/topics/religion-andglobal-development?record_type=organizations. Philippines. Katherine Marshall. “International Religious Freedom Report 2009—Indonesia.no-trafficking. began in February 1989 in Thailand at a conference of 36 concerned ordained and lay people from 11 countries organized by Sulak Sivaraksa.inebnetwork. Allen Hertzke. 6 November 2009.georgetown. Vietnam. (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. America and Australia. Samantha Power. July 2009.” E International Relations.com/modules/xpress/2009/02/15/. 28 February 2010. http://www.html (accessed 21 April 2010). (Westwood Press. “The Globalization of Religious Advocacy in America. 11.C. “The Enforcer. Ibid. “The International Network of Engaged Buddhists (INEB). David Steinberg. voanews. 17. 25. Transnational Religion and Fading States. Engaged Buddhism. Thailand. 26. http://www.” The New Yorker. http://www. 12. 8. 13.org/cambodia. A commitment to global community based on the universal truths of wisdom and compassion guides all of INEB’s activities.pdf. diversity tolerance and interfaith dialogue. Conducted by Michael Bodakowski. With support from the Henry R. 2010 2. Luce Foundation. and peaceful world.html. 5.hinduismtoday. 19.org/ content/UN_Says_Human_Trafficking_Appears_To_Be_ Worsening_/1492561. (Routledge. just. the Social Science Research Council is engaged in a research project that focuses specifically on religious roles in conflict. 26 October.com/time/world/article/0. html.com/ time/world/article/0. also referred to as socially engaged Buddhism. 16 August 2009. 3. 23. It reflects some information covering Asia.” Radio Free Europe. 2010).georgetown.org/web/. Thais Mulle as a Divided Nation. “Bangkok Protests End.1923211. Coverage of Timor-Leste and the South Pacific is less detailed. “UN Says Human Trafficking Appears To Be Worsening. United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP).html (accessed 16 March 2010).html (accessed 13 April 2010). 1997). and other thinkers and social activists Buddhists and non-Buddhists. An understanding of engaged Buddhism has emerged which integrates the practice of Buddhism with social action for a healthy. 15 September 2009. 7. more broadly defined. “Aceh Province Legislators Vote to Impose Stricter Sharia Law. (accessed 18 March 2010). Hannah Beech. http://newsweek. Chang. 19 January 2009.” Georgetown/On Faith Washington Post Blog.htm. originated about 25 years ago with the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh and is concerned with utilizing Buddhist teachings to confront and act upon social. Maruyama Teruo. INEB’s areas of concern have centered on peace. Tim Winter.” Voice of America. A Christian lawyer’s global crusade.com/english/news/a-13-2009-09-15-voa9-68709782. “Regional Review Buddhist Leadership Initiative. 22. “Hindu and Buddhist Clergy Convene In Cambodia.” Time Magazine. http://www.” From the organization website— http://www.” Hindu Press International.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127271. 77 BERKLEY CENTER REPORTS 6.info/?p=3318. and World Affairs: http:// berkleycenter. Allen Hertzke. political. http:// www.time. 24.8599. spirituality based development. 2004. “Interfaith Health-Care Reform. 2009. and T. 14 April.
vol.html (accessed 15 April 2010). Iglesia ni Cristo (INC) was founded in 1914. 42.edu/Polisci/Candland/ KBIndonesia.pdf. 41.org/en/ countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_IDN. php?lang=en. United Nations Development Programme.pdf . The distinction.pdf (accessed 29 March 2010). From Workshop on Global Development and Institutions Inspired by Faith. 31.edu/ interviews/a-discussion-with-maguid-maruhom-executivedirector-ummah-fi-salam.” USAID: Indonesia Webpage. usaid. 2010). Oceania. and Africa.gov/en/ cross_cutting/inter_faith_dialogue/ (accessed 15 April 2010). Chris Donnges. “Interfaith Dialogue: Program Description. Assets.pdf (accessed 14 April 2010).org/Documents/Reports/Civil-Society-Briefs/ PHI/CSB-PHI.msu. 57). “Development Issues and the Role of Religious Organizations in Indonesia. Cambodia.pdf (accessed 14 April 2010). 52. http://www. Socio-Pastoral— http://repository. 15..ilo. 48.undp.pdf (accessed 29 March 2010).” Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. http://indonesia. Ummah Fi Salam—http://berkleycenter.” The World Bank Country Page: Indonesia. 171. http://www.eastwestcenter. BERKLEY CENTER | G E O R G E TOW N U N I V E R S I T Y 78 . 29.mcc. “World Population Prospects. Europe.isp. http://countrystudies.html (accessed 15 April 2010). http://www. Ibid.pdf (accessed 30 March 2010). http://www.htm (accessed 14 April. 44.27. “Interfaith Dialogue: Program Description. 1991. http://www. http://www. 54.id/page.org/public/english/region/ asro/bangkok/library/download/pub06-07. http://www.” Millennium Challenge Corporation Fact Sheet. with some citing a tendency towards convergence. 33.” World Health Organization—Indonesia Webpage. 50. Karin Schelzig.” Bangkok: International Labor Office. United Nations (New York: 2009) Table A. 38. traditionalists is a term applied to those who tend to practice Islam as it traditionally has been adhered to in Indonesia. 14–16 July. “Family and Community Health. http://hdrstats. For more information on the activities of the Socio-Pastoral Insitute and Ummah Fi Salam.pdf (accessed 14 April 2010)..un. Web. and maintains significant political influence because of its growing membership and resources. adb. December 2007. Nahdlatul Ulama website. 47. “Overview—Basic Education For All. Honolulu..contentM DK:21521167~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSit ePK:226309. 1 no. Human Development Report 2009: Indonesia. 35.org/Documents/Books/Poverty-in-the-Philippines/ Poverty-in-the-Philippines.unicef. GPO for the Library of Congress. “Philippines Infrastructure for Rural Productivity: Enhancement Tools for Identifying Rural Infrastructure Investment Priorities.nu. 2009. Modernist typically refers to those following Islamic practice as it adhered to in the Arab world. Australia. ed. 46.1.adb. Philippines: A Country Study.doc/factsheet-101409-listening-to-muslimcommunities.wellesley.edu/studiesonasia/ s3_v1_n1/3_1_1Epley. Phnom Penh.” UNICEF Indonesia Webpage. 37. “Listening to Muslim Communities—MCC Partners with Muslim Communities Worldwide to Reduce Poverty.pdf (pg. 36.3 percent of the population.00. December 14–15. http://www.who. http://www. 49. 43. David Chandler. From Workshop on Global Development and Institutions Inspired by Faith. 39.” Civil Society Briefs. 1 (Fall 2004). http://web. 34.worldbank.” Studies on Asia. http://www. http://indonesia. 5. Christopher Candland and Nurjanah Siti. 14 October 2009.. Ibid.pdf (accessed 15 April 2010).org/fileadmin/resources/ research/PDFs/Combined_country_reviews. and Access.html (accessed 15 April 2010).or.usaid. http://www. Asian Development Bank. Asia. gov/mcc/bm. 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Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service 301 Bunn InterCultural Center 37th & O Streets.edu The Luce/SFS Program on Religion and International Affairs http://berkleycenter.edu Berkley Center for Religion. N.687. DC 20057 202. and World Affairs 3307 M Street NW.5119 http://berkleycenter.5696 http://sfs. DC 20007 202.W.edu/luce-sfs .georgetown. Suite 200 Washington. Peace. Washington.georgetown.georgetown.687.
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